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Sample records for resistance atherosclerosis study

  1. Abdominal adiposity largely explains associations between insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and subclinical atherosclerosis: the NEO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, K.B.; Smit, J.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Middeldorp, S.; Rippe, R.C.; Cessie, S. le; Koning, E.J. de; Jukema, J.W.; Rabelink, T.J.; Roos, A. de; Rosendaal, F.R.; Mutsert, R. de; Assendelft, P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relative importance of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Furthermore, adiposity may be responsible for observed associations. Our aim was to study the relative contributions of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to

  2. Abdominal adiposity largely explains associations between insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and subclinical atherosclerosis: the NEO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, Karin B.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; den Heijer, Martin; Middeldorp, Saskia; Rippe, Ralph C. A.; le Cessie, Saskia; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Jukema, J. W.; Rabelink, Ton J.; de Roos, Albert; Rosendaal, Frits R.; de Mutsert, Renée; Rosendaal, F. R.; de Mutsert, R.; Rabelink, T. J.; Smit, J. W. A.; Romijn, J. A.; Rabe, K. F.; de Roos, A.; le Cessie, S.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Kloppenburg, M.; Huizinga, T. W. J.; Pijl, H.; Tamsma, J. T.; de Koning, E. J. P.; Assendelft, W. J. J.; Reitsma, P. H.; van Dijk, K. Willems; de Vries, A. P. J.; Lamb, H. J.; Jazet, I. M.; Dekkers, O. M.; Biermasz, N. R.; Cobbaert, C. M.; Heijer, M. den; Dekker, J. M.; Penninx, B. W.

    2013-01-01

    The relative importance of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Furthermore, adiposity may be responsible for observed associations. Our aim was to study the relative contributions of adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia to

  3. Asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition: the AsIA-neuropsychology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Jiménez, Marta; Dorado, Laura; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Cáceres, Cynthia; Forés, Rosa; Pera, Guillem; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-10-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis has emerged as a relevant contributor to cognitive impairment and dementia whereas the role of intracranial stenosis and vascular resistance in cognition remains unknown. This study aims to assess the association of asymptomatic cervicocerebral atherosclerosis and intracranial vascular resistance with cognitive performance in a large dementia-free population. The Barcelona-AsIA (Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis) Neuropsychology Study included 747 Caucasian subjects older than 50 with a moderate-high vascular risk (assessed by REGICOR score) and without history of neither symptomatic vascular disease nor dementia. Extracranial and transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), presence of carotid plaques (ECAD group), intracranial stenosis (ICAD group), and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI) as a measure of intracranial vascular resistance. Neuropsychological assessment included tests in three cognitive domains: visuospatial skills and speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. In univariate analyses, carotid IMT, ECAD and MCA-PI were associated with lower performance in almost all cognitive domains, and ICAD was associated with poor performance in some visuospatial and verbal cognitive tests. After adjustment for age, sex, vascular risk score, years of education and depressive symptoms, ECAD remained associated with poor performance in the three cognitive domains and elevated MCA-PI with worse performance in visuospatial skills and speed. Carotid plaques and increased intracranial vascular resistance are independently associated with low cognitive functioning in Caucasian stroke and dementia-free subjects. We failed to find an independent association of intracranial large vessel stenosis with cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol, Glycemia and Insulin Resistance: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J.; Wang, Xu; Spanakis, Elias; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary; Needham, Belinda; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hypercortisolism is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes mellitus (DM); however, to our knowledge prior studies have not examined the association of diurnal cortisol curve features with measures of glycemia or IR in a population-based setting. Using log-transformed salivary cortisol data on 850 ethnically diverse men and women from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we investigated the cross-sectional association of cortisol curve features with (1) glycemia in those with and without DM and (2) IR, in non-diabetic subjects. The log-transformed salivary cortisol curve features included wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response (CAR), early decline slope (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline slope (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), overall decline slope (0 minutes to bedtime, excluding 30 minute cortisol), bedtime cortisol and total area under the curve (AUC). Overall, following multivariable adjustment, among those with diabetes mellitus (DM), early decline slope, overall decline slope, bedtime cortisol, and AUC were significantly and positively associated with a 5.4% (95% CI: 1.3, 9.7), 54.7% (95% CI: 12.4, 112.9), 4.0% (95% CI: 1.6, 6.4), and 6.8% (95% CI: 3.3, 10.4) higher HbA1c per 1 unit increase in log cortisol feature, respectively. Cortisol curve features were not associated with HbA1c among non-diabetic participants; however, wake-up cortisol and AUC were associated with a 8.2% lower (95% CI: −13.3, −2.7) and 7.9% lower (95% CI: −14.6, −0.6) log HOMA-IR, respectively. This was attenuated by adjustment for waist circumference. Among participants with DM, cortisol curve parameters suggestive of higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and dysfunction were associated with higher HbA1c. In non-diabetic participants, greater HPA activity was paradoxically associated with lower insulin resistance. PMID:26356041

  5. Tobacco Use, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel J Keith

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is associated with insulin resistance and incident diabetes. Given the racial/ethnic differences in smoking patterns and incident type 2 diabetes our objective was to evaluate the association between tobacco use and insulin resistance (IR as well as incident type 2 diabetes mellitus in a contemporary multiethnic cohort.We studied 5,931 Multi- Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA participants who at baseline were free of type 2 diabetes (fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl and/or use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic medications categorized by self-reported tobacco status and reclassified by urinary cotinine (available in 58% of participants as never, current or former tobacco users. The association between tobacco use, IR (fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and incident diabetes over 10 years was evaluated using multivariable linear regression and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively. Mean age of the participants was 62 (±10 years, 46% were male, 41% Caucasian, 12% Chinese, 26% African American and 21% Hispanic/Latino. IR biomarkers did not significantly differ between current, former, and never cigarette users (P >0.10 but showed limited unadjusted differences for users of cigar, pipe and smokeless tobacco (All P <0.05. Fully adjusted models showed no association between dose or intensity of tobacco exposure and any index of IR. When stratified into participants that quit smoking vs. those who continued smoking during the 10-year study there was no difference in serum glucose levels or frequency of diabetes. In fully adjusted models, there was no significant difference in diabetes risk between former or current cigarette smokers compared to never smokers [HR (95% CI 1.02 (0.77,1.37 and 0.81 (0.52,1.26 respectively].In a contemporary multi-ethnic cohort, there was no independent association between tobacco use and IR or incident type 2 diabetes. The role

  6. Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Insulin Metabolism: The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. Christine; Watkins, Steve M.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Il?yasova, Dora; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Haffner, Steven M.; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies using untargeted metabolomics approaches have suggested that plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with incident diabetes. However, little is known about the role of plasma BCAAs in metabolic abnormalities underlying diabetes and whether these relationships are consistent across ethnic populations at high risk for diabetes. We investigated the associations of BCAAs with insulin sensitivity (SI), acute insulin response (AIR), and metabolic clearance ...

  7. Insulin resistance and atherosclerosis : the role of visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to unravel relationships between obesity, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and atherosclerosis. It is well-established that patients with type 2 diabetes have a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether insulin resistance

  8. Differential mRNA expression of seven genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver of atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail strains

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    Li Xinrui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two atherosclerosis-susceptible and -resistant Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica strains obtained by divergent selection are commonly used as models to study atherosclerosis, but no genetic characterization of their phenotypic differences has been reported so far. Our objective was to examine possible differences in the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism and transport in the liver between these two strains and to evaluate the value of this model to analyze the gene system affecting cholesterol metabolism and transport. Methods A factorial study with both strains (atherosclerosis-susceptible versus atherosclerosis-resistant and two diets (control versus cholesterol was carried out. The mRNA concentrations of four genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis (HMGCR, FDFT1, SQLE and DHCR7 and three genes in cholesterol transport (ABCG5, ABCG8 and APOA1 were assayed using real-time quantitative PCR. Plasma lipids were also assayed. Results Expression of ABCG5 (control diet and ABCG8 (regardless of dietary treatment and expression of HMGCR, FDFT1 and SQLE (regardless of dietary treatment were significantly higher in the atherosclerosis-resistant than in the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain. Plasma triglyceride and LDL levels, and LDL/HDL ratio were significantly higher in the atherosclerosis-susceptible than in the atherosclerosis-resistant strain fed the cholesterol diet. In the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain, ABCG5 expression regressed significantly and positively on plasma LDL level, whereas DHCR7 and SQLE expression regressed significantly and negatively on plasma triglyceride level. Conclusions Our results provide support for the hypothesis that the atherosclerosis-resistant strain metabolizes and excretes cholesterol faster than the atherosclerosis-susceptible strain. We have also demonstrated that these quail strains are a useful model to study cholesterol metabolism and transport in relation with

  9. Markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis. A comparison of the homeostasis model assessment and triglyceride glucose index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, C; Carallo, C; Scavelli, F B; De Franceschi, M S; Esposito, T; Tripolino, C; Gnasso, A

    2013-07-01

    The present investigation was designed to test the association between carotid atherosclerosis and two simple markers of insulin resistance, i.e. HOMA-Index and TyG-Index. The study was performed in two different cohorts. In the first cohort, 330 individuals were enrolled. Blood pressure, lipids, glucose, waist and cigarette smoking were evaluated. HOMA-IR and TyG-Index were calculated as markers of prevalent hepatic and muscular insulin resistance respectively. Carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by Doppler ultrasonography. The association between cardiovascular risk factors, markers of insulin resistance and carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by multiple logistic regression analyses. In the second cohort, limited to the evaluation of TyG-Index, 1432 subjects were studied. In the first cohort, TyG-Index was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in a model including age, sex, diabetes, cigarette smoking and LDL cholesterol, while HOMA-IR was not. When components of metabolic syndrome were added to the model as dichotomous variables (absent/present), TyG-Index retained its predictive power. The same result was obtained when the metabolic syndrome was added to the model (absence/presence). The association between TyG-Index and carotid atherosclerosis was confirmed in the second cohort. The present findings suggest that TyG-Index is better associated with carotid atherosclerosis than HOMA-IR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Apolipoprotein E and carotid artery atherosclerosis - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, AJC; Bots, ML; Havekes, LM; del Sol, AI; Cruts, M; Grobbee, DE; Hofman, A; Van Broeckhoven, C; Witteman, JCM; van Duijn, CM

    Background and Purpose-Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a strong predictor for future stroke. It is yet unclear whether the apolipoprotein E polymorphism (APOE) is related to atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of APOE in carotid artery

  11. Biological signatures of asymptomatic extra- and intracranial atherosclerosis: the Barcelona-AsIA (Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cancio, Elena; Galán, Amparo; Dorado, Laura; Jiménez, Marta; Hernández, María; Millán, Mónica; Reverté, Silvia; Suñol, Anna; Barallat, Jaume; Massuet, Anna; Alzamora, Maria Teresa; Dávalos, Antonio; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) remains a challenge for stroke primary and secondary prevention. Molecular pathways involved in the development of ICAD from its asymptomatic stages are largely unknown. In our population-based study, we aimed to compare the risk factor and biomarker profiles associated with intracranial and extracranial asymptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis. The Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) study cohort includes a random sample population of 933 white subjects >50 years with a moderate to high vascular risk (based on REGICOR score) and without a history of stroke (64% males; mean age, 66 years). Carotid and intracranial atherosclerosis were screened by cervical and transcranial color-coded Duplex ultrasound, being moderate to severe stenoses confirmed by MR angiography. We registered clinical and anthropometric data and created a biobank with blood samples at baseline. A panel of biomarkers involved in atherothrombogenesis was determined: C-reactive protein, asymmetric-dimethylarginine, resistin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Insulin resistance was quantified by Homeostasis Model Assessment index. After multinomial regression analyses, male sex, hypertension, smoking, and alcoholic habits were independent risk factors of isolated extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Diabetes and metabolic syndrome conferred a higher risk for ICAD than for extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance were independent risk factors of moderate to severe ICAD but were not risk factors of moderate to severe extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Regarding biomarkers, asymmetric-dimethylarginine was independently associated with isolated ICAD and resistin with combined ICAD-extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Our findings show distinct clinical and biological profiles in subclinical ICAD and extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Insulin resistance emerged as an important molecular

  12. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Metabonomics-based omics study and atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Duo-jiao; Zhu, Bi-jun; Wang, Xiang-dong

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerosis results from dyslipidemia and systemic inflammation, associated with the strong metabolism and interaction between diet and disease. Strategies based on the global profiling of metabolism would be important to define the mechanisms involved in pathological alterations. Metabonomics is the quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification. Metabonomics has been used in combination w...

  14. The degree of coronary atherosclerosis as a marker of insulin resistance in non-diabetics

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    Parapid Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The metabolic syndrome and its influence on coronary artery disease development and progression remains in focus of international research debates, while insulin resistance, which represents its core, is the key component of hypertension, dyslipidaemias, glucose intolerance and obesity. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish relationship between basal glucose and insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and lipid panel and the degree of coronary atherosclerosis in nondiabetic patients. Methods. The coronary angiograms were evaluated for the presence of significant stenosis, insulin sensitivity was assessed using the intravenous glucose tolerance test with a minimal model according to Bergman, while baseline glucose (G0, insulin (I0 and lipid panel measurements (TC, HDL, LDL, TG were taken after a 12-hour fasting. Results. The protocol encompassed 40 patients (19 men and 21 women treated at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade. All were non-diabetics who were divided into 3 groups based on their angios: Group A (6 patients, 15%, with no significant stenosis, Group B (18 patients, 45%, with a single-vessel disease and Group C (16 patients, 40%, with multi-vessel disease. Presence of lower insulin sensitivity, higher I0 and TC in the group of patients with a more severe degree of coronary atherosclerosis (insulin sensitivity: F=4.279, p=0.023, A vs. C p=0.012, B vs. C p=0.038; I0: F=3.461 p=0.042, A vs. B p=0.045, A vs. C p=0.013; TC: F=2.572, p=0.09, while no significant difference was found for G0, LDL, HDL and TG. Conclusion. Baseline insulinaemia, more precisely, fasting hyperinsulinaemia could be a good predictor of significant coronary atherosclerosis in non-diabetic patients, which enables a more elegant cardiometabolic risk assessment in the setting of everyday clinical practice.

  15. Resistant hypertension: risk factors, subclinical atherosclerosis, and comorbidities among adults-the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Vasconcellos, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of resistant hypertension-defined as blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mm Hg with proven use of three antihypertensive medications, or as the use of four antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP-is unknown in low-middle-income countries. Using data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health, a cohort of 15,105 civil servants aged 35 to 74 years, the authors identified 4116 patients taking treatment for hypertension, 11% of who had resistant hypertension. These participants were more likely to be older, black, less educated, poorer, and obese. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) were diabetes, 1.44 (1.20-1.72); glomerular filtration rate (300 mg/g), 2.43 (1.70-3.50); carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, 1.07 m/s (1.03-1.11 m/s); common carotid intima-media thickness, 2.57 mm (1.64-4.00 mm); left ventricular hypertrophy, 2.08 (1.21-3.57); and atrial fibrillation, 3.55 (2.02-6.25). Thus, the prevalence of resistant hypertension in Brazil is high and associated with subclinical markers of end-organ cardiovascular damage. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The association between the metabolic syndrome and alanine amino transferase is mediated by insulin resistance via related metabolic intermediates (the Cohort on diabetes and atherosclerosis Maastricht (CODAM) study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Ferreira, I.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as with insulin resistance, inflammatory adipokines, endothelial dysfunction, and higher plasma levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), all of which may also affect the development of NAFLD. Therefore, we

  17. Arterial scleroproteins in atherosclerosis and hypertension (Experimental studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurukova, Ts.; Georgiev, P.

    1979-01-01

    The authors studied the neosynthesis of fiber protein (scleroproteins) in the aorta of rats with genetic hypertension and with experimental atherosclerosis following application of 3 H-proline and 3 H-lysine and subsequent determination of radioactivity of the collagen and elastic fractions of the aortic wall. There was a great increase in incorporation of labelled collagen and elastin precursors in the aorta of hypertensive and atherosclerotic animals, in comparison with the control rats - a manifestation of incresed ''de novo'' synthesis of fiber proteins in rats with these arterial diseases. Furthermore, the increased collagenosis dominated over that of elastogenesis. The irregular activation of the biosynthesis of both scleroproteins in hypertensive rats and in rats with atherosclerosis caused remodelling of the macromolecular structure of the arterial wall with predominance of collagen over the remaining hypertension components and progression of atherosclerosis. (author) (author)

  18. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Juan, Chi-Chang; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2015-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET A R during insulin resistance, ET A R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET A R expression, but not ET B R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET A R pathway suppressed insulin

  19. A pilot study into measurements of markers of atherosclerosis in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leivadaros, E; van der Velden, U; Bizzarro, S; ten Heggeler, JMAG; Gerdes, VEA; Hoek, FJ; Nagy, TOM; Scholma, J; Bakker, SJL; Gans, ROB; ten Cate, H; Loos, BG

    Background: Periodontitis may be a possible risk factor for atherosclerosis. The current pilot study explored arterial wall thickness and other variables associated with atherosclerosis in healthy subjects with and without periodontitis. Methods: Patients with moderate (N = 34) and severe

  20. The Progression and Early detection of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (PESA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Jiménez-Borreguero, L Jesús; Peñalvo, José L

    2013-01-01

    The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined.......The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis is a likely predictor of cardiovascular events; however, factors associated with the early stages and progression of atherosclerosis are poorly defined....

  1. Fatty liver is associated with insulin resistance, risk of coronary heart disease, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Kozakova, Michaela; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Patients with fatty liver (FL) disease have a high risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim was to evaluate the association between FL, insulin resistance (IR), coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, and early atherosclerosis in a large European population (RISC Study). In 1...... cholesterol (r = 0.33), alanine aminotransferase (r = 0.48), aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.25), systolic blood pressure (r = 0.39) and IMT (r = 0.30), and reduced insulin sensitivity (r = -0.43), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.50), adiponectin (r = -0.42), and physical activity (r = -0...

  2. A comparison between the minimal model and the glucose clamp in the assessment of insulin sensitivity across the spectrum of glucose tolerance. Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, M F; Anderson, R L; Laws, A; Watanabe, R M; Kades, W W; Chen, Y D; Sands, R E; Pei, D; Savage, P J; Bergman, R N

    1994-09-01

    An insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with minimal model analysis was compared with the glucose clamp in 11 subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 20 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 24 with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The insulin sensitivity index (SI) was calculated from FSIGTT using 22- and 12-sample protocols (SI(22) and SI(12), respectively). Insulin sensitivity from the clamp was expressed as SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp). Minimal model parameters were similar when calculated with SI(22) and SI(12). SI could not be distinguished from 0 in approximately 50% of diabetic patients with either protocol. SI(22) correlated significantly with SI(clamp) in the whole group (r = 0.62), and in the NGT (r = 0.53), IGT (r = 0.48), and NIDDM (r = 0.41) groups (P SIP(clamp) were expressed in the same units, SI(22) was 66 +/- 5% (mean +/- SE) and 50 +/- 8% lower than SI(clamp) and SIP(clamp), respectively. Thus, minimal model analysis of the insulin-modified FSIGTT provides estimates of insulin sensitivity that correlate significantly with those from the glucose clamp. The correlation was weaker, however, in NIDDM. The insulin-modified FSIGTT can be used as a simple test for assessment of insulin sensitivity in population studies involving nondiabetic subjects. Additional studies are needed before using this test routinely in patients with NIDDM.

  3. Potential Biomarkers of Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Qhadijah Syed Ikmal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease have become a major public health concern. The occurrence of insulin resistance accompanied with endothelial dysfunction worsens the state of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The combination of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction leads to coronary artery disease and ischemic heart disease complications. A recognized biological marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, has been used widely to assess the progression of atherosclerosis and inflammation. Along with coronary arterial damage and inflammatory processes, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein is considered as an essential atherosclerosis marker in patients with cardiovascular disease, but not as an insulin resistance marker in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. A new biological marker that can act as a reliable indicator of both the exact state of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis is required to facilitate optimal health management of diabetic patients. Malfunctioning of insulin mechanism and endothelial dysfunction leads to innate immune activation and released several biological markers into circulation. This review examines potential biological markers, YKL-40, alpha-hydroxybutyrate, soluble CD36, leptin, resistin, interleukin-18, retinol binding protein-4, and chemerin, as they may play significant roles in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease.

  4. Endothelin-1 exacerbates development of hypertension and atherosclerosis in modest insulin resistant syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yan-Jie [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Juan, Chi-Chang [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kwok, Ching-Fai [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Yung-Pei [Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, Kuang-Chung [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chin-Chang [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Ho, Low-Tone, E-mail: ltho@vghtpe.gov.tw [Institute of Physiology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-08

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is known as potent vasoconstrictor, by virtue of its mitogenic effects, and may deteriorate the process of hypertension and atherosclerosis by aggravating hyperplasia and migration in VSMCs. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin infusion caused sequential induction of hyperinsulinemia, hyperendothelinemia, insulin resistance, and then hypertension in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of ET-1 interfere insulin signaling in VSMCs remains unclear. To characterize insulin signaling during modest insulin resistant syndrome, we established and monitored rats by feeding high fructose-diet (HFD) until high blood pressure and modest insulin resistance occurred. To explore the role of ET-1/ET{sub A}R during insulin resistance, ET{sub A}R expression, ET-1 binding, and insulin signaling were investigated in the HFD-fed rats and cultured A-10 VSMCs. Results showed that high blood pressure, tunica medial wall thickening, plasma ET-1 and insulin, and accompanied with modest insulin resistance without overweight and hyperglycemia occurred in early-stage HFD-fed rats. In the endothelium-denuded aorta from HFD-fed rats, ET{sub A}R expression, but not ET{sub B}R, and ET-1 binding in aorta were increased. Moreover, decreasing of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and increasing of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation were observed in aorta during modest insulin resistance. Interestingly, in ET-1 pretreated VSMCs, the increment of insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation was decreased whereas the increment of insulin-induced ERK phosphorylation was increased. In addition, insulin potentiated ET-1-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation due to increasing ET-1 binding. ETAR antagonist reversed effects of ET-1 on insulin-induced signaling and VSMCs migration and proliferation. In summary, modest insulin resistance syndrome accompanied with hyperinsulinemia leading to the potentiation on ET-1-induced actions in aortic VSMCs. ET-1 via ET{sub A}R pathway

  5. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Risk factors for sarcopenia, including aging, inflammation, oxidative stress, and sedentary life style, are also known as risks for atherosclerosis. Sarcopenia and atherosclerosis relate each other. We found that sarcopenia, especially sarcopenic visceral obesity in male subjects, was associated with higher arterial stiffness and central blood pressure. We also observed that leptin resistance may underlie the link between sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and atherosclerosis. In epidemiological studies, it has been demonstrated sarcopenic indices were associated with cardiovascular death. These findings indicate that sarcopenia could be regarded as risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

  6. Progression and regression of atherosclerosis in APOE3-Leiden transgenic mice : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, M.J.J.; Cammen, M. van der; Laan, L.J.W. van der; Emeis, J.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.; Kraal, G.

    1999-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E3-Leiden (APOE3-Leiden) transgenic mice develop hyperlipidemia and are highly susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. We have studied the progression and regression of atherosclerosis using immunohistochemistry. Female transgenic mice were fed a moderate fat diet to study

  7. ANTIPLATELET DRUGS RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LOWER LIMB ARTERIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorjacheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a rate of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel and clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Material and methods. 154 patients were involved in the study and split into two groups. 100 patients (47 men, 53 women; aged 66,4±7,8 y.o. with ischemic heart disease (IHD (which was presented by angina pectoris, class I-III, or myocardial infarction history were included into the first group (G1. Other 54 patients (38 men, 16 women; aged 64,1±10,2 y.o. with IHD associated with obliterative atherosclerosis of lower limb were included into the 2nd group (G2. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by Born's method (inducers of platelet aggregation were arachidonic acid and ADP. Reduction of platelet aggregation ≥20% after arachidonic acid induction was considered as criterion of resistance to ASA. Patients were considered as resistant, partly resistant and sensitive to clopidogrel if platelet aggregation reduced on <10%, 10-29%, and ≥30% respectively.Results. Rate of ASA and clopidogrel resistance in patients with DM2 was significantly higher than these in patients without DM2 (48% vs 16% respectively, р=0,003 in G1; 42% vs 7% respectively, р=0,007 in G2.Conclusion. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs is observed more often in patients with DM2 and can result in increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  8. ANTIPLATELET DRUGS RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE ATHEROSCLEROSIS OF LOWER LIMB ARTERIES ASSOCIATED WITH DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gorjacheva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a rate of resistance to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA and clopidogrel and clinical outcomes in patients with atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2.Material and methods. 154 patients were involved in the study and split into two groups. 100 patients (47 men, 53 women; aged 66,4±7,8 y.o. with ischemic heart disease (IHD (which was presented by angina pectoris, class I-III, or myocardial infarction history were included into the first group (G1. Other 54 patients (38 men, 16 women; aged 64,1±10,2 y.o. with IHD associated with obliterative atherosclerosis of lower limb were included into the 2nd group (G2. Platelet aggregation was evaluated by Born's method (inducers of platelet aggregation were arachidonic acid and ADP. Reduction of platelet aggregation ≥20% after arachidonic acid induction was considered as criterion of resistance to ASA. Patients were considered as resistant, partly resistant and sensitive to clopidogrel if platelet aggregation reduced on <10%, 10-29%, and ≥30% respectively.Results. Rate of ASA and clopidogrel resistance in patients with DM2 was significantly higher than these in patients without DM2 (48% vs 16% respectively, р=0,003 in G1; 42% vs 7% respectively, р=0,007 in G2.Conclusion. Resistance to antiplatelet drugs is observed more often in patients with DM2 and can result in increased risk of cardiovascular complications.

  9. A pilot study into measurements of markers of atherosclerosis in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leivadaros, Efstratios; van der Velden, Ubele; Bizzarro, Sergio; ten Heggeler, Johanna M. A. G.; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Hoek, Frans J.; Nagy, Thomas O. M.; Scholma, Jose; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; ten Cate, Hugo; Loos, Bruno G.

    2005-01-01

    Periodontitis may be a possible risk factor for atherosclerosis. The current pilot study explored arterial wall thickness and other variables associated with atherosclerosis in healthy subjects with and without periodontitis. Patients with moderate (N = 34) and severe periodontitis (N = 15) and

  10. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo studies of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a growing health challenge globally, and despite our knowledge of the disease has increased over the last couple of decades, many unanswered questions remain. As molecular imaging can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellu...... knowledge obtained from in vivo positron emission tomography studies of atherosclerosis performed in small animals....

  11. Depressive and anxiety disorders and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis Findings from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Hout, Hein P. J.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Diamant, Michaela; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Current evidence regarding the association between psychopathology and subclinical atherosclerosis show inconsistent results. The present study examined whether subclinical atherosclerosis was more prevalent in a large cohort of persons with depressive or anxiety disorders as compared to

  12. Heart type fatty acid binding protein response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Evrim; Ozbek, Mustafa; Sahin, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman; Gungunes, Askin; Ginis, Zeynep; Demirci, Taner; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2012-12-18

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia.Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital.The study population consisted of 46 reproductive-age PCOS women and 28 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, carotid intima media thickness and HFABP levels in both PCOS patients and control group. Mean fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone, total testosterone, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. Although HFABP levels were higher in PCOS patients, the difference did not reach statistically significant in early age groups. After adjustment for age and body mass index, HFABP level was positive correlated with hsCRP, free testosterone levels, CIMT and HOMA-IR. Heart type free fatty acid binding protein appeared to have an important role in metabolic response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant, hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients.

  13. Heart type fatty acid binding protein response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakir Evrim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Heart type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia.Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital.The study population consisted of 46 reproductive-age PCOS women and 28 control subjects. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, carotid intima media thickness and HFABP levels in both PCOS patients and control group. Results Mean fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, free testosterone, total testosterone, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients. Although HFABP levels were higher in PCOS patients, the difference did not reach statistically significant in early age groups. After adjustment for age and body mass index, HFABP level was positive correlated with hsCRP, free testosterone levels, CIMT and HOMA-IR. Conclusions Heart type free fatty acid binding protein appeared to have an important role in metabolic response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant, hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients.

  14. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N.; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. Methods: We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population–based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63–6.63) increased gout risk in older age. Conclusions: These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. PMID:26714568

  15. Kidney Measures with Diabetes and Hypertension on Cardiovascular Disease : The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, Nadine; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiovascular risk differs based on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) status remains unanswered. Methods: We investigated 11,050 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (fourth examination

  16. Trajectories of neighborhood poverty and associations with subclinical atherosclerosis and associated risk factors: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Emily T; Diez Roux, Ana V; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lutsey, Pamela L; Ni, Hanyu; O'Meara, Ellen S

    2010-05-15

    The authors used data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and latent trajectory class modeling to determine patterns of neighborhood poverty over 20 years (1980-2000 residential history questionnaires were geocoded and linked to US Census data). Using these patterns, the authors examined 1) whether trajectories of neighborhood poverty were associated with differences in the amount of subclinical atherosclerosis (common carotid intimal-media thickness) and 2) associated risk factors (body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking) at baseline (January 2000-August 2002). The authors found evidence of 5 stable trajectory groups with differing levels of neighborhood poverty ( approximately 6%, 12%, 20%, 30%, and 45%) and 1 group with 29% poverty in 1980 and approximately 11% in 2000. Mostly for women, higher cumulative neighborhood poverty was generally significantly associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes. Trends generally persisted after adjustment for adulthood socioeconomic position and race/ethnicity, although they were no longer statistically significant. Among women who had moved during the 20 years, the long-term measure had stronger associations with outcomes (except smoking) than a single, contemporaneous measure. Results indicate that cumulative 20-year exposure to neighborhood poverty is associated with greater cardiovascular risk for women. In residentially mobile populations, single-point-in-time measures underestimate long-term effects.

  17. Coronary atherosclerosis in sudden cardiac death: An autopsy study

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    Sudha M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.

  18. Increased Cardiovascular Events and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: 1 Year Prospective Single Centre Study.

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    Piero Ruscitti

    Full Text Available Several studies showed the close relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and cerebro-cardiovascular events (CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis during the course of RA and we evaluated the possible role of both traditional cardiovascular (CV and disease related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and the onset of subclinical atherosclerosis.We designed a single centre, bias-adjusted, prospective, observational study to investigate, in a homogeneous subset of RA patients, the occurrence of new onset of CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional CV and disease-related risk factors to predict the occurrence of new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis.We enrolled 347 RA patients prospectively followed for 12 months. An increased percentage of patients experienced CVEs, developed subclinical atherosclerosis and was affected by systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS, at the end of follow up. Our analysis showed that the insurgence of both SAH and MS, during the follow up, the older age, the CVE familiarity and the lack of clinical response, were associated with a significantly increased risk to experience CVEs and to develop subclinical atherosclerosis.Our study quantifies the increased expected risk for CVEs in a cohort of RA patients prospectively followed for 1 year. The occurrence of both new CVEs and subclinical atherosclerosis in RA patients may be explained by inflammatory burden as well as traditional CV risk factors.

  19. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N; Coresh, Josef; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A

    2016-04-01

    It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population-based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63-6.63) increased gout risk in older age. These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The population-based Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (ASIA: rationale and design

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    Pera Guillem

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA study are (1 to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2 to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3 to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Methods/Design Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5% and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. Discussion The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better

  1. The population-based Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (ASIA): rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cancio, Elena; Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mónica; Reverté, Silvia; Suñol, Anna; Massuet, Anna; Mataró, María; Galán, Amparo; Alzamora, Maite; Pera, Guillem; Torán, Pere; Dávalos, Antoni; Arenillas, Juan F

    2011-02-17

    Large-artery intracranial atherosclerosis may be the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Traditional approaches have attempted to target the disease when it is already symptomatic. However, early detection of intracranial atherosclerosis may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The prevalence and natural history of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in Caucasians remain unclear. The aims of the Barcelona-ASymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (ASIA) study are (1) to determine the prevalence of ASIA in a moderate-high vascular risk population, (2) to study its prognostic impact on the risk of suffering future major ischemic events, and (3) to identify predictors of the development, progression and clinical expression of this condition. Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A randomly selected representative sample of 1,503 subjects with a mild-moderate-high vascular risk (as defined by a REGICOR score ≥ 5%) and with neither a history of cerebrovascular nor ischemic heart disease will be studied. At baseline, all individuals will undergo extracranial and transcranial Color-Coded Duplex (TCCD) ultrasound examinations to detect presence and severity of extra and intracranial atherosclerosis. Intracranial stenoses will be assessed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Clinical and demographic variables will be recorded and blood samples will be drawn to investigate clinical, biological and genetic factors associated with the presence of ASIA. A long-term clinical and sonographic follow-up will be conducted thereafter to identify predictors of disease progression and of incident vascular events. The Barcelona-ASIA is a population-based study aiming to evaluate the prevalence and clinical importance of asymptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis in Caucasians. The ASIA project may provide a unique scientific resource to better understand the dynamics of intracranial atherosclerosis from

  2. Association between diabetic retinopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis in China: Results from a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Teng, Xiangyu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruifeng; Liu, Wei

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the association of diabetic retinopathy with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional community-based study was performed among 1607 patients aged 40 years or older in Shanghai. Non-mydriatic digital fundus photography examination was used in diabetic retinopathy detection. Presence of elevated carotid intima-media thickness or carotid plaque was defined as subclinical atherosclerosis. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 15.1% in total patients. Patients with diabetic retinopathy were more likely to have elevated carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque and subclinical atherosclerosis than those without diabetic retinopathy (37.9% vs 30.7%, 57.6% vs 49.6% and 64.6% vs 57.1%, respectively). The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with increased odds of subclinical atherosclerosis (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 1.03-3.60) after full adjustments. The presence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged and elderly patients with type 2 diabetics in China. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Rationale and protocol of a trial for prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis by using antiplatelet drugs: study of Diabetic Atherosclerosis Prevention by Cilostazol (DAPC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamori Ryuzo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary treatment of arteriosclerosis may be applicable for the primary prevention of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. This prospective, 2-year follow-up study was designed to determine the efficacy and safety of antiplatelet therapy in the prevention of atherosclerosis of diabetic subjects. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes and arteriosclerosis obliterans from the Eastern Asian countries were registered online and randomly assigned either to the aspirin group (81–100 mg/day or the cilostazol group (100–200 mg/day in this international, 2-year, prospective follow-up interventional study. Results The primary study endpoint was changes in right and left maximum intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery. Secondary endpoints include changes in right and left maximum intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery; semiquantitative evaluation of cerebral infarction by magnetic resonance imaging; cardiovascular events including sudden death, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic attacks, acute myocardial infarction, angina, and progression of arteriosclerosis obliterans; overall death; withdrawal; and change in ankle-brachial pressure index. Conclusion This is the first study to use an online system that was developed in Asian countries for pooling data from an international clinical trial. These findings are expected to help in the prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease.

  4. An alternative method for quantifying coronary artery calcification: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C Jason; Budoff, Matthew J; Kaufman, Joel D; Kronmal, Richard A; Brown, Elizabeth R

    2012-07-02

    Extent of atherosclerosis measured by amount of coronary artery calcium (CAC) in computed tomography (CT) has been traditionally assessed using thresholded scoring methods, such as the Agatston score (AS). These thresholded scores have value in clinical prediction, but important information might exist below the threshold, which would have important advantages for understanding genetic, environmental, and other risk factors in atherosclerosis. We developed a semi-automated threshold-free scoring method, the spatially weighted calcium score (SWCS) for CAC in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Chest CT scans were obtained from 6814 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The SWCS and the AS were calculated for each of the scans. Cox proportional hazards models and linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of the scores with CHD events and CHD risk factors. CHD risk factors were summarized using a linear predictor. Among all participants and participants with AS > 0, the SWCS and AS both showed similar strongly significant associations with CHD events (hazard ratios, 1.23 and 1.19 per doubling of SWCS and AS; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.30 and 1.14 to 1.26) and CHD risk factors (slopes, 0.178 and 0.164; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.195 and 0.149 to 0.179). Even among participants with AS = 0, an increase in the SWCS was still significantly associated with established CHD risk factors (slope, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.138 to 0.224). The SWCS appeared to be predictive of CHD events even in participants with AS = 0, though those events were rare as expected. The SWCS provides a valid, continuous measure of CAC suitable for quantifying the extent of atherosclerosis without a threshold, which will be useful for examining novel genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  5. An alternative method for quantifying coronary artery calcification: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extent of atherosclerosis measured by amount of coronary artery calcium (CAC in computed tomography (CT has been traditionally assessed using thresholded scoring methods, such as the Agatston score (AS. These thresholded scores have value in clinical prediction, but important information might exist below the threshold, which would have important advantages for understanding genetic, environmental, and other risk factors in atherosclerosis. We developed a semi-automated threshold-free scoring method, the spatially weighted calcium score (SWCS for CAC in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Methods Chest CT scans were obtained from 6814 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. The SWCS and the AS were calculated for each of the scans. Cox proportional hazards models and linear regression models were used to evaluate the associations of the scores with CHD events and CHD risk factors. CHD risk factors were summarized using a linear predictor. Results Among all participants and participants with AS > 0, the SWCS and AS both showed similar strongly significant associations with CHD events (hazard ratios, 1.23 and 1.19 per doubling of SWCS and AS; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.30 and 1.14 to 1.26 and CHD risk factors (slopes, 0.178 and 0.164; 95% CI, 0.162 to 0.195 and 0.149 to 0.179. Even among participants with AS = 0, an increase in the SWCS was still significantly associated with established CHD risk factors (slope, 0.181; 95% CI, 0.138 to 0.224. The SWCS appeared to be predictive of CHD events even in participants with AS = 0, though those events were rare as expected. Conclusions The SWCS provides a valid, continuous measure of CAC suitable for quantifying the extent of atherosclerosis without a threshold, which will be useful for examining novel genetic and environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  6. 75 FR 46945 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... disease (CVD)-- that is, atherosclerosis and other forms of CVD that have not produced signs and symptoms... backgrounds and provide information for studies on new interventions to prevent CVD. The aspects of the study that concern direct participant evaluation received a clinical exemption from OMB clearance (CE-99-11...

  7. Decreased naive and increased memory CD4(+ T cells are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nels C Olson

    Full Text Available Adaptive immunity has been implicated in atherosclerosis in animal models and small clinical studies. Whether chronic immune activation is associated with atherosclerosis in otherwise healthy individuals remains underexplored. We hypothesized that activation of adaptive immune responses, as reflected by higher proportions of circulating CD4(+ memory cells and lower proportions of naive cells, would be associated with subclinical atherosclerosis.We examined cross-sectional relationships of circulating CD4(+ naive and memory T cells with biomarkers of inflammation, serologies, and subclinical atherosclerosis in 912 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Circulating CD4(+ naive cells were higher in women than men and decreased with age (all p-values <0.0001. European-Americans had higher levels of naive cells and lower levels of memory cells compared with African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans (all p-values ≤0.0005. Lower naive/higher memory cells were associated with interleukin-6 levels. In multivariate models, cytomegalovirus (CMV and H. Pylori titers were strongly associated with higher memory and lower naive cells (all p-values <0.05. Higher memory cells were associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC level in the overall population [β-Coefficient (95% confidence interval (CI  = 0.20 (0.03, 0.37]. Memory and naive (inversely cells were associated with common carotid artery intimal media thickness (CC IMT in European-Americans [memory: β =  0.02 (0.006, 0.04; naive: β = -0.02 (-0.004, -0.03].These results demonstrate that the degree of chronic adaptive immune activation is associated with both CAC and CC IMT in otherwise healthy individuals, consistent with the known role of CD4(+ T cells, and with innate immunity (inflammation, in atherosclerosis. These data are also consistent with the hypothesis that immunosenescence accelerates chronic diseases by putting a greater burden on the innate

  8. Vitamin E supplementation and atherosclerosis : epidemiological studies in elderly and smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waart, de F.

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant vitamin E may have beneficial effects on several indicators of human health. We studied the impact on atherosclerosis, immune response and total mortality in smokers and elderly people, who are at risk for increased oxidative stress. Vitamin E may exert its effect on

  9. ACE inhibition with perindopril and biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis : Results from the PERTINENT study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceconi, C.; Fox, K.M.; Remme, W.J.; Simoons, M.L.; Deckers, J.W.; Bertrand, M.; Parrinello, G.; Kluft, C.; Blann, A.; Cokkinos, D.; Ferrari, R.

    2009-01-01

    The PERTINENT study measured biomarkers of atherosclerosis and thrombosis in a stable coronary artery disease population from EUROPA receiving ACE inhibition with perindopril 8 mg/day or placebo. Biomarkers of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha

  10. Transgenic mouse models to study the role of the macrophage scavenger receptor class A in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, M. P.; Gijbels, M. J.; van Dijk, K. W.; Havekes, L. M.; Hofker, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    Several in vivo studies have been performed on the role of the macrophage scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) in atherosclerosis using SR-A knockout mice. The results indicate both an antiatherogenic and a proatherogenic role of SR-A, depending on the nature of the animal model serving as the

  11. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Santos, Itamar S; Bittencourt, Márcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between migraine and coronary heart disease (CHD) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association of subclinical atherosclerosis and migraine with or without aura compared to a non-migraine subgroup (reference) in a large Brazilian multicentric cohort study, the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Migraine diagnostic was based on International Headache Society criteria, and aura symptoms were validated by a medical doctor in a sub-sample of the ELSA-Brasil, who also underwent coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT) evaluations. Subclinical atherosclerosis indexes (CAC and C-IMT) were analyzed as dependent variables and migraine (all, with aura, without aura) as an independent variable in the linear and multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for possible confounders. Of 3217 ELSA participants free from CVD at baseline, we found a migraine frequency of 11.9% (5.1% with aura and 6.8% without aura). Overall, migraineurs were mostly women, younger and had lower frequency of CV risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes and low HDL-cholesterol, compared to non-migraineurs. The strongest inverse correlation between migraine and subclinical atherosclerosis was verified with CAC score. However, all associations lost their significance after multivariate adjustment. In this cross-sectional evaluation of the ELSA study, migraine was not associated with subclinical atherosclerosis, regardless of aura symptoms. © International Headache Society 2015.

  13. Increased plasma dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activities are associated with high prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, T P; Liu, Y H; Yang, L X; Qin, S H; Liu, H B

    2015-10-01

    Hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP4) is a newly identified adipokine related to these risk factors. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association between plasma DPP4 activities and subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. A total of 985 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic subjects were studied. Plasma DPP4 activity, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6P-R), oxidative stress parameters, inflammatory markers and common carotid artery Intima-Media Thickness (c-IMT) were measured in all participants. Participants in the highest quartile of DPP4 activity had higher HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, 8-iso-PGF2a, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), M6P-R, c-IMT compared with participants in the lowest quartile (all P dislipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation were higher with increasing DPP4 quartiles (P < 0.001 for trend). In the highest DPP4 quartile, subclinical atherosclerosis risk was significantly higher (OR 4.97; 95% CI 3.03-8.17) than in the lowest quartile. This association remained strong (2.17; 1.21-3.89) after further controlling for HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, oxidized LDL, nitrotyrosine, and IL-6. This study shows that increased DPP4 activities are positively and independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Our findings suggest of potential role of DPP4 in the pathogenesis of subclinical atherosclerosis and in the prevention and management of this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic fitness is associated with low cardiovascular disease risk: the impact of lifestyle on early risk factors for atherosclerosis in young healthy Swedish individuals – the Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernström M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Fernström,1,* Ulrika Fernberg,2,* Gabriella Eliason,1 Anita Hurtig-Wennlöf1 1Department of Medical Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, School of Health Sciences, 2Medical Faculty, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD and atherosclerosis is slow and develops over decades. In the cross-sectional Swedish Lifestyle, Biomarker, and Atherosclerosis study, 834 young, self-reported healthy adults aged 18.0–25.9 years have been studied to identify early risk factors for atherosclerosis.Purpose: The aims of this study were to 1 assess selected cardiometabolic biomarkers, carotid intima–media thickness (cIMT as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and lifestyle-related indicators (food habits, handgrip strength, and oxygen uptake, VO2 max; 2 analyze the assofciations between cIMT and lifestyle factors; and 3 identify subjects at risk of CVD using a risk score and to compare the characteristics of subjects with and without risk of CVD.Method: Blood samples were taken in a fasting state, and food habits were reported through a questionnaire. cIMT was measured by ultrasound, and VO2 max was measured by ergometer bike test. The risk score was calculated according to Wildman.Result: cIMT (mean ± standard deviation was 0.50±0.06 mm, and VO2 max values were 37.8±8.5 and 42.9±9.9 mL/kg/min, in women and men, respectively. No correlation was found between aerobic fitness expressed as VO2 max (mL/kg/min and cIMT. Using Wildman’s definition, 12% of the subjects were classified as being at risk of CVD, and 15% had homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A total of 35% of women and 25% of men had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than recommended. Food habits did not differ between those at risk and those not at risk. However, aerobic fitness measured as VO2 max (mL/kg/min differed; 47% of the

  15. Studi Penentuan Kecepatan Aliran Darah dan Frekuensi Terimaan Pasien Atherosclerosis Menggunakan USG Color Doppler

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyani, Emba

    2014-01-01

    Jurnal Fisika Medik Studi Penentuan Kecepatan Aliran Darah dan Frekuensi Terimaan Pasien Atherosclerosis Menggunakan USG Color Doppler Mulyani H211 08 507 Pembimbing Utama Sri Dewi Astuty Ilyas,Ssi, Msi Nip.19750513 199903 2 001 Pembimbing Pertama Dahlang Tahir, Msi, Ph.D Nip.19750907 200003 1 001 ABSTRACT Research about Study of determination blood speed of current and freq uency give patient atherosclero sis uses plane USG Color Doppler had be...

  16. Phytosterols and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of premature deaths worldwide. Coronary heart disease is the most common CVD, caused by atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. WHO has in 2007 listed...... in its “Guidelines for assessment and management of cardiovascular risk” the following risk factors to influence progressive atherosclerosis: hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, diabetes, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and smoking. Phytosterols (plant sterols and plant stanols) are known...... their blood cholesterol levels. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to investigate the effects of phytosterols on the development of atherosclerosis in the aorta of heterozygous Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. The main advantage of animal studies to human studies in atherosclerosis research...

  17. Baldness and myocardial infarction in men: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Eyal; Heiss, Gerardo; Rosamond, Wayne D; Szklo, Moyses

    2008-03-15

    Because hair loss may be a surrogate measure of androgenic activity-possibly a determinant of coronary atherosclerosis-several studies have explored the presence and magnitude of an association between male pattern baldness and myocardial infarction (MI). In particular, vertex baldness, but not frontal baldness alone, was strongly associated with incident MI in a large, hospital-based, case-control study. The authors examined these associations in a cross-sectional sample of 5,056 men aged 52-75 years, of whom 767 had a history of MI. The sample was derived from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1987-1998). As compared with a baldness-free reference group, the estimated odds ratios for prevalent MI from a multivariable model were 1.28 (frontal baldness), 1.02 (mild vertex baldness), 1.40 (moderate vertex baldness), and 1.18 (severe vertex baldness). Other regression models have yielded similar results, including the absence of a monotonic "dose-response relation" between the extent of vertex baldness and prevalent MI. The authors also examined the relation of baldness pattern to carotid intimal-medial thickness, a measure of atherosclerosis, among those who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The estimated mean differences in carotid intimal-medial thickness between groups of men with various types of baldness and their baldness-free counterparts were all close to zero. The results of this study suggest that male pattern baldness is not a surrogate measure of an important risk factor for myocardial infarction or asymptomatic atherosclerosis.

  18. Walking speed and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy older adults: the Whitehall II study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamer, M.; Kivimaki, M.; Lahiri, A.; Yerramasu, A.; Deanfield, J. E.; Marmot, M. G.; Steptoe, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Extended walking speed is a predictor of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals, but the ability of an objective short-distance walking speed test to stratify the severity of preclinical conditions remains unclear. This study examined whether performance in an 8-ft walking speed test is associated with metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis.Design Cross-sectional.Setting Epidemiological cohort.Participants 530 adults (aged 63 +/- 6 years, 50.3% ma...

  19. Walking speed and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy older adults: the Whitehall II study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamer, Mark; Kivimaki, Mika; Lahiri, Avijit; Yerramasu, Ajay; Deanfield, John E; Marmot, Michael G; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective Extended walking speed is a predictor of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals, but the ability of an objective short-distance walking speed test to stratify the severity of preclinical conditions remains unclear. This study examined whether performance in an 8-ft walking speed test is associated with metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Epidemiological cohort. Participants 530 adults (aged 63?6?years, 50.3% mal...

  20. Animal models of surgically manipulated flow velocities to study shear stress-induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Leah C; Hoogendoorn, Ayla; Xing, Ruoyu; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Van der Heiden, Kim

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial tree that develops at predisposed sites, coinciding with locations that are exposed to low or oscillating shear stress. Manipulating flow velocity, and concomitantly shear stress, has proven adequate to promote endothelial activation and subsequent plaque formation in animals. In this article, we will give an overview of the animal models that have been designed to study the causal relationship between shear stress and atherosclerosis by surgically manipulating blood flow velocity profiles. These surgically manipulated models include arteriovenous fistulas, vascular grafts, arterial ligation, and perivascular devices. We review these models of manipulated blood flow velocity from an engineering and biological perspective, focusing on the shear stress profiles they induce and the vascular pathology that is observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Are air pollution and traffic noise independently associated with atherosclerosis: the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Hagen; Hennig, Frauke; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Dragano, Nico; Jakobs, Hermann; Memmesheimer, Michael; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    Living close to high traffic has been linked to subclinical atherosclerosis, however it is not clear, whether fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution or noise, two important traffic-related exposures, are responsible for the association. We investigate the independent associations of long-term exposure to fine PM and road traffic noise with thoracic aortic calcification (TAC), a reliable measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We used baseline data (2000-2003) from the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort of 4814 randomly selected participants. We assessed residential long-term exposure to PM with a chemistry transport model, and to road traffic noise using façade levels from noise models as weighted 24 h mean noise (Lden) and night-time noise (Lnight). Thoracic aortic calcification was quantified from non-contrast enhanced electron beam computed tomography. We used multiple linear regression to estimate associations of environmental exposures with ln(TAC+1), adjusting for each other, individual, and neighbourhood characteristics. In 4238 participants (mean age 60 years, 49.9% male), PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and Lnight are both associated with an increasing TAC-burden of 18.1% (95% CI: 6.6; 30.9%) per 2.4 µg/m(3) PM2.5 and 3.9% (95% CI 0.0; 8.0%) per 5dB(A) Lnight, respectively, in the full model and after mutual adjustment. We did not observe effect measure modification of the PM2.5 association by Lnight or vice versa. Long-term exposure to fine PM and night-time traffic noise are both independently associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and may both contribute to the association of traffic proximity with atherosclerosis.

  2. Feasibility study on RI biochip Application to detection of risk factors of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyong Cheol; Choi, Mi Hee; Park, Sang Hyun; Cho, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Ki Teak

    2009-01-01

    Microarrays can be used to screen thousands of binding events in a parallel and high throughput fashion and are of major importance in discase diagnosis and drug discovery. The use of radioisotope is conventionally regarded as one of the most sensitive detection methods. Atherosclerosis is a common disorder affecting arterial blood vessels. It happens when fat, cholesterol, and other substances made in the arterial blood vessels form a hard substances called plaque. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), a phospholipase A 2 enzyme, is used as a marker for cardiac disease. The detection of Lp-PLA 2 was accomplished by using radioactive [ 3 H-acetyl] PAF as a substrate and a feasibility study on RI biochip application to detection of Lp-PLA 2 , a risk factors of atherosclerosis was performed. Inhibitive activity of a native plant extract was also determined by using the RI biochip. It was found to be applicable to a high-throughput screening of inhibitors for developing atherosclerosis therapeutic agents

  3. The acute effects of strength training on inflammatory markers predicting atherosclerosis: a study on inactive middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizheh N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, are the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease has had an increasing prevalence in Iran in recent years. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP are two novel cardiovascular risk factors that independently predict risks of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one session of circuit resistance training on the blood levels of the aforesaid inflammatory markers in inactive middle-aged men."n"nMethods: The participants of this study included twenty-three healthy but inactive middle-aged men who were overweight and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=14 and control (n=9 groups. The activity included doing exercises with the subjects' 35% one-repetition maximum (1-RM intensity at ten different stations. Blood levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP were measured before and after the exercise."n"nResults: Analysis of data using independent samples t-test showed a significant increment in the serum levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP after training in the experimental (P<0.05 versus the control group."n"nConclusion: Elevation of homocysteine levels is due to the increase in protein metabolism

  4. Polyunsaturated fats, carbohydrates and carotid disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearborn, Jennifer L; Qiao, Ye; Guallar, Eliseo; Steffen, Lyn M; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Zhang, Yiyi; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Carbohydrates and fat intake have both been linked to development of atherosclerosis. We examined associations between glycemic index (GI) and fat intake with carotid atherosclerosis. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort enrolled participants during the period 1987-1989 and the Carotid MRI sub-study occurred between 2004 and 2006 (1672 participants attending both visits). Measures of carbohydrate quality (usual GI), fat intake (total, polyunsaturated and saturated) and overall dietary quality index (DASH Diet Score) were derived from a 66-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Trained readers measured lipid core presence and maximum wall thickness. Using multivariate logistic regression, we determined the odds of lipid core presence by quintile (Q) of energy-adjusted dietary components. Restricted cubic spline models were used to examine non-linear associations between dietary components and maximum wall thickness. Mean daily polyunsaturated fat intake was 5 g (SD 1.4). GI and polyunsaturated fat intake had a nonlinear relationship with maximum wall thickness. Low (1-4 g) and high (6-12 g) polyunsaturated fat intake were associated with a statistically significant decreased odds of lipid core presence compared to intake in a majority of participants (OR Q5 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.98; OR Q1 vs. Q2-4: 0.64, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96), however, the association with lipid core was attenuated by adjustment for maximum wall thickness, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. GI and polyunsaturated fat intake were not associated with high-risk plaque features, such as lipid core presence, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does high C-reactive protein concentration increase atherosclerosis? The Whitehall II Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Kivimäki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, is associated with risk of coronary events and sub-clinical measures of atherosclerosis. Evidence in support of this link being causal would include an association robust to adjustments for confounders (multivariable standard regression analysis and the association of CRP gene polymorphisms with atherosclerosis (Mendelian randomization analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 3 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs [+1444T>C (rs1130864; +2303G>A (rs1205 and +4899T>G (rs 3093077] in the CRP gene and assessed CRP and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT, a structural marker of atherosclerosis, in 4941 men and women aged 50-74 (mean 61 years (the Whitehall II Study. The 4 major haplotypes from the SNPs were consistently associated with CRP level, but not with other risk factors that might confound the association between CRP and CIMT. CRP, assessed both at mean age 49 and at mean age 61, was associated both with CIMT in age and sex adjusted standard regression analyses and with potential confounding factors. However, the association of CRP with CIMT attenuated to the null with adjustment for confounding factors in both prospective and cross-sectional analyses. When examined using genetic variants as the instrument for serum CRP, there was no inferred association between CRP and CIMT. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both multivariable standard regression analysis and Mendelian randomization analysis suggest that the association of CRP with carotid atheroma indexed by CIMT may not be causal.

  6. Markers of atherosclerosis in patients with Cushing's syndrome: a meta-analysis of literature studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupoli, Roberta; Ambrosino, Pasquale; Tortora, Anna; Barba, Livia; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario

    2017-05-01

    Several studies reported an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk in Cushing's syndrome (CS). We performed a meta-analysis on the impact of CS on major markers of atherosclerosis. Studies on intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaques prevalence, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in CS patients and controls were searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE. Differences between cases and controls were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for continuous variables, and as Odds Ratio (OR) with 95%CI for dichotomous variables. Fourteen studies (332 CS, 462 controls) were included. Compared with controls, CS patients showed higher IMT (MD: 0.20 mm; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.28; p Cushing's syndrome (CS). In the present meta-analysis we demonstrated that CS is associated with an increased intima-media thickness, higher prevalence of carotid plaques, and lower flow-mediated dilation as compared with controls. These data consistently suggest the need for a strict monitoring of early signs of subclinical atherosclerosis in CS patients.

  7. The Association between Bone Quality and Atherosclerosis: Results from Two Large Population-Based Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lange

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. It is highly debated whether associations between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are independent of cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to explore the associations between quantitative ultrasound (QUS parameters at the heel with the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, the presence of carotid artery plaques, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI. Methods. The study population comprised 5680 men and women aged 20–93 years from two population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP and SHIP-Trend. QUS measurements were performed at the heel. The extracranial carotid arteries were examined with B-mode ultrasonography. ABI was measured in a subgroup of 3853 participants. Analyses of variance and linear and logistic regression models were calculated and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Men but not women had significantly increased odds for carotid artery plaques with decreasing QUS parameters independent of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beyond this, the QUS parameters were not significantly associated with IMT or ABI in fully adjusted models. Conclusions. Our data argue against an independent role of bone metabolism in atherosclerotic changes in women. Yet, in men, associations with advanced atherosclerosis, exist. Thus, men presenting with clinical signs of osteoporosis may be at increased risk for atherosclerotic disease.

  8. The Association between Bone Quality and Atherosclerosis: Results from Two Large Population-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, V; Dörr, M; Schminke, U; Völzke, H; Nauck, M; Wallaschofski, H; Hannemann, A

    2017-01-01

    It is highly debated whether associations between osteoporosis and atherosclerosis are independent of cardiovascular risk factors. We aimed to explore the associations between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters at the heel with the carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), the presence of carotid artery plaques, and the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The study population comprised 5680 men and women aged 20-93 years from two population-based cohort studies: Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) and SHIP-Trend. QUS measurements were performed at the heel. The extracranial carotid arteries were examined with B-mode ultrasonography. ABI was measured in a subgroup of 3853 participants. Analyses of variance and linear and logistic regression models were calculated and adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors. Men but not women had significantly increased odds for carotid artery plaques with decreasing QUS parameters independent of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Beyond this, the QUS parameters were not significantly associated with IMT or ABI in fully adjusted models. Our data argue against an independent role of bone metabolism in atherosclerotic changes in women. Yet, in men, associations with advanced atherosclerosis, exist. Thus, men presenting with clinical signs of osteoporosis may be at increased risk for atherosclerotic disease.

  9. Vascular risk factor burden, atherosclerosis, and functional dependence in old age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Liang, Yajun; Angleman, Sara; Santoni, Giola; Yan, Zhongrui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2014-08-01

    Vascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity have been associated with physical limitations among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual and aggregated vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with functional dependence and to what extent carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) may mediate the possible associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. This cross-sectional study included 1,451 community-living participants aged ≥60 years in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project of China. Data on demographic features, hypertension, high total cholesterol, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, CAS, PAD, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were collected through an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Functional dependence was defined as being dependent in at least one activity in the personal or instrumental activities of daily living. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. We used the mediation model to explore the potential mediating effect of CAS and PAD on the associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. Of the 1,451 participants, 222 (15.3%) had functional dependence. The likelihood of functional dependence increased linearly with increasing number of VRFs (hypertension, high total cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and physical inactivity) (p for trend dependence with clustering VRFs was mediated by CAS and PAD. Aggregation of multiple VRFs is associated with an increased likelihood of functional dependence among Chinese older adults; the association is partially mediated by carotid and peripheral artery atherosclerosis independently of CVDs.

  10. Emotional intelligence and coronary atherosclerosis: exploratory study using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Suárez-Bagnasco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There are no prior studies that assess emotional intelligence in asymptomatic adults with coronary atherosclerosis. Aim The purpose of this study is to explore associations between emotional intelligence in asymptomatic adults with and without coronary atherosclerotic lesions. Design and method Cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 100 asymptomatic 30 to 80 year-old adults that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and who underwent coronary multislice computed tomography. Coronary atherosclerosis was shown by 64-channel multislice computed tomography. Emotional intelligence was assessed by applying the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. Results The sample was composed of 73% men and 27% women. Fifty-one percent had coronary atherosclerotic lesions, 78% had scores below the reference values for both Clarity and Repair. Seventy-nine percent had scores above the reference values for Attention. Statistically significant associations were found between the presence of coronary atherosclerotic lesion and: a emotional attention, chi-square: 0.302, p=0.043, b emotional clarity, chi-square: -0.312, p=0.040, b emotional regulation, chi-square: -0.313, p=0.040. Conclusions: People with coronary atherosclerotic lesions showed an excessive tendency to focus on their own feelings and higher levels of rumination, together with lower ability to identify, distinguish and describe their emotions. Likewise, they have lower ability to reduce or eliminate negative emotions and to increase or maintain the intensity of positive emotions.

  11. TRIGLYCERIDES, ATHEROSCLEROSIS, AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOME STUDIES: FOCUS ON OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda; Shapiro, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    To provide an overview of the roles of triglycerides and triglyceride-lowering agents in atherosclerosis in the context of cardiovascular outcomes studies. We reviewed the published literature as well as ClinicalTrials.gov entries for ongoing studies. Despite improved atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes with statin therapy, residual risk remains. Epidemiologic data and recent genetic insights provide compelling evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway for the development of atherosclerosis, thereby renewing interest in targeting triglycerides to improve ASCVD outcomes. Fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids (OM3FAs) are three classes of triglyceride-lowering drugs. Outcome studies with triglyceride-lowering agents have been inconsistent. With regard to OM3FAs, the JELIS study showed that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) significantly reduced major coronary events in statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients. Regarding other agents, extended-release niacin and fenofibrate are no longer recommended as statin add-on therapy (by some guidelines, though not all) because of the lack of convincing evidence from outcome studies. Notably, subgroup analyses from the outcome studies have generated the hypothesis that triglyceride lowering may provide benefit in statin-treated patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia. Two ongoing OM3FA outcome studies (REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH) are testing this hypothesis in high-risk, statin-treated patients with triglyceride levels of 200 to 500 mg/dL. There is consistent evidence that triglycerides are in the causal pathway of atherosclerosis but inconsistent evidence from cardiovascular outcomes studies as to whether triglyceride-lowering agents reduce cardiovascular risk. Ongoing outcomes studies will determine the role of triglyceride lowering in statin-treated patients with high-dose prescription OM3FAs in terms of improved ASCVD outcomes. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

  12. Bisphosphonates, atherosclerosis and vascular calcification: update and systematic review of clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffarelli C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Carla Caffarelli,1 Andrea Montagnani,2 Ranuccio Nuti,1 Stefano Gonnelli1 1Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Italy; 2Division of Internal Medicine, General Hospital Misericordia, Grosseto, Italy Background: Epidemiologic and clinical data have suggested the existence of a biologic linkage between the bone system and the vascular system. Bisphosphonates (BPs are effective inhibitors of bone resorption and are currently considered the drugs of choice for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and related fractures. Data from several publications have suggested that BPs may also be effective in reducing the atherosclerotic process and vascular calcification, but the results of these studies are contrasting. This review aimed to allow a better understanding of the relationships between BPs and atherosclerosis in humans.Materials and methods: Electronic databases of Pubmed-Medline, Cochrane Library and SCOPUS from inception to June 30, 2016 were searched. The full texts of the articles potentially eligible were carefully assessed and reviewed. Finally, 20 studies were found to be eligible and were included in the systematic review. All included studies were published between 2000 and 2014.Results: In several studies, etidronate limited the progression of aortic and coronary calcification in hemodialysis patients, whereas the nitrogen-containing-BPs given orally did not significantly reduce vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease, kidney trasplant or in those with osteoporosis. Nitrogen-containing-BPs present favorable effects both on vessel wall thickness and on arterial elasticity due to both a reduction in serum lipids and the interaction of BPs with the bone tissue, with the consequent release of bone turnover markers and cytokines into the bloodstream.Conclusion: To sum up, the BPs seem to have the potential of influencing atherosclerosis and calcium homeostasis at the level of

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies Candidate Gene to Dual Modifier of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint L. Miller, PhD

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a common disease involving chronic accumulation of fat and inflammation in the liver, often leading to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and cancer. It is known that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis shares many features with atherosclerosis; however, there are still no effective therapeutics. In a recent study published in Nature, investigators demonstrated that mice lacking a high-density lipoprotein–associated gene were surprisingly protected from both steatohepatitis and atherosclerosis through the stabilization of the liver X receptor. This work reveals a timely candidate target for 2 highly prevalent cardiovascular diseases.

  14. 75 FR 63488 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Event...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD)-- that is, atherosclerosis and other forms of CVD that... individuals of different ethnic backgrounds and provide information for studies on new interventions to prevent CVD. The aspects of the study that concern direct participant evaluation received a clinical...

  15. Epigenetics modifications and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The EPIOSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Jose M; Artal, Jorge; Martin, Teresa; Carrizo, Santiago J; Andres, Marta; Martin-Burriel, Inmaculada; Bolea, Rosa; Sanz, Arianne; Varona, Luis; Godino, Javier; Gallego, Begoña; Garcia-Erce, Jose A; Villar, Isabel; Gil, Victoria; Forner, Marta; Cubero, Jose P; Ros, Luis

    2014-07-12

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological and animal models studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in OSA management by interfering intermediates mechanisms associated with cardiovascular complications. We have thus initiated the Epigenetics modification in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (EPIOSA) study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02131610). EPIOSA is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 350 participants of caucasian ethnicity and free of other chronic or inflammatory diseases: 300 patients with prevalent OSA and 50 non-OSA subjects. All of them will be follow-up for at least 5 years. Recruitment and study visits are performed in single University-based sleep clinic using standard operating procedures. At baseline and at each one year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident comorbidities and health resources utilization, with a primary focus on cardiovascular events. Confirmatory outcomes information is requested from patient records and the regional Department of Health Services. Every year, OSA status will be assessed by full sleep study and blood samples will be obtained for immediate standard biochemistry, hematology, inflammatory cytokines and cytometry analysis. For biobanking, aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA are also obtained. Bilateral carotid echography will be performed to assess subclinical atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis progression. OSA patients are treated according with national guidelines. EPIOSA will enable the prospective evaluation of inflammatory and epigenetics mechanism involved in cardiovascular complication of treated and non-treated patients with OSA compared with non OSA subjects.

  16. Current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical atherosclerosis: results of the Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, S; Backé, E; Liebers, F; Schulz, A; Hegewald, J; Garthus-Niegel, S; Nübling, M; Blankenberg, S; Pfeiffer, N; Lackner, K J; Beutel, M; Blettner, M; Münzel, T; Wild, P S; Seidler, A; Letzel, S; Latza, U

    2016-11-01

    The study examines the association between exposure to current and cumulative night shift work and subclinical parameters of atherosclerosis. Participants of a population-based cohort study (the Gutenberg Health Study, N = 15,010) aged 35-64 years were examined at baseline (2007-2012). Investigations included measurements of arterial stiffness, vascular function [reactive hyperaemia (RH) index], and intima media thickness (IMT). Also, a complete job history (including up to 15 periods), occupational exposures, a variety of lifestyle, and dispositional variables were enquired. Night shift work was performed by 1071 out of 8065 currently employed individuals. The strongest association after adjustment for age, sex, job complexity level, being a manager, overtime work, and noise appeared for more than 660 night shifts within the last 10 years and a significantly increased arterial stiffness of 0.33 m/s. This reflects a 4 % flow velocity increase for individuals with more than 660 night shifts compared to non-night workers. Regarding the entire professional life, night shift workers showed a significantly decreased vascular function by -0.054 RH index points by using the same adjustment. IMT values did not differ statistically from non-night workers. Lifestyle and dispositional factors showed an influence on all used subclinical atherosclerosis parameters. The cross-sectional results demonstrate an association between night work and detrimental changes in the atherosclerotic process. The association is more pronounced with more years in night shift and is partly explained by lifestyle and dispositional factors. Longitudinal analyses are necessary to confirm the results.

  17. Incidence and progression of aortic valve calcium in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, David S; Katz, Ronit; Takasu, Junichiro; Kronmal, Richard; Budoff, Matthew J; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    Aortic valve calcium (AVC) is common among older adults and shares epidemiologic and histopathologic similarities to atherosclerosis. However, prospective studies have failed to identify meaningful risk associations with incident ("new") AVC or its progression. In the present study, AVC was quantified from serial computed tomographic images from 5,880 participants (aged 45 to 84 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, using the Agatston method. Multivariate backward selection modeling was used to identify the risk factors for incident AVC and AVC progression. During a mean follow-up of 2.4 +/- 0.9 years, 210 subjects (4.1%) developed incident AVC. The incidence rate (mean 1.7%/year) increased significantly with age (p AVC included age, male gender, body mass index, current smoking, and the use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications. Among those with AVC at baseline, the median rate of AVC progression was 2 Agatston units/year (interquartile range -21 to 37). The baseline Agatston score was a strong, independent predictor of progression, especially among those with high calcium scores at baseline. In conclusion, in this ethnically diverse, preclinical cohort, the rate of incident AVC increased significantly with age. The incident AVC risk was associated with several traditional cardiovascular risk factors, specifically age, male gender, body mass index, current smoking, and the use of both antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. AVC progression risk was associated with male gender and the baseline Agatston score. Additional research is needed to determine whether age- and stage-specific mechanisms underlie the risk of AVC progression. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Walking speed and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy older adults: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Kivimaki, Mika; Lahiri, Avijit; Yerramasu, Ajay; Deanfield, John E; Marmot, Michael G; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Extended walking speed is a predictor of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older individuals, but the ability of an objective short-distance walking speed test to stratify the severity of preclinical conditions remains unclear. This study examined whether performance in an 8-ft walking speed test is associated with metabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional. Setting Epidemiological cohort. 530 adults (aged 63 + or - 6 years, 50.3% male) from the Whitehall II cohort study with no known history or objective signs of CVD. Electron beam computed tomography and ultrasound was used to assess the presence and extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), respectively. High levels of CAC (Agatston score >100) were detected in 24% of the sample; the mean IMT was 0.75 mm (SD 0.15). Participants with no detectable CAC completed the walking course 0.16 s (95% CI 0.04 to 0.28) faster than those with CAC > or = 400. Objectively assessed, but not self-reported, faster walking speed was associated with a lower risk of high CAC (odds ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.96) and lower IMT (beta=-0.04, 95% CI -0.01 to -0.07 mm) in comparison with the slowest walkers (bottom third), after adjusting for conventional risk factors. Faster walking speed was also associated with lower adiposity, C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Short-distance walking speed is associated with metabolic risk and subclinical atherosclerosis in older adults without overt CVD. These data suggest that a non-aerobically challenging walking test reflects the presence of underlying vascular disease.

  19. Epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity is independently related to coronary atherosclerosis. A multidetector computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pracon, R.; Kruk, M.; Kepka, C.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary research indicates that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may display both anti- and proatherosclerotic properties. Because the varying radiodensities of selected human tissues assessed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has been shown to reflect differences in biological characteristics, the present study investigated the hypothesis that the proatherosclerotic properties of EAT may be linked to its radiodensity. The study included 164 consecutive patients (82 females, mean age 58.8±11.1 years) with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing MDCT coronary angiography. Coronary atherosclerosis was defined as: CAD (id est (ie), presence of at least 1 coronary stenosis ≥50%) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) determined by Agatston score. EAT radiodensity was assessed by MDCT and averaged -81.00±4.64 HU (Hounsfield unit (HU) scale). Mean CAC score was 96.0±220.0. Patients with CAD (n=36) showed higher EAT radiodensity than patients without CAD (-78.99±4.12 vs. -81.57±4.64 HU, P<0.01). In the multivariable model, only EAT radiodensity and age were independently associated with CAD (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95%confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.28; OR 1.08, 95%CI 1.04-1.12; respectively). EAT radiodensity also correlated with CAC score (r=0.23, P<0.01). EAT radiodensity (P<0.001), age (P<0.001), sex (P=0.03), and past smoking (P<0.01) were independent correlates of CAC in the multivariable linear regression model. Increased EAT radiodensity is independently associated with coronary atherosclerosis, which may reflect the unfavorable, proatherosclerotic metabolic properties of more radiodense epicardial fat. (author)

  20. Visualization of atherosclerosis as detected by coronary artery calcium and carotid intima-media thickness reveals significant atherosclerosis in a cross-sectional study of psoriasis patients in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, S; Kast, D R; Grozdev, I; Cao, L; Feig, R L; Golden, J B; Debanne, S M; Gilkeson, R C; Orringer, C E; McCormick, T S; Ward, N L; Cooper, K D; Korman, N J

    2016-07-22

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin and joints that may also have systemic inflammatory effects, including the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased rates of CVD in psoriasis patients, although a causal link has not been established. A growing body of evidence suggests that sub-clinical systemic inflammation may develop in psoriasis patients, even from a young age. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of atherosclerosis and identify specific clinical risk factors associated with early vascular inflammation. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients using coronary artery calcium (CAC) score and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) to detect atherosclerosis, along with high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) to measure inflammation. Psoriasis patients and controls were recruited from our tertiary care dermatology clinic. Presence of atherosclerosis was defined using validated numeric values within CAC and CIMT imaging. Descriptive data comparing groups was analyzed using Welch's t test and Pearson Chi square tests. Logistic regression was used to analyze clinical factors associated with atherosclerosis, and linear regression to evaluate the relationship between psoriasis and hsCRP. 296 patients were enrolled, with 283 (207 psoriatic and 76 controls) having all data for the hsCRP and atherosclerosis analysis. Atherosclerosis was found in 67.6 % of psoriasis subjects versus 52.6 % of controls; Psoriasis patients were found to have a 2.67-fold higher odds of having atherosclerosis compared to controls [95 % CI (1.2, 5.92); p = 0.016], after adjusting for age, gender, race, BMI, smoking, HDL and hsCRP. In addition, a non-significant trend was found between HsCRP and psoriasis severity, as measured by PASI, PGA, or BSA, again after adjusting for confounders. A tertiary care cohort of psoriasis patients have a high prevalence of early

  1. A study of the association of acanthosis nigricans with subclinical atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Guevara-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Acanthosis nigricans is a skin marker for metabolic disturbances and is also associated with carotid atherosclerosis, a finding which is not well documented. We propose that individuals with acanthosis nigricans should be routinely evaluated for these cardiovascular risks.

  2. Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Lombardi, Guido P; Wann, L Samuel; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Frohlich, Bruno; Mininberg, David T; Monge, Janet M; Vallodolid, Clide M; Cox, Samantha L; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahim; Miyamoto, Michael I; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Narula, Jagat; Finch, Caleb E; Thomas, Gregory S

    2013-04-06

    Atherosclerosis is thought to be a disease of modern human beings and related to contemporary lifestyles. However, its prevalence before the modern era is unknown. We aimed to evaluate preindustrial populations for atherosclerosis. We obtained whole body CT scans of 137 mummies from four different geographical regions or populations spanning more than 4000 years. Individuals from ancient Egypt, ancient Peru, the Ancestral Puebloans of southwest America, and the Unangan of the Aleutian Islands were imaged. Atherosclerosis was regarded as definite if a calcified plaque was seen in the wall of an artery and probable if calcifications were seen along the expected course of an artery. Probable or definite atherosclerosis was noted in 47 (34%) of 137 mummies and in all four geographical populations: 29 (38%) of 76 ancient Egyptians, 13 (25%) of 51 ancient Peruvians, two (40%) of five Ancestral Puebloans, and three (60%) of five Unangan hunter gatherers (p=NS). Atherosclerosis was present in the aorta in 28 (20%) mummies, iliac or femoral arteries in 25 (18%), popliteal or tibial arteries in 25 (18%), carotid arteries in 17 (12%), and coronary arteries in six (4%). Of the five vascular beds examined, atherosclerosis was present in one to two beds in 34 (25%) mummies, in three to four beds in 11 (8%), and in all five vascular beds in two (1%). Age at time of death was positively correlated with atherosclerosis (mean age at death was 43 [SD 10] years for mummies with atherosclerosis vs 32 [15] years for those without; phuman beings raises the possibility of a more basic predisposition to the disease. National Endowment for the Humanities, Paleocardiology Foundation, The National Bank of Egypt, Siemens, and St Luke's Hospital Foundation of Kansas City. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Atherosclerosis VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidge, N.H.; Nestel, P.J.; Flinders Univ., Adelaide

    1986-01-01

    In these proceedings the major themes of the conference have been preserved and comprise epidemiology, lipoproteins, pathogenesis, and clinical, therapeutic and nutritional aspects. The diet-lipidcoronary artery disease hypothesis has been strengthened significantly. Several long-awaited trials, reviewed here, have provided very strong support for the rationale for treating hyperlipidemia. A strategy for the prevention of atherosclerosis was defined at the conference. The genesis of atherosclerosis was shown to be more firmly grounded in the influx of lipoprotein into the arterial wall. The regulation of these processes and the rapid advances made possible by new technology were detailed in several sessions. Important new developments in the clinical area and in pharmacology give promise of greatly improved management of established disease. However, the possibility of mounting large-scale preventive measures in the near future, was given credence in the epidemiology and nutrition workshops. (Auth.)

  4. [A clinical study on the effect of nattokinase on carotid artery atherosclerosis and hyperlipidaemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, N N; Chen, H J; Li, Y; Mcgowan, G W; Lin, Y G

    2017-07-11

    .09). Conclusions: Our findings from this pioneer clinical study suggests that daily NK supplementation is an effective way to manage the progression of atherosclerosis and potentially may be a better alternative to statins which are commonly used to reduce atherosclerosis and further to prevent cardiovascular attack and stroke in patients. The mechanism underlying the reduction of carotid atherosclerosis by NK may be independent from its lipid-lowering effect, which is different from that of statins.

  5. Diet Pattern and Respiratory Morbidity in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Emily P; Steffen, Lyn M; London, Stephanie J; Boyce, Danielle; Diette, Gregory B; Hansel, Nadia N; Rice, Jessica; McCormack, Meredith C

    2018-02-15

    Dietary intake is a potential risk factor for respiratory morbidity in adult populations. Few studies capture the effect of diet patterns, representative of combination of nutrients consumed, on respiratory morbidity in combination with objective measures of lung function. To evaluate patterns of dietary intake in relation to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function in a U.S. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study enrolled 15,792 participants from four U.S. communities between 1987-1989 and collected a validated food frequency questionnaire to assess diet. Principal components analysis was applied and patterns representative of "Western" and "Prudent" diet emerged. We investigated associations between dietary pattern and pulmonary assessments including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis, respiratory symptoms, and lung function. Multivariable logistic regression models included quintiles of dietary patterns and potential confounders. Interaction of dietary patterns with obesity, gender, and smoking status was assessed in relation to all outcomes. A "Western" diet pattern was associated with higher odds of COPD, wheeze, cough, phlegm, and worse lung function, whereas a "Prudent" diet pattern was associated with lower odds of COPD, cough, and better lung function. The prevalence of asthma was not related to dietary intake. Dietary pattern was significantly associated with respiratory outcomes in ARIC participants. A "Western" diet was adverse, whereas a "Prudent" diet was beneficially related to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function. Additional studies of dietary pattern in U.S. populations are needed to verify this effect.

  6. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Diabetes and Prediabetes and Risk of Hospitalization: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Kalyani, Rita R; Golden, Sherita; Stearns, Sally C; Wruck, Lisa; Yeh, Hsin Chieh; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    To examine the magnitude and types of hospitalizations among persons with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diagnosed diabetes. This study included 13,522 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (mean age 57 years, 56% female, 24% black, 18% with prediabetes, 4% with undiagnosed diabetes, 9% with diagnosed diabetes) with follow-up in 1990-2011 for hospitalizations. Participants were categorized by diabetes/HbA1c status: without diagnosed diabetes, HbA1c prediabetes, 5.7 to prediabetes had 1.3 times higher rates of hospitalization than those without diabetes and HbA1c prediabetes are at a significantly elevated risk of hospitalization compared with those without diabetes. Substantial excess rates of hospitalizations in persons with diagnosed diabetes were for endocrine, infection, and iatrogenic/injury causes, which may be preventable with improved diabetes care. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  8. Circulating cellular adhesion molecules and risk of diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J S; Decker, P A; Berardi, C; Hanson, N Q; Sale, M; Tang, W; Kanaya, A M; Larson, N B; Tsai, M Y; Wassel, C L; Bielinski, S J

    2016-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that soluble cellular adhesion molecules would be positively and independently associated with risk of diabetes. Soluble levels of six cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, E-selectin, VCAM-1, E-cadherin, L-selectin and P-selectin) were measured in participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a prospective cohort study. Participants were then followed for up to 10 years to ascertain incident diabetes. Sample sizes ranged from 826 to 2185. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI and fasting glucose or HbA1c , four cellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, E-selectin, VCAM-1 and E-cadherin) were positively associated with incident diabetes and there was a statistically significant trend across quartiles. Comparing the incidence of diabetes in the highest and lowest quartiles of each cellular adhesion molecule, the magnitude of association was largest for E-selectin (hazard ratio 2.49; 95% CI 1.26-4.93) and ICAM-1 (hazard ratio 1.76; 95% CI 1.22-2.55) in fully adjusted models. Tests of effect modification by racial/ethnic group and sex were not statistically significant for any of the cellular adhesion molecules (P > 0.05). The finding of significant associations between multiple cellular adhesion molecules and incident diabetes may lend further support to the hypothesis that microvascular endothelial dysfunction contributes to risk of diabetes. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  9. Insights From Pre-Clinical and Clinical Studies on the Role of Innate Inflammation in Atherosclerosis Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karishma Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of coronary artery (CAD and other cardiovascular diseases, is initiated by macrophage-mediated immune responses to lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in artery walls, which result in the formation of plaques. Unlike at other sites of inflammation, the immune response becomes maladaptive and inflammation fails to resolve. The most common treatment for reducing the risk from atherosclerosis is low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C lowering. Studies have shown, however, that while significant lowering of LDL-C reduces the risk of heart attacks to some degree, there is still residual risk for the majority of the population. We and others have observed “residual inflammatory risk” of atherosclerosis after plasma cholesterol lowering in pre-clinical studies, and that this phenomenon is clinically relevant has been dramatically reinforced by the recent Canakinumab Anti-inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS trial. This review will summarize the role of the innate immune system, specifically macrophages, in atherosclerosis progression and regression, as well as the pre-clinical and clinical models that have provided significant insights into molecular pathways involved in the resolution of plaque inflammation and plaque regression. Partnered with clinical studies that can be envisioned in the post-CANTOS period, including progress in developing targeted plaque therapies, we expect that pre-clinical studies advancing on the path summarized in this review, already revealing key mechanisms, will continue to be essential contributors to achieve the goals of dampening plaque inflammation and inducing its resolution in order to maximize the therapeutic benefits of conventional risk factor modifications, such as LDL-C lowering.

  10. Association Between Coronary Artery Disease Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: An Association Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalza, Michel; Subirana, Isaac; Lluis-Ganella, Carla; Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; de Groot, Eric; Arnold, Roman; Cenarro, Ana; Ramos, Rafel; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have identified several genetic variants associated with coronary artery disease. Some of these genetic variants are not associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors and the mechanism of such associations is unclear. The aim of the study was to determine whether these genetic variants are related to subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima media thickness, carotid stiffness, and ankle brachial index. A cross-sectional study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was undertaken. The study included 2667 individuals. Subclinical atherosclerosis measurements were performed with standardized methods. Nine genetic variants were genotyped to assess associations with subclinical atherosclerosis, individually and in a weighted genetic risk score. A systematic review and meta-analysis of previous studies that analyzed these associations was undertaken. Neither the selected genetic variants nor the genetic risk score were significantly associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. In the meta-analysis, the rs1746048 (CXCL12; n = 10581) risk allele was directly associated with carotid intima-media thickness (β = 0.008; 95% confidence interval, 0.001-0.015), whereas the rs6725887 (WDR12; n = 7801) risk allele was inversely associated with this thickness (β = -0.013; 95% confidence interval, -0.024 to -0.003). The analyzed genetic variants seem to mediate their association with coronary artery disease through different mechanisms. Our results generate the hypothesis that the CXCL12 variant appears to influence coronary artery disease risk through arterial remodeling and thickening, whereas the WDR12 risk variant could be related to higher plaque vulnerability. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain function and structure and risk for incident diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancks, Michael P; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is prospectively associated with cognitive decline. Whether lower cognitive function and worse brain structure are prospectively associated with incident diabetes is unclear. We analyzed data for 10,133 individuals with cognitive function testing (1990-1992) and 1212 individuals with brain magnetic resonance imaging (1993-1994) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. We estimated hazard ratios for incident diabetes through 2014 after adjustment for traditional diabetes risk factors and cohort attrition. Higher level of baseline cognitive function was associated with lower risk for diabetes (per 1 standard deviation, hazard ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval = 0.90, 0.98). This association did not persist after accounting for baseline glucose level, case ascertainment methods, and cohort attrition. No association was observed between any brain magnetic resonance imaging measure and incident diabetes. This is one of the first studies to prospectively evaluate the association between both cognitive function and brain structure and the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kidney Disease Measures and Left Ventricular Structure and Function: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Kwak, Lucia; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana H; Skali, Hicham; Shah, Amil M; Coresh, Josef; Solomon, Scott

    2017-09-22

    Heart failure is one of the most important complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies comprehensively investigated left ventricular (LV) structure and function in relation to 2 key CKD measures, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). Among 4175 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (aged 66-90 years during 2011-2013), we quantified the association of eGFR and ACR with echocardiogram parameters of LV mass, size, systolic function, and diastolic function. Adjusting for demographic variables, both CKD measures were significantly associated with most echocardiogram parameters. Additionally accounting for other potential confounders, we observed significantly higher LV mass index according to reduced eGFR (82.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 77.6-87.0] g/m 2 for eGFR function, significant differences were observed for some parameters, particularly at eGFR function were robustly associated with albuminuria. These results have implications for pathophysiological processes behind cardiorenal syndrome and targeted cardiac assessment in patients with CKD. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  13. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Early menopause predicts future coronary heart disease and stroke: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Herrington, David M; Vaidya, Dhananjay

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of women. Identifying women at risk of cardiovascular disease has tremendous public health importance. Early menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular disease events in some predominantly white populations, but not consistently. Our objective was to determine if self-reported early menopause (menopause at an age menopause (either natural menopause or surgical removal of ovaries at an age menopause. In survival curves, women with early menopause had worse coronary heart disease and stroke-free survival (log rank P = 0.008 and P = 0.0158). In models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, Multi-ethnic Study Atherosclerosis site, and traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, this risk for coronary heart disease and stroke remained (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.17-3.70; and hazard ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.11-4.32, respectively). Early menopause is positively associated with coronary heart disease and stroke in a multiethnic cohort, independent of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  15. Fasting Glucose GWAS Candidate Region Analysis across Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J.; Guo, X.; Bowden, D. W.; Bertoni, A. G.; Sale, M. M.; Yao, J.; Bluemke, D. A.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Chen, Y. I.; Vaidya, D.; Raffel, L. J.; Papanicolaou, G.J.; Meigs, J. B.; Pankow, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these SNPs and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian GWAS across multiple ethnicities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Non-diabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the ...

  16. Associations between bone mineral density and subclinical atherosclerosis: a cross-sectional study of a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong-Ke; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Bing; Han, Lu-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Nan; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2014-02-01

    The significance of associations between bone mineral density (BMD) and atherosclerosis in the Asian population is less clear. The aim of this study was to explore the population-level associations between BMD and subclinical atherosclerosis. This was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Shenyang, China. A total of 385 Chinese women and men aged 37-87 years were studied. The BMD was measured at the total hip and lumbar spine using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were measured to assess atherosclerosis. Multiple regression analysis was applied to study the associations. Multicolinearity was examined using the variance inflation factor, condition index, and variance proportions. Factor analysis and principal component regression were used to remove the problem of multicolinearity. The differences of ABI, PWV, and CIMT among the normal BMD, osteopenia, and osteoporosis groups were not found. Total hip BMD was correlated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (r = 0.156). Sex-specific regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, menopausal status (women), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, serum uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen. Total hip BMD was associated with ABI in women after adjustment for age (per SD decrease in ABI: -0.130 g/cm(2), P = .022), but the association was borderline significant after full adjustment (P = .045). Total hip BMD and lumbar spine BMD were not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT after full adjustment in participants without a fracture history. The risk of osteoporosis was not associated with ABI, PWV, and CIMT. Low BMD is not associated with

  17. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Golden, Sherita H; Chen, Haiying; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Jacobs, David; Burke, Gregory L; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Ouyang, Pamela; Bertoni, Alain G

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and incident diabetes has been assessed in whites but is less well investigated in multiethnic populations. Objective: To assess the association between PA, sedentary behavior, and incident diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Research design and methods Incident diabetes was assessed among adults without prevalent baseline diabetes (2000–2002) at 5 in-person examinations between 2002 and 2012. B...

  18. Differences in atherosclerosis according to area level socioeconomic deprivation: cross sectional, population based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deans, Kevin A.; Bezlyak, Vladimir; Ford, Ian; Batty, G. David; Burns, Harry; Cavanagh, Jonathan; de Groot, Eric; McGinty, Agnes; Millar, Keith; Shiels, Paul G.; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the relation between area level social deprivation and ultrasound markers of atherosclerosis (common carotid intima-media thickness and plaque score), and to determine whether any differences can be explained by "classic" (currently recognised) or "emerging" (novel) cardiovascular risk

  19. Hemoglobin and atherosclerosis in patients with manifest arterial disease. The SMART-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J. M.; Wangge, G.; Graaf, Y. van der; Bots, M. L.; Grobbee, D. E.; Algra, A.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased hemoglobin levels are known to be associated with an increased risk of coronary mortality and morbidity. This is largely thought to result from the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Similar remodeling mechanisms of the vessel wall that may result in atherosclerosis are likely to

  20. Estrogen, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in women : epidemiological studies on menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.C.D. Westendorp (Iris)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractA therosclerosis, the principal cause of ischemic heart disease, stroke and peripheral arterial disease, is the fllost important cause of morbidity and Inortality in Western countries. Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease are diseases of the elderly. Demographic data predict that

  1. Predictors of sudden cardiac death in atrial fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Koene

    Full Text Available We previously reported that incident atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD in the general population. We now aimed to identify predictors of SCD in persons with AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, a community-based cohort study. We included all participants who attended visit 1 (1987-89 and had no prior AF (n = 14,836. Incident AF was identified from study electrocardiograms and hospitalization discharge codes through 2012. SCD was physician-adjudicated. We used cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models, followed by stepwise selection (backwards elimination, removing all variables with p>0.10 to identify predictors of SCD in participants with AF. AF occurred in 2321 (15.6% participants (age 45-64 years, 58% male, 18% black. Over a median of 3.3 years, SCD occurred in 110 of those with AF (4.7%. Predictors of SCD in AF included higher age, body mass index (BMI, coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, current smoker, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased heart rate, and decreased albumin. Predictors associated only with SCD and not other cardiovascular (CV death included increased BMI (HR per 5-unit increase, 1.15, 95% CI, 0.97-1.36, p = 0.10, increased heart rate (HR per SD increase, 1.18, 95% CI 0.99-1.41, p = 0.07, and low albumin (HR per SD decrease 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48, p = 0.03. In the ARIC study, predictors of SCD in AF that are not associated with non-sudden CV death included increased BMI, increased heart rate, and low albumin. Further research to confirm these findings in larger community-based cohorts and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms to facilitate prevention is warranted.

  2. Risk prediction of major complications in individuals with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, C M; Matsushita, K; Woodward, M; Wagenknecht, L E; Coresh, J; Selvin, E

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction equation for 10-year risk of a combined endpoint (incident coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, lower extremity hospitalizations) in people with diabetes, using demographic and clinical information, and a panel of traditional and non-traditional biomarkers. We included in the study 654 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective cohort study, with diagnosed diabetes (visit 2; 1990-1992). Models included self-reported variables (Model 1), clinical measurements (Model 2), and glycated haemoglobin (Model 3). Model 4 tested the addition of 12 blood-based biomarkers. We compared models using prediction and discrimination statistics. Successive stages of model development improved risk prediction. The C-statistics (95% confidence intervals) of models 1, 2, and 3 were 0.667 (0.64, 0.70), 0.683 (0.65, 0.71), and 0.694 (0.66, 0.72), respectively (p < 0.05 for differences). The addition of three traditional and non-traditional biomarkers [β-2 microglobulin, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cystatin C-based eGFR] to Model 3 significantly improved discrimination (C-statistic = 0.716; p = 0.003) and accuracy of 10-year risk prediction for major complications in people with diabetes (midpoint percentiles of lowest and highest deciles of predicted risk changed from 18-68% to 12-87%). These biomarkers, particularly those of kidney filtration, may help distinguish between people at low versus high risk of long-term major complications. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Histological Characteristics of Intracranial Atherosclerosis in a Chinese Population: A Postmortem Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Jie Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAnterior and posterior circulation atherosclerosis differ in vascular risk factors and stroke mechanisms. However, few studies have compared the pathological features between these lesions. Using a series of intracranial artery specimens, we characterized the intracranial atherosclerotic lesions and compared pathological features among different arteries of the intracranial vasculature.MethodsIntracranial large arteries of 32 consecutively recruited autopsy cases of Chinese adults aged 45 years or older were examined pathologically using routine histology and immunostaining, to characterize the pathological features of the atherosclerotic lesions. We analyzed middle cerebral arteries (MCAs (both left and right, vertebral arteries (VAs (side more affected, and basilar arteries (BAs.ResultsProgressive atherosclerotic lesions were present in 91(71% of the 128 arteries examined. Features of complicated plaques were infrequently detected: plaque hemorrhage was encountered in 12%, neovasculature in 12%, lumen thrombi in 13%, macrophage infiltration in 20%, and calcification in 25% of arteries. Luminal narrowing of MCA was the most severe, followed by VA; the BA least stenotic (37 ± 25 vs. 30 ± 24 vs. 20 ± 20%, all p < 0.05. MCA had more eccentric (vs. concentric plaques than VA (69 vs. 25%, p = 0.003 and BA (69 vs. 38%; p = 0.03. Lumen thrombi were more frequent in BA, and calcification most commonly occurred in VA atherosclerotic lesions.ConclusionIntracranial atherosclerotic plaques were commonly present in this sample, but the lesions generally lacked features of complicated plaques. MCA lesions had demonstrable differences compared with VA and BA lesions. Further studies are needed to determine whether these characteristics indicate a distinctive atherosclerotic phenotype for the intracranial vasculature.

  4. Validity and reliability of self-reported diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time.

  5. High androgens in postmenopausal women and the risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meun, Cindy; Franco, Oscar H; Dhana, Klodian; Jaspers, Loes; Muka, Taulant; Louwers, Yvonne; Ikram, M Arfan; Fauser, Bart C J M; Kavousi, Maryam; Laven, Joop S E

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is closely linked to hyperandrogenism. In PCOS, hyperandrogenism has been associated with metabolic disturbances which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To assess the association of high serum androgen levels, as a postmenopausal remnant of PCOS, with the prevalence of atherosclerosis and incidence of CVD in postmenopausal women. The Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Median follow up was 11.36 years. General community. 2578 women aged over 55. Exclusion criteria were missing informed consent or follow-up data, perimenopausal status, menopause by surgical intervention or at an unnatural age (age 62). None. Linear, logistic, and cox regression models assessed the association of top quartiles (P75) of serum testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione and SHBG with coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity, peripheral artery disease and incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVD. Mean age (standard deviation) was 70.19 (8.71) years and average time since menopause 19.85 (9.94) years. Highest quartile FAI was associated with higher pulse wave velocity [β (95%CI): 0.009 (0.000;0.018)]. Highest quartile dehydroepiandrosterone [β (95%CI): -0.008 (-0.015;-0.001)] and androstenedione [β (95%CI): -0.010 (-0.017;-0.003)] levels were associated with a lower IMT. We found no association between high androgen levels and incident stroke, coronary heart disease, or cardiovascular disease. Postmenopausal high androgen levels were not associated with an increased risk for CVD. Cardiovascular health in women with PCOS might be better than was anticipated. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  6. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  7. Validation of an Albuminuria Self-assessment Tool in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Rikki M; Woodward, Mark; Peralta, Carmen; Warnock, David G; Gutiérrez, Orlando; Shimbo, Daichi; Kramer, Holly; Katz, Ronit; Muntner, Paul

    2015-11-05

    We previously developed an 8-item self-assessment tool to identify individuals with a high probability of having albuminuria. This tool was developed and externally validated among non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks. We sought to validate it in a multi-ethnic cohort that also included Hispanics and Chinese Americans. This is a cross-sectional study. Data were collected using standardized questionnaires and spot urine samples at a baseline examination in 2000-2002. The 8 items in the self-assessment tool include age, race, gender, current cigarette smoking, history of diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, and self-rated health. Of 6,814 community-dwelling adults aged 45-84 years participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), 6,542 were included in the primary analysis. Albuminuria was defined as urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at baseline. Among non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, the prevalence of albuminuria was 6.0%, 11.3%, 11.6%, and 10.8%, respectively. The c-statistic for discriminating participants with and without albuminuria was .731 (95% CI: .692, .771), .728 (95% CI: .687, .761), .747 (95% CI: .709, .784), and .761 (95% CI: .699, .814) for non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans, respectively. The self-assessment tool over-estimated the probability of albuminuria for non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but was well-calibrated for Hispanics and Chinese Americans. The albuminuria self-assessment tool maintained good test characteristics in this large multi-ethnic cohort, suggesting it may be helpful for increasing awareness of albuminuria in an ethnically diverse population.

  8. Ferritin levels and risk of heart failure-the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Odilson M; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Nadruz, Wilson; Claggett, Brian; Couper, David; Eckfeldt, John H; Pankow, James S; Anker, Stefan D; Solomon, Scott D

    2017-03-01

    Severe iron overload is associated with cardiac damage, while iron deficiency has been related to worse outcomes in subjects with heart failure (HF). This study investigated the relationship between ferritin, a marker of iron status, and the incidence of HF in a community-based cohort. We examined 1063 participants who were free of heart failure from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom ferritin serum levels were measured at baseline (1987-1989). The participants (mean age 52.7 ± 5.5 years, 62% women), were categorized in low (200 ng/mL in women and >300 ng/mL in men; n = 247) ferritin levels. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between ferritin and incident HF. After 21 ± 4.6 years of follow-up, HF occurred in 144 (13.5%) participants. When compared with participants with normal ferritin levels, participants with low ferritin levels had a higher risk of HF [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.35; P = 0.02] as did those with high ferritin levels (HR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.25; P = 0.04), after adjusting for potential confounders. Notably, low ferritin levels remained associated with incident HF even after excluding subjects with anaemia (HR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.11-4.68; P = 0.03). Derangements in iron metabolism, either low or high ferritin serum levels, were associated with higher risk of incident HF in a general population, even without concurrent anaemia. These findings suggest that iron imbalance might play a role in the development of HF. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  9. Age at menopause and incident heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 years) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in postmenopausal women. We also explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in postmenopausal women. We included 2,947 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2,123 postmenopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Across a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction > 0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a decreased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMVR; Pinteraction = 0.02). In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with a higher LVMVR (+0.11; P = 0.0002), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a lower LVMVR (-0.004; P = 0.04) at baseline. Older age at menopause is independently associated with a decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodeling, indicated by a higher LVMVR, is present in Chinese-American women who experienced early menopause at baseline.

  10. Are immigrant enclaves healthy places to live? The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osypuk, Theresa L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Hadley, Craig; Kandula, Namratha R

    2009-07-01

    The growing size and changing composition of the foreign-born population in the USA highlights the importance of examining the health consequences of living in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants. Using data from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in four US cities, we examined whether neighborhood immigrant composition was associated with health behaviors (diet, physical activity) among Hispanic and Chinese Americans (n=1902). Secondarily we tested whether neighborhoods with high proportions of immigrants exhibited better or worse neighborhood quality, and whether these dimensions of neighborhood quality were associated with healthy behaviors. Neighborhood immigrant composition was defined based on the Census 2000 tract percent of foreign-born from Latin-America, and separately, percent foreign-born from China. After adjustment for age, gender, income, education, neighborhood poverty, and acculturation, living in a tract with a higher proportion of immigrants was associated with lower consumption of high-fat foods among Hispanics and Chinese, but with being less physically active among Hispanics. Residents in neighborhoods with higher proportions of immigrants reported better healthy food availability, but also worse walkability, fewer recreational exercise resources, worse safety, lower social cohesion, and lower neighborhood-based civic engagement. Associations of neighborhood immigrant composition with diet persisted after adjustment for reported neighborhood characteristics, and associations with physical activity were attenuated. Respondent-reported neighborhood healthy food availability, walkability, availability of exercise facilities and civic participation remained associated with behaviors after adjusting for immigrant composition and other covariates. Results show that living in an immigrant enclave is not monolithically beneficial and may have different associations with different health behaviors.

  11. Sociodemographic Correlates of Cognition in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Rapp, Stephen R; Luchsinger, José; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca; Lee, Hochang; Carnethon, Mercedes; Liu, Kiang; Williams, Kayleen; Sharrett, A Richey; Frazier-Wood, Alexis; Lyketsos, Constantine; Seeman, Teresa

    2015-07-01

    To describe the methodology utilized to evaluate cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and to present preliminary results by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Cross-sectional measurements of a prospective observational cohort. Residents of 6 U.S. communities free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-02). 4,591 adults who completed the fifth MESA clinical examination in 2011-12; mean age 70.3 (SD: 9.5) years, 53.1% women, 40.7% non-Hispanic white, 26.4% non-Hispanic black, 21.4% Hispanic, and 11.5% Chinese. The cognitive battery consisted of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (version 2) to evaluate global cognition, the Digit Symbol Code for processing speed and Digit Spans Forward and Backward to assess memory. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural covariates were also collected for descriptive statistics and multivariate modeling. Associations between socioeconomic factors and cognition revealed that age, race/ethnicity, education, occupational status, household income, health insurance type, household size, place of birth, years and generation in U.S., and the presence of the ApoE4 allele were significantly associated with performance on the cognitive tests, although patterns varied by specific test, racial/ethnicity, and sociocultural factors. As many of the influencing cultural and socioeconomic factors measured here are complex, multifactorial, and may not be adequately quantified, caution has been recommended with regard to comparison and interpretation of racial/ethnic group performance differences from these cross-sectional models. These data provide a baseline for future exams and more comprehensive longitudinal analyses of the contributions of subclinical and clinical diseases to cognitive function and decline. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Sociodemographic Correlates of Cognition in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Rapp, Stephen R.; Luchsinger, Jose; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca; Lee, Hochang; Carnethon, Mercedes; Liu, Kiang; Williams, Kayleen; Sharrett, A. Richey.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis; Lyketsos, Constantine; Seeman, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the methodology utilized to evaluate cognitive function in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and to present preliminary results by age, gender and race/ethnicity. Design Cross-sectional measurements of a prospective observational cohort. Setting Residents of 6 US communities free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-02). Participants 4,591 adults who completed the 5th MESA clinical examination in 2011-12, mean age 70.3 (SD 9.5) years, 53.1% women, and 40.7% Non-Hispanic White, 26.4% Non-Hispanic Black, 21.4% Hispanic, and 11.5% Chinese. Measurements The cognitive battery consisted of the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (version 2) to evaluate global cognition, the Digit Symbol Code for processing speed and Digit Spans Forward and Backward to assess memory. Demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural covariates were also collected for descriptive statistics and multivariate modeling. Results Associations between socio-economic factors and cognition revealed that age, race/ethnicity, education, occupational status, household income, health insurance type, household size, place of birth, years and generation in U.S., and the presence of the APOE4 allele were significantly associated with performance on the cognitive tests although patterns varied by specific test, racial/ethnicity, and socio-cultural factors. Conclusions As many of the influencing cultural and socioeconomic factors measured here are complex, multifactorial, and may not be adequately quantified, caution has been recommended with regard to comparison and interpretation of racial/ethnic group performance differences from these cross-sectional models. These data provide a baseline for future exams and more comprehensive longitudinal analyses of the contributions of subclinical and clinical diseases to cognitive function and decline. PMID:25704999

  14. Late life socioeconomic status and hypertension in an aging cohort: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDoom, M Maya; Palta, Priya; Vart, Priya; Juraschek, Stephen P; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Diez Roux, Ana V; Coresh, Josef

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the association between individual and area-level socioeconomic status and hypertension risk among individuals later in life. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of socioeconomic status with incident hypertension using race-specific neighborhood socioeconomic status, median household income, and education among 3372 participants (mean age, 61 years) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study at Visit 4 (1996-1998). Incident hypertension was defined as self-reported diagnosis or reported use of antihypertensive medications. Over a median follow-up time of 9.4 years, there were 1874 new cases of hypertension (62.1 per 1000 person-years). Overall, being in high as compared with low socioeconomic status categories was associated with a lower risk of developing hypertension in late life, with hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 0.87 (0.77-0.98) for high neighborhood socioeconomic status tertile, 0.79 (0.69-0.90) for high individual income, and 0.75 (0.63-0.89) for college education after adjustment for traditional risk factors. These findings were consistent and robust whenever accounting for competing risks of all-cause mortality. No significant interactions by race and age (dichotomized at age 65) were observed. Among participants free of hypertension in midlife, high neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status are associated with a decreased risk of incident hypertension. Our findings support population-level interventions, such as blood pressure screening at senior centers and faith-based organizations, that are tailored to shift the distribution of blood pressure and reduce hypertension health inequalities among older adults.

  15. Low Levels of CD36 in Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Bañuelos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA have a higher risk for atherosclerosis. There is no clinical information about scavenger receptor CD36 and the development of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between membrane expression of CD36 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in patients with RA. Methods. We included 67 patients with RA from the Rheumatology Department of Hospital Civil “Dr. Juan I. Menchaca,” Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. We evaluated the cIMT, considering subclinical atherosclerosis when >0.6 mm. Since our main objective was to associate the membrane expression of CD36 with subclinical atherosclerosis, other molecules related with cardiovascular risk such as ox-LDL, IL-6, and TNFα were tested. Results. We found low CD36 membrane expression in PBMC from RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis (P<0.001. CD36 mean fluorescence intensity had negative correlations with cIMT (r = −0.578, P<0.001, ox-LDL (r = −0.427, P = 0.05, TNFα (r = −0.729, P<0.001, and IL-6 (r = −0.822, P<0.001. Conclusion. RA patients with subclinical atherosclerosis showed low membrane expression of CD36 in PBMC and increased serum proinflammatory cytokines. Further studies are needed to clarify the regulation of CD36 in RA.

  16. Studying Resistance: Some Cautionary Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The question of "resistance" has oriented the field of critical ethnography for several generations now. Indeed, the reproduction-resistance binary has animated much of the most important, critical work in educational studies over the last 30 years. Yet, this reproduction-resistance binary has perhaps calcified in recent years. Such work…

  17. Intracranial atherosclerosis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F

    2011-01-01

    The most relevant ideas discussed in this article are described here. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) represents the most common cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Its importance in whites may have been underestimated. New technical developments, such as high-resolution MRI, allow direct assessment of the intracranial atherosclerotic plaque, which may have a profound impact on ICAD diagnosis and therapy in the near future. Early detection of ICAD may allow therapeutic intervention while the disease is still asymptomatic. The Barcelonès Nord and Maresme Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study is presented here. The main prognostic factors that characterize the patients who are at a higher risk for ICAD recurrence are classified and discussed. The best treatment for ICAD remains to be established. The Stenting Versus Aggressive Medical Management for Preventing Recurrent Stroke in Intracranial Stenosis Study is currently ongoing to address this crucial issue. These and other topics will be discussed at the Fifth International Intracranial Atherosclerosis Conference (Valladolid, Spain, autumn 2011).

  18. Serum calcium and incident type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Mary R; Pankow, James S; Sibley, Shalamar D; Selvin, Elizabeth; Reis, Jared P; Michos, Erin D; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2016-10-01

    Elevated serum calcium has been associated with a variety of metabolic abnormalities and may be associated with a greater risk of diabetes. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum calcium concentration is positively and independently associated with the incidence of diabetes and to evaluate the association of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801725 with incident diabetes. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants free of diabetes at baseline (n = 12,800; mean age: 53.9 y; 22.6% black) were studied for incident diabetes. Serum calcium was measured at baseline and corrected for serum albumin. Diabetes was defined by use of glucose concentrations, self-report, or medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used. During a mean 8.8 y of follow-up, 1516 cases of diabetes were reported. Participants in the highest compared with lowest calcium quintile were at greater risk of incident diabetes after adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors [HR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.14, 1.57); P-trend across quintiles 1] and with further adjustment for waist circumference and body mass index [1.26 (1.07, 1.48); P-trend = 0.004]. Additional adjustment for biomarkers on the metabolic pathway (e.g., 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus) had little impact. The calcium-diabetes association was statistically significant in blacks [1.48 (1.11, 1.98); P-trend = 0.002] but not whites [1.17 (0.96, 1.43); P-trend = 0.17] after adjustment for adiposity. In whites, CaSR gene SNP rs1801725 was associated with serum calcium but not with risk of diabetes. Consistent with 3 previous cohort studies, elevated serum calcium was found to be associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. Further research is needed to understand the role, if any, that calcium plays in the pathogenesis of diabetes. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. A Clinical Risk Score for Atrial Fibrillation in a Biracial Prospective Cohort (From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Crow, Richard; Ambrose, Marietta; Alonso, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    A risk score for AF has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study; however the applicability of this risk score, derived from whites, to predict new-onset AF in non-whites is uncertain. Therefore, we developed a 10-year risk score for new-onset AF using risk factors commonly measured in clinical practice using 14,546 individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective community-based cohort of blacks and whites in the United States. During 10 years of follow-up, 5...

  20. Mediterranean diet score and left ventricular structure and function: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Ahmed, Ali; Arnett, Donna K; Polak, Joseph F; Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David A; Heckbert, Susan R; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited on the relation between dietary patterns and left ventricular (LV) structure and function. We examined cross-sectional associations of a diet-score assessment of a Mediterranean dietary pattern with LV mass, volume, mass-to-volume ratio, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. We measured LV variables with the use of cardiac MRI in 4497 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study who were aged 45-84 y and without clinical cardiovascular disease. We calculated a Mediterranean diet score from intakes of fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, red meat, the monounsaturated fat:saturated fat ratio, and alcohol that were self-reported with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression with adjustment for body size, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors to model associations and assess the shape of these associations (linear or quadratic). The Mediterranean diet score had a slight U-shaped association with LV mass (adjusted means: 146, 145, 146, and 147 g across quartiles of diet score, respectively; P-quadratic trend = 0.04). The score was linearly associated with LV volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction: for each +1-U difference in score, LV volume was 0.4 mL higher (95% CI: 0.0, 0.8 mL higher), the stroke volume was 0.5 mL higher (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 mL higher), and the ejection fraction was 0.2 percentage points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 0.3 percentage points higher). The score was not associated with the mass-to-volume ratio. A higher Mediterranean diet score is cross-sectionally associated with a higher LV mass, which is balanced by a higher LV volume as well as a higher ejection fraction and stroke volume. Participants in this healthy, multiethnic sample whose dietary patterns most closely conformed to a Mediterranean-type pattern had a modestly better LV structure and function than did participants with less-Mediterranean-like dietary patterns. This trial was registered at

  1. Racial differences in risks for first cardiovascular events and noncardiovascular death: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Matthew; Ning, Hongyan; Kang, Joseph; Bertoni, Alain; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2012-07-03

    No studies have compared first cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and non-CVD death between races in a competing risks framework, which examines risks for numerous events simultaneously. We used competing Cox models to estimate hazards for first CVD events and non-CVD death within and between races in 3 multicenter, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored cohorts. Of 14 569 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants aged 45 to 64 years with mean follow-up of 10.5 years, 11.6% had CVD and 5.0% had non-CVD death as first events; among 4237 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) study participants aged 65 to 84 years and followed for 8.5 years, these figures were 43.2% and 15.7%, respectively. Middle-aged blacks were significantly more likely than whites to experience any CVD as a first event; this disparity disappeared by older adulthood and after adjustment for CVD risk factors. The pattern of results was similar for Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants. Traditional Cox and competing risks models yielded different results for coronary heart disease risk. Black men appeared somewhat more likely than white men to experience coronary heart disease with use of a standard Cox model (hazard ratio 1.06; 95% CI 0.90, 1.26), whereas they appeared less likely than white men to have a first coronary heart disease event with use of a competing risks model (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60, 1.00). CVD affects blacks at an earlier age than whites; this may be attributable in part to elevated CVD risk factor levels among blacks. Racial disparities in first CVD incidence disappear by older adulthood. Competing risks analyses may yield somewhat different results than traditional Cox models and provide a complementary approach to examining risks for first CVD events.

  2. Increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with high visceral adiposity index in apparently healthy Korean adults: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Jihyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    The visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a mathematical tool that reflects a patient's visceral adiposity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have noted an association between VAI and cardiovascular event. We analyzed the association between VAI and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in Korean adults. For 33,468 participants (mean age 42 yrs) in a health screening program, VAI was calculated using the following formulae: [waist circumference (WC)/{39.68 + (1.88 * body mass index (BMI))}] * (triglyceride/1.03) * {1.31/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)} for men and [WC/{36.58 + (1.89 * BMI)}] * (triglyceride/0.81) * (1.52/HDL-C) for women. Coronary artery calcium scores were measured with multi-detector computed tomography. CACS was positively correlated with VAI (r = 0.027, p 0 as the dependent variable, subjects in the highest tertile of VAI (>1.777) had significantly increased odds ratio for CACS >0 compared to subjects in the lowest tertile (<0.967), even after adjusting for confounding variables, including BMI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.147-1.381). Subjects with high VAI had increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis, as assessed by CACS. Key messages Recent studies have noted an association between visceral adiposity index (VAI) and cardiovascular event. Subjects with coronary artery calcification (CAC) showed significantly higher VAI compared to those without CAC. The subjects with high VAI showed increased odds ratio for CAC as compared to subjects with low VAI, suggesting high VAI reflects increased risk for subclinical atherosclerosis.

  3. Associations of Cigarette Smoking With Subclinical Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Al-Rifai, Mahmoud; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Duncan, Bruce B; Bensenor, Isabela M; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Lotufo, Paulo A; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-06-24

    There is a need to identify sensitive biomarkers of early tobacco-related cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of smoking status, burden, time since quitting, and intensity, with markers of inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied 14 103 participants without clinical cardiovascular disease in ELSA-Brasil (Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health). We evaluated baseline cross-sectional associations between smoking parameters and inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and measures of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, and coronary artery calcium [CAC]). The cohort included 1844 current smokers, 4121 former smokers, and 8138 never smokers. Mean age was 51.7±8.9 years; 44.8% were male. After multivariable adjustment, compared with never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher levels of hsCRP (β=0.24, 0.19-0.29 mg/L; P media thickness (β=0.03, 0.02-0.04 mm; P 0 (odds ratio: 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.46-2.30; P media thickness levels and odds of ankle-brachial index ≤1.0 and CAC >0 were lower with increasing time since quitting ( P 0 ( P =0.03) after adjusting for duration of smoking. Strong associations were observed between smoking status, burden, and intensity with inflammation (hsCRP) and subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, ankle-brachial index, CAC). These markers of early cardiovascular disease injury may be used for the further study and regulation of traditional and novel tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Tofacitinib improves atherosclerosis despite up-regulating serum cholesterol in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Kensuke; Amano, Kanzo; Yamada, Susumu; Kanazawa, Toshikatsu; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Hatta, Kazuhiko; Amano, Kuniki; Kuwaba, Noriko

    2017-12-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. This study aimed to analyze the effects of Tofacitinib treatment, a Janus kinase inhibitor, on atherosclerosis in patients with RA. Patients with an active RA (28-joint disease activity score-erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 3.2) despite methotrexate (MTX) treatment 12 mg/week were included in this open-label prospective study and started on Tofacitinib (10 mg/day, 5 mg twice/day). Japanese guideline does not allow high dose of MTX. All patients used a stable dosage of MTX, steroids, and statins or lipid-lowering drugs. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) at the baseline and 54 weeks after Tofa treatment. Clinical data were collected at regular visits. Forty-six patients completed this study. CIMT did not significantly change from baseline to 54 weeks (1.09 ± 0.69 and 1.08 ± 0.78 mm, p = 0.82). In 12 patients who had atherosclerosis at baseline (carotid intima-media thickness > 1.10 mm), there was a significant decrease in CIMT (0.05± 0.026 mm; p < 0.05). However, the decrease in CIMT was of limited clinical significance. Tofacitinib increased fasting total cholesterol levels from baseline to 54 weeks (216 ± 25.3 and 234 ± 28.8 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Tofacitinib affects atherosclerosis in patients with active RA The CIMT in RA patients was stable. Tofacitinib decreased the CIMT of patients who had increased CIMT at baseline. Tofacitinib reduced RA disease activity and limited vascular damage despite up-regulating cholesterol in patients with an active RA.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome, Strain, and Reduced Myocardial Function: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, André Luiz Cerqueira de, E-mail: andrealmeida@cardiol.br [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia (Brazil); Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Choi, Eui-Young; Opdahl, Anders; Fernandes, Verônica R. S. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wu, Colin O. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Bluemke, David A. [National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lima, João A. C. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease is prevalent in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn). Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (ε{sub CC}) and longitudinal strain (ε{sub LL}), assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE), are indices of systolic function: shortening is indicated by negative strain, and thus, the more negative the strain, the better the LV systolic function. They have been used to demonstrate subclinical ventricular dysfunction in several clinical disorders. We hypothesized that MetSyn is associated with impaired myocardial function, as assessed by STE. We analyzed Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who underwent STE and were evaluated for all MetSyn components. Among the 133 participants included [women: 63%; age: 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD)], the prevalence of MetSyn was 31% (41/133). Individuals with MetSyn had lower ε{sub CC} and lower ε{sub LL} than those without MetSyn (-16.3% ± 3.5% vs. -18.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.01; and -12.1% ± 2.5% vs. -13.9% ± 2.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in both groups (p = 0.09). In multivariate analysis, MetSyn was associated with less circumferential myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε{sub CC} (B = 2.1%, 95%CI:0.6 3.5, p < 0.01) even after adjusting for age, ethnicity, LV mass, and LVEF). Likewise, presence of MetSyn (B = 1.3%, 95%CI:0.3 2.2, p < 0.01) and LV mass (B = 0.02%, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with less longitudinal myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε{sub LL} after adjustment for ethnicity, LVEF, and creatinine. Left ventricular ε{sub CC} and ε{sub LL}, markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, are impaired in asymptomatic individuals with MetSyn and no history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and/or LVEF < 50%.

  6. Metabolic Syndrome, Strain, and Reduced Myocardial Function: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, André Luiz Cerqueira de; Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Choi, Eui-Young; Opdahl, Anders; Fernandes, Verônica R. S.; Wu, Colin O.; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, João A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Subclinical cardiovascular disease is prevalent in patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn). Left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (ε CC ) and longitudinal strain (ε LL ), assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE), are indices of systolic function: shortening is indicated by negative strain, and thus, the more negative the strain, the better the LV systolic function. They have been used to demonstrate subclinical ventricular dysfunction in several clinical disorders. We hypothesized that MetSyn is associated with impaired myocardial function, as assessed by STE. We analyzed Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants who underwent STE and were evaluated for all MetSyn components. Among the 133 participants included [women: 63%; age: 65 ± 9 years (mean ± SD)], the prevalence of MetSyn was 31% (41/133). Individuals with MetSyn had lower ε CC and lower ε LL than those without MetSyn (-16.3% ± 3.5% vs. -18.4% ± 3.7%, p < 0.01; and -12.1% ± 2.5% vs. -13.9% ± 2.3%, p < 0.01, respectively). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was similar in both groups (p = 0.09). In multivariate analysis, MetSyn was associated with less circumferential myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε CC (B = 2.1%, 95%CI:0.6 3.5, p < 0.01) even after adjusting for age, ethnicity, LV mass, and LVEF). Likewise, presence of MetSyn (B = 1.3%, 95%CI:0.3 2.2, p < 0.01) and LV mass (B = 0.02%, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with less longitudinal myocardial shortening as indicated by less negative ε LL after adjustment for ethnicity, LVEF, and creatinine. Left ventricular ε CC and ε LL , markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease, are impaired in asymptomatic individuals with MetSyn and no history of myocardial infarction, heart failure, and/or LVEF < 50%

  7. Lipoprotein subclasses in the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study (MARS). Treatment effects and relation to coronary angiographic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, W J; Krauss, R M; Hodis, H N

    1996-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contribute to coronary artery disease. Using data from the Monitored Atherosclerosis Regression Study, an angiographic trial of middle-aged men and women randomized to lovastatin or placebo, we investigated relationships between lipoprotein subclasses and progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. Coronary artery lesion progression was determined by quantitative coronary angiography in low-grade ( or = 50% diameter stenosis), and all coronary artery lesions in 220 baseline/2-year angiogram pairs. Analytical ultracentrifugation was used to measure lipoprotein masses that were statistically evaluated for treatment group differences and relationships to progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis. All low density lipoprotein (LDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) masses were significantly lowered and all high density lipoprotein (HDL) masses were significantly raised with lovastatin therapy. The mass of smallest LDL (Svedberg flotation rate [Sf] 0 to 3), IDL (Sf 12 to 20), all VLDL subclasses (Sf 20 to 60, Sf 60 to 100, and Sf 100 to 400), and peak LDL flotation rate were significantly related to the progression of coronary artery lesions, specifically low-grade lesions. Greater baseline levels of HDL3, were related to a lower likelihood of coronary artery lesion progression. In multivariate analyses, small VLDL (Sf 20 to 60) and HDL3 mass were the most important correlates of coronary artery lesion progression. These results provide further evidence for the importance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the progression of coronary artery disease. In addition, these results present new evidence for the possible protective role of HDL3 in the progression of coronary artery lesions. More specific information on coronary artery lesion progression may be obtained through the study of specific apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins.

  8. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu [Research Institute of Engineering Technology of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2005-04-15

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  9. A study on heat resistance of high temperature resistant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Qibin; Qin, Yanlong; Lin, Zhu

    2005-01-01

    A high temperature resistant coating has been developed, which is mainly for heavy oil production pipes deserved the serious corrosion. The coating has excellent physical and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance at room and high temperature. In order to simulate the underground working condition of heavy oil pipes,the heat resistance of the high temperature resistant coating has been studied. The development and a study on the heat resistance of the DHT high temperature resistance coating have been introduced in this paper

  10. Relationship of aortic valve calcification with coronary artery calcium severity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Khurram; Katz, Ronit; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Takasu, Junichiro; Shavelle, David M; Carr, Jeffery J; Kronmal, Richard; Blumenthal, Roger S; O'Brien, Kevin; Budoff, Matthew J

    2010-01-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) and atherosclerosis share causative and pathologic features. We evaluated the relationship between AVC and coronary artery calcium (CAC) severity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Men and women aged 45-84 years (n=6809; mean age, 62 years) were studied. The presence and burden of AVC and CAC were determined by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography. Relative risk regression was used to model the probability of AVC as a function of CAC > 0 as well as CAC categories (0, 1-99, 100-399, and > or = 400) with the reference group being CAC=0. The prevalence of AVC and CAC was 13% and 50%, respectively. Among those without CAC, the prevalence of AVC was 5% and increased across levels of CAC severity such that 14%, 25%, and 38% had AVC with increasing CAC scores of 1-99, 100-399, and > or = 400, respectively (P for trendAVC among those with mild CAC (1-99) was 1.83 (95% CI, 1.45-2.31) and increased to 3.36 (95% CI, 2.56-4.42) for CAC > or = 400. Similar statistically significant increased risk of AVC was found when CAC was assessed as a continuous variable. Our study shows that AVC is independently associated with increasing severity of CAC. 2010 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of body flexibility and carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese middle-aged men: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi; Iwase, Mitsunori; Kozawa, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined the associations of body flexibility with carotid arterial remodelling, including intima–media thickness (IMT) and plaque formation in middle-aged men. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study included 1354 Japanese men aged 35–59 years without histories of stroke or cardiac diseases. The arm extensibility test, which can estimate flexibility of the upper extremity (composed of shoulder external rotation and forearm supination), and the sit-and-reach test were performed. Common carotid IMT and plaque formation (≥1.1 mm) were estimated by ultrasound. Results The proportion of subjects who fully completed the arm extensibility test was 55.0%, and who had plaques in the common carotid artery was 37.8%. IMT was associated with poor arm extensibility (β=–0.073, 95% CI –0.02224 to –0.00041, P=0.004), while plaque formation was associated with poor sit-and-reach (OR 0.98579, 95% CI 0.97257 to 0.99919, P=0.038) after adjustment by all covariates. Conclusions This study demonstrated that poor upper extremity and trunk flexibility were associated with characteristics of early onset of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, these associations were independent of covariates such as age, blood pressure, blood lipids glucose levels and abdominal fat accumulation, handgrip strength and lifestyle, including sleeping, drinking, exercise and smoking habits. Poor flexibility may reflect subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged men. PMID:29306892

  12. Evaluating the longitudinal risk of social vigilance on atherosclerosis: study protocol for the North Texas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, John M; Taylor, Daniel J; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Allison, Matthew; Ahn, Chul; Johnson, Jillian J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-14

    Psychosocial factors are increasingly recognised as important determinants of cardiovascular disease risk. The North Texas Heart Study aims to understand the mechanisms responsible for this association with a focus on social vigilance (ie, scanning the environment for social threats). There is also growing interest in supplementing traditional methods (eg, survey assessment of psychosocial risk paired with cross-sectional and longitudinal health outcomes) with daily or repeated momentary assessment of psychosocial factors. However, there are relatively few longitudinal studies directly comparing these approaches with hard endpoints. The North Texas Heart Study proposes a longitudinal measurement burst design to examine psychosocial determinants of subclinical atherosclerosis. A sample of 300 healthy community participants, stratified by age and gender, will complete survey measures, as well as 2 days of ecological momentary assessment at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up. A range of psychosocial and behavioural factors, objective biomarkers, as well as carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) will be assessed at both time points. Unadjusted and adjusted models will evaluate cross-sectional associations and determinants of change in the cIMT. The Institutional Review Board at the study coordinating institute (University of North Texas) has approved this study. Positive, negative or inconclusive primary and ancillary findings will be disseminated in scientific journals and conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Therapeutic modulation of the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis: lessons learned from serial imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jordan; Puri, Rishi; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J; Psaltis, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in risk prediction, preventive and therapeutic strategies, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains a major public health challenge worldwide, carrying considerable morbidity, mortality and health economic burden. There continues to be a need to better understand the natural history of this disease to guide the development of more effective treatment, integral to which is the rapidly evolving field of coronary artery imaging. Various imaging modalities have been refined to enable detailed visualization of the pathological substrate of atherosclerosis, providing accurate and reproducible measures of coronary plaque burden and composition, including the presence of high-risk characteristics. The serial application of such techniques, including coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have uncovered important insights into the progression of coronary plaque over time in patients with stable and unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), and its responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Here we review the use of different imaging modalities for the surveillance of coronary atherosclerosis and the lessons they have provided about the modulation of CAD by both traditional and experimental therapies.

  14. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  15. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  16. Analysis of the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis within a local clinical system: a cross-sectional observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Minabe, Masato; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2015-09-01

    It has been revealed that atherosclerosis and periodontal disease may have a common mechanism of "chronic inflammation". Several reports have indicated that periodontal infection is related to atherosclerosis, but none have yet reported such an investigation through the cooperation of local clinics. This study was performed in local Japanese clinics to examine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative medical and dental care. A pilot multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases under consultation in participating medical clinics, and 79 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were seen by participating dental clinics. Systemic examination and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, and the relationships between periodontal and atherosclerosis-related clinical markers were analyzed. There was a positive correlation between LDL-C level and plasma IgG antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis. According to the analysis under adjusted age, at a cut-off value of 5.04 for plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis, the IgG titer was significantly correlated with the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This study suggested that infection with periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis may be useful as the clinical risk marker for atherosclerosis related to periodontal disease. Moreover, the application of the blood examination as a medical check may lead to the development of collaborative medical and dental care within the local medical clinical system for the purpose of preventing the lifestyle-related disease.

  17. Advances in Understanding Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Diseases: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel D.; Spalt, Elizabeth W.; Curl, Cynthia L.; Hajat, Anjum; Jones, Miranda R.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Szpiro, Adam A.; Gassett, Amanda; Sheppard, Lianne; Daviglus, Martha L.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) leveraged the platform of the MESA cohort into a prospective longitudinal study of relationships between air pollution and cardiovascular health. MESA Air researchers developed fine-scale, state-of-the-art air pollution exposure models for the MESA Air communities, creating individual exposure estimates for each participant. These models combine cohort-specific exposure monitoring, existing monitoring systems, and an extensive database of geographic and meteorological information. Together with extensive phenotyping in MESA—and adding participants and health measurements to the cohort—MESA Air investigated environmental exposures on a wide range of outcomes. Advances by the MESA Air team included not only a new approach to exposure modeling but also biostatistical advances in addressing exposure measurement error and temporal confounding. The MESA Air study advanced our understanding of the impact of air pollutants on cardiovascular disease and provided a research platform for advances in environmental epidemiology. PMID:27741981

  18. Coronary atherosclerosis burden is not advanced in patients with β-thalassemia despite premature extracardiac atherosclerosis: a coronary artery calcium score and carotid intima-media thickness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahalis, George; Zacharioglou, Evangelia; Xanthopoulou, Ioanna; Koniari, Ioanna; Kalogeropoulou, Chistina; Tsota, Irene; Rigopoulou, Aspasia; Diamantopoulos, Athanasios; Gkizas, Vasilios; Davlouros, Periklis; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Leopoulou, Marianna; Gogos, Charalampos; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-02-01

    Thalassemic patients demonstrate an increased rate of extracardiac vascular complications and increased carotid wall intima-media thickness (cIMT), but very low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the atheroma burden by assessing the coronary artery calcium (CAC) and cIMT in these patients. We examined 37 patients with β-thalassemia and 150 healthy control volunteers with multi-detector computer tomography (CT) and ultrasonography to determine CAC score and cIMT, respectively. Propensity score matching (C-statistic: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.93) resulted in 27 pairs of patients; severe CAC was observed in 2 (7.4%) and 0 of β-thalassemia patients and healthy volunteers respectively (P = 0.5). Median calcium score was 0 (0-0) in β-thalassemia patients and 0 (0-4) in healthy volunteers (P = 0.8). Median intima-media thickness was higher in β-thalassemia patients compared to control group [0.45 (0.06-0.65) vs. 0.062 (0.054-0.086); P = 0.04]. Patients with β-thalassemia in comparison with healthy control subjects exhibit similar CAC score and increased cIMT. Our findings indicate a disparate rate of progression of atherosclerosis between coronary and extracardiac arteries in these patients lending support to the epidemiological evidence.

  19. Carotid atherosclerosis progression in familial hypercholesterolemia patients: a pooled analysis of the ASAP, ENHANCE, RADIANCE 1, and CAPTIVATE studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Menno; Zhou, Rong; Bots, Michiel L; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Koglin, Joerg; Akdim, Fatima; Mitchel, Yale B; Huijgen, Roeland; Sapre, Aditi; de Groot, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Pasternak, Richard C; Gagné, Claude; Marais, A David; Ballantyne, Christie M; Isaacsohn, Jonathan L; Stalenhoef, Anton F; Kastelein, John J P

    2010-07-01

    Until recently, patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) were considered the best subjects for the assessment of changes in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in randomized intervention trials. Our aims were to investigate whether contemporary statin-treated HeFH patients still show accelerated cIMT increase and to assess the impact of statin treatment, before and after random assignment, on atherosclerosis progression. We retrospectively evaluated cIMT change, and prior statin treatment and postbaseline LDL-C change as predictors of cIMT change, in 1513 HeFH patients who were randomly assigned to the statin arms of the early ASAP and more recent RADIANCE 1, CAPTIVATE, and ENHANCE studies. In the 3 recent studies combined, mean cIMT increased at only 33%of the rate of the simvastatin-treated patients in the ASAP study (0.014 mm/2 years [95% confidence interval, -0.0003-0.028] versus 0.041 mm/2 years [95% confidence interval, 0.020-0.061]; P<0.05). Patients whose statin therapy could be intensified, as evidenced by an LDL-C decrease after the initiation of on-trial statin therapy, showed cIMT decrease in the first 6 to 12 months and a much lower cIMT increase measured over the full 2 years. In line with this, previously statin-naive HeFH patients showed a lower overall cIMT increase. Over the years, intensification of statin therapy in HeFH patients has resulted in an impressive decrease in carotid atherosclerosis progression. In studies that assess other antiatherosclerotic modalities, statin therapy may still induce rapid changes in cIMT. For future cIMT studies, our analyses suggest that patient populations other than intensively pretreated HeFH patients should be selected and that the statin regimen should not be changed on study initiation.

  20. Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    While animal studies found vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, human data are limited. Using a case-cohort design, we determined the association between vitamin K status and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Serum phylloquinone (v...

  1. Relationship of Aortic Wall Distensibility to Mitral and Aortic Valve Calcification: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohoon, Kevin P; Criqui, Michael H; Budoff, Matthew J; Lima, Joao A; Blaha, Michael J; Decker, Paul A; Durazo, Ramon; Liu, Kiang; Kramer, Holly

    2018-05-01

    Data are limited on whether valvular calcification is associated with aortic wall stiffness. We tested whether aortic valve calcification (AVC) and/or mitral valve calcification (MVC) is inversely associated with aortic distensibility (AD). Cross-sectional study conducted in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) included 3676 MESA participants aged 44 to 84 years with AD measured with magnetic resonance imaging and with AVC and MVC measured with noncontrast cardiac computed tomography scans. Both AVC and MVC were divided into 3 categories: zero, AVC and MVC, while 6% (n = 211) and 4% (n = 156) had low, and 6% (n = 209) and 4% (n = 155) had high values of AVC and MVC, respectively. The AVC was independently associated with AD after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity ( P = .035). No association was noted between AVC groups and AD after adjustment for all covariates or MVC groups and AD in any model.

  2. Atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E and the prevalence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based study: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ott (Alewijn); M.L. Bots (Michiel); A.J.C. Slooter (Arjen); F. van Harskamp (Frans); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); C. van Broeckhoven (Christine); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Vascular disorders have been implicated in dementia, but whether atherosclerosis is related to the most frequent type of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, is not known. The apolipoprotein-E genotype has been associated with Alzheimer's disease, and we postulate that it plays a

  3. Plasma sCD36 is associated with markers of atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and fatty liver in a nondiabetic healthy population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, A; Højlund, K; Gastaldelli, A

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with increased CD36 expression in a number of tissues. Moreover, excess macrophage CD36 may initiate atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine whether plasma soluble CD36 (sCD36) was associated with insulin resistance, fatty liver and carotid...

  4. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed patients with ketosis-onset diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The features of carotid atherosclerosis in ketosis-onset diabetes have not been investigated. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with ketosis but without islet-associated autoantibodies. Methods In total, 423 newly diagnosed Chinese patients with diabetes including 208 ketosis-onset diabetics without islet-associated autoantibodies, 215 non-ketotic type 2 diabetics and 79 control subjects without diabetes were studied. Carotid atherosclerosis was defined as the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in any of the carotid vessel segments. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation and stenosis were assessed and compared among the three groups based on Doppler ultrasound examination. The clinical features of carotid atherosclerotic lesions were analysed, and the risk factors associated with carotid atherosclerosis were evaluated using binary logistic regression in patients with diabetes. Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetic group (30.80%) than in the control group (15.2%, p=0.020) after adjusting for age- and sex-related differences, but no significant difference was observed in comparison to the non-ketotic diabetic group (35.8%, p=0.487). The mean CIMT of the ketosis-onset diabetics (0.70±0.20 mm) was markedly higher than that of the control subjects (0.57±0.08 mm, pketosis-onset and the non-ketotic diabetes, the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis was markedly increased with age (both pketosis-onset diabetics, the presence of carotid atherosclerosis was significantly associated with age, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mean CIMT. Conclusions The prevalence and risk of carotid atherosclerosis were significantly higher in the ketosis-onset diabetics than in the control subjects but similar to that in the non-ketotic type 2

  5. Serum Phosphate and Retinal Microvascular Changes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rupal; Hodakowski, Alexander; Cai, Xuan; Lee, Kris E; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; de Boer, Ian H; Fawzi, Amani; Wong, Tien Yin; Ix, Joachim; Klein, Barbara; Klein, Ronald; Isakova, Tamara

    2017-12-01

    Higher levels of serum phosphate are strongly linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and therapies aimed to lower serum phosphate are employed in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data are limited, however, on serum phosphate as a risk factor for microvascular disease in community-based populations. It is important to determine the impact of novel risk factors, such as phosphate, on the microvasculature. We conducted a prospective study of 3919 individuals in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 3544 individuals in the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) to test the associations of serum phosphate with retinopathy and retinal vessel caliber, and change in retinopathy severity and change in retinal vessel caliber. Mean (standard deviation) serum phosphate was 3.66 (0.52) mg/dl in the MESA and 3.77 (0.55) mg/dl in the BDES. In multivariable adjusted models, phosphate was significantly associated with prevalent retinopathy in the MESA (Odds Ratio [OR] per 1 mg/dl increase in phosphate, 1.22; Confidence Interval [CI] 1.02-1.47) and the BDES (OR 1.06; CI 1.01-1.11). In stratified analyses, these relationships were even stronger and only seen in individuals with diabetes in both the MESA (OR 1.81; CI 1.30-2.53) and the BDES (OR 1.16; CI 1.05-1.29). Phosphate was not associated with incident or change in retinopathy severity, nor any retinal caliber outcome. Among community-living individuals with low prevalence of CKD, higher serum phosphate was associated with prevalent retinopathy in individuals with diabetes. Further longitudinal assessments in patients with diabetes necessitate further investigation.

  6. Estimating Pesticide Exposure from Dietary Intake and Organic Food Choices: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. Objectives We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Methods Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce (“conventional consumers”), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Results Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p Fenske RA, Fitzpatrick AL, Lu C, Nettleton JA, Kaufman JD. 2015. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Environ Health Perspect 123:475–483; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408197 PMID:25650532

  7. Occupational Exposures and Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) Air and Lung Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Coralynn S; Doney, Brent C; Podolanczuk, Anna J; Hooper, Laura G; Seixas, Noah S; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Vedal, Sverre; Raghu, Ganesh; Barr, R Graham; Lederer, David J; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-10-15

    The impact of a broad range of occupational exposures on subclinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been studied. To determine whether occupational exposures to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) are associated with high-attenuation areas (HAA) and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA), which are quantitative and qualitative computed tomography (CT)-based measurements of subclinical ILD, respectively. We performed analyses of participants enrolled in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), a population-based cohort aged 45-84 years at recruitment. HAA was measured at baseline and on serial cardiac CT scans in 5,702 participants. ILA was ascertained in a subset of 2,312 participants who underwent full-lung CT scanning at 10-year follow-up. Occupational exposures were assessed by self-reported VGDF exposure and by job-exposure matrix (JEM). Linear mixed models and logistic regression were used to determine whether occupational exposures were associated with log-transformed HAA and ILA. Models were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment status, tobacco use, and scanner technology. Each JEM score increment in VGDF exposure was associated with 2.64% greater HAA (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-4.19%). Self-reported vapors/gas exposure was associated with an increased odds of ILA among those currently employed (1.76-fold; 95% CI, 1.09-2.84) and those less than 65 years old (1.97-fold; 95% CI, 1.16-3.35). There was no consistent evidence that occupational exposures were associated with progression of HAA over the follow-up period. JEM-assigned and self-reported exposures to VGDF were associated with measurements of subclinical ILD in community-dwelling adults.

  8. Heart type fatty acid binding protein response and subsequent development of atherosclerosis in insulin resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cakir Evrim; Ozbek Mustafa; Sahin Mustafa; Cakal Erman; Gungunes Askin; Ginis Zeynep; Demirci Taner; Delibasi Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Heart type fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) has been found to be predictive for myocardial ischemia.Wet ested whether HFABP is the predictor for CVD in PCOS patients, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods This was a prospective, cross sectional controlled study conducted in a training and research hospital.The study population consisted of 46 reproductiv...

  9. Drug-eluting stents studies in mice: Do we need atherosclerosis to study restenosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, N.M.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Daemen, M.J.A.P.; Quax, P.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the first human study with drug-eluting stents (DES) was published showing a nearly complete abolition of restenosis by using a sirolimus-eluting stent. This success was very encouraging to test new compounds in combination with the DES platform. Nevertheless, several other anti-restenotic

  10. High cumulative insulin exposure: a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, Marian J.; Bots, Michiel L.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Hoogma, Roel P. L. M.; Hoekstra, Joost B. L.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  11. High cumulative insulin exposure : a risk factor of atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muis, MJ; Bots, ML; Bilo, HJG; Hoogma, RPLM; Hoekstra, JBL; Grobbee, DE; Stolk, RP

    Background: Since insulin therapy might have an atherogenic effect, we studied the relationship between cumulative insulin dose and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetes. We have focused on patients with type 1 diabetes instead of type 2 diabetes to minimise the effect of insulin resistance as a

  12. Inflammasomes and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vallurupalli, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation plays an important role in atherosclerosis. Inflammasomes play a crucial role in innate immunity, which mediates the body’s response to various pathogens. Of the different types of inflammasomes, NLRP3 has been implicated in atherosclerosis through the production of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18. This review describes the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in atherosclerosis and discusses potential therapeutic targets in the inflammasome pathway.

  13. A Study of Carotid Intimomedial Thickness as a Primary Marker of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Patel

    2016-01-01

    RA is a chronic disease associatedd with chronic subclinical inflammation. In view of the consequentr high risk of atherosclerosis seen in these patients CIMT may serve as an early surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. We can identify these high risk subgroups of patients with a simple, reliable, inexpensive, and non-invasive bedside carotid Doppler sonogram even in resource poor countries such as India. In our view physicians should be vigilant to identify and screen regularly for atherosclerosis with CIMT in RA patients, so that prompt early management can prevent the cardiovascular complications.

  14. Relationship between left main coronary artery plaque burden and nonleft main coronary atherosclerosis: results from the PROSPECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takehisa; Mintz, Gary S; De Bruyne, Bernard; Farhat, Naim Z; Inaba, Shinji; Cao, Yang; Marso, Steven P; Weisz, Giora; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2018-05-17

    Whether the severity of left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease reflects LMCA and overall coronary atherosclerotic burden is not known. We aimed to assess nonculprit LMCA disease characteristics and the relationship with atherosclerosis in the rest of the coronary arteries as well as patient outcomes. In the PROSPECT study, 697 patients with acute coronary syndromes underwent three-vessel gray-scale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after percutaneous coronary intervention. Overall, 552 patients with adequate LMCA imaging were compared according to LMCA plaque burden. The tertile with the highest plaque burden in the LMCA had the smallest LMCA minimum lumen area (17.4, 14.2, 10.5, lowest through highest tertiles, respectively, PPROSPECT predictors of future nonculprit major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (minimum lumen area≤4 mm, plaque burden≥70%, and virtual histology thin-cap fibroatheroma), the tertile with the highest LMCA plaque burden had the highest number of patients with at least one of three PROSPECT predictors (P=0.03). In multivariable model, though total atheroma volume (per 1%) was an independent predictor of all MACE [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.06 (1.01-1.11), P=0.02] and strong trend for non-culprit-related MACE [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval)=1.06 (1.00-1.13), P=0.06], plaque burden at LMCA was not (all MACE, P=0.90, non-culprit-related MACE, P=0.85). The severity of atherosclerosis in LMCA predicted the overall atherosclerotic plaque burden as well as the presence of high-risk plaques in the three major epicardial coronary arteries.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) as a coronary atherosclerosis risk factor in HIV-infected men: multicenter AIDS cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Rulin C; Budoff, Matthew; Hodis, Howard N; Rinaldo, Charles R; Jenkins, Frank J; Jacobson, Lisa P; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Taiwo, Babafemi; Post, Wendy S; Margolick, Joseph B; Detels, Roger

    2012-08-01

    We assessed associations of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in 291 HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast coronary CT imaging. Markers for herpesviruses infection were measured in frozen specimens collected 10-12 years prior to case identification. Multivariable logistic regression models and ordinal logistic regression models were performed. HSV-2 seropositivity was associated with coronary atherosclerosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-10.85) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and HIV infection related factors. Infection with a greater number of herpesviruses was associated with elevated CAC levels (AOR=1.58, 95% CI=1.06-2.36). Our findings suggest HSV-2 may be a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in HIV-infected men. Infection with multiple herpesviruses may contribute to the increased burden of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intelligence in early adulthood and subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged men: the Vietnam Experience Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Deary, Ian J; Fowkes, F Gerald; Batty, G David

    2012-07-01

    People with higher intelligence in early life have a lower subsequent risk of coronary heart disease events, but the explanation for these observations is unclear. To examine whether intelligence in early adulthood is associated with risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in mid-life, as indicated by the ankle brachial index (ABI), and investigate its potential mediating role in the association between intelligence and mortality. Participants were 4286 male US veterans whose intelligence was measured on enlistment into military service at a mean age of 20.4 years and whose ABI was measured by Doppler as part of a detailed medical examination at a mean age of 38.3 years. Higher intelligence in early adulthood was associated with a higher ABI in mid-life. For an SD increase in intelligence, after adjusting for age, ABI (× 10) rose by 0.05 (0.02, 0.07), and the OR (95% CI) for having a low ABI (≤ 0.90) was 0.84 (0.72 to 0.98). Further adjustment for smoking, serum cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose concentrations, blood pressure, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, body mass index, alcohol intake, education and measures of socioeconomic position had little or no attenuating effect on these associations. Lower ABI was associated with increased mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease but it did not account for the associations between IQ and mortality from these causes. Men of lower intelligence may be more susceptible to atherogenesis, though this mechanism does not appear to explain their increased risk of earlier death.

  17. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  18. Vaccination against atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, Thomas van

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, the predominantly underlying pathology of cardiovascular events, is the consequence of lipid deposition in the arterial wall, mostly as consequence of high levels of serum cholesterol. Treatment of atherosclerosis is mainly focused at the reduction of cholesterol levels by lipid

  19. Analytic study of resistive instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u{sub 1r}(r) and B{sub 1r}(r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues {gamma} as function of {eta} but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for

  20. Analytic study of resistive instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Magnus

    2003-05-01

    In a fusion plasma there is always a small amount of resistivity that may cause instabilities. Although their rather slow growth rates they can be of major importance for fusion plasma confinement. In this work a MAPLE-code was rewritten and simplified to make it possible to analytically solve the linearized MHD-equations with resistivity in an RFP-configuration. By using the MHD-equations and expanding the unknown perturbed quantities u 1r (r) and B 1r (r) as Taylor series and solving each coefficient we could get eigenvalues, dispersion relations and a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity. The new code was first used to solve two cases with no resistivity and simple unstable equilibria which after running gave the correct expected results. The difference from running the original code with these two cases was the greater speed of the calculations and the less memory needed. Then by using an ideal MHD-stable equilibrium in a plasma with no resistivity the code gave us solutions which unfortunately were not of the expected kind but the time of the calculations was still very fast. The resistivity was finally added to the code with the ideal MHD-stable equilibrium. The program also this time gave incorrect results. We could, however, see from a relation between the growth rate and the resistivity that the solution may be approximately correct in this domain. Although we did not get all the correct results we have to consider the fact that we got results, that were not possible before. Before this work was carried out we could not get any results at all in the resistive cue because of the very long memory demanding expressions. In future work and studies it is not only possible to get the desired eigenvalues γ as function of η but also possible to get expressions for eigenfunctions, dispersion relations and other significant relations with a number of variable parameters. We could also use the method for any geometry and possibly for non

  1. Genome-wide admixture and association study of subclinical atherosclerosis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Shendre

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major comorbidity among HIV-infected individuals. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cCIMT is a valid and reliable subclinical measure of atherosclerosis and is known to predict CVD. We performed genome-wide association (GWA and admixture analysis among 682 HIV-positive and 288 HIV-negative Black, non-Hispanic women from the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS cohort using a combined and stratified analysis approach. We found some suggestive associations but none of the SNPs reached genome-wide statistical significance in our GWAS analysis. The top GWAS SNPs were rs2280828 in the region intergenic to mediator complex subunit 30 and exostosin glycosyltransferase 1 (MED30 | EXT1 among all women, rs2907092 in the catenin delta 2 (CTNND2 gene among HIV-positive women, and rs7529733 in the region intergenic to family with sequence similarity 5, member C and regulator of G-protein signaling 18 (FAM5C | RGS18 genes among HIV-negative women. The most significant local European ancestry associations were in the region intergenic to the zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 5D gene and NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex assembly factor 1 (ZSCAN5D | NDUF1 pseudogene on chromosome 19 among all women, in the region intergenic to vomeronasal 1 receptor 6 pseudogene and zinc finger protein 845 (VN1R6P | ZNF845 gene on chromosome 19 among HIV-positive women, and in the region intergenic to the SEC23-interacting protein and phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A (SEC23IP | PPAPDC1A genes located on chromosome 10 among HIV-negative women. A number of previously identified SNP associations with cCIMT were also observed and included rs2572204 in the ryanodine receptor 3 (RYR3 and an admixture region in the secretion-regulating guanine nucleotide exchange factor (SERGEF gene. We report several SNPs and gene regions in the GWAS and admixture analysis, some of which are common across HIV-positive and

  2. Atherosclerosis risk factors in pigeon squabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumpp, S.A.; Clarkson, T.B.

    1986-01-01

    The basis for atherosclerosis susceptibility of White Carneau (WC) and resistance of Show Racer (SR) pigeons is not known. Body weight (BW), total serum cholesterol (TSC), growth of the aorta and replication of endothelial cells of the distal thoracic aorta (lesion prone site) of 1, 2 and 4 week old squabs were studied. Aortic measurements were determined morphometrically, and endothelial cell replication was quantitated by 24-hour 3 H-thymidine labeling and whole-mount SEM autoradiography. From hatching to 4 weeks, BW increased more in WC than SR (22 to 473 gm in WC vs 19 to 416 gm in SR, p 2 ) in WC and 44% (101, 140 and 146 mm 2 ) in SR. Aortic surface area was significantly larger (0 = 0.002) in the 4 week WC than 4 week SR. 3 H-thymidine labeled endothelial cells at 1, 2 and 4 weeks were 783, 387 and 53 in WC and 674, 283 and 27 cells/mm 2 in SR. Endothelial replication in the 4 week WC was twice that of the SR and significantly different between breeds at 2 and 4 weeks (p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). Higher TSC, endothelial cell replication and larger aortic surface area in the WC may be contributing factors to increased atherosclerosis susceptibility

  3. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  4. Acculturation Strategies Among South Asian Immigrants: The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Belinda L; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Bagchi, Pramita; Kim, Catherine; Mukherjea, Arnab; Kandula, Namratha R; Kanaya, Alka M

    2017-04-01

    In the past, epidemiologic research on acculturation and health has been criticized for its conceptual ambiguity and simplistic measurement approaches. This study applied a widely-used theoretical framework from cross-cultural psychology to identify acculturation strategies among South Asian immigrants in the US and to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. Data were from the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study. We used latent class analysis to identify groups of individuals that were similar based on cultural attitudes and behaviors. We used latent class regression analysis to examine sociodemographic correlates of acculturation strategies. We found that South Asian immigrants employed three acculturation strategies, including separation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for South Asian culture over US culture), assimilation (characterized by a relatively high degree of preference for US culture over South Asian culture), and integration (characterized by a similar level of preference for South Asian and US cultures). Respondents with no religious affiliation, those with higher levels of income, those who lived a greater percentage of their lives in the US, and those who spoke English well or very well were less likely to use the separation strategy than the assimilation or integration strategies. Using epidemiologic cohort data, this study illustrated a conceptual and methodological approach that addresses limitations of previous research on acculturation and health. More work is needed to understand how the acculturation strategies identified in this study affect the health of South Asian immigrants in the US.

  5. Serum phosphate is associated with aortic valve calcification in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linefsky, Jason P; O'Brien, Kevin D; Sachs, Michael; Katz, Ronit; Eng, John; Michos, Erin D; Budoff, Matthew J; de Boer, Ian; Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to investigate associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers with aortic valve calcification (AVC). Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a common progressive condition that involves inflammatory and calcification mediators. Currently there are no effective medical treatments, but mineral metabolism pathways may be important in the development and progression of disease. We examined associations of phosphate metabolism biomarkers, including serum phosphate, urine phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, with CT-assessed AVC at study baseline and in short-term follow-up in 6814 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). At baseline, AVC prevalence was 13.2%. Higher serum phosphate levels were associated with significantly greater AVC prevalence (relative risk 1.3 per 1 mg/dL increment, 95% confidence incidence: 1.1 to 1.5, pAVC. Average follow-up CT evaluation was 2.4 years (range 0.9-4.9 years) with an AVC incidence of 4.1%. Overall, phosphate metabolism biomarkers were not associated with incident AVC except in the top FGF-23 quartile. Serum phosphate levels are significantly associated with AVC prevalence. Further study of phosphate metabolism as a modifiable risk factor for AVC is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Phytosterols and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene

    for decades for their natural ability to reduce cholesterol levels in the blood. In the last decade numerous food products added phytosterol esters have been placed on the market, e.g. yellow fat spread, yoghurt, dressing. The products are being marketed as a natural means for people who want to lower...... or advanced lesion) and quantitatively by stereological methods applied to evaluate the area of the intima and the ratio of intima:media on cross sections from three defined places on the aorta. The biochemical endpoint was the cholesterol content in the inner layer of the entire aorta, which is considered...... than 3% brassicasterol are not accepted on the European market. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of RSO derived sterol, with high content of brassicasterols, and stanol esters on the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed heterozygous WHHL rabbits...

  7. Association of Weight and Body Composition on Cardiac Structure and Function in the ARIC Study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Natalie A; Cheng, Susan; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Roca, Gabriela Querejeta; Santos, Angela B S; Gupta, Deepak; Vardeny, Orly; Aguilar, David; Folsom, Aaron R; Butler, Kenneth R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Coresh, Josef; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-08-01

    Obesity increases cardiovascular risk. However, the extent to which various measures of body composition are associated with abnormalities in cardiac structure and function, independent of comorbidities commonly affecting obese individuals, is not clear. This study sought to examine the relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, and percent body fat with conventional and advanced measures of cardiac structure and function. We studied 4343 participants of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) who were aged 69 to 82 years, free of coronary heart disease and heart failure, and underwent comprehensive echocardiography. Increasing body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat were associated with greater left ventricular (LV) mass and left atrial volume indexed to height(2.7) in both men and women (Pheart disease or heart failure, obesity was associated with subclinical abnormalities in cardiac structure in both men and women and with adverse LV remodeling and impaired LV systolic function in women. These data highlight the association of obesity and subclinical abnormalities of cardiac structure and function, particularly in women. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Neighborhood built environment and cognition in non-demented older adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; Rodriguez, Daniel A; McDonald, Noreen; Kukull, Walter A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Rapp, Stephen R; Seeman, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    Preliminary studies suggest that neighborhood social and built environment (BE) characteristics may affect cognition in older adults. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the neighborhood environment due to a decreasing range of routine travel with increasing age. We examined if multiple neighborhood BE characteristics are cross-sectionally associated with cognition in a diverse sample of older adults, and if the BE-cognition associations vary by individual-level demographics. The sample included 4539 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between five BE measures and four cognitive measures, and effect modification by individual-level education and race/ethnicity. In the overall sample, increasing social destination density, walking destination density, and intersection density were associated with worse overall cognition, whereas increasing proportion of land dedicated to retail was associated with better processing speed. Effect modification results suggest that the association between urban density and worse cognition may be limited to or strongest in those of non-white race/ethnicity. Although an increase in neighborhood retail destinations was associated with better cognition in the overall sample, these results suggest that certain BE characteristics in dense urban environments may have a disproportionately negative association with cognition in vulnerable populations. However, our findings must be replicated in longitudinal studies and other regional samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations of Circulating Lymphocyte Subpopulations with Type 2 Diabetes: Cross-Sectional Results from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nels C Olson

    Full Text Available Distinct lymphocyte subpopulations have been implicated in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and obesity-associated inflammation in mouse models of insulin resistance. Information on the relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes remain limited in human population-based cohort studies.Circulating levels of innate (γδ T, natural killer (NK and adaptive immune (CD4+ naive, CD4+ memory, Th1, and Th2 lymphocyte subpopulations were measured by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 929 free-living participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA. Cross-sectional relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations with type 2 diabetes (n = 154 and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated by generalized linear models.Each standard deviation (SD higher CD4+ memory cells was associated with a 21% higher odds of type 2 diabetes (95% CI: 1-47% and each SD higher naive cells was associated with a 22% lower odds (95% CI: 4-36% (adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI. Among participants not using diabetes medication, higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations (p<0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. There were no associations of γδ T, NK, Th1, or Th2 cells with type 2 diabetes, glucose, or insulin.A higher degree of chronic adaptive immune activation, reflected by higher memory and lower naive CD4+ cells, was positively associated with type 2 diabetes. These results are consistent with a role of chronic immune activation and exhaustion augmenting chronic inflammatory diseases, and support the importance of prospective studies evaluating adaptive immune activation and type 2 diabetes.

  10. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar; Shimabukuro Michio; Nishiuchi Takeshi; Ueno Junji; Takao Shoichiro; Fukuda Daiju; Hirata Yoichiro; Kurobe Hirotsugu; Soeki Takeshi; Iwase Takashi; Kusunose Kenya; Niki Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi Koji; Taketani Yoshio; Yagi Shusuke

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV) and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. Methods The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43) who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-se...

  11. Estimating pesticide exposure from dietary intake and organic food choices: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Fenske, Richard A; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Lu, Chensheng; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Kaufman, Joel D

    2015-05-01

    Organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure to the U.S. population is dominated by dietary intake. The magnitude of exposure from diet depends partly on personal decisions such as which foods to eat and whether to choose organic food. Most studies of OP exposure rely on urinary biomarkers, which are limited by short half-lives and often lack specificity to parent compounds. A reliable means of estimating long-term dietary exposure to individual OPs is needed to assess the potential relationship with adverse health effects. We assessed long-term dietary exposure to 14 OPs among 4,466 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and examined the influence of organic produce consumption on this exposure. Individual-level exposure was estimated by combining information on typical intake of specific food items with average OP residue levels on those items. In an analysis restricted to a subset of participants who reported rarely or never eating organic produce ("conventional consumers"), we assessed urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels across tertiles of estimated exposure (n = 480). In a second analysis, we compared DAP levels across subgroups with differing self-reported organic produce consumption habits (n = 240). Among conventional consumers, increasing tertile of estimated dietary OP exposure was associated with higher DAP concentrations (p organic produce (p organic produce was associated with lower DAPs.

  12. Noncontrast cardiac computed tomography image-based vertebral bone mineral density: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Mao, Song Shou; Khazai, Bahram; Hyder, Joseph A; Allison, Matthew; McClelland, Robyn; de Boer, Ian; Carr, J Jeffrey; Criqui, Michael H; Gao, Yanlin; Budoff, Matthew J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiac computer tomography (CT) image-based vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and the influence of cardiovascular disease risk factors on BMD have not been systematically evaluated, especially in a community-based, multiethnic population. A cross-sectional study design is used to determine if cardiac CT image is a reliable source to assess vertebral BMD, and a total of 2028 CT images were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a large, diverse US cohort of adults 45 to 84 years of age. Cardiac CT image allows the rapid assessment of vertebral BMD and related fractures. The mean BMD was significantly higher in men compared with women for thoracic vertebrae (143.2 ± 41.2 vs 138.7 ± 42.7 mg/cm³, respectively, P = .014), as well as for lumbar vertebrae (125.0 ± 37.9 vs 117.2 ± 39.4 mg/cm³, respectively, P images to garner and assess vertebral BMD is a feasible and reliable method. Cardiac CT has the additional advantages of evaluate vertebral bone health while assessing cardiovascular disease risk with no extra cost or radiation exposure. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Palta, Priya; Couper, David; Meyer, Katie; Graff, Misa; Haring, Bernhard; Sharrett, Richey; Heiss, Gerardo

    2017-10-17

    Background : Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective : Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods : A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks). Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results : Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03) z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting "almost never" consuming milk. Conclusions : Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  14. Milk Intake at Midlife and Cognitive Decline over 20 Years. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Petruski-Ivleva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Faster rates of cognitive decline are likely to result in earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. d-galactose, a derivative of lactose, is used in animal studies to induce neurodegeneration. Milk is the primary source of lactose in the human diet, and its effects on cognitive decline have not been fully evaluated. Objective: Assess the association of milk intake with change in cognitive function over 20 years. Methods: A total of 13,751 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC cohort completed a food frequency questionnaire and three neurocognitive evaluations from 1990 through 2013. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were used to determine lactase persistence (LCT-13910 C/T for Whites and LCT-14010 G/C for Blacks. Mixed-effects models were used to study the association of milk intake with cognitive change. Multiple imputations by chained equations were used to account for attrition. Results: Milk intake greater than 1 glass/day was associated with greater decline in the global z-score over a 20-year period. The difference in decline was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.03 z-scores, or an additional 10% decline, relative to the group reporting “almost never” consuming milk. Conclusions: Replication of these results is warranted in diverse populations with greater milk intake and higher variability of lactase persistence genotype.

  15. Psychosocial Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome among Latino Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel S Ortiz

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the contribution of psychological variables to risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS among Latinos enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, and to investigate whether social support moderates these associations, and whether inflammatory markers mediate the association between psychological variables and MetS.Cross-sectional analyses at study baseline were conducted with a national Latino cohort (n = 1,388 that included Mexican Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans and Central/South Americans. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the effects of psychosocial variables (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and social support on MetS. In addition, separate subgroup-specific models, controlling for nationality, age, gender, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, exercise, smoking and drinking status, and testing for the effects of chronic stress, depressive symptoms and inflammation (IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen in predicting risk for MetS were conducted.In the overall sample, high chronic stress independently predicted risk for MetS, however this association was found to be significant only in Mexican Americans and Puerto Rican Americans. Social support did not moderate the associations between chronic stress and MetS for any group. Chronic stress was not associated with inflammatory markers in either the overall sample or in each group.Our results suggest a differential contribution of chronic stress to the prevalence of MetS by national groups.

  16. Differential influence of distinct components of increased blood pressure on cardiovascular outcomes: from the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Gupta, Deepak K; Claggett, Brian; Sharrett, A Richey; Shah, Amil M; Skali, Hicham; Takeuchi, Madoka; Ni, Hanyu; Solomon, Scott D

    2013-09-01

    Elevation in blood pressure (BP) increases risk for all cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the extent to which different indices of BP elevation may be associated to varying degrees with different cardiovascular outcomes remains unclear. We studied 13340 participants (aged 54 ± 6 years, 56% women and 27% black) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare the relative contributions of systolic BP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure to risk for coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality. For each multivariable-adjusted model, the largest area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) and smallest -2 log-likelihood values were used to identify BP measures with the greatest contribution to risk prediction for each outcome. A total of 2095 coronary heart disease events, 1669 heart failure events, 771 stroke events, and 3016 deaths occurred during 18 ± 5 years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, the BP measures with the greatest risk contributions were the following: systolic BP for coronary heart disease (AUC=0.74); pulse pressure for heart failure (AUC=0.79); systolic BP for stroke (AUC=0.74); and pulse pressure for all-cause mortality (AUC=0.74). With few exceptions, results were similar in analyses stratified by age, sex, and race. Our data indicate that distinct BP components contribute variably to risk for different cardiovascular outcomes.

  17. Changes in walking associated with perceived neighborhood safety and police-recorded crime: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary; Evenson, Kelly R; Moore, Kari; Block, Richard; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2015-04-01

    To explore the association of changes in perceived safety and police-recorded crime with changes in transport and leisure walking using longitudinal data from Chicago residents participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012). Main exposures included perceived safety (self-reported as feeling safe walking in the neighborhood and reporting violence to be a problem in the neighborhood), and one-year counts of police-recorded crime occurring within a one-mile buffer of participants' residences. Main outcomes included transport and leisure walking (self-reported and calculated as total minutes/week across four study visits). Fixed effects models assessed the association of change in perceived safety and police-recorded crime with changes in transport and leisure walking over a 10-year period for 796 adults. No associations were found between changes in perceived safety and either changes in transport or leisure walking. Residing in areas with increases in murder was associated with decreases in transport walking. However, no other associations were found with police-recorded crime. There continues to be a need to explore the benefits of cultivating safe neighborhoods that enhance resident health and well-being. Research should continue examining how community initiatives may build safe environments and community identity that promote walking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A review of Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Fasting, H; Henneberg, E W

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections. Its distribution is worldwide. Seroepidemiological studies have shown an association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and the risk of acute myocardial...

  19. Individual-Level Concentrations of Fine Particulate Matter Chemical Components and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Based on 2 Advanced Exposure Prediction Models in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D.; Bergen, Silas; Szpiro, Adam A.; Larson, Timothy V.; Adar, Sara D.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Polak, Joseph F.; Vedal, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Long-term exposure to outdoor particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5) has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The chemical composition of PM2.5 that may be most responsible for producing these associations has not been identified. We assessed cross-sectional associations between long-term concentrations of PM2.5 and 4 of its chemical components (sulfur, silicon, elemental carbon, and organic carbon (OC)) and subclinical atherosclerosis, measured as carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium, between 2000 and 2002 among 5,488 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants residing in 6 US metropolitan areas. Long-term concentrations of PM2.5 components at participants' homes were predicted using both city-specific spatiotemporal models and a national spatial model. The estimated differences in CIMT associated with interquartile-range increases in sulfur, silicon, and OC predictions from the spatiotemporal model were 0.022 mm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.014, 0.031), 0.006 mm (95% CI: 0.000, 0.012), and 0.026 mm (95% CI: 0.019, 0.034), respectively. Findings were generally similar using the national spatial model predictions but were often sensitive to adjustment for city. We did not find strong evidence of associations with coronary artery calcium. Long-term concentrations of sulfur and OC, and possibly silicon, were associated with CIMT using 2 distinct exposure prediction modeling approaches. PMID:25164422

  20. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Atherosclerosis: Herbal Medicines as a Potential Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfan Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus eventually develop severe coronary atherosclerosis disease. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with atherosclerosis. The cellular and molecular mechanisms affecting the incidence of diabetic atherosclerosis are still unclear, as are appropriate strategies for the prevention and treatment of diabetic atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss progress in the study of herbs as potential therapeutic agents for diabetic atherosclerosis.

  1. Walkability and cardiometabolic risk factors: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lindsay M; Rodríguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Hirsch, Jana A; Moore, Kari A; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-05-01

    We used data from 3227 older adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2004-2012) to explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between walkability and cardiometabolic risk factors. In cross-sectional analyses, linear regression was used to estimate associations of Street Smart Walk Score® with glucose, triglycerides, HDL and LDL cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and waist circumference, while logistic regression was used to estimate associations with odds of metabolic syndrome. Econometric fixed effects models were used to estimate longitudinal associations of changes in walkability with changes in each risk factor among participants who moved residential locations between 2004 and 2012 (n=583). Most cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were small and statistically non-significant. We found limited evidence that higher walkability was cross-sectionally associated with lower blood pressure but that increases in walkability were associated with increases in triglycerides and blood pressure over time. Further research over longer time periods is needed to understand the potential for built environment interventions to improve cardiometabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Age-related left ventricular remodeling and associated risk for cardiovascular outcomes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Fernandes, Verônica R S; Bluemke, David A; McClelland, Robyn L; Kronmal, Richard A; Lima, João A C

    2009-05-01

    Age-related alterations of left ventricular (LV) structure and function that may predispose to cardiovascular events are not well understood. We used cardiac MRI to examine age-related differences in LV structure and function in 5004 participants without overt cardiovascular disease when enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; 1099 participants received additional strain analyses by MRI tagging. We also assessed the relation of age-associated remodeling with cardiovascular outcomes using Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors. Although LV mass decreased with age (-0.3 g per year), the mass-to-volume ratio markedly increased (+5 mg/mL per year, Pfall in stroke volume (-0.4 mL per year, P or =65 years; hazard ratio, 1.68 [CI 0.77 to 3.68]) individuals with the highest compared to lowest mass-to-volume ratio quintile (P(interaction)=0.013). Age is associated with a phenotype of LV remodeling marked by increased mass-to-volume ratio and accompanied by systolic as well as diastolic myocardial dysfunction that is not reflected by preserved ejection fraction. This pattern of ventricular remodeling confers significant cardiovascular risk, particularly when present earlier in life.

  3. Multi-organ expression profiling uncovers a gene module in coronary artery disease involving transendothelial migration of leukocytes and LIM domain binding 2: The Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study

    KAUST Repository

    Hä gg, Sara; Skogsberg, Josefin; Lundströ m, Jesper; Noori, Peri; Nilsson, Roland; Zhong, Hua; Maleki, Shohreh; Shang, Ming-Mei; Brinne, Bjö rn; Bradshaw, Maria; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Samnegå rd, Ann; Silveira, Angela; Kaplan, Lee M.; Gigante, Bruna; Leander, Karin; de Faire, Ulf; Rosfors, Stefan; Lockowandt, Ulf; Liska, Jan; Konrad, Peter; Takolander, Rabbe; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Schadt, Eric E.; Ivert, Torbjö rn; Hamsten, Anders; Tegné r, Jesper; Bjö rkegren, Johan

    2009-01-01

    of coronary artery disease (CAD). The primary aim of the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study was to determine whether there are functionally associated genes (rather than individual genes) important for CAD development. To this end, two

  4. Computational Studies of Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Martins, João Miguel

    Drug resistance has been an increasing problem in patient treatment and drug development. Starting in the last century and becoming a major worry in the medical and scienti c communities in the early part of the current millennium, major research must be performed to address the issues of viral...... is of the utmost importance in developing better and less resistance-inducing drugs. A drug's in uence can be characterized in many diff erent ways, however, and the approaches I take in this work re ect those same different in uences. This is what I try to achieve in this work, through seemingly unrelated...... approaches that come together in the study of drug's and their in uence on proteins and vice-versa. In part I, I aim to understand through combined theoretical ensemble analysis and free energy calculations the e ects mutations have over the binding anity and function of the M2 proton channel. This research...

  5. Mercury accumulation and accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based prospective 4-year follow-up study in men in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, J T; Seppänen, K; Lakka, T A; Salonen, R; Kaplan, G A

    2000-02-01

    Basic research and our previous studies have suggested that mercury exposure enhances lipid peroxidation and the risk of myocardial infarction, but there are no studies concerning the association between mercury accumulation and atherosclerosis. We therefore investigated whether high hair mercury content is associated with accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis, determined by ultrasonographic assessment of common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), in a prospective study among 1014 men aged 42-60 years. In a linear regression model adjusting for other atherosclerotic risk factors, high hair mercury content was one of the strongest predictors of the 4-year increase in the mean IMT (P2.81 microg/g (fifths) had an IMT increase of 0.105, 0.102, 0.113, 0.107 and 0.140 mm/4 years, respectively (P=0.041 for heterogeneity between groups). The IMT increase was 0.034 mm/4 years (31.9%) greater in the highest fifth than in the other fifths (P<0.05 for the difference). These findings suggest that mercury accumulation in the human body is associated with accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

  6. Atherosclerosis: Hypotheses and theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Yuryeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives basic theories of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including inflammatory, cholesterol, lipid, lipoprotein, iron ones, as a result of metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress. In spite of carefully and deeply developed and ongoing elaborated pathogenesis theories, the etiological factors of atherosclerosis remain unknown so far. The age-related aspect of the disease is discussed; atherosclerosis is considered to be a childhood-onset disease that manifests itself at a later age. The authors propose an experimental and clinical evidence-based concept of the common etiology of syndromes of atherosclerosis, namely: the body's endogenous intoxication that is permanent or periodically progressive may be a primary cause of altered conformation of different protein molecules with their higher ability to adsorb the trace elements consolidating the structural changes. This change of proteins diminishes their functions and determines their antigenic properties, which is attended by the development of different pathogenic components in relation to the body's individual features.

  7. The Biochemistry of atherosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scanu, Angelo M; Getz, Godfrey S; Wissler, Robert W

    1979-01-01

    In this first full-length review of the biochemical parameters and their part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the reader will discover a range of coverage concerning basic etiological factors...

  8. Individual serum saturated fatty acids and markers of chronic subclinical inflammation: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaren, Ingrid D; Watkins, Steven M; Liese, Angela D; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Rewers, Marian J; Haffner, Steven M; Lorenzo, Carlos; Festa, Andreas; Bazinet, Richard P; Hanley, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Recent evidence has documented distinct effects of individual saturated FAs (SFAs) on cardiometabolic outcomes, with potential protective effects from odd- and very long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs). Cross-sectional and prospective associations of individual serum SFAs (12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, and total SFA) with proinflammatory biomarkers and adiponectin were investigated in 555 adults from the IRAS. Principal component analysis (PCA) of proinflammatory markers yielded three clusters: principal component (PC) 1: fibrinogen, white cell count, C-reactive protein; PC 2: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), TNF-α, IL-18; PC 3: IL-6 and IL-8. Cross-sectional analyses on proinflammatory PCs and adiponectin, and prospective analyses on 5 year PAI-1 and fibrinogen concentrations were conducted with multiple regression. Total SFA and 16:0 were positively associated with PC 1 and PC 2, and negatively associated with adiponectin. The 14:0 was positively associated with PC 1 and negatively associated with adiponectin. In contrast, 15:0, 20:0, and 22:0 were negatively associated with PC 2, and 20:0 and 22:0 were positively associated with adiponectin. The 18:0 was negatively associated with PC 3. Prospectively, 15:0, 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0 were negatively associated with 5 year PAI-1 concentrations. The results demonstrate that individual SFAs have distinct roles in subclinical inflammation, highlighting the unique metabolic impacts of individual SFAs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and subclinical atherosclerosis: the REGICOR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivera, Marcela; Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Foraster, Maria; Agis, David; de Groot, Eric; Perez, Laura; Mendez, Michelle A.; Bouso, Laura; Targa, Jaume; Ramos, Rafael; Sala, Joan; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on the chronic processes of atherogenesis is limited. We investigated the association of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness

  10. Human Lipoxygenase Pathway Gene Variation and Association with Markers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in the Diabetes Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn P. Burdon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions. Polymorphisms within ALOX12, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP are genetically associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and with biomarkers of disease in families with type 2 diabetes. These results suggest that variants in lipoxygenase pathway genes may have pleiotropic effects on multiple components that determine risk of cardiovascular disease.

  11. HIV-infection, atherosclerosis and the inflammatory pathway: candidate gene study in a Spanish HIV-infected population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ibáñez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Higher prevalence of atherosclerosis and higher cardiovascular risk is observed in HIV-infected individuals. The biological mechanisms underlying these processes are unclear. Several studies have implicated genetic variants in the inflammatory genes in cardiovascular disease and in HIV natural course infection. METHODS & FINDINGS: In this study we have tested the possible association between genetic variants in several inflammatory genes and asymptomatic cardiovascular disease measured by carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and atherosclerotic plaque presence as dependent variables in 213 HIV-infected individuals. A total of 101 genetic variants in 25 candidate genes have been genotyped. Results were analyzed using Plink and SPSS statistical packages. We have found several polymorphisms in the genes ALOX5 (rs2115819 p = 0.009, ALOX5AP (rs9578196 p = 0.007; rs4769873 p = 0.004 and rs9315051 p = 0.0004, CX3CL1 (rs4151117 p = 0.040 and rs614230 p = 0.015 and CCL5 (rs3817655 p = 0.018 and rs2107538 p = 0.018 associated with atherosclerotic plaque. cIMT mean has been associated with CRP (1130864 p = 0.0003 and rs1800947 p = 0.008, IL1RN (rs380092 p = 0.002 and ALOX5AP (rs3885907 p = 0.02 genetic variants. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we have found modest associations between genetic variants in several inflammatory genes and atherosclerotic plaque or cIMT. Nevertheless, our study adds evidence to the association between inflammatory pathway genetic variants and the atherosclerotic disease in HIV-infected individuals.

  12. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Chinese Individuals Aged 75 Years or Older: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L; Hua, C; Sun, H; Qin, L-Y; Niu, P-P; Guo, Z-N; Yang, Y

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between serum uric acid level and the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older. Case-control study. In a teaching hospital. Five hundred and sixty-four elderlies (75 years or above) who underwent general health screening in our hospital were enrolled. The detailed carotid ultrasound results, physical examination information, medical history, and laboratory test results including serum uric acid level were recorded, these data were used to analyze the relationship between serum uric acid level and carotid atherosclerosis. Then, subjects who underwent the second carotid ultrasound 1.5-2 years later were further identified to analyzed the relationship between serum uric acid and the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. A total of 564 subjects were included, carotid plaque was found in 482 (85.5%) individuals. Logistic regression showed that subjects with elevated serum uric acid (expressed per 1 standard deviation change) had significantly higher incidence of carotid plaque (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.75; P= 0.012) after controlling for other factors. A total of 236 subjects underwent the follow-up carotid ultrasound. Linear regression showed that serum uric acid level (expressed per 1 standard deviation change; 1 standard deviation = 95.5 μmol/L) was significantly associated with percentage of change of plaque score (P = 0.008). Multivariable linear regression showed that 1 standard deviation increase in serum uric acid levels was expected to increase 0.448% of plaque score (P = 0.023). The elevated serum uric acid level may be independently and significantly associated with the presence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in Chinese individuals aged 75 years or older.

  13. Circulating Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Levels Independently Predict 10-Year Progression of Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shen; Zhao, Dong; Qi, Yue; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Liu, Jing

    2018-03-07

    To investigate the association between circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and to examine whether this link is independent of other low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-related parameters. Totally, 804 subjects who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline completed risk factor surveys and carotid ultrasound measurements in 2002 and 2012. Modified Poisson regression was performed to examine the association between baseline serum ox-LDL levels and the 10-year risk of progression of carotid atherosclerosis which was defined as the development of at least one new plaque in a previously plaque-free carotid segment at re-examination. The mean age of the subjects was 58.6±7.7 years at baseline and 43.3% were men. A total of 504 (62.7%) subjects had carotid plaque progression at re-examination. Subjects in the intermediate and highest tertiles of ox-LDL had a significantly higher adjusted risk of atherosclerosis progression than those in the lowest tertile [relative risk (95% confidence interval) 1.17 (1.01-1.34) for the intermediate tertile and 1.23 (1.07-1.42) for the highest tertile]. This association was independent of baseline levels of LDL-C, total LDL particle number, and small LDL particle number. This study demonstrates that serum ox-LDL levels predict 10-year progression of subclinical atherosclerosis. Moreover, this effect is independent of the cholesterol content, the number, and the size of LDL particles.

  14. Innate lymphoid cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbertsen, Daniel; Lichtman, Andrew H

    2017-12-05

    The family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consisting of NK cells, lymphoid tissue inducer cells and the 'helper'-like ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 have been shown to have important roles in protection against microbes, regulation of inflammatory diseases and involved in allergic reactions. ILC1s produce IFN-γ upon stimulation with IL-12 and IL-18, ILC2s produce IL-5 and IL-13 responding to IL-33 and IL-25 while ILC3s produce IL-17 and IL-22 after stimulation with IL-23 or IL-1. Although few studies have directly investigated the role for ILCs in atherosclerosis, several studies have investigated transcription factors and cytokines shared by ILCs and T helper cells. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the role of ILC in atherosclerosis and discuss future directions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  16. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  17. Diurnal Salivary Cortisol is Associated With Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champaneri, Shivam; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Seeman, Teresa; DeSantis, Amy S.; Roux, Ana Diez; Shrager, Sandi; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine abnormalities, such as activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, are associated with obesity; however, few large-scale population-based studies have examined HPA axis and markers of obesity. We examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and diurnal salivary cortisol curve with obesity. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress Study includes 1,002 White, Hispanic, and Black men and women (mean age 65±9.8 years) who collected up to 18 salivary cortisol samples over 3 days. Cortisol profiles were modeled using regression spline models that incorporated random parameters for subject-specific effects. Cortisol curve measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 minutes post-awakening), early decline (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUC). Body-mass-index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were used to estimate adiposity. For the entire cohort, both BMI and WC were negatively correlated with awakening cortisol (p<0.05), AUC during awakening rise and early decline and positively correlated to the early decline slope (p<0.05) after adjustments for age, race/ethnicity, gender, diabetes status, socioeconomic status, beta blockers, steroids, hormone replacement therapy and smoking status. No heterogeneities of effects were observed by gender, age, and race/ethnicity. Higher BMI and WC are associated with neuroendocrine dysregulation, which is present in a large population sample, and only partially explained by other covariates. PMID:23404865

  18. A comparative study of the effect of coronary atherosclerosis and age on aortic and pulmonary arterial pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanya, Shizuo

    2008-01-01

    The effect of coronary artery disease (CAD) and age on aortic (AO-PWV) and pulmonary arterial pulse wave velocity (PA-PWV) was studied. Aortic and pulmonary arterial pressure were measured at two sites (ascending and abdominal aorta, and the main pulmonary trunk and one of its principle branches, respectively) using a catheter-tip micromanometer in 24 patients divided in two groups. Control group (n=12) consisted of patients with normal coronaries, while the CAD group (n=12) consisted of patients with coronary artery disease estimated by coronary angiography. The interval between these two sites was determined by measuring the withdrawal distance of the microtip-catheter. AO-PWV was significantly higher (p<0.02) in the CAD group (12.0±4.1 m/sec) than in the control group (8.2±2.7 m/sec). There was no significant difference between the two groups in PA-PWV. AO-PWV was significantly (r=0.731, p<0.01) increased with age in the control group, while no significant correlation between the two was observed in the CAD group. There was no significant correlation between PA-PWV and age in control group. The results of this study indicate that only coronary atherosclerosis and age have significant predictive value regarding AO-PWV, but there was no significant correlation with PA-PWV for any of these parameters. The PA-PWV invasively measured in the 12 control subjects in this study was 2.3±0.7 m/sec, which is very close to values reported in the recent literatures using MRI. (author)

  19. Association of menopause age and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-05-01

    Menopause age can affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 y) and menopause age with N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure. Our cross-sectional study included 2,275 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 85 years and without clinical CVD (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Five hundred sixty-one women had early menopause. The median (25th-75th percentiles) NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1-151.6) pg/mL for all participants, 83.4 (41.4-164.9) pg/mL for women with early menopause, and 78.0 (40.8-148.3) pg/mL for women without early menopause. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause, respectively. No significant interactions between menopause age and ethnicity were observed. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP levels. Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels, in postmenopausal women.

  20. Trait anger but not anxiety predicts incident type 2 diabetes: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sherley; Shah, Nina G; Diez Roux, Ana; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Seeman, Teresa; Szklo, Moyses; Schreiner, Pamela J; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-10-01

    Prior studies have shown a bidirectional association between depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the prospective associations of anger and anxiety with T2DM have not been established. We hypothesized that trait anger and anxiety would predict incident T2DM, independently of depressive symptoms. In the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we prospectively examined the association of trait anger and trait anxiety (assessed via the Spielberger Trait Anger and Anxiety Scales, respectively) with incident T2DM over 11.4 years in 5598 White, Black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants (53.2% women, mean age 61.6 years) at baseline without prevalent T2DM or cardiovascular disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) of incident T2DM by previously defined anger category (low, moderate, high), and anxiety quartile, as there were no previously defined categories. High total trait anger was associated with incident T2DM (HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.07) relative to low total trait anger. The association was attenuated following adjustment for waist circumference (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.94-1.86). Higher anger reaction was also associated with incident T2DM (HR=1.07; 95% CI 1.03-1.11) that remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders/explanatory factors. In contrast, trait anxiety did not predict incident T2DM. High total trait anger and anger reaction are potential modifiable risk factors for T2DM. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms of the anger-diabetes relationship and to develop preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association between dietary cholesterol intake and subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Seungho; Lee, Jong-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Cheong, EunSun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Joon Mo; Cho, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Sung, Ki Chul

    The Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2015) concluded that restriction of dietary cholesterol is unnecessary in most adults for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to assess the risk for subclinical atherosclerosis according to coronary artery calcium score (CACS), based on dietary cholesterol intake in apparently healthy Korean adults. This was a cross-sectional study performed in 30,068 participants (mean age 40.8 years; 84.5% men) in a health screening program in Korea. The data were collected from 2001 to 2013 and analyzed in 2015. Total energy intake and dietary cholesterol intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. The participants were stratified according to quartile of dietary cholesterol intake. CACS was measured by multi-detector computed tomography. Lipid profiles were measured, and the participants were divided into 6 groups according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level: 0. Dietary cholesterol intake did not correlate with mean value of serum LDL-C level. For both genders, the odds ratio for coronary artery calcification was not significantly greater with greater amounts of dietary cholesterol (as assessed by quartile). The risk for coronary artery calcification was not higher in subjects with LDL-C 70-129 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL; however, the risk was significantly greater in subjects with LDL-C ≥ 130 mg/dL compared with those with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. Dietary cholesterol intake did not have an association with LDL-C level or with risk for coronary artery calcification in apparently healthy Korean adults. The results have to be translated with consideration of limitation of population-based studies. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations of organic produce consumption with socioeconomic status and the local food environment: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curl, Cynthia L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Hajat, Anjum; Kaufman, Joel D; Moore, Kari; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics, such as healthy food availability, have been associated with consumption of healthy food. Little is known about the influence of the local food environment on other dietary choices, such as the decision to consume organic food. We analyzed the associations between organic produce consumption and demographic, socioeconomic and neighborhood characteristics in 4,064 participants aged 53-94 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using log-binomial regression models. Participants were classified as consuming organic produce if they reported eating organic fruits and vegetables either "sometimes" or "often or always". Women were 21% more likely to consume organic produce than men (confidence interval [CI]: 1.12-1.30), and the likelihood of organic produce consumption was 13% less with each additional 10 years of age (CI: 0.84-0.91). Participants with higher education were significantly more likely to consume organic produce (prevalence ratios [PR] were 1.05 with a high school education, 1.39 with a bachelor's degree and 1.68 with a graduate degree, with less than high school as the reference group [1.00]). Per capita household income was marginally associated with produce consumption (p = 0.06), with the highest income category more likely to consume organic produce. After adjustment for these individual factors, organic produce consumption was significantly associated with self-reported assessment of neighborhood produce availability (PR: 1.07, CI: 1.02-1.11), with an aggregated measure of community perception of the local food environment (PR: 1.08, CI: 1.00-1.17), and, to a lesser degree, with supermarket density (PR: 1.02: CI: 0.99-1.05). This research suggests that both individual-level characteristics and qualities of the local food environment are associated with having a diet that includes organic food.

  3. Differences in Natriuretic Peptide Levels by Race/Ethnicity (From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K; Daniels, Lori B; Cheng, Susan; deFilippi, Christopher R; Criqui, Michael H; Maisel, Alan S; Lima, Joao A; Bahrami, Hossein; Greenland, Philip; Cushman, Mary; Tracy, Russell; Siscovick, David; Bertoni, Alain G; Cannone, Valentina; Burnett, John C; Carr, John Jeffrey; Wang, Thomas J

    2017-09-15

    Natriuretic peptides (NP) are cardiac-derived hormones with favorable cardiometabolic actions. Low NP levels are associated with increased risks of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, conditions with variable prevalence by race and ethnicity. Heritable factors underlie a significant proportion of the interindividual variation in NP concentrations, but the specific influences of race and ancestry are unknown. In 5597 individuals (40% white, 24% black, 23% Hispanic, and 13% Chinese) without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, multivariable linear regression and restricted cubic splines were used to estimate differences in serum N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels according to, ethnicity, and ancestry. Ancestry was determined using genetic ancestry informative markers. NT-proBNP concentrations differed significantly by race and ethnicity (black, median 43 pg/ml [interquartile range 17 to 94], Chinese 43 [17 to 90], Hispanic 53 [23 to 107], white 68 [34 to 136]; p = 0.0001). In multivariable models, NT-proBNP was 44% lower (95% confidence interval -48 to -40) in black and 46% lower (-50 to -41) in Chinese, compared with white individuals. Hispanic individuals had intermediate concentrations. Self-identified blacks and Hispanics were the most genetically admixed. Among self-identified black individuals, a 20% increase in genetic European ancestry was associated with 12% higher (1% to 23%) NT-proBNP. Among Hispanic individuals, genetic European and African ancestry were positively and negatively associated with NT-proBNP levels, respectively. In conclusion, NT-proBNP levels differ according to race and ethnicity, with the lowest concentrations in black and Chinese individuals. Racial and ethnic differences in NT-proBNP may have a genetic basis, with European and African ancestry associated with higher and lower NT-proBNP concentrations, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  4. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  5. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black, and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J; Burke, Gregory L; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2015-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Visual acuity data were obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46-87 years at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States. Visual impairment was defined as presenting visual acuity 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Among all participants, 6.6% (n = 421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% of men (n = 178) and 7.5% of women (n = 243). Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (n = 52) and 6.0% (n = 77) in white men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (n = 37) and 11.6% (n = 44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction, and not unexpectedly, a lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Even in the U.S. where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges.

  6. Left ventricular mass and hypertrophy by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Anderson C; Gjesdal, Ola; Almeida, André; Nacif, Marcelo; Wu, Colin; Bluemke, David A; Brumback, Lyndia; Lima, João A C

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) and hypertrophy (LVH) are important parameters, but their use is surrounded by controversies. We compare LVM by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), investigating reproducibility aspects and the effect of echocardiography image quality. We also compare indexing methods within and between imaging modalities for classification of LVH and cardiovascular risk. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis enrolled 880 participants in Baltimore city, 146 had echocardiograms and CMR on the same day. LVM was then assessed using standard techniques. Echocardiography image quality was rated (good/limited) according to the parasternal view. LVH was defined after indexing LVM to body surface area, height(1.7) , height(2.7) , or by the predicted LVM from a reference group. Participants were classified for cardiovascular risk according to Framingham score. Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman plots, percent agreement, and kappa coefficient assessed agreement within and between modalities. Left ventricular mass by echocardiography (140 ± 40 g) and by CMR were correlated (r = 0.8, P echocardiography image quality. The reproducibility profile had strong correlations and agreement for both modalities. Image quality groups had similar characteristics; those with good images compared to CMR slightly superiorly. The prevalence of LVH tended to be higher with higher cardiovascular risk. The agreement for LVH between imaging modalities ranged from 77% to 98% and the kappa coefficient from 0.10 to 0.76. Echocardiography has a reliable performance for LVM assessment and classification of LVH, with limited influence of image quality. Echocardiography and CMR differ in the assessment of LVH, and additional differences rise from the indexing methods. © 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Skin Autofluorescence and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Mild to Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Enric; Betriu, Àngels; Arroyo, David; López, Carolina; Hernández, Marta; Rius, Ferran; Fernández, Elvira; Lecube, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are increased and predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are undergoing hemodialysis, irrespective of the presence of type 2 diabetes. However, little information exits about the relationship between AGEs and subclinical atherosclerosis at the early stages of CKD. A case-control study was performed including 87 patients with mild-to-moderate stages of CKD (glomerular filtration rate from 89 to 30 ml/min/per 1.73m2) and 87 non-diabetic non-CKD subjects matched by age, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a non-invasive assessment of AGEs, was measured. The presence of atheromatous disease in carotid and femoral arteries was evaluated using vascular ultrasound, and vascular age and SCORE risk were estimated. Patients with mild-to-moderate stages of CKD showed an increase in skin AF compared with control subjects (2.5±0.6 vs. 2.2±0.4 AU, pskin AF value >2.0 AU was accompanied by a 3-fold increased risk of detecting the presence of an atheromathous plaque (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5, p = 0.006). When vascular age was assessed through skin AF, subjects with CKD were almost 12 years older than control subjects (70.3±25.5 vs. 58.5±20.2 years, p = 0.001). Skin AF was negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.354, pskin AF (R2 = 0.289, pSkin AF is elevated in patients with mild-to-moderate CKD compared with control subjects. This finding may be independently associated with the glomerular filtration rate and the presence of subclinical atheromatous disease. Therefore, the use of skin AF may help to accurately evaluate the real cardiovascular risk at the early stages of CKD.

  8. Causal Role of Alcohol Consumption in an Improved Lipid Profile: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Khanh N; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Nambi, Vijay; Volcik, Kelly A; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C

    2016-01-01

    Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit.

  9. Neighborhood characteristics influence DNA methylation of genes involved in stress response and inflammation: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer A; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xu; Ratliff, Scott M; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Kardia, Sharon L R; Liu, Yongmei; Roux, Ava V Diez; Needham, Belinda L

    2017-08-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes even after accounting for individual-level socioeconomic factors. The chronic stress of unfavorable neighborhood conditions may lead to dysregulation of the stress reactivity and inflammatory pathways, potentially mediated through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. We used multi-level models to examine the relationship between 2 neighborhood conditions and methylation levels of 18 genes related to stress reactivity and inflammation in purified monocytes from 1,226 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population-based sample of US adults. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, a summary of 16 census-based metrics, was associated with DNA methylation [False discovery rate (FDR) q-value ≤ 0.1] in 2 out of 7 stress-related genes evaluated (CRF, SLC6A4) and 2 out of 11 inflammation-related genes (F8, TLR1). Neighborhood social environment, a summary measure of aesthetic quality, safety, and social cohesion, was associated with methylation in 4 of the 7 stress-related genes (AVP, BDNF, FKBP5, SLC6A4) and 7 of the 11 inflammation-related genes (CCL1, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12, SLAMF7, TLR1). High socioeconomic disadvantage and worse social environment were primarily associated with increased methylation. In 5 genes with significant associations between neighborhood and methylation (FKBP5, CD1D, F8, KLRG1, NLRP12), methylation was associated with gene expression of at least one transcript. These results demonstrate that multiple dimensions of neighborhood context may influence methylation levels and subsequent gene expression of stress- and inflammation-related genes, even after accounting for individual socioeconomic factors. Further elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships will be important for understanding the etiology of health disparities.

  10. Visual Impairment in White, Chinese, Black and Hispanic Participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diana E.; Shrager, Sandi; Shea, Steven J.; Burke, Gregory L.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe the prevalence of visual impairment and examine its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. Methods Visual acuity data was obtained from 6134 participants, aged 46 to 87 years old at time of examination between 2002 and 2004 (mean age 64 years, 47.6% male), from six communities in the United States (U.S.). Visual impairment was defined as a presenting visual acuity of 20/50 or worse in the better-seeing eye. Risk factors were included in multivariable logistic regression models to determine their impact on visual impairment for men and women in each racial/ethnic group. Results Among all participants, 6.6% (N=421) had visual impairment, including 5.6% (N=178) of men and 7.5% (N=243) of women. Prevalence of impairment ranged from 4.2% (N=52) and 6.0% (N=77) in White men and women, respectively, to 7.6% (N=37) and 11.6% (N=44) in Chinese men and women, respectively. Older age was significantly associated with visual impairment in both men and women, particularly in those with lower socioeconomic status, but the effects of increasing age were more pronounced in men. Two-thirds of participants already wore distance correction and not unexpectedly, lower prevalence of visual impairment was seen in this group; however, 2.4% of men and 3.5% of women with current distance correction had correctable visual impairment, most notably among seniors. Conclusion Even in the United States where prevalence of refractive correction is high, both visual impairment and uncorrected refractive error represent current public health challenges. PMID:26395659

  11. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  12. Associations of Haplotypes Upstream of IRS1 with Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Preclinical Atherosclerosis, and Skeletal Muscle LOC646736 mRNA Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma M. Soyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genomic region ~500 kb upstream of IRS1 has been implicated in insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, adverse lipid profile, and cardiovascular risk. To gain further insight into this chromosomal region, we typed four SNPs in a cross-sectional cohort and subjects with type 2 diabetes recruited from the same geographic region. From 16 possible haplotypes, 6 haplotypes with frequencies >0.01 were observed. We identified one haplotype that was protective against insulin resistance (determined by HOMA-IR and fasting plasma insulin levels, type 2 diabetes, an adverse lipid profile, increased C-reactive protein, and asymptomatic atherosclerotic disease (assessed by intima media thickness of the common carotid arteries. BMI and total adipose tissue mass as well as visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue mass did not differ between the reference and protective haplotypes. In 92 subjects, we observed an association of the protective haplotype with higher skeletal muscle mRNA levels of LOC646736, which is located in the same haplotype block as the informative SNPs and is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, but only at very low levels in liver or adipose tissues. These data suggest a role for LOC646736 in human insulin resistance and warrant further studies on the functional effects of this locus.

  13. Atherosclerosis in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the arteries. Clinical consequences of the atherosclerotic process occur in the adult population, however atherosclerotic process begins in childhood. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis include obesity, dyslipidaemia, age, gender or family history. In recent years, attention has been drawn to the similarity between atherosclerotic inflammatory processes and inflammatory changes in the course of systemic connective tissue disease, in particular systemic lupus etythematosus (SLE or rheumatoid arthritis (RA. There is also observed the similarity of the pathogenetic background of development of atherosclerosis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are observed in the course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Also homocysteine concentrations, which may play a significant role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are observed higher in patients with JIA. Some studies revealed higher carotid intima-media thickness (IMT index values in children with JIA. In view of the fact that atherosclerotic process begins as early as in childhood, the introduction of appropriate preventive measures in children is a matter of utmost importance.

  14. Predictive value of noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, IM; Bots, ML; Hofman, A; del Sol, AI; van der Kuip, DAM; Witteman, JCM

    2004-01-01

    Background - Several noninvasive methods are available to investigate the severity of extracoronary atherosclerotic disease. No population- based study has yet examined whether differences exist between these measures with regard to their predictive value for myocardial infarction (MI) or whether a

  15. Function of CD147 in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Jin, Rong; Zhu, Xiaolei; Yan, Jinchuan; Guohong, Li

    2015-01-01

    CD147, a member of the immunoglobulin super family, is a well-known potent inducer of extracellular matrix metalloproteinases. Studies show that CD147 is upregulated in inflammatory diseases. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Further understanding of the functions of CD147 in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis may provide a new strategy for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss how CD147 contributes to atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. PMID:25604960

  16. 78 FR 77138 - Proposed Collection; 60-day Comment Request: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... African American residents of the city. The primary objectives of the study are to: (1) investigate... respondents responses (hours) (hours) Participant Semiannual phone follow-up interview (Attachment 10,049 6 15/60 15,074 1) Non-Participant a. Physician contact for CHD deaths (Attachment 690 1 10/60 115 2) b...

  17. 76 FR 3146 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... study, review of their medical records, and interviews with doctors and family to identify disease... cardiovascular disease in middle aged and older men and women. Frequency of Response: The participants will be... households; Businesses or other for profit; Small businesses or organizations. Type of Respondents...

  18. 75 FR 7482 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... ARIC study, review of their medical records, and interviews with doctors and family to identify disease... cardiovascular disease in middle aged and older men and women. Frequency of Response: The participants will be contacted annually. Affected Public: Individuals or households; Businesses or other for profit; Small...

  19. Longitudinal assessment of carotid atherosclerosis after Radiation Therapy using Computed Tomography: A case control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzidei, Michele [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Suri, Jasjit S.; Piga, Mario [AtheroPoint TM LLC, Roseville, CA (United States). Monitoring and Diagnostic Div.; Global Biomedical Technologies, Inc., CA (United States). Point of Care Devices; Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Vascular Surgery; Laddeo, Giancarlo [New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria [Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Raz, Eytan [Rome Univ. ' ' La Sapienza' ' (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; New York Univ. Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2016-01-15

    To study the carotid artery plaque composition and its volume changes in a group of patients at baseline and 2 years after head and neck radiation therapy treatment (HNXRT). In this retrospective study, 62 patients (41 males; mean age 63 years; range 52-81) who underwent HNXRT and 40 patients (24 males; mean age 65) who underwent surgical resection of neoplasm and did not undergo HNXRT were assessed, with 2-year follow-up. The carotid artery plaque volumes, as well as the volume of the sub-components (fatty-mixed-calcified), were semiautomatically quantified. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to test the hypothesis. In the HNXRT group, there was a statistically significant increase in the total volume of the carotid artery plaques (from 533 to 746 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001), in the fatty plaques (103 vs. 202 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.001) and mixed plaque component volume (328 vs. 419 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.034). A statistically significant variation (from 21.8 % to 27.6 %) in the percentage of the fatty tissue was found. of this preliminary study suggest that HNXRT promotes increased carotid artery plaque volume, particularly the fatty plaque component. (orig.)

  20. Carotid Artery Distensibility and Hormone Therapy and Menopause: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study (LAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B. Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, the relation to hormone therapy use is controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use during different menopause stages. Methods 161 women between 42–61 years of age without cardiovascular disease had carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate the distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Over 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning, defined as change from premenopausal-to-perimenopausal, premenopausal-to-postmenopausal, perimenopausal-to-perimenopausal, or perimenopausal-to-postmenopausal. Results Distensibility declined over time in all menopause stages (pmenopause transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during menopause transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine if hormone therapy use beyond menopause transition is related to distensibility. PMID:26308234

  1. Carotid artery distensibility and hormone therapy and menopause: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies have suggested that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, its relationship with hormone therapy use remains controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use at different menopause stages. One hundred sixty-one women (aged between 42 and 61 y) without cardiovascular disease underwent carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Across 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning (defined as change from premenopausal to perimenopausal, from premenopausal to postmenopausal, from perimenopausal to perimenopausal, or from perimenopausal to postmenopausal). Distensibility declined across time at all menopause stages (P menopausal transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during the menopausal transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether hormone therapy use beyond the menopausal transition is related to distensibility.

  2. Nuclear medicine and atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.; Virgolini, I.

    1990-01-01

    Although the pathomechanisms of atherosclerosis are well known, their radioisotopic monitoring is still in its early childhood. The current radioisotope techniques are of only limited value for contributing to the clinical diagnosis of atherosclerosis. The limited reaction time of cellular blood constituents (platelets, monocytes) with the vascular surface at the injury site makes it very difficult to catch the point of injury. Lipoproteins excellently allow receptor imaging, while vascular monitoring is only of scientific interest at present. Labelling and subsequent imaging of components of the coagulation cascade have not succeeded so far, nor have attempts using unspecific labels such as porphyrin, polyclonal IgG and Fc fragments, for example. Preliminary evidence indicates that radioisotopic techniques may be of great benefit in the future in elucidating functional aspects of the disease, while they do not contribute to examining the stage and extent of atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  3. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Induces Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Savransky, Vladimir; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Bevans, Shannon; Smith, Philip L.; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea, a condition leading to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and a high cardiovascular risk. A causal link between obstructive sleep apnea and atherosclerosis has not been established.

  4. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  5. Opium consumption and coronary atherosclerosis in diabetic patients: a propensity score-matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Kianoosh; Masoudkabir, Farzad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali; Alipour-Parsa, Saeed; Sheikh Fathollahi, Mahmood; Rahimi-Foroushani, Abbas; Hakki, Elham; Goodarzynejad, Hamidreza; Eftekhar, Hassan

    2011-11-01

    There is a traditional belief among Eastern people that opium may have ameliorating effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes; thus, it is widely used among diabetic patients. We attempted to investigate the association of opium consumption with coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted on diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography in our center. Out of 1925 diabetic patients included in the study, 228 were opium users, and the remaining 1697 non-opium users were used as a pool of potential comparators. Propensity scores were used to match the 228 opium consumers with 228 matched comparators for age, sex, and smoking status. The Gensini score and extent score were respectively used to assess the angiographic severity and extent of CAD. The mean Gensini score (86.9 ± 62.7 vs. 59.6 ± 43.4, p opium user diabetic patients than in non-opium users. After adjustment for potential confounders, a dose-response relationship was observed between dose of opium and the Gensini score ( β = 0.27, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences between the routes of opium administration (inhalation vs. oral) regarding the severity and extent of CAD. In conclusion, exposure to opium in diabetic patients may be positively associated with the risk of CAD, and with the angiographically determined severity and extent of the disease. Furthermore, dosage of opium consumption may correlate with severity of CAD. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Stroke Mortality, Clinical Presentation and Day of Arrival: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. O'Brien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies report that acute stroke patients who present to the hospital on weekends have higher rates of 28-day mortality than similar patients who arrive during the week. However, how this association is related to clinical presentation and stroke type has not been systematically investigated. Methods and Results. We examined the association between day of arrival and 28-day mortality in 929 validated stroke events in the ARIC cohort from 1987–2004. Weekend arrival was defined as any arrival time from midnight Friday until midnight Sunday. Mortality was defined as all-cause fatal events from the day of arrival through the 28th day of followup. The presence or absence of thirteen stroke signs and symptoms were obtained through medical record review for each event. Binomial logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI for the association between weekend arrival and 28-day mortality for all stroke events and for stroke subtypes. The overall risk of 28-day mortality was 9.6% for weekday strokes and 10.1% for weekend strokes. In models controlling for patient demographics, clinical risk factors, and event year, weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day mortality (0.87; 0.51, 1.50. When stratified by stroke type, weekend arrival was not associated with increased odds of mortality for ischemic (1.17, 0.62, 2.23 or hemorrhagic (0.37; 0.11, 1.26 stroke patients. Conclusions. Presence or absence of thirteen signs and symptoms was similar for weekday patients and weekend patients when stratified by stroke type. Weekend arrival was not associated with 28-day all-cause mortality or differences in symptom presentation for strokes in this cohort.

  7. Prevalence and component analysis of metabolic syndrome: An Indian atherosclerosis research study perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikat Kanjilal

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Saikat Kanjilal3, Jayashree Shanker1, Veena S Rao2, Natesha B Khadrinarasimhaih2, Manjari Mukherjee4, Shamanna S Iyengar3, Vijay V Kakkar1,51Mary and Garry Weston Functional Genomics Unit, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, India; 2Tata Proteomics and Coagulation Unit, Thrombosis Research Institute, Bangalore, India; 3Division of Cardiology, St. Johns Medical College and Hospital, Bangalore, India; 4University Department of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India; 5Thrombosis Research Institute, Chelsea, London, UKAbstract: Asian Indians have a high predisposition to metabolic syndrome (MS and coronary artery disease (CAD. The present study aimed to estimate MS prevalence in 531 Asian Indian families comprising of 2318 individuals. Anthropometrics and lipid profile were assessed. MS prevalence was estimated using standard Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III and World Health Organisation (WHO criteria and modified definitions which included lowered cut-offs for waist circumference (WC (≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women], body mass index (BMI (≥23 kg/m2 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG levels. ATP-III criteria identified a significantly higher proportion of people with MS (N = 933; 40.3% compared with WHO (N = 708; 30.6%; p<0.0001 while modified ATP-III showed maximum gain in percent prevalence among the revised criteria (17.3%; p = 0.0056. The IDF criteria identified similar proportion of subjects with MS (N = 809; 34.9% as the revised WHO criteria (N = 792; 34.2%. The number of MS subjects was highest in the 50–59 years age group. MS was diagnosed a decade earlier in unaffected subjects compared with those with CAD/diabetes using the modified MS criteria. WC correlated significantly with BMI and waist–hip ratio (WHR (p = 0.000. Among MS components, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and BMI contributed significantly in males (71.4% and 85.9% and females (86.8% and 88.8%, respectively. The higher percentage contribution of WC

  8. Citrus Flavonoids as Regulators of Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, Erin E; Burke, Amy C; Huff, Murray W

    2016-07-17

    Citrus flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds with significant biological properties. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the ability of citrus flavonoids to modulate lipid metabolism, other metabolic parameters related to the metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Citrus flavonoids, including naringenin, hesperitin, nobiletin, and tangeretin, have emerged as potential therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic dysregulation. Epidemiological studies reveal an association between the intake of citrus flavonoid-containing foods and a decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Studies in cell culture and animal models, as well as a limited number of clinical studies, reveal the lipid-lowering, insulin-sensitizing, antihypertensive, and anti-inflammatory properties of citrus flavonoids. In animal models, supplementation of rodent diets with citrus flavonoids prevents hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance primarily through inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis and increased fatty acid oxidation. Citrus flavonoids blunt the inflammatory response in metabolically important tissues including liver, adipose, kidney, and the aorta. The mechanisms underlying flavonoid-induced metabolic regulation have not been completely established, although several potential targets have been identified. In mouse models, citrus flavonoids show marked suppression of atherogenesis through improved metabolic parameters as well as through direct impact on the vessel wall. Recent studies support a role for citrus flavonoids in the treatment of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Larger human studies examining dose, bioavailability, efficacy, and safety are required to promote the development of these promising therapeutic agents.

  9. Mediterranean diet score and left ventricular structure and function: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Emily B; Ahmed, Ali; Arnett, Donna K; Polak, Joseph F; Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David A; Heckbert, Susan R; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data are limited on the relation between dietary patterns and left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Objective: We examined cross-sectional associations of a diet-score assessment of a Mediterranean dietary pattern with LV mass, volume, mass-to-volume ratio, stroke volume, and ejection fraction. Design: We measured LV variables with the use of cardiac MRI in 4497 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study who were aged 45–84 y and without clinical cardiovascular disease. We calculated a Mediterranean diet score from intakes of fruit, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains, fish, red meat, the monounsaturated fat:saturated fat ratio, and alcohol that were self-reported with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression with adjustment for body size, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors to model associations and assess the shape of these associations (linear or quadratic). Results: The Mediterranean diet score had a slight U-shaped association with LV mass (adjusted means: 146, 145, 146, and 147 g across quartiles of diet score, respectively; P-quadratic trend = 0.04). The score was linearly associated with LV volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction: for each +1-U difference in score, LV volume was 0.4 mL higher (95% CI: 0.0, 0.8 mL higher), the stroke volume was 0.5 mL higher (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8 mL higher), and the ejection fraction was 0.2 percentage points higher (95% CI: 0.1, 0.3 percentage points higher). The score was not associated with the mass-to-volume ratio. Conclusions: A higher Mediterranean diet score is cross-sectionally associated with a higher LV mass, which is balanced by a higher LV volume as well as a higher ejection fraction and stroke volume. Participants in this healthy, multiethnic sample whose dietary patterns most closely conformed to a Mediterranean-type pattern had a modestly better LV structure and function than did participants with less

  10. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Cassandra S; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L; Manichaikul, Ani W; Rich, Stephen S; St-Jules, David E; Steffen, Brian T; Tsai, Michael Y; Siscovick, David S; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C

    2016-01-01

    Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Absence of associations between acculturation and

  11. Atrial fibrillation and cognitive decline-the role of subclinical cerebral infarcts: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin Y; Lopez, Faye L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Huxley, Rachel R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura; Mosley, Thomas; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism underlying the association of atrial fibrillation (AF) with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals is unclear. We examined the association of incident AF with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals, stratified by subclinical cerebral infarcts (SCIs) on brain MRI scans. We analyzed data from 935 stroke-free participants (mean age±SD, 61.5±4.3 years; 62% women; and 51% black) from 1993 to 1995 through 2004 to 2006 in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, a biracial community-based prospective cohort study. Cognitive testing (including the digit symbol substitution and the word fluency tests) was performed in 1993 to 1995, 1996 to 1998, and 2004 to 2006 and brain MRI scans in 1993 to 1995 and 2004 to 2006. During follow-up, there were 48 incident AF events. Incident AF was associated with greater annual average rate of decline in digit symbol substitution (-0.77; 95% confidence interval, -1.55 to 0.01; P=0.054) and word fluency (-0.80; 95% confidence interval, -1.60 to -0.01; P=0.048). Among participants without SCIs on brain MRI scans, incident AF was not associated with cognitive decline. In contrast, incident AF was associated with greater annual average rate of decline in word fluency (-2.65; 95% confidence interval, -4.26 to -1.03; P=0.002) among participants with prevalent SCIs in 1993 to 1995. Among participants who developed SCIs during follow-up, incident AF was associated with a greater annual average rate of decline in digit symbol substitution (-1.51; 95% confidence interval, -3.02 to -0.01; P=0.049). The association of incident AF with cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals can be explained by the presence or development of SCIs, raising the possibility of anticoagulation as a strategy to prevent cognitive decline in AF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Dietary Protein Sources and Risk for Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: Results From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Bernhard; Selvin, Elizabeth; Liang, Menglu; Coresh, Josef; Grams, Morgan E; Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebholz, Casey M

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Long-term data on the relationship between dietary protein sources and risk for incident kidney disease in individuals with normal kidney function are largely missing. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary protein sources and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants from 4 US communities. A total of 11,952 adults aged 44-66 years in 1987-1989 who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 . A 66-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake. CKD stage 3 was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ≥25% from baseline resulting in an eGFR of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ; CKD-related hospitalization; CKD-related death; or end-stage renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,632 incident CKD cases. Red and processed meat consumption was associated with increased CKD risk (HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.42, p trend  = 0.01). In contrast, higher dietary intake of nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower CKD risk (nuts: HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.92, p trend protein sources with risk of incident CKD; with red and processed meat being adversely associated with CKD risk; and nuts, low-fat dairy products, and legumes being protective against the development of CKD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupation recorded on certificates of death compared with self-report: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Susanne H

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Death certificates are a potential source of sociodemographic data for decedents in epidemiologic research. However, because this information is provided by the next-of-kin or other proxies, there are concerns about validity. Our objective was to assess the agreement of job titles and occupational categories derived from death certificates with that self-reported in mid and later life. Methods Occupation was abstracted from 431 death certificates from North Carolina Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants who died between 1987 and 2001. Occupations were coded according to 1980 Bureau of Census job titles and then grouped into six 1980 census occupational categories. This information was compared with the self-reported occupation at midlife as reported at the baseline examination (1987–89. We calculated percent agreement using standard methods. Chance-adjusted agreement was assessed by kappa coefficients, with 95% confidence intervals. Results Agreement between death certificate and self-reported job titles was poor (32%, while 67% of occupational categories matched the two sources. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.53 for technical/sales/administrative jobs to 0.68 for homemakers. Agreement was lower, albeit nonsignificant, for women (kappa = 0.54, 95% Confidence Interval, CI = 0.44–0.63 than men (kappa = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.54–0.69 and for African-Americans (kappa = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.34–0.61 than whites (kappa = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.57–0.69 but varied only slightly by educational attainment. Conclusion While agreement between self- and death certificate reported job titles was poor, agreement between occupational categories was good. This suggests that while death certificates may not be a suitable source of occupational data where classification into specific job titles is essential, in the absence of other data, it is a reasonable source for constructing measures such as occupational SES that are based on

  14. What Is Atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... builds up in the renal arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your kidneys. Over time, chronic kidney disease causes a slow loss of kidney function. The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste and extra water from the body. Overview The cause of atherosclerosis ...

  15. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  16. Appraisal of different ultrasonography indices in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rafati, Mehravar; Havaee, Elham; Moladoust, Hassan; Sehhati, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    In this study a semi-automated image-processing based method was designed in which the parameters such as intima-media thickness (IMT), resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), dicrotic notch index (DNI), and mean wavelet entropy (MWE) were evaluated in B-mode and Doppler ultrasound in patients presenting with carotid artery atherosclerosis. In a cross-sectional design, 144 men were divided into four groups of control, mild, moderate and severe stenosis subjects. In all individuals, far ...

  17. Assessment on the Prevention of Progression by Rosiglitazone on Atherosclerosis in diabetes patients with Cardiovascular History (APPROACH): study design and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Robert E; Cannon, Christopher P; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Nesto, Richard W; Serruys, Patrick W; Van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Kolatkar, Nikheel S; Kravitz, Barbara G; Zalewski, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Peter J

    2008-12-01

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has effects on insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors that may favorably impact the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. APPROACH is a double-blind randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone with the insulin secretagogue glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention are randomized to receive rosiglitazone or glipizide for 18 months using a titration algorithm designed to provide comparable glycemic control between treatment groups. The primary end point is change in percent atheroma volume from baseline to study completion in a nonintervened coronary artery, as measured by intravascular ultrasound. Cardiovascular events are adjudicated by an end point committee. A total of 672 patients were randomized. The mean age was 61 years, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) 7.2%, body mass index 29.5 kg/m(2), and median duration of diabetes 4.8 years. At baseline, approximately half of the participants were receiving oral antidiabetic monotherapy (53.9%) with 27.5% receiving dual combination therapy and 17.9% treated with diet and exercise alone. Approximately two thirds of the participants (68%) had dyslipidemia, 79.9% hypertension, and 24% prior myocardial infarction. APPROACH has fully enrolled a high-risk patient population and will compare the glucose-independent effects of rosiglitazone and glipizide on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis, as well as provide additional data on the cardiovascular safety of rosiglitazone in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease.

  18. Association of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy with carotid atherosclerosis and soluble thrombomodulin: the vascular aging (EVA) study. Etude du Vieillissement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Laure; van Oort, Floor V A; Le Gal, Grégoire; Mennen, Louise I; Alhenc-Gelas, Martine; Touboul, Pierre-Jean; Zureik, Mahmoud; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves

    2002-02-15

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may reduce atherosclerosis among postmenopausal women, partly by reducing vascular endothelium damage. We have tested this hypothesis by evaluating the association of HRT with firstly, carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and plaques, and secondly, with endothelial cell damage, indicated by soluble thrombomodulin (sTM). Then, we tested the association between the two markers of atherosclerosis and the levels of sTM. Among 747 postmenopausal women included into the EVA study, we compared 154 HRT users (including 80% transdermal treatment) with 593 never users. Carotid IMT and plaques were measured with B-mode ultrasonography and sTM with ELISA. At least one plaque was detected among 13.6% of HRT users and 27.3% of never users. After adjustment for confounding factors, the odds ratio for the presence of plaque was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.78, P=0.005) in HRT users in comparison with nonusers. HRT users had a slightly lower crude mean IMT than nonusers, but the difference was not significant. sTM was positively associated with mean IMT (P for trend=0.001) but not with plaques. Finally, estrogen users had a lower sTM level than nonusers (difference 0.14 ng/ml, P=0.03). As HRT was associated with sTM and plaques, but not with IMT, while sTM was only associated with IMT, our hypothesis was not confirmed. This suggests that the possible beneficial effects of HRT on atherosclerosis may not go through the endothelial cell damage assessed by plasma thrombomodulin.

  19. Ten-year trends in coronary calcification in individuals without clinical cardiovascular disease in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E Bild

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD incidence has declined significantly in the US, as have levels of major coronary risk factors, including LDL-cholesterol, hypertension and smoking, but whether trends in subclinical atherosclerosis mirror these trends is not known.To describe recent secular trends in subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by serial evaluations of coronary artery calcification (CAC prevalence in a population over 10 years, we measured CAC using computed tomography (CT and CHD risk factors in five serial cross-sectional samples of men and women from four race/ethnic groups, aged 55-84 and without clinical cardiovascular disease, who were members of Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA cohort from 2000 to 2012. Sample sizes ranged from 1062 to 4837. After adjusting for age, gender, and CT scanner, the prevalence of CAC increased across exams among African Americans, whose prevalence of CAC was 52.4% in 2000-02, 50.4% in 2003-04, 60.0% is 2005-06, 57.4% in 2007-08, and 61.3% in 2010-12 (p for trend <0.001. The trend was strongest among African Americans aged 55-64 [prevalence ratio for 2010-12 vs. 2000-02, 1.59 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.39; p = 0.005 for trend across exams]. There were no consistent trends in any other ethnic group. Risk factors generally improved in the cohort, and adjustment for risk factors did not change trends in CAC prevalence.There was a significant secular trend towards increased prevalence of CAC over 10 years among African Americans and no change in three other ethnic groups. Trends did not reflect concurrent general improvement in risk factors. The trend towards a higher prevalence of CAC in African Americans suggests that CHD risk in this population is not improving relative to other groups.

  20. Asymmetrical distribution of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery: identical patterns across age, race, and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajik, Parvin; Meijer, Rudy; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Peters, Sanne A. E.; Kastelein, John J.; Visseren, Frank J.; Crouse, John R.; Palmer, Mike K.; Raichlen, Joel S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Small autopsy studies and clinical practice indicated that carotid atherosclerosis develops in an asymmetrical helical pattern coinciding with regions of low shear stress. We investigated the distribution of carotid atherosclerosis as determined by maximum carotid intima-media thickness

  1. Influence of Erythrocyte Membrane Stability in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Garrote-Filho, Mario; Bernardino-Neto, Morun; Penha-Silva, Nilson

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to show how an excess of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane contributes stochastically to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to damage in blood rheology and O 2 transport, deposition of cholesterol (from trapped erythrocytes) in an area of intraplaque hemorrhage, and local exacerbation of oxidative stress. Cholesterol contained in the membrane of erythrocytes trapped in an intraplaque hemorrhage contributes to the growth of the necrotic nucleus. There is even a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in the erythrocyte membrane and the severity of atherosclerosis. In addition, the volume variability among erythrocytes, measured by RDW, is predictive of a worsening of this disease. Erythrocytes contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in several ways, especially when trapped in intraplate hemorrhage. These erythrocytes are oxidized and phagocytosed by macrophages. The cholesterol present in the membrane of these erythrocytes subsequently contributes to the growth of the atheroma plaque. In addition, when they rupture, erythrocytes release hemoglobin, which leads to the generation of free radicals. Finally, increased RDW may predict the worsening of atherosclerosis, due to the effects of inflammation and oxidative stress on erythropoiesis and erythrocyte volume. A better understanding of erythrocyte participation in atherosclerosis may contribute to the improvement of the prevention and treatment strategies of this disease.

  2. Cyanotic congenital heart disease and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarp, Julie Bjerre; Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Engstrøm, Thomas; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Søndergaard, Lars

    2017-06-01

    Improved treatment options in paediatric cardiology and congenital heart surgery have resulted in an ageing population of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). The risk of acquired heart disease such as atherosclerosis increases with age.Previous studies have speculated whether patients with CCHD are protected against atherosclerosis. Results have shown that the coronary arteries of patients with CCHD are free from plaques and stenosis. Decreased carotid intima-media thickness and low total plasma cholesterol may indicate a reduced risk of later development of atherosclerosis. However, the evidence is still sparse and questionable, and a reasonable explanation for the decreased risk of developing atherosclerosis in patients with CCHD is still missing.This review provides an overview of what is known about the prevalence and potential causes of the reduced risk of atherosclerosis in patients with CCHD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Problems of procedure for studying crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, A.V.; Uskov, E.I.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures are developed for studying crack resistance in sintered hot-worked tungsten within 20-2200 deg C. Certain structural properties of the installation for studying high-temperature crack resistance of tungsten are considered. Technological peculiarities of eccentric tensile strength of tungsten specimens and methodical peculiarities of initjation and fixation of initial cracks in specimens of different tungsten alloys are studied

  4. Comparative prognostic performance of definitions of prediabetes: a prospective cohort analysis of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bethany; Pankow, James S; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Punjabi, Naresh M; Daya, Natalie R; Grams, Morgan; Woodward, Mark; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    No consensus on definitions of prediabetes exists among international organisations. Analysis of associations with different definitions and clinical complications can inform the comparative value of different prediabetes definitions. We compared the risk of future outcomes across different prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration, HbA 1c , and 2 h glucose concentration during over two decades of follow-up in the community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We aimed to analyse the associations of definitions with outcomes to provide a comparison of different definitions. We did a prospective cohort study of participants in the ARIC study who did not have diagnosed diabetes and who attended visit 2 (1990-92; n=10 844) and who attended visit 4 (1996-98; n=7194). ARIC participants were enrolled from four communities across the USA. Fasting glucose concentration and HbA 1c were measured at visit 2 and fasting glucose concentration and 2 h glucose concentration were measured at visit 4. We compared prediabetes definitions based on fasting glucose concentration (American Diabetes Association [ADA] fasting glucose concentration cutoff 5·6-6·9 mmol/L and WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff 6·1-6·9 mmol/L), HbA 1c (ADA HbA 1c cutoff 5·7-6·4% [39-46 mmol/mol] and International Expert Committee [IEC] HbA 1c cutoff 6·0-6·4% [42-46 mmol/mol]), and 2 h glucose concentration (ADA and WHO 2 h glucose concentration cutoff 7·8-11·0 mmol/L). Prediabetes defined using the ADA fasting glucose concentration cutoff (prevalence 4112 [38%] of 10 844 people; 95% CI 37·0-38·8) was the most sensitive for major clinical outcomes, whereas using the ADA HbA 1c cutoff (2027 [19%] of 10 884 people; 18·0-19·4) and IEC HbA 1c cutoff (970 [9%] of 10 844 people; 8·4-9·5), and the WHO fasting glucose concentration cutoff (1213 [11%] of 10 844 people; 10·6-11·8) were more specific. After demographic adjustment, HbA 1c -based

  5. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: a 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagvasumberel, Munkhbaatar; Shimabukuro, Michio; Nishiuchi, Takeshi; Ueno, Junji; Takao, Shoichiro; Fukuda, Daiju; Hirata, Yoichiro; Kurobe, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Iwase, Takashi; Kusunose, Kenya; Niki, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji; Taketani, Yoshio; Yagi, Shusuke; Tomita, Noriko; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Harada, Masafumi; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Sata, Masataka

    2012-09-10

    Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV) and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43) who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-sectional epicardial fat area on CT images, from the lower surface of the left pulmonary artery origin to the apex. Subjects were segregated into the CAD group (coronary luminal narrowing > 50%) and non-CAD group. EATV/body surface area (BSA) was higher among men in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (62 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 10 cm3/m2, p EATV/BSA was the single predictor for >50% coronary luminal narrowing in men (p EATV is strongly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in men.

  6. Gender disparities in the association between epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerosis: A 3-dimensional cardiac computed tomography imaging study in Japanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagvasumberel Munkhbaatar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence suggests that epicardial adipose tissue (EAT may contribute to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD. In this study, we explored gender disparities in EAT volume (EATV and its impact on coronary atherosclerosis. Methods The study population consisted of 90 consecutive subjects (age: 63 ± 12 years; men: 47, women: 43 who underwent 256-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT coronary angiography. EATV was measured as the sum of cross-sectional epicardial fat area on CT images, from the lower surface of the left pulmonary artery origin to the apex. Subjects were segregated into the CAD group (coronary luminal narrowing > 50% and non-CAD group. Results EATV/body surface area (BSA was higher among men in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (62 ± 13 vs. 33 ± 10 cm3/m2, p 3/m2, not significant. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that EATV/BSA was the single predictor for >50% coronary luminal narrowing in men (p Conclusions Increased EATV is strongly associated with coronary atherosclerosis in men.

  7. Association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with early carotid artery atherosclerosis: A cross-sectional study in middle-aged Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengguo; Sun, Xiaohui; Lin, Hanli; Zheng, Ruizhi; Ruan, Liansheng; Sun, Zhanhang; Zhu, Yimin

    2018-03-21

    Homocysteine is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The association between hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome with the presence of early carotid artery atherosclerosis remains unknown in middle-aged Chinese adults. Chinese adults (n = 1607) of Han ethnicity, age 35 to 65 y, and living in their communities >2 y were surveyed. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as homocysteine concentrations >15 µmol/L. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque were examined by ultrasonography. All participants were classified into four groups by hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome status. Participants with both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome had the highest levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure compared with the three other groups. The highest proportion of increased carotid intima-media thickness (61.3%) was in the subgroup of both hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. After adjustments for the covariates, the risk of increased carotid intima-media thickness was only significantly higher in the group with metabolic syndrome but without hyperhomocysteinemia (odds ratio: 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.93) compared with people without hyperhomocysteinemia and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, statistically significant variances of prevalence of plaque among the four subgroups were not discovered. Our study demonstrated that metabolic syndrome had a strong effect on carotid intima-media thickness However, the increased homocysteine levels were not significantly associated with early carotid artery atherosclerosis in middle-aged Chinese people. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Osteoprotegerin as a marker of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Susanne Elisabeth; Poulsen, Tina Svenstrup; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in development of atherosclerosis. To evaluate plasma concentrations of OPG in individuals with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) a syste......Abstract Objective: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in development of atherosclerosis. To evaluate plasma concentrations of OPG in individuals with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBVD...... with clearly defined cohorts qualified for this review. Results: In 11 studies OPG concentrations were elevated. Severity of atherosclerosis was significantly associated with higher OPG concentrations compared to healthy controls. No association between PAD and OPG concentrations was observed. Conclusion: OPG...

  9. Effect of uremia on HDL composition, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild-type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Christian A; Bro, Susanne; Bartels, Emil D

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type mice normally do not develop atherosclerosis, unless fed cholic acid. Uremia is proinflammatory and increases atherosclerosis 6- to 10-fold in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This study examined the effect of uremia on lipoproteins, vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis in wild...... in cholic acid-fed sham mice. The results suggest that moderate uremia neither induces aortic inflammation nor atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice despite increased LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio and altered HDL composition....

  10. [Insulin resistance--a physiopathological condition with numerous sequelae: non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), android obesity, essential hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, O

    1992-05-11

    Recent research has demonstrated that reduced insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle (insulin resistance) and hyperinsulinism are common features in widespread diseases such as essential hypertension, android obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia (in the form of raised serum triglyceride and reduced serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) and arteriosclerosis. Simultaneously, investigations in a comprehensive group of healthy middle-aged men have revealed insulin resistance in one fourth. On the basis of these observations, a working hypothesis is suggested which postulates that genetic abnormalities in one or more of the candidate genes in the modes of action of insulin occur in a great proportion of the population. These may result in insulin resistance (primary genetic insulin resistance). Primary insulin resistance may be potentiated by a series of circumstances such as ageing, high-fat diet, lack of physical activity, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities or drugs (secondary insulin resistance). As a consequence of the reduced effect of insulin on muscle tissue, compensatory hyperinsulinism develops. Depending on the remaining vulnerability of the individual the hyperinsulinism is presumed to result in development of one or more phenotypes. For example if the beta-cells of the pancreas are unable to secrete sufficient insulin to compensate the insulin resistance on account of genetic defects, glucose intolerance will develop. In a similar manner, hyperinsulinism in insulin-resistant individuals who are predisposed to essential hypertension is presumed to reveal genetic defects in the blood pressure regulating mechanisms and thus contribute to development of the disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Undergraduate Students' Resistance to Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Sedat

    2006-01-01

    Research indicate that students generally fail to benefit from study skills courses and show resistance to this course in higher education level. The purpose of this research is to investigate reasons why students show resistance to the course of study skills and habits. In this research, a qualitative design utilizing retrospective interviews was…

  12. Electrical resistivity study of insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liesegang, J.; Senn, B.C.; Holcombe, S.R.; Pigram, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Conventional methods of electrical resistivity measurement of dielectric materials involve the application of electrodes to a sample whereby a potential is applied and a current through the material is measured. Although great care and ingenuity has often been applied to this technique, the recorded values of electrical resistivity (p), especially for insulator materials, show great disparity. In earlier work by the authors, a method for determining surface charge decay [Q(t)], using a coaxial cylindrical capacitor arrangement interfaced to a personal computer, was adapted to allow the relatively straightforward measurement of electrical resistivity in the surface region of charged insulator materials. This method was used to develop an ionic charge transport theory, based on Mott-Gurney diffusion to allow a greater understanding into charge transport behaviour. This theory was extended using numerical analysis to produce a two dimensional (2-D) computational model to allow the direct comparison between experimental and theoretical charge decay data. The work also provided a means for the accurate determination of the diffusion coefficient (D) and the layer of thickness of surface charge (Δz) on the sample. The work outlined here involves an extension of the theoretical approach previously taken, using a computational model based more closely on the 3-D experimental set-up, to reinforce the level of confidence in the results achieved for the simpler 2-D treatment. Initially, a 3-D rectangular box arrangement similar to the experimental set-up was modelled and a theoretical and experimental comparison of voltage decay results made. This model was then transferred into cylindrical coordinates to allow it to be almost identical to the experiment and again a comparison made. In addition, theoretical analysis of the coupled non-linear partial differential equations governing the charge dissipation process has led to a simplification involving directly, the

  13. Pulmonary artery stiffness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ying; Parikh, Megha; Bluemke, David A; Balte, Pallavi; Carr, James; Dashnaw, Stephen; Poor, Hooman D; Gomes, Antoinette S; Hoffman, Eric A; Kawut, Steven M; Lima, Joao A C; McAllister, David A; Prince, Martin A; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Barr, R Graham

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and particularly emphysema are characterized by stiffness of the aorta, due in part to accelerated elastin degradation in the lungs and aorta. Stiffness of the pulmonary arteries (PAs) may also be increased in COPD and emphysema, but data are lacking. We assessed PA stiffness using MRI in patients with COPD and related these measurements to COPD severity and percent emphysema. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study recruited 290 participants, age 50-79 years with 10 or more packyears and free of clinical cardiovascular disease. COPD severity were defined on postbronchodilator spirometry by ATS/ERS criteria. Percent emphysema was defined as the percentage of regions of the lung COPD compared with controls (P = 0.002) and was inversely correlated with COPD severity (P = 0.004). PA strain was inversely associated to percent emphysema (P = 0.01). PA strain was also markedly correlated with right ventricular diastolic dysfunction measured by E/A ratios in the fully adjusted mix models (P = 0.02). PA strain is reduced in COPD, related in part to percent emphysema on CT scan, which may have implications for pulmonary small vessel flow and right ventricular function. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:262-271. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Genome-Wide Study of Percent Emphysema on Computed Tomography in the General Population. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung/SNP Health Association Resource Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manichaikul, Ani; Hoffman, Eric A.; Smolonska, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Cho, Michael H.; Baumhauer, Heather; Budoff, Matthew; Austin, John H. M.; Washko, George R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kaufman, Joel D.; Pottinger, Tess; Powell, Charles A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Groen, Harry J. M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wanner, Adam; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Powell, Rhea; Smith, Benjamin M.; Rabinowitz, Dan; Raffel, Leslie J.; Hinckley Stukovsky, Karen D.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Dupuis, Josée; O’Connor, George T.; Boezen, H. Marike; Rich, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering. Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed tomography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung/SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) Study, a large, population-based cohort in the United States. Methods: We determined percent emphysema and upper-lower lobe ratio in emphysema defined by lung regions less than −950 HU on cardiac scans. Genetic analyses were reported combined across four race/ethnic groups: non-Hispanic white (n = 2,587), African American (n = 2,510), Hispanic (n = 2,113), and Chinese (n = 704) and stratified by race and ethnicity. Measurements and Main Results: Among 7,914 participants, we identified regions at genome-wide significance for percent emphysema in or near SNRPF (rs7957346; P = 2.2 × 10−8) and PPT2 (rs10947233; P = 3.2 × 10−8), both of which replicated in an additional 6,023 individuals of European ancestry. Both single-nucleotide polymorphisms were previously implicated as genes influencing lung function, and analyses including lung function revealed independent associations for percent emphysema. Among Hispanics, we identified a genetic locus for upper-lower lobe ratio near the α-mannosidase–related gene MAN2B1 (rs10411619; P = 1.1 × 10−9; minor allele frequency [MAF], 4.4%). Among Chinese, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with upper-lower lobe ratio near DHX15 (rs7698250; P = 1.8 × 10−10; MAF, 2.7%) and MGAT5B (rs7221059; P = 2.7 × 10−8; MAF, 2.6%), which acts on α-linked mannose. Among African Americans, a locus near a third α-mannosidase–related gene, MAN1C1 (rs12130495; P = 9.9 × 10−6; MAF, 13.3%) was associated with percent emphysema. Conclusions: Our results suggest that some genes previously identified as

  15. Predictors of coronary heart disease events among asymptomatic persons with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankstein, Ron; Budoff, Matthew J; Shaw, Leslee J; Goff, David C; Polak, Joseph F; Lima, Joao; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2011-07-19

    Our aim was to identify risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) events among asymptomatic persons with low (≤ 130 mg/dl) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Even among persons with low LDL-C, some will still experience CHD events and may benefit from more aggressive pharmacologic and lifestyle therapies. The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort of 6,814 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease. Of 5,627 participants who were not receiving any baseline lipid-lowering therapies, 3,714 (66%) had LDL-C ≤ 130 mg/dl and were included in the present study. Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios were calculated to assess the association of traditional risk factors and biomarkers with CHD events. To determine if subclinical atherosclerosis markers provided additional information beyond traditional risk factors, coronary artery calcium (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness were each separately added to the multivariable model. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, 120 (3.2%) CHD events were observed. In unadjusted analysis, age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglycerides, and subclinical atherosclerosis markers (CAC >0; carotid intima media thickness ≥1 mm) predicted CHD events. Independent predictors of CHD events included age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C. After accounting for all traditional risk factors, the predictive value of CAC was attenuated but remained highly significant. The relationship of all independent clinical predictors remained robust even after accounting for elevated CAC. Among persons with low LDL-C, older age, male sex, hypertension, diabetes, and low HDL-C are associated with adverse CHD events. Even after accounting for all such variables, the presence of CAC provided incremental prognostic value. These results may serve as a basis for deciding which patients with low LDL-C may be considered for

  16. Cyanotic congenital heart disease and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Julie Bjerre; Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Improved treatment options in paediatric cardiology and congenital heart surgery have resulted in an ageing population of patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). The risk of acquired heart disease such as atherosclerosis increases with age.Previous studies have speculated whether...

  17. Association of Geography and Ambient Air Pollution with Urine Metal Concentrations in Six US Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjie Pang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations of urinary concentrations of antimony, cadmium, tungsten and uranium with geographic locations and with ambient air pollution in 304 adults in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis from six US cities. After adjustment for sociodemographics, body mass index, and smoking status, urinary cadmium was the highest in Winston-Salem among all study sites (the geometric mean [GM] in Winston-Salem was 0.84 µg/L [95% confidence interval (CI 0.57–1.22]. The adjusted GMs of urinary tungsten and uranium were highest in Los Angeles (0.11 µg/L [95% CI 0.08–0.16] and 0.019 µg/L [95% CI 0.016–0.023], respectively. The adjusted GM ratio comparing fine particulate matter (PM2.5 tertiles 2 and 3 with the lowest tertile were 1.64 (95% CI 1.05–2.56 and 3.55 (95% CI 2.24–5.63 for tungsten, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.94–1.48 and 1.70 (95% CI 1.34–2.14 for uranium. The results for tungsten remained similar after adjustment for study site. Urinary cadmium, tungsten and uranium concentrations differed by geographic locations in MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis communities. PM2.5 levels could contribute to geographic differences in tungsten exposure. These findings highlight the need to implement preventive strategies to decrease toxic metal exposure and to evaluate the health effects of chronic exposure to those metals.

  18. Femoral Artery Atherosclerosis Is Associated With Physical Function Across the Spectrum of the Ankle-Brachial Index: The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassel, Christina L; Ellis, Alicia M; Suder, Natalie C; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Rifkin, Dena E; Forbang, Nketi I; Denenberg, Julie O; Marasco, Antoinette M; McQuaide, Belinda J; Jenny, Nancy S; Allison, Matthew A; Ix, Joachim H; Criqui, Michael H

    2017-07-20

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is inadequate to detect early-stage atherosclerotic disease, when interventions to prevent functional decline may be the most effective. We determined associations of femoral artery atherosclerosis with physical functioning, across the spectrum of the ABI, and within the normal ABI range. In 2007-2011, 1103 multiethnic men and women participated in the San Diego Population Study, and completed all components of the summary performance score. Using Doppler ultrasound, superficial and common femoral intima media thickness and plaques were ascertained. Logistic regression was used to assess associations of femoral atherosclerosis with the summary performance score and its individual components. Models were adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, lipids, and kidney function. In adjusted models, among participants with a normal-range ABI (1.00-1.30), the highest tertile of superficial intima media thickness was associated with lower odds of a perfect summary performance score of 12 (odds ratio=0.56 [0.36, 0.87], P =0.009), and lower odds of a 4-m walk score of 4 (0.34 [0.16, 0.73], P =0.006) and chair rise score of 4 (0.56 [0.34, 0.94], P =0.03). Plaque presence (0.53 [0.29, 0.99], P =0.04) and greater total plaque burden (0.61 [0.43, 0.87], P =0.006) were associated with worse 4-m walk performance in the normal-range ABI group. Higher superficial intima media thickness was associated with lower summary performance score in all individuals ( P =0.02). Findings suggest that use of femoral artery atherosclerosis measures may be effective in individuals with a normal-range ABI, especially, for example, those with diabetes mellitus or a family history of peripheral artery disease, when detection can lead to earlier intervention to prevent functional declines and improve quality of life. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. Vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis is an early trigger for hypothyroid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Xu, Tian-Ying; Guan, Yun-Feng; Zhao, Yan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Lan, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Xia; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Kang, Zhi-Min; Vanhoutte, Paul M; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is an initial and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis, a later step of atherosclerosis. Hypothyroidism accelerates atherosclerosis. However, the early events responsible for this pro-atherosclerotic effect are unclear. Rats were resistant to induction of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol diet alone, but became susceptible in hypothyroid state achieved by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 weeks. VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis were obvious within 1 week after PTU treatment, without signs of endothelial dysfunction. This early VSMC damage was caused by hypothyroidism but not the high cholesterol diet. In ApoE knockout mice, PTU-induced hypothyroidism triggered early VSMC apoptosis, increased oxidative stress, and accelerated atherosclerosis development. Thyroid hormone supplementation (T4, 10, or 50 μg/kg) prevented atherogenic phenotypes in hypothyroid rats and mice. In rats, thyroidectomy caused severe hypothyroidism 5 days after operation, which also led to rapid VSMC dysfunction and apoptosis. In vitro studies did not show a direct toxic effect of PTU on VSMCs. In contrast, thyroid hormone (T3, 0.75 μg/L plus T4, 50 nmol/L) exerted a direct protection against VSMC apoptosis, which was reduced by knockdown of TRα1, rather than TRβ1 and TRβ2 receptors. TRα1-mediated inhibition of apoptotic signalling of JNKs and caspase-3 contributed to the anti-apoptotic action of thyroid hormone. These findings provide an in vivo example for VSMC apoptosis as an early trigger of hypothyroidism-associated atherosclerosis, and reveal activation of TRα1 receptors to prevent VSMC apoptosis as a therapeutic strategy in this disease. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Latin America and its association with sub-clinical carotid atherosclerosis: the CARMELA cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Marta

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome increases cardiovascular risk. Limited information on its prevalence in Latin America is available. The Cardiovascular Risk Factor Multiple Evaluation in Latin America (CARMELA study included assessment of metabolic syndrome in 7 urban Latin American populations. Methods CARMELA was a cross-sectional, population-based, observational study conducted in Barquisimeto, Venezuela; Bogota, Colombia; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Lima, Peru; Mexico City, Mexico; Quito, Ecuador; and Santiago, Chile. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome, defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III, and associated carotid atherosclerosis were investigated in 11,502 participants aged 25 to 64 years. Results Across CARMELA cities, metabolic syndrome was most prevalent in Mexico City (27% and Barquisimeto (26%, followed by Santiago (21%, Bogota (20%, Lima (18%, Buenos Aires (17%, and Quito (14%. In nondiabetic participants, prevalence was slightly lower but followed a comparable ranking. Overall, 59%, 59%, and 73% of women with high triglycerides, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, and 64%, 48% and 71% of men with abdominal obesity, hypertension, or glucose abnormalities, respectively, had the full metabolic syndrome. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age, markedly so in women. Mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCAIMT and prevalence of carotid plaque increased steeply with increasing numbers of metabolic syndrome components; mean CCAIMT was higher and plaque more prevalent in participants with metabolic syndrome than without. Conclusion The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components by NCEP ATP III criteria was substantial across cities, ranging from 14% to 27%. CARMELA findings, including evidence of the association of metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis, should inform appropriate clinical and public health

  1. Longitudinal Patterns of Change in Systolic Blood Pressure and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Viera, Anthony J; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul; Avery, Christy L; Schneider, Andrea L C; Couper, David; Kucharska-Newton, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure in midlife contributes significantly to the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, patterns of blood pressure increase may differ among individuals and may result in differential risk. Our goal was to examine the contribution of longitudinal patterns of blood pressure change to incidence of heart failure, coronary heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disease mortality. Latent class growth models were used to identify patterns of change in blood pressure across 4 clinical examinations (1987-1998) among 9845 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort participants (mean age, 53.7 [SD 5.7] years). Patterns of change in systolic blood pressure included slowly and steeply increasing, a decreasing and a sustained elevated blood pressure. Changes in diastolic and mid-blood pressure (½ systolic+½ diastolic) were less pronounced. The association of blood pressure pattern group membership with incidence of clinical outcomes was examined in follow-up from the fourth clinical examination (1996-1998) to December 31, 2011, using Poisson regression models adjusted for demographic and metabolic characteristics, and hypertension medication use. A gradient of rates of all events was observed across the identified patterns. Associations were attenuated after adjustment for covariates. Cumulative systolic blood pressure load, rather than the temporal pattern of change in systolic blood pressure itself, plays a role in determining the risk of cardiovascular disease, in particular, of heart failure and cardiovascular disease mortality, independent of blood pressure level measured at one point in time. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Atherosclerosis in epilepsy: its causes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Sherifa A

    2014-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological, longitudinal, prospective, double-blinded clinical trials as well as case reports documents age-accelerated atherosclerosis with increased carotid artery intima media thickness (CA-IMT) in patients with epilepsy. These findings raise concern regarding their implications for age-accelerated cognitive and behavioral changes in midlife and risk of later age-related cognitive disorders including neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic epilepsy, cerebral atherosclerosis, and age-related cognitive disorders including AD share many clinical manifestations (e.g. characteristic cognitive deficits), risk factors, and structural and pathological brain abnormalities. These shared risk factors include increased CA-IMT, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), lipid abnormalities, weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and high levels of inflammatory and oxidative stresses. The resulting brain structural and pathological abnormalities include decreased volume of the hippocampus, increased cortical thinning of the frontal lobe, ventricular expansion and increased white matter ischemic disease, total brain atrophy, and β-amyloid protein deposition in the brain. The knowledge that age-accelerated atherosclerosis may contribute to age-accelerated cognitive and behavioral abnormalities and structural brain pathologies in patients with chronic epilepsy represents an important research path to pursue future clinical and management considerations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. NMR imaging of human atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognosis of atherosclerosis can no longer be evaluated with morphological parameters only. A description of atherosclerotic plaque composition is necessary to study the mechanisms of plaque rupture, which depends on collagenous cap and lipid core thicknesses. NMR, as a biochemical imaging technique, allows visualization of these components using T1 contrast (mobile lipids), T2 contrast (cap vs. core), spin density (calcifications), diffusion imaging, 1H and 13C spectroscopy. Today, these imaging sequences allow to study in vitro the effects of interventional techniques such as angioplasty or atherectomy. Clinical investigations begin, which will attempt to develop in vivo microscopy and test the ability of NMR to predict plaque rupture. (author). 13 refs., 7 figs

  4. Implications of alcoholic cirrhosis in atherosclerosis of autopsied patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Alves Matias da Silveira

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Alcoholism is a major public health problem, which has a high social cost and affects many aspects of human activity. Liver disease is one of the first consequences of alcohol abuse, and steatosis, liver cirrhosis and hepatitis may occur. Other organs are also affected with pathological changes, such as pancreatitis, cardiomyopathies, dyslipidemias and atherosclerosis. Objective: To identify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis in alcohol-dependent individuals with liver cirrhosis, observing macroscopic and microscopic changes in lipid and collagen deposits and in the liver. We also aimed to verify the association of lipid and collagen fiber deposits with gender, age and body mass index, and to relate alcoholism, liver cirrhosis and atherosclerosis. Method: We performed a study based on autopsy reports of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, with analysis of aorta and liver fragments to verify the occurrence and degree of atherosclerosis, as well as collagen contents. Results: Microscopic atherosclerosis was higher in young subjects (early injury and in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The macroscopic analysis of atherosclerosis in aortas showed that patients in more advanced age groups presented more severe classifications. Atherosclerosis, both micro and macroscopically, and the percentage of fibrosis in the liver and aorta were more expressive in females. Conclusion: Cirrhotic patients presented a higher percentage of fibrosis and lipidosis, and may represent a group susceptible to the accelerated progression of cardiovascular diseases. Investigative studies contribute to targeting health-promoting interventions, reducing the mortality and costs of treating cardiovascular disease.

  5. Models to Study Colonisation and Colonisation Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Boreau, H.; Hartmann, L.; Karjalainen, T.; Rowland, I.; Wilkinson, M. H. F.

    2011-01-01

    This review describes various in vivo animal models (humans; conventional animals administered antimicrobial agents and animals species used; gnotobiotic and germ-free animals), in vitro models (luminal and mucosal), and in silico and mathematicalmodels which have been developed to study colonisation and colonisation resistance and effects of gut flora on hosts. Where applicable, the advantages and disadvantages of each model are discussed.Keywords: colonisation, colonisation resistance, anim...

  6. The reliability of the ankle-brachial index in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catellier Diane J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low ankle-brachial index (ABI is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and death. Regression model parameter estimates may be biased due to measurement error when the ABI is included as a predictor in regression models, but may be corrected if the reliability coefficient, R, is known. The R for the ABI computed from DINAMAP™ readings of the ankle and brachial SBP is not known. Methods A total of 119 participants in both the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS had repeat ABIs taken within 1 year, using a common protocol, automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices, and technician pool. Results The estimated reliability coefficient for the ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.77 and for the brachial SBP was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.83. The reliability for the ABI based on single ankle and arm SBPs was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.70 and the reliability of the ABI computed as the ratio of the average of two ankle SBPs to two arm SBPs was estimated from simulated data as 0.70. Conclusion These reliability estimates may be used to obtain unbiased parameter estimates if the ABI is included in regression models. Our results suggest the need for repeated measures of the ABI in clinical practice, preferably within visits and also over time, before diagnosing peripheral artery disease and before making therapeutic decisions.

  7. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI], and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI, and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4 and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1 participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years, but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  8. Role of parnaparin in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Francesca; Taurone, Samanta; Parnigotto, Pierpaolo; Zamai, Loris; Rodella, Luigi F; Artico, Marco; Rezzani, Rita

    2016-12-01

    Atherosclerosis is characterized by a proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their migration to the intima, which induces thickening of the intima itself, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs. Previous studies have shown that a LMWH, parnaparin (PNP), acts on the processes of atherogenesis and atheroprogression in experimental animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of oxidative stress, inflammation and VSMCs in the regulation of vascular wall homeostasis. We also considered the possibility of restoring vascular pathological changes using PNP treatment. In order to evaluate vascular remodelling in this study we have analysed the morphological changes in aortas of an animal model of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (ApoE-/-) fed with a normal or a western diet without treatment or treated with PNP. We also analysed, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of proteins linked to atherogenesis and atheroprogression - an enzyme involved in oxidative stress, iNOS, examples of inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukins 1 and 6 (IL-1 and IL-6), and markers of VSMC changes, in particular plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and thrombospondin-1 (PAI-1 and TSP-1). Our results could suggest that PNP downregulates VSMC proliferation and migration, mediated by PAI-1 and TSP-1, and reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in vessels. These data suggested that LMWH, in particular PNP, could be a theoretically practical tool in the prevention of atherosclerotic vascular modification. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  9. A Genome-wide Trans-ethnic Interaction Study Links the PIGR-FCAMR Locus to Coronary Atherosclerosis Via Interactions Between Genetic Variants and Residential Exposure to Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a worldwide contributor to cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Traffic air pollution is a ubiquitous source of air pollution in developed nations, and is associated with multiple cardiovascular outcomes such as: coronary atherosclerosis, peripheral ar...

  10. Connective tissue diseases and noninvasive evaluation of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardita G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio Ardita, Giacomo Failla, Paolo Maria Finocchiaro, Francesco Mugno, Luigi Attanasio, Salvatore Timineri, Michelangelo Maria Di SalvoCardiovascular Department, Angiology Unit, Ferrarotto Hospital, Catania, ItalyAbstract: Connective tissue diseases (CTDs are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. In patients with autoimmune disorders, in addition to traditional risk factors, an immune-mediated inflammatory process of the vasculature seems to contribute to atherogenesis. Several pathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, including chronic inflammation and immunologic abnormalities, both able to produce vascular damage. Macrovascular atherosclerosis can be noninvasively evaluated by ultrasound measurement of carotid or femoral plaque. Subclinical atherosclerosis can be evaluated by well-established noninvasive techniques which rely on ultrasound detection of carotid intima-media thickness. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and arterial stiffness are considered markers of endothelial dysfunction and subclinical atherosclerosis, respectively, and have been recently found to be impaired early in a wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases. Carotid intima-media thickness turns out to be a leading marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, and many studies recognize its role as a predictor of future vascular events, both in non-CTD individuals and in CTD patients. In rheumatic diseases, flow-mediated dilatation and arterial stiffness prove to be strongly correlated with inflammation, disease damage index, and with subclinical atherosclerosis, although their prognostic role has not yet been conclusively shown. Systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and likely antiphospholipid syndrome are better associated with premature and accelerated atherosclerosis. Inconclusive results were reported in systemic sclerosis.Keywords: rheumatic disease, subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness

  11. (18)F-FDG PET imaging of murine atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Christoffersen, Christina

    2012-01-01

    To study whether (18)F-FDG can be used for in vivo imaging of atherogenesis by examining the correlation between (18)F-FDG uptake and gene expression of key molecular markers of atherosclerosis in apoE(-/-) mice....

  12. A Unified Spatiotemporal Modeling Approach for Predicting Concentrations of Multiple Air Pollutants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olives, Casey; Kim, Sun-Young; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D.; Szpiro, Adam A.; Oron, Assaf P.; Lindström, Johan; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cohort studies of the relationship between air pollution exposure and chronic health effects require predictions of exposure over long periods of time. Objectives: We developed a unified modeling approach for predicting fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and black carbon (as measured by light absorption coefficient) in six U.S. metropolitan regions from 1999 through early 2012 as part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Methods: We obtained monitoring data from regulatory networks and supplemented those data with study-specific measurements collected from MESA Air community locations and participants’ homes. In each region, we applied a spatiotemporal model that included a long-term spatial mean, time trends with spatially varying coefficients, and a spatiotemporal residual. The mean structure was derived from a large set of geographic covariates that was reduced using partial least-squares regression. We estimated time trends from observed time series and used spatial smoothing methods to borrow strength between observations. Results: Prediction accuracy was high for most models, with cross-validation R2 (R2CV) > 0.80 at regulatory and fixed sites for most regions and pollutants. At home sites, overall R2CV ranged from 0.45 to 0.92, and temporally adjusted R2CV ranged from 0.23 to 0.92. Conclusions: This novel spatiotemporal modeling approach provides accurate fine-scale predictions in multiple regions for four pollutants. We have generated participant-specific predictions for MESA Air to investigate health effects of long-term air pollution exposures. These successes highlight modeling advances that can be adopted more widely in modern cohort studies. Citation: Keller JP, Olives C, Kim SY, Sheppard L, Sampson PD, Szpiro AA, Oron AP, Lindström J, Vedal S, Kaufman JD. 2015. A unified spatiotemporal modeling approach for predicting concentrations of multiple air pollutants in the Multi

  13. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Yuanjie; Peng, Roger D.; Jones, Miranda R.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Best, Lyle G.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods: We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results: All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions: In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. - Highlights: • We identified and compared environmental sources of urinary metals in MESA and SHS.

  14. Metal mixtures in urban and rural populations in the US: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the Strong Heart Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Yuanjie, E-mail: yuanjie.p@gmail.com [Departments of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Peng, Roger D., E-mail: rdpeng@jhu.edu [Departments of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Jones, Miranda R., E-mail: mjone132@jhu.edu [Departments of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Francesconi, Kevin A., E-mail: kevin.francesconi@uni-graz.at [Institute of Chemistry -Analytical Chemistry, University of Graz, Graz 8010 (Austria); Goessler, Walter, E-mail: walter.goessler@uni-graz.at [Institute of Chemistry -Analytical Chemistry, University of Graz, Graz 8010 (Austria); Howard, Barbara V., E-mail: Barbara.V.Howard@Medstar.net [MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Umans, Jason G., E-mail: jason.umans@gmail.com [MedStar Health Research Institute, Hyattsville, MD 20782 (United States); Georgetown-Howard Universities Center for Clinical and Translational Science, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Best, Lyle G., E-mail: lbest@restel.com [Missouri Breaks Industries Research, Inc., Timber Lake, SD 57656 (United States); Guallar, Eliseo, E-mail: eguallar@jhu.edu [Departments of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    Background: Natural and anthropogenic sources of metal exposure differ for urban and rural residents. We searched to identify patterns of metal mixtures which could suggest common environmental sources and/or metabolic pathways of different urinary metals, and compared metal-mixtures in two population-based studies from urban/sub-urban and rural/town areas in the US: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Strong Heart Study (SHS). Methods: We studied a random sample of 308 White, Black, Chinese-American, and Hispanic participants in MESA (2000–2002) and 277 American Indian participants in SHS (1998–2003). We used principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to evaluate nine urinary metals (antimony [Sb], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb], molybdenum [Mo], selenium [Se], tungsten [W], uranium [U] and zinc [Zn]). For arsenic, we used the sum of inorganic and methylated species (∑As). Results: All nine urinary metals were higher in SHS compared to MESA participants. PCA and CA revealed the same patterns in SHS, suggesting 4 distinct principal components (PC) or clusters (∑As-U-W, Pb-Sb, Cd-Zn, Mo-Se). In MESA, CA showed 2 large clusters (∑As-Mo-Sb-U-W, Cd-Pb-Se-Zn), while PCA showed 4 PCs (Sb-U-W, Pb-Se-Zn, Cd-Mo, ∑As). LDA indicated that ∑As, U, W, and Zn were the most discriminant variables distinguishing MESA and SHS participants. Conclusions: In SHS, the ∑As-U-W cluster and PC might reflect groundwater contamination in rural areas, and the Cd-Zn cluster and PC could reflect common sources from meat products or metabolic interactions. Among the metals assayed, ∑As, U, W and Zn differed the most between MESA and SHS, possibly reflecting disproportionate exposure from drinking water and perhaps food in rural Native communities compared to urban communities around the US. - Highlights: • We identified and compared environmental sources of urinary metals in MESA and SHS.

  15. Independent associations between a metabolic syndrome severity score and future diabetes by sex and race: the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study and Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Golden, Sherita H; Musani, Solomon K; Sims, Mario; Vishnu, Abhishek; Guo, Yi; Cardel, Michelle; Pearson, Thomas A; DeBoer, Mark D

    2017-07-01

    The study aimed to assess for an association between the degree of severity of the metabolic syndrome and risk of type 2 diabetes beyond that conferred by the individual components of the metabolic syndrome. We assessed HRs for an Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) metabolic syndrome score (ATP-III MetS) and a sex- and race-specific continuous metabolic syndrome severity z score related to incident diabetes over a median of 7.8 years of follow-up among participants of two observational cohorts, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 10,957) and the Jackson Heart Study (n = 2137). The ATP-III MetS had an HR for incident diabetes of 4.36 (95% CI 3.83, 4.97), which was attenuated in models that included the individual metabolic syndrome components. By contrast, participants in the fourth quartile of metabolic syndrome severity (compared with the first quartile) had an HR of 17.4 (95% CI 12.6, 24.1) for future diabetes; in models that also included the individual metabolic syndrome components, this remained significant, with an HR of 3.69 (95% CI 2.42, 5.64). There was a race × metabolic syndrome interaction in these models such that HR was greater for black participants (5.30) than white participants (2.24). When the change in metabolic syndrome severity score was included in the hazard models, this conferred a further association, with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≥0.5 having a HR of 2.66 compared with changes in metabolic syndrome severity score of ≤0. Use of a continuous sex- and race-specific metabolic syndrome severity z score provided an additional prediction of risk of diabetes beyond that of the individual metabolic syndrome components, suggesting an added risk conferred by the processes underlying the metabolic syndrome. Increases in this score over time were associated with further risk, supporting the potential clinical utility of following metabolic syndrome severity over time.

  16. [The receptor theory of atherosclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoded, V G; Bondarenko, V M; Gintsburg, A L

    2010-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria can interact with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and induce atheroma formation. The risk of atherosclerosis is decreased in case of TLR4 mutation. Other bacterial ligands and endogenous ligands of TLRs can also be involved in induction of atherogenesis. The general concept of atherosclerosis pathogentsis is presented. According to this concept atherogenesis can be initiated by some reactions resulting from interaction of exogenous and endogenous microbial ligands with Toll-like receptors.

  17. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1...... induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca(2+)]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1...... overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE(-/-) mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway...

  18. Atherosclerosis in familial lines of pigeons fed exogenous cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, N M; Brown, R V; Middleton, C C

    1975-01-01

    Exogenous cholesterol was fed to F1 pigeons of high and low serum cholesterol differentiated lines of White Carneau and Racing Homer pigeons that had previously been developed by selection and positive assortive mating. The serum cholesterol response of the various high and low lines was dependent upon the breed and the amount of cholesterol in the diet. Racing Homer pigeons were found to be more resistant to aortic atherosclerosis and more susceptible to coronary atherosclerosis than White Carneau pigeons. Data from necropsy examinations showed significant differences in both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis between lines within the White Carneau breed, but no differences between lines of the Racing Homer breed. Mean organ weights for the 4 lines of pigeons were reported.

  19. Angiotensin-Converting Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers and Longitudinal Change in Percent Emphysema on Computed Tomography. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Megha A.; Aaron, Carrie P.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Madrigano, Jaime; Austin, John H. M.; Lovasi, Gina; Watson, Karol; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Although emphysema on computed tomography (CT) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with and without spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, no available medications target emphysema outside of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Transforming growth factor-β and endothelial dysfunction are implicated in emphysema pathogenesis, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) inhibit transforming growth factor-β, improve endothelial function, and restore airspace architecture in murine models. Evidence in humans is, however, lacking. Objectives: To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and ARB dose is associated with slowed progression of percent emphysema by CT. Methods: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis researchers recruited participants ages 45–84 years from the general population from 2000 to 2002. Medication use was assessed by medication inventory. Percent emphysema was defined as the percentage of lung regions less than −950 Hounsfield units on CTs. Mixed-effects regression models were used to adjust for confounders. Results: Among 4,472 participants, 12% used an ACE inhibitor and 6% used an ARB at baseline. The median percent emphysema was 3.0% at baseline, and the rate of progression was 0.64 percentage points over a median of 9.3 years. Higher doses of ACE or ARB were independently associated with a slower change in percent emphysema (P = 0.03). Over 10 years, in contrast to a predicted mean increase in percent emphysema of 0.66 percentage points in those who did not take ARBs or ACE inhibitors, the predicted mean increase in participants who used maximum doses of ARBs or ACE inhibitors was 0.06 percentage points (P = 0.01). The findings were of greatest magnitude among former smokers (P emphysema. There was no evidence that ACE inhibitor or ARB dose was associated with decline in lung function. Conclusions: In a large population-based study, ACE

  20. Associations between retinol-binding protein 4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis in recently postmenopausal women: cross-sectional analyses from the KEEPS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Gary

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The published literature regarding the relationships between retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 and cardiometabolic risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis is conflicting, likely due, in part, to limitations of frequently used RBP4 assays. Prior large studies have not utilized the gold-standard western blot analysis of RBP4 levels. Methods Full-length serum RBP4 levels were measured by western blot in 709 postmenopausal women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Cross-sectional analyses related RBP4 levels to cardiometabolic risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and coronary artery calcification (CAC. Results The mean age of women was 52.9 (± 2.6 years, and the median RBP4 level was 49.0 (interquartile range 36.9-61.5 μg/mL. Higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with higher triglycerides (age, race, and smoking-adjusted partial Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = 0.01, but were unrelated to blood pressure, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and CIMT levels (all partial Spearman correlation coefficients ≤0.06, P > 0.05. Results suggested a curvilinear association between RBP4 levels and CAC, with women in the bottom and upper quartiles of RBP4 having higher odds of CAC (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 2.10 [1.07-4.09], 2.00 [1.02-3.92], 1.64 [0.82-3.27] for the 1st, 3rd, and 4th RBP4 quartiles vs. the 2nd quartile. However, a squared RBP4 term in regression modeling was non-significant (P = 0.10. Conclusions In these healthy, recently postmenopausal women, higher RBP4 levels were weakly associated with elevations in triglycerides and with CAC, but not with other risk factors or CIMT. These data using the gold standard of RBP4 methodology only weakly support the possibility that perturbations in RBP4 homeostasis may be an additional risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT

  1. Extracranial cerebral arterial atherosclerosis in Iranian patients suffering ischemic strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Ali Mousavi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the distribution and severity of extracranial carotid arterial atherosclerosis in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: 328 patients with ischemic stroke were included in this study. Doppler ultrasound was used for evaluation of atherosclerosis in extracranial carotid arteries. The NASCET criteria were used to measure carotid stenosis. RESULTS: Ninety of 328 patients (27.4% were found to have atherosclerotic plaques; 40 of these patients were women and 50 were men. Sixty-eight patients (20.7% had artery stenosis <50%, 13 patients (3.95% had 50-70 % artery stenosis and 6 (1.8% had >70% artery stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Extracranial atherosclerosis is not rare in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke, but most carotid artery lesions were plaques with <50% stenosis. KEY WORDS: Atherosclerosis, ischemic stroke, carotid stenosis.

  2. Subclinical carotid atherosclerosis and triglycerides predict the incidence of chronic kidney disease in the Japanese general population: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Motohiro; Furusyo, Norihiro; Mitsumoto, Fujiko; Takayama, Koji; Ura, Kazuya; Hiramine, Satoshi; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Ihara, Takeshi; Mukae, Haru; Ogawa, Eiichi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Murata, Masayuki; Hayashi, Jun

    2015-02-01

    To examine whether or not subclinical atherosclerosis independently predicts the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Japanese general population. This study is part of the Kyushu and Okinawa Population Study (KOPS), a survey of vascular events associated with lifestyle-related diseases. Participants who attended both baseline (2004-2007) and follow-up (2009-2012) examinations were eligible. The common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was assessed for each participant at baseline. The end point was the incidence of CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.8 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7 mmol/L, P triglycerides (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, P = 0.015) at baseline were independent predictors for the development of CKD. Higher carotid IMT and hypertriglyceridemia were independently associated with the development of CKD in the population studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of the in-vehicle microenvironment to individual ambient-source nitrogen dioxide exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Nicholas, Tyler P; Curl, Cynthia L; Davey, Mark E; Burke, Gregory L; Watson, Karol E; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D

    2018-03-06

    Exposure estimates that do not account for time in-transit may underestimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution, but exact contributions have not been studied directly. We conducted a 2-week monitoring, including novel in-vehicle sampling, in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution cohort in two cities. Participants spent the majority of their time indoors and only 4.4% of their time (63 min/day) in-vehicle, on average. The mean ambient-source NO 2 concentration was 5.1 ppb indoors and 32.3 ppb in-vehicle during drives. On average, indoor exposure contributed 69% and in-vehicle exposure contributed 24% of participants' ambient-source NO 2 exposure. For participants in the highest quartile of time in-vehicle (≥1.3 h/day), indoor and in-vehicle contributions were 60 and 31%, respectively. Incorporating infiltrated indoor and measured in-vehicle NO 2 produced exposure estimates 5.6 ppb lower, on average, than using only outdoor concentrations. The indoor microenvironment accounted for the largest proportion of ambient-source exposure in this older population, despite higher concentrations of NO 2 outdoors and in vehicles than indoors. In-vehicle exposure was more influential among participants who drove the most and for participants residing in areas with lower outdoor air pollution. Failure to characterize exposures in these microenvironments may contribute to exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies.

  4. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D; Stukovsky, Karen H; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multiethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated the consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 h/week or 72%). More than 50% of the participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in "other" locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons with national cohorts demonstrated the differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine the time-location patterns in an older, multiethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations.

  5. Interaction between the NOS3 gene and obesity as a determinant of risk of type 2 diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bressler

    Full Text Available Endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3 catalyzes the production of nitric oxide from L-arginine in endothelial cells. Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, and obese individuals have been reported to have reduced nitric oxide availability compared to controls whose weight is in the normal range. Since homozygous carriers of the NOS3 G894T variant are predicted to have decreased enzyme activity, the association between NOS3 genotype and type 2 diabetes, and possible effect modification by body mass index (BMI were evaluated. The prevalence of diabetes and BMI was determined at baseline in 14,374 participants 45-66 years of age from the prospective biracial population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study of the development of atherosclerosis in four communities in the United States. Individuals with a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2 were considered obese. Those subjects not meeting the case definition were the comparison groups for the 728 African American and 980 white participants with diabetes. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, and field center were used to test for main genetic effects and interaction with obesity. Although the NOS3 G894T variant was not independently associated with diabetes in either African Americans or whites, significant interaction between BMI and the NOS3 polymorphism indicated that obesity was an effect modifier of diabetes risk for white individuals with the TT genotype (odds ratio (OR for interaction = 1.65, p = 0.04. In stratified analyses, homozygosity for the NOS3 T allele in obese white participants but not in those whose BMI <30 kg/m(2 was associated with an elevated risk of diabetes (OR = 1.47, p = 0.02 when compared to the common GG genotype. These results suggest that interaction between obesity and NOS3 genotype may be a determinant of diabetes case status in whites in the ARIC cohort. Replication in other populations will be required to confirm

  6. [Placental atherosclerosis and markers of endothelial dysfunction in infants born to mothers with gestational diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Morales, Cruz Mónica; Brito Zurita, Olga Rosa; González Heredia, Ricardo; Cruz López, Miguel; Méndez Padrón, Araceli; Matute Briseño, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-05

    The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes itself causes hyperstimulation of adipose tissue and of the placenta cells increasing the production of inflammatory cytokines, which cause changes in the tissues exposed such as the placenta and foetus. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare metabolic markers and endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord blood, as well as to determine the presence of atherosclerosis in the placentas of newborn infants of patients with gestational diabetes and in patients with normally progressing pregnancies. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in 84 patients, obtaining data such as age, smoking and weight gain in pregnancy; the gestational age of the newborns was determined by Capurro, and their weight and destination subsequent to birth, the placentas were also collected in order to look for atherosclerosis through histological studies and glucose, insulin, VLDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen, PCR and markers of endothelial dysfunction (adiponectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6) were determined in blood samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Placental atherosclerosis presented in 28.94% of the group with gestational diabetes compared to 10.52% of the group with normally progressing pregnancies (P=.044); differences were found in glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, HOMA-IR, PCR-us, HDL-C, not in VLDL-C. Twenty-one point five percent of the newborns of the gestational diabetes patients required hospitalization, against 5.2% in the control group, Pregnancies that involve diabetes have higher proportion of atherosclerosis, hospitalization of the newborn, insulin resistance, as well as elevation of markers associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in umbilical cord blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Nanomedicine highlights in atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and many different approaches have been attempted for its accurate diagnosis and treatment. The disease is induced by a low-grade inflammatory process in the vascular wall, leading through a cascade of events to the eventual formation of atheromatous plaque and arterial stenosis. Different types of cells participate in the process making more difficult to recognize the potential cellular targets within the plaques for their effective treatment. The rise of nanomedicine over the last decade has provided new types of drug delivery nanosystems that are able to be delivered to a specific diseased site of the vessel for imaging while simultaneously act as therapeutic agents. In this paper, a review of the recent advances in nanomedicine that has provided novel insights to the disease diagnosis and treatment will be given in line with different nanotechnology-based approaches to advance the cardiovascular stents. The main complications of bare metal stents such as restenosis and of drug-eluting stents which is the late stent thrombosis are analyzed to comprehend the demand for emerging therapeutic strategies based on nanotechnology.

  8. Nanomedicine highlights in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagkiozaki, Varvara, E-mail: vakaragk@physics.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nanomedicine Group, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology (LTFN), Physics Department (Greece)

    2013-04-15

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and many different approaches have been attempted for its accurate diagnosis and treatment. The disease is induced by a low-grade inflammatory process in the vascular wall, leading through a cascade of events to the eventual formation of atheromatous plaque and arterial stenosis. Different types of cells participate in the process making more difficult to recognize the potential cellular targets within the plaques for their effective treatment. The rise of nanomedicine over the last decade has provided new types of drug delivery nanosystems that are able to be delivered to a specific diseased site of the vessel for imaging while simultaneously act as therapeutic agents. In this paper, a review of the recent advances in nanomedicine that has provided novel insights to the disease diagnosis and treatment will be given in line with different nanotechnology-based approaches to advance the cardiovascular stents. The main complications of bare metal stents such as restenosis and of drug-eluting stents which is the late stent thrombosis are analyzed to comprehend the demand for emerging therapeutic strategies based on nanotechnology.

  9. Periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis: A meta-analysis of 17,330 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Leng, Wei-Dong; Lam, Yat-Yin; Yan, Bryan P; Wei, Xue-Mei; Weng, Hong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-01-15

    The association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis has been evaluated primarily in single-center studies, and whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor of carotid atherosclerosis remains uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant observational studies up to February 20, 2015. Two authors independently extracted data from included studies, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the chi-squared test (Pperiodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14-1.41; Pperiodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis; however, further large-scale, well-conducted clinical studies are needed to explore the precise risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis in patients with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary atherosclerosis: Significance of autophagic armour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mansi; Kaul, Deepak

    2012-09-26

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway of cellular components such as organelles and long-lived proteins. Though a protective role for autophagy has been established in various patho-physiologic conditions such as cancer, neurodegeneration, aging and heart failure, a growing body of evidence now reveals a protective role for autophagy in atherosclerosis, mainly by removing oxidatively damaged organelles and proteins and also by promoting cholesterol egress from the lipid-laden cells. Recent studies by Razani et al and Liao et al unravel novel pathways that might be involved in autophagic protection and in this commentary we highlight the importance of autophagy in atherosclerosis in the light of these two recent papers.

  11. Incretin hormones as immunomodulators of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eAlonso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis results from endothelial cell dysfunction and inflammatory processes affecting both macro-and microvasculature which are involved in vascular diabetic complications. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally as opposed to intravenously and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. GLP-1 based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor (R agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4, an enzyme that degrades endogenous GLP-1 are routinely used to treat patients with T2D. Recent experimental model studies have established that GLP-1R mRNA is widely expressed in several immune cells. Moreover, its activation contributes to the regulation of both thymocyte and peripheral T cells proliferation and is involved in the maintenance of peripheral regulatory T cells. GLP-1 R is also expressed in endothelial and smooth muscle cells. The effect of incretin hormones on atherosclerogenesis have recently been studied in animal models of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice (apo E-/-. These studies have demonstrated that treatment with incretin hormones or related compounds suppresses the progression of atherosclerosis and macrophage infiltration in the arterial wall as well as a marked anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect on endothelial cells. This effect may have a major impact on the attenuation of atherosclerosis and may help in the design of new therapies for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  12. Unequal Exposure or Unequal Vulnerability? Contributions of Neighborhood Conditions and Cardiovascular Risk Factors to Socioeconomic Inequality in Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mustafa; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Hastert, Theresa A; Kershaw, Kiarri N; Bertoni, Alain G; Baylin, Ana

    2017-11-23

    Risk factors can drive socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) through differential exposure and differential vulnerability. We show how econometric decomposition directly enables simultaneous, policy-oriented assessment of these two mechanisms. We specifically estimated contributions via these mechanisms of neighborhood environment and proximal risk factors to socioeconomic inequality in CVD incidence. We followed 5,608 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012) until the first CVD event (median follow-up 12.2 years). We used a summary measure of baseline socioeconomic position (SEP). Covariates included baseline demographics, neighborhood, psychosocial, behavioral, and biomedical risk factors. Using Poisson models, we decomposed the difference (inequality) in incidence rates between low- and high-SEP groups into contributions of 1) differences in covariate means (differential exposure), and 2) differences in CVD risk associated with covariates (differential vulnerability). Notwithstanding large uncertainty in neighborhood estimates, our analysis suggests that differential exposure to poorer neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, adverse social environment, diabetes, and hypertension accounts for most of inequality. Psychosocial and behavioral contributions were negligible. Further, neighborhood SEP, female gender, and White race were more strongly associated with CVD among low-SEP (vs. high-SEP) participants. These differentials in vulnerability also accounted for nontrivial portions of the inequality, and could have important implications for intervention. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Race and Sex Differences in the Incidence and Prognostic Significance of Silent Myocardial Infarction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Loehr, Laura; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kitzman, Dalane; Couper, David; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2016-05-31

    Race and sex differences in silent myocardial infarction (SMI) are not well established. The analysis included 9498 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989). Incident SMI was defined as ECG evidence of MI without clinically documented MI (CMI) after the baseline until ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Coronary heart disease and all-cause deaths were ascertained starting from ARIC visit 4 until 2010. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 317 participants (3.3%) developed SMI and 386 (4.1%) developed CMI. The incidence rates of both SMI and CMI were higher in men (5.08 and 7.96 per 1000-person years, respectively) than in women (2.93 and 2.25 per 1000-person years, respectively; Prace were detected. SMI represents >45% of incident MIs and is associated with poor prognosis. Race and sex differences in the incidence and prognostic significance of SMI exist that may warrant considering SMI in personalized assessments of coronary heart disease risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The influence of persistent pathogens on circulating levels of inflammatory markers: a cross-sectional analysis from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

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    Szklo Moyses

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic inflammation is linked to cardiovascular risk, but the influence of persistent pathogens, which are conventionally dichotomously categorized, on circulating levels of inflammatory markers is not clear. Antibody levels of pathogens have not been examined in relation to inflammation. Methods Using data from a subsample of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP and fibrinogen in relation to five common persistent pathogens: cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus-1, Hepatitis A virus, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We tested the hypothesis that the number of seropositive pathogens (based on conventional cut-off points would not be as sensitive a marker of inflammation as immune response measured by antibody levels to pathogens. Results High antibody response to multiple pathogens showed graded and significant associations with IL-6 (p Conclusions High antibody response to pathogens was a more consistent marker of inflammatory outcomes compared to seropositivity alone and high antibody response to multiple pathogens was a stronger marker compared to any single pathogen.

  15. Effect of serial infusions of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (CER-001) on coronary atherosclerosis: rationale and design of the CARAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jordan; Janssan, Alex; Nguyen, Tracy; Pisaniello, Anthony D; Scherer, Daniel J; Kastelein, John J P; Merkely, Bela; Nissen, Steven E; Ray, Kausik; Schwartz, Gregory G; Worthley, Stephen G; Keyserling, Connie; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Butters, Julie; Girardi, Jacinta; Miller, Rosemary; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is believed to have atheroprotective properties, but an effective HDL-based therapy remains elusive. Early studies have suggested that infusion of reconstituted HDL promotes reverse cholesterol transport and vascular reactivity. The CER-001 Atherosclerosis Regression Acute Coronary Syndrome Trial (CARAT) is investigating the impact of infusing an engineered pre-beta HDL mimetic containing sphingomyelin (SM) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidlyglycerol (CER-001) on coronary atheroma volume in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The CARAT is a phase 2, multicenter trial in which 292 patients with an ACS undergoing intracoronary ultrasonography and showing percent atheroma volume (PAV) greater than 30% are randomly assigned to treatment with ten infusions of CER-001 3 mg/kg or matching placebo, administered at weekly intervals. Intracoronary ultrasonography is repeated at the end of the treatment period. The primary endpoint is the nominal change in PAV. Safety and tolerability will also be evaluated. CARAT will establish whether serial 3 mg/kg infusions of an engineered pre-beta HDL mimetic containing SM and dipalmitoyl phosphatidlyglycerol (CER-001) will regress atherosclerotic plaque in patients with a recent ACS.

  16. Integrating data from multiple time-location measurement methods for use in exposure assessment: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Davey, Mark E; Vedal, Sverre; Burke, Gregory L; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-11-01

    Tools to assess time-location patterns related to environmental exposures have expanded from reliance on time-location diaries (TLDs) and questionnaires to use of geospatial location devices such as data-logging Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution obtained typical time-location patterns via questionnaire for 6424 adults in six US cities. At a later time (mean 4.6 years after questionnaire), a subset (n=128) participated in high-resolution data collection for specific 2-week periods resulting in concurrent GPS and detailed TLD data, which were aggregated to estimate time spent in various microenvironments. During these 2-week periods, participants were observed to spend the most time at home indoors (mean of 78%) and a small proportion of time in-vehicle (mean of 4%). Similar overall patterns were reported by these participants on the prior questionnaire (mean home indoors: 75%; mean in-vehicle: 4%). However, individual micro-environmental time estimates measured over specific 2-week periods were not highly correlated with an individual's questionnaire report of typical behavior (Spearman's ρ of 0.43 for home indoors and 0.39 for in-vehicle). Although questionnaire data about typical time-location patterns can inform interpretation of long-term epidemiological analyses and risk assessment, they may not reliably represent an individual's short-term experience.

  17. Factors influencing time-location patterns and their impact on estimates of exposure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Williams, Kayleen; Hirsch, Jana A; Adar, Sara D; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    We assessed time-location patterns and the role of individual- and residential-level characteristics on these patterns within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) cohort and also investigated the impact of individual-level time-location patterns on individual-level estimates of exposure to outdoor air pollution. Reported time-location patterns varied significantly by demographic factors such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, education, and employment status. On average, Chinese participants reported spending significantly more time indoors and less time outdoors and in transit than White, Black, or Hispanic participants. Using a tiered linear regression approach, we predicted time indoors at home and total time indoors. Our model, developed using forward-selection procedures, explained 43% of the variability in time spent indoors at home, and incorporated demographic, health, lifestyle, and built environment factors. Time-weighted air pollution predictions calculated using recommended time indoors from USEPA overestimated exposures as compared with predictions made with MESA Air participant-specific information. These data fill an important gap in the literature by describing the impact of individual and residential characteristics on time-location patterns and by demonstrating the impact of population-specific data on exposure estimates.

  18. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAWZY, A.; IBRAHIM, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic nephropathy is an important cause of renal failure.Sub-clinical renal function abnormalities may exist in patients with extra renal atherosclerosis and may precede the onset of overt ischemic nephropathy. To assess the impact of extrarenal atherosclerosis on the kidney, the study evaluated renal function in 50 subjects with differing degrees of peripheral atherosclerosis without manifest clinical or laboratory signs of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension.All laboratory testing including total LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ultrasonography with Doppler analysis for the localization of peripheral vascular disease (carotid and lower limb arteries), and non-invasive evaluation of renal function by radionuclide studies of renal plasma flow (MAG3 clearance) and glomerular filtration (DTPA clearance) were determined as well as smoking habit was recorded. By combining sonographic data on arterial tree stenosis (ATS), the subjects were grouped according to the atherosclerotic vascular damage (ATS involvement). The results showed no change in plasma creatinine while DTPA clearance was increased from 91.58±26.53 to 93.47±24.82 ml/min/1.73 m. MAG3 clearance was progressively declined with the severity of vascular damage from 244.86 ± 60.60 to 173.59±58.74 ml/min/1.73 m.Stepwise, multiple regression analysis indicated that MAG3 clearance was best explained by ATS involvement (standardized B coefficient -0.40; P< 0.001), smoking habit (-0.34;P=0.004) and serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.24; P<0.035).It could be concluded that the renal hemodynamic profile in atherosclerotic patients might constitute functional evidence of the silent phase of ischemic renal disease. The findings suggest that renal function should be carefully assessed in patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, particularly in those with classic cardiovascular risk factors

  19. Life stress and atherosclerosis: a pathway through unhealthy lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Everett, Charles J; Diaz, Vanessa A; Player, Marty S; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Smith, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    To examine the relationship between a general measure of chronic life stress and atherosclerosis among middle aged adults without clinical cardiovascular disease via pathways through unhealthy lifestyle characteristics. We conducted an analysis of The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The MESA collected in 2000 includes 5,773 participants, aged 45-84. We computed standard regression techniques to examine the relationship between life stress and atherosclerosis as well as path analysis with hypothesized paths from stress to atherosclerosis through unhealthy lifestyle. Our outcome was sub-clinical atherosclerosis measured as presence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). A logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding variables along with the unhealthy lifestyle characteristics of smoking, excessive alcohol use, high caloric intake, sedentary lifestyle, and obesity yielded no significant relationship between chronic life stress (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.08) and CAC. However, significant indirect pathways between chronic life stress and CAC through smoking (p = .007), and sedentary lifestyle (p = .03) and caloric intake (.002) through obesity were found. These results suggest that life stress is related to atherosclerosis once paths of unhealthy coping behaviors are considered.

  20. Macrophage Phenotype and Function in Different Stages of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabas, Ira; Bornfeldt, Karin E.

    2016-01-01

    The remarkable plasticity and plethora of biological functions performed by macrophages have enticed scientists to study these cells in relation to atherosclerosis for more than 50 years, and major discoveries continue to be made today. It is now understood that macrophages play important roles in all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation of lesions and lesion expansion, to necrosis leading to rupture and the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, to resolution and regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Lesional macrophages are derived primarily from blood monocytes, although recent research has shown that lesional macrophage-like cells can also be derived from smooth muscle cells. Lesional macrophages take on different phenotypes depending on their environment and which intracellular signaling pathways are activated. Rather than a few distinct populations of macrophages, the phenotype of the lesional macrophage is more complex and likely changes during the different phases of atherosclerosis and with the extent of lipid and cholesterol loading, activation by a plethora of receptors, and metabolic state of the cells. These different phenotypes allow the macrophage to engulf lipids, dead cells, and other substances perceived as danger signals; efflux cholesterol to HDL; proliferate and migrate; undergo apoptosis and death; and secrete a large number of inflammatory and pro-resolving molecules. This review article, part of the Compendium on Atherosclerosis, discusses recent advances in our understanding of lesional macrophage phenotype and function in different stages of atherosclerosis. With the increasing understanding of the roles of lesional macrophages, new research areas and treatment strategies are beginning to emerge. PMID:26892964

  1. Combined effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on carotid atherosclerosis in a population aged 59-71 y: The EVA Study. Etude sur le Vieillisement Artériel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonithon-Kopp, C; Coudray, C; Berr, C; Touboul, P J; Fève, J M; Favier, A; Ducimetière, P

    1997-01-01

    There are few epidemiologic studies of the effects of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status on atherosclerosis. The relation of lipid peroxidation evaluated by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and biological markers of antioxidant status to ultrasonographically assessed carotid atherosclerosis was examined from baseline data of a longitudinal study on cognitive and vascular aging (Etude sur le Vieillisement Artériel, the EVA Study). The study sample was composed of 1187 mean and women aged 59-71 y without any history of coronary artery disease or stroke. Ultrasound examination included measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT) on the common carotid arteries (CCAs) and at the site of plaques. After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, erythrocyte vitamin E was significantly and negatively associated with CCA-IMT in both men and women whereas plasma selenium and carotenoids were not. No association was found between TBARS and CCA-IMT in either sex. However, TBARS were significantly higher in men with carotid plaques than in those without. This association was strengthened in men with concentrations of erythrocyte vitamin E, plasma selenium, and carotenoids below the lowest quartile. Our findings give some epidemiologic support to the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation and low antioxidant status are involved in the early phases of atherosclerosis.

  2. Polymorphisms in IL-10 and INF-γ genes are associated with early atherosclerosis in coronary but not in carotid arteries: A study of 122 autopsy cases of young adults

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    José Carlos P. Esperança

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, involving both genetic and environmental factors. However, the influence of genetic variations on its early development remains unclear. This study examined the association of 12 different polymorphisms with atherosclerosis severity in anterior descending coronary (DA, n = 103 and carotid arteries (CA, n = 66 of autopsied young adults (<30 years old. Histological sections (H-E were classified according to the American Heart Association. Polymorphisms in ACE, TNF-α (−308G/A and −238 G/A, IFN-γ (+874 A/T, MMP-9 (−1562 C/T, IL-10 (−1082 A/G and −819 C/T, NOS3 (894 G/T, ApoA1 (rs964184, ApoE (E2E3E4 isoforms, and TGF-β (codons 25 and 10 genes were genotyped by gel electrophoresis or automatic DNA sequencing. Firearm projectile or car accident was the main cause of death, and no information about classical risk factors was available. Histological analysis showed high prevalence of type III atherosclerotic lesions in both DA (69% and CA (39% arteries, while severe type IV and V lesions were observed in 14% (DA and 33% (CA. Allele frequencies and genotype distributions were determined. Among the polymorphisms studied, IFN-γ and IL-10 (−1082 A/G were related to atherosclerosis severity in DA artery. No association between genotypes and lesion severity was found in CA. In conclusion, we observed that the high prevalence of early atherosclerosis in young adults is associated with IFN-γ (p < 0.001 and IL-10 (p = 0.013 genotypes. This association is blood vessel dependent. Our findings suggest that the vascular system presents site specialization, and specific genetic variations may provide future biomarkers for early disease identification.

  3. Recalibration of blood analytes over 25 years in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study: impact of recalibration on chronic kidney disease prevalence and incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Couper, David; Ballantyne, Christie M; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2015-07-01

    Equivalence of laboratory tests over time is important for longitudinal studies. Even a small systematic difference (bias) can result in substantial misclassification. We selected 200 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants attending all 5 study visits over 25 years. Eight analytes were remeasured in 2011-2013 from stored blood samples from multiple visits: creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Original values were recalibrated to remeasured values with Deming regression. Differences >10% were considered to reflect substantial bias, and correction equations were applied to affected analytes in the total study population. We examined trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre- and postrecalibration. Repeat measures were highly correlated with original values [Pearson r > 0.85 after removing outliers (median 4.5% of paired measurements)], but 2 of 8 analytes (creatinine and uric acid) had differences >10%. Original values of creatinine and uric acid were recalibrated to current values with correction equations. CKD prevalence differed substantially after recalibration of creatinine (visits 1, 2, 4, and 5 prerecalibration: 21.7%, 36.1%, 3.5%, and 29.4%, respectively; postrecalibration: 1.3%, 2.2%, 6.4%, and 29.4%). For HDL cholesterol, the current direct enzymatic method differed substantially from magnesium dextran precipitation used during visits 1-4. Analytes remeasured in samples stored for approximately 25 years were highly correlated with original values, but 2 of the 8 analytes showed substantial bias at multiple visits. Laboratory recalibration improved reproducibility of test results across visits and resulted in substantial differences in CKD prevalence. We demonstrate the importance of consistent recalibration of laboratory assays in a cohort study. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  4. Recalibration of blood analytes over 25 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study: The impact of recalibration on chronic kidney disease prevalence and incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Grams, Morgan E.; Couper, David; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Eckfeldt, John H.; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background Equivalence of laboratory tests over time is important for longitudinal studies. Even a small systematic difference (bias) can result in substantial misclassification. Methods We selected 200 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants attending all 5 study visits over 25 years. Eight analytes were re-measured in 2011–13 from stored blood samples from multiple visits: creatinine, uric acid, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Original values were recalibrated to re-measured values using Deming regression. Differences >10% were considered to reflect substantial bias, and correction equations were applied to affected analytes in the total study population. We examined trends in chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre- and post-recalibration. Results Repeat measures were highly correlated with original values (Pearson’s r>0.85 after removing outliers [median 4.5% of paired measurements]), but 2 of 8 analytes (creatinine and uric acid) had differences >10%. Original values of creatinine and uric acid were recalibrated to current values using correction equations. CKD prevalence differed substantially after recalibration of creatinine (visits 1, 2, 4 and 5 pre-recalibration: 21.7%, 36.1%, 3.5%, 29.4%; post-recalibration: 1.3%, 2.2%, 6.4%, 29.4%). For HDL-cholesterol, the current direct enzymatic method differed substantially from magnesium dextran precipitation used during visits 1–4. Conclusions Analytes re-measured in samples stored for ~25 years were highly correlated with original values, but two of the 8 analytes showed substantial bias at multiple visits. Laboratory recalibration improved reproducibility of test results across visits and resulted in substantial differences in CKD prevalence. We demonstrate the importance of consistent recalibration of laboratory assays in a cohort study. PMID:25952043

  5. Physiological and genetics studies of highly radiation-resistant bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    The phenomenon of radiation resistance was studied using micrococci and Moraxella-Acinetobacter capable of surviving very high doses of gamma radiation which were isolated from foods. Physiological age, or growth phase, was found to be an important factor in making comparisons of radiation-resistance among different bacteria and their mutants. Radiation-resistant bacteria were highly resistant to the lethal effect of nitrosoguanidine used for mutagenesis. Studies of relative resistance of radiation-resistant bacteria, radiation-sensitive mutants, and nonradiation-resistant bacteria to killing by different chemical mutagens did not reveal a correlation between the traits of radiation resistance and mutagen resistance among different strains. Comparisons of plasmid profiles of radiation-resistant bacteria and selected radiation-sensitive mutants suggested the possibility that plasmids may carry genes involved in radiation resistance

  6. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  7. Associations of Neighborhood Crime and Safety and With Changes in Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Moore, Kari; Allen, Norrina; Block, Richard; Evenson, Kelly R; Mujahid, Mahasin; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-08-01

    Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of neighborhood crime and safety with changes in adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference). MESA is a longitudinal study of cardiovascular disease among adults aged 45-84 years at baseline in 2000-2002, from 6 US sites, with follow-up for MESA participants until 2012. Data for this study were limited to Chicago, Illinois, participants in the MESA Neighborhood Ancillary Study, for whom police-recorded crime data were available, and who had complete baseline data (n = 673). We estimated associations of individual-level safety, aggregated neighborhood-level safety, and police-recorded crime with baseline levels and trajectories of BMI and waist circumference over time using linear mixed modeling with random effects. We also estimated how changes in these factors related to changes in BMI and waist circumference using econometric fixed-effects models. At baseline, greater individual-level safety was associated with more adiposity. Increasing individual- and neighborhood-level safety over time were associated with decreasing BMI over the 10-year period, with a more pronounced effect observed in women for individual-level safety and men for neighborhood-level safety. Police-recorded crime was not associated with adiposity. Neighborhood-level safety likely influences adiposity change and subsequent cardiovascular risk in multiethnic populations. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. The relationship between self-reported history of endodontic therapy and coronary heart disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Daniel J.; Pankow, James S.; Cai, Jianwen; Offenbacher, Steven; Beck, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Results from numerous studies have suggested links between periodontal disease and coronary heart disease (CHD), but endodontic disease has not been studied extensively in this regard. Methods The authors evaluated the relationship between self-reported history of endodontic therapy (ET) and prevalent CHD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, aprospective epidemiologic study sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The authors used multivariable logistic regres-sionto analyze data obtained from oral health questionnaires, medical evaluations and clinical dental examinations. Results Of 6,651 participants analyzed, 50.4 percent reported never having had ET; 21.5 percent reported having had ET one time; and 28.0 percent reported having had ET two or more times. Final multivariable regression models indicated that among participants with 25 or more teeth, those reporting having had ET two or more times had 1.62 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.04–2.53) times the odds of prevalent CHD compared with those reporting never having had ET. Among participants with 24 or fewer teeth, no significant differences in CHD prevalence were observed among groups regardless of their history of ET. Conclusions Among participants with 25 or more teeth, those with a greater self-reported history of ET were more likely to have CHD than were those reporting no history of ET. Clinical Implications More accurate epidemiologic quantification of endodontic infection and inflammation is required before definitive conclusions can be made about potential relationships between endodontic disease and CHD. PMID:19654253

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Poor Health Outcome at 10 Years of Follow-Up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shea

    Full Text Available Predictors of healthy aging have not been well-studied using longitudinal data with demographic, clinical, subclinical, and genetic information. The objective was to identify predictors of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA.Prospective cohort study.Population-based sample from 6 U.S. communities.4,355 participants In the MESA Study.Poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up was defined as having died or having clinical cardiovascular disease, depression, cognitive impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer. Absolute risk regression was used to estimate risk differences in the outcome adjusting for demographic variables, clinical and behavioral risk factors, subclinical cardiovascular disease, and ApoE genotype. Models were weighted to account for selective attrition.Mean age at 10 years of follow-up was 69.5 years; 1,480 participants had a poor health outcome, 2,157 participants were in good health, and 718 were unknown. Older age, smoking, not taking a statin, hypertension, diabetes, and higher coronary calcium score were associated with higher probability of poor health outcome. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the lowest income and educational categories had 7 to 14% greater absolute risk of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up compared to those in the next highest categories of income or education (P = 0.002 for both. Those in the lowest categories of both income and education had 21% greater absolute risk of poor health outcome compared to those in the highest categories of both income and education.Low income and educational level predict poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in an aging cohort, independent of clinical and behavioral risk factors and subclinical cardiovascular disease.

  10. Age-dependent interaction of apolipoprotein E gene with eastern birthplace in Finland affects severity of coronary atherosclerosis and risk of fatal myocardial infarction--Helsinki Sudden Death Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyynelä, Petri; Goebeler, Sirkka; Ilveskoski, Erkki; Mikkelsson, Jussi; Perola, Markus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Karhunen, Pekka J

    2013-05-01

    Mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD) has been constantly higher in eastern late settlement regions compared to western early settlements in Finland, unrelated to classical risk factors. In line with this, eastern birthplace was an age-dependent predictor of severe coronary atherosclerosis and pre-hospital sudden coronary death among male residents of Helsinki. We investigated a possible interaction of apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene with birthplace on the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary atherosclerosis. APOE genotypes were analyzed in the Helsinki Sudden Death Study series comprising out-of-hospital deaths among males aged 33-70 years (n = 577), who were born in high (east, n = 273) or low (west, n = 304) CHD mortality area. Eastern-born men ≤ 55 years carried 30% more often (P = 0.017) and older men 40% less often (P = 0.022) the APOE ϵ4 allele compared to western-born men (P = 0.003 for birthplace-by-age interaction). In multivariate analysis, the ϵ4 allele associated with the risk of out-of-hospital MI (odds ratio 2.58; 95% CI 1.20-5.55; P = 0.016) only in eastern-born men and with advanced atherosclerosis in both regions of origin, respectively. Birthplace-bound risk of CHD was age-dependently modified by APOE ϵ4 allele, suggesting genetic differences in CHD susceptibility between early and late settlement regions in Finland and providing one explanation for the eastern high mortality.

  11. Carbon monoxide, smoking, and atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, P

    1973-10-01

    Studies on the effects of carbon monoxide and smoking on atherosclerosis are reviewed. Nonsmokers do not run the risk of getting significantly elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from automobile exhaust in the streets, however, they do run the risk of getting elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels from exposure to CO in closed areas such as garages and tunnels. Carboxyhemoglobin levels up to 20 percent may also be found in smokers. The central nervous system seems to be influenced by carboxyhemoglobin concentrations up to 20 percent. The myocardium may also be affected. Experimental work with rabbits exposed to carbon monoxide and cholesterol is described which proved that CO has a damaging effect on arterial walls, leading to increased permeability for various plasma components, to the formation of subendothelial edema, and to increased atheromatosis. The results indicate that the much higher risk of smokers of developing arterial disease in comparison to nonsmokers is mainly due to the inhaled CO in the tobacco smoke and not to nicotine. (Air Pollut. Abstr.)

  12. Relationship of metabolic syndrome with incident aortic valve calcium and aortic valve calcium progression: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ronit; Budoff, Matthew J; Takasu, Junichiro; Shavelle, David M; Bertoni, Alain; Blumenthal, Roger S; Ouyang, Pamela; Wong, Nathan D; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2009-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with increased prevalence of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and with increased progression of aortic stenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MetS is associated with increased risks for the development of new ("incident") AVC or for progression of established AVC as assessed by CT. The relationships of MetS or its components as well as of diabetes to risks for incident AVC or AVC progression were studied among participants with CT scans performed at baseline and at either year 2 or year 3 examinations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Of 5,723 MESA participants meeting criteria for inclusion, 1,674 had MetS by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, whereas 761 had diabetes. Among the 5,123 participants without baseline AVC, risks for incident AVC, adjusted for time between scans, age, sex, race/ethnicity, LDL cholesterol, lipid-lowering medications, and smoking, were increased significantly for MetS (odds ratio [OR] 1.67 [95% CI 1.21-2.31]) or diabetes (2.06 [1.39-3.06]). In addition, there was an increase in incident AVC risk with increasing number of MetS components. Similar results were found using the International Diabetes Federation MetS criteria. Among the 600 participants (10.5%) with baseline AVC, neither MetS nor diabetes was associated with AVC progression. In the MESA cohort, MetS was associated with a significant increase in incident ("new") AVC, raising the possibility that MetS may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent AVC development.

  13. Relation of Serum Vitamin D to Risk of Mitral Annular and Aortic Valve Calcium (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibuakuu, Martin; Zhao, Di; de Boer, Ian H; Guallar, Eliseo; Bortnick, Anna E; Lutsey, Pamela L; Budoff, Matthew J; Kizer, Jorge R; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Michos, Erin D

    2017-08-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration has been identified as a possible modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that serum 25(OH)D concentration would be associated with calcifications of the left-sided heart valves, which are markers of CVD risk. Aortic valve calcium (AVC) and mitral annular calcium (MAC) were quantified from cardiac computed tomography scans performed on 5,530 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants at the baseline examination (2000 to 2002) and at a follow-up visit at either Examination 2 (2002 to 2004) or Examination 3 (2004 to 2005). 25(OH)D was measured from serum samples collected at the baseline examination. Using relative risk regression, we evaluated the multivariable-adjusted risk of prevalent and incident AVC and MAC in this ethnically diverse population free of clinical CVD at baseline. The mean age of participants was 62 ± 10 years; 53% were women, 40% white, 26% black, 21% Hispanic, and 12% Chinese. Prevalent AVC and MAC were observed in 12% and 9% of study sample, respectively. There were no significant associations between 25(OH)D and prevalent AVC or MAC. Over a mean follow-up of 2.5 years, 4% developed incident AVC and 5% developed incident MAC. After adjusting for demographic variables, each 10 ng/ml higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with a 15% (relative risk 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.74 to 0.98) lower risk of incident MAC but not AVC. However, this association was no longer significant after adjusting for lifestyle and CVD risk factors. Results suggest a possible link between serum 25(OH)D and the risk for incident MAC, but future studies with longer follow-up are needed to further test this association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies are indicators of the course, but not of the onset, of diabetes in middle-aged adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

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    A. Vigo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently examine the association of glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody (GADA positivity with the onset and progression of diabetes in middle-aged adults, we performed a case-cohort study representing the ~9-year experience of 10,275 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study participants, initially aged 45-64 years. Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65 were measured by radioimmunoassay in 580 incident diabetes cases and 544 non-cases. The overall weighted prevalence of GADA positivity (³1 U/mL was 7.3%. Baseline risk factors, with the exception of smoking and interleukin-6 (P £ 0.02, were generally similar between GADA-positive and -negative individuals. GADA positivity did not predict incident diabetes in multiply adjusted (HR = 1.04; 95%CI = 0.55, 1.96 proportional hazard analyses. However, a small non-significant adjusted risk (HR = 1.29; 95%CI = 0.58, 2.88 was seen for those in the highest tertile (³2.38 U/mL of positivity. GADA-positive and GADA-negative non-diabetic individuals had similar risk profiles for diabetes, with central obesity and elevated inflammation markers, aside from glucose, being the main predictors. Among diabetes cases at study's end, progression to insulin treatment increased monotonically as a function of baseline GADA level. Overall, being GADA positive increased risk of progression to insulin use almost 10 times (HR = 9.9; 95%CI = 3.4, 28.5. In conclusion, in initially non-diabetic middle-aged adults, GADA positivity did not increase diabetes risk, and the overall baseline profile of risk factors was similar for positive and negative individuals. Among middle-aged adults, with the possible exception of those with the highest GADA levels, autoimmune pathophysiology reflected by GADA may become clinically relevant only after diabetes onset.

  15. Association of Air Pollution Exposures With High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Particle Number: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Griffith; Mora, Samia; Greenland, Philip; Tsai, Michael; Gill, Ed; Kaufman, Joel D

    2017-05-01

    The relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease may be explained by changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). We examined the cross-sectional relationship between air pollution and both HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number in the MESA Air study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Air Pollution). Study participants were 6654 white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese men and women aged 45 to 84 years. We estimated individual residential ambient fine particulate pollution exposure (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon concentrations using a fine-scale likelihood-based spatiotemporal model and cohort-specific monitoring. Exposure periods were averaged to 12 months, 3 months, and 2 weeks prior to examination. HDL cholesterol and HDL particle number were measured in the year 2000 using the cholesterol oxidase method and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between air pollution exposure and HDL measures. A 0.7×10 - 6 m - 1 higher exposure to black carbon (a marker of traffic-related pollution) averaged over a 1-year period was significantly associated with a lower HDL cholesterol (-1.68 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -2.86 to -0.50) and approached significance with HDL particle number (-0.55 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -1.13 to 0.03). In the 3-month averaging time period, a 5 μg/m 3 higher PM 2.5 was associated with lower HDL particle number (-0.64 μmol/L; 95% confidence interval, -1.01 to -0.26), but not HDL cholesterol (-0.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval, -0.82 to 0.71). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution is adversely associated with measures of HDL. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. High fat diet induced atherosclerosis is accompanied with low colonic bacterial diversity and altered abundances that correlates with plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol: a pilot study of high fat diet and its intervention with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or telmisartan in ApoE?/? mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Yee Kwan; Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Chen, Yan; Peng, Jiao; Li, Daxu; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis appears to have multifactorial causes ? microbial component like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other pathogen associated molecular patterns may be plausible factors. The gut microbiota is an ample source of such stimulants, and its dependent metabolites and altered gut metagenome has been an established link to atherosclerosis. In this exploratory pilot study, we aimed to elucidate whether microbial intervention with probiotics L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) or pharmaceutica...

  17. The association between physical activity and atrial fibrillation applying the Heaviside function in survival analysis: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Mokhayeri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Although the effect of physical activity (PA on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF has been studied, contradictory results have been reported. Such discrepancies may reflect the different effects of various types of PA upon AF, as well as gender interactions. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the associations of PA types (total, moderate/vigorous, and intentional, as well as walking pace, with AF risk in men and women. METHODS Using the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Typical Week Physical Activity Survey, 3 PA measures and walking pace were calculated among 6,487 men and women aged 45-84 years. The incidence of AF over approximately 11 years of follow-up was ascertained. The association of each PA measure and walking pace with AF incidence was estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. An extended Cox model with Heaviside functions (hv of time was used to estimate the effects of time-varying covariates. RESULTS During 11 years of follow-up (49,557 person-years, 242 new AF cases occurred. The incidence rate of AF was 48.83 per 10,000 person-years. The proportional hazard (PH assumption for total PA among women was not met; hence, we used the hv to calculate the hazard ratio. Total PA in women in the hv2 analysis was negatively associated with AF in all 3 models, although for hv1 no significant association was observed. The PH assumption for walking pace among men was not met, and none of the hv showed a statistically significant association between walking pace and AF in men. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that PA is inversely associated with AF in women.

  18. Evaluating the buffering vs. direct effects hypotheses of emotional social support on inflammatory markers: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezuk, Briana; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa

    2010-11-01

    Social support is associated with cardiovascular disease mortality, however, the physiologic mechanisms underlying this relationship remains unspecified. This study evaluated the association of social support with inflammatory markers associated with cardiovascular risk: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and fibrinogen. We evaluated two competing models of the support-inflammation relationship: first, that low social support is directly associated with inflammation, and second, that high support acts to buffer the effect of stress on inflammation. Using data from the baseline interview of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6814, 53% female, age 45-84 years) we assessed the independent and interacting associations of social support and stress with inflammation. Social support was measured by the emotional social support index. Stressors in multiple domains (work, family, finances, interpersonal) were assessed. Serum CRP, IL-6, and fibrinogen were analyzed from fasting samples using high-sensitivity assays. Multivariate linear regression, including models stratified by gender and age group (45-64 and 65-84 years), was used to assess the direct and buffering relationships between social support, stress, and inflammation. In bivariate analyses low social support was associated with higher levels of all three markers. In adjusted models, low support was associated with higher lnCRP (B: 0.15, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.30) among men but not women. High social support buffered the relationship between stress and CRP among middle-aged women only (P for interaction 0.042). Overall, social support was only modestly associated with inflammation in this relatively healthy sample, and these relationships varied by age and gender. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Diez Roux, Ana V; Macdonald, Leslie; Foy, Capri G; Andrew, Michael E; Stukovsky, Karen H; Baron, Sherry

    2012-10-01

    Long working hours may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to investigate cross-sectional associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants were 1694 women and 1868 men from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. CIMT and ABI were measured using standard protocols. Information on work hours was obtained from questionnaires. Mean values of CIMT and ABI were examined across five categories of hours worked per week (≤20, 21-39, 40, 41-50 and >50) using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. p Values for trend were obtained from linear regression models. Mean age of participants was 56.9±8.4 years; 52.4% were men. Distinct patterns of association between work hours and the subclinical CVD biomarkers were found for women and men, although this heterogeneity by gender was not statistically significant. Among women only, work hours were positively associated with common (but not internal) CIMT (p=0.073) after full risk factor adjustment. Compared with women working 40 h, those working >50 h were more likely to have an ABI work hours and ABI were inversely associated (p=0.046). There was some evidence that the association between work hours and ABI was modified by occupational category (interaction p=0.061). Among persons classified as management/professionals, longer work hours was associated with lower ABI (p=0.015). No significant associations were observed among other occupational groups. Working longer hours may be associated with subclinical CVD. These associations should be investigated using longitudinal studies.

  20. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease in patients with cardiovascular risk factors - Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Kurajoh

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to have protective effects against cardiovascular diseases and death through neural and non-neural pathways via tropomyosin-related kinase B signaling. However, it is not known whether plasma BDNF concentration is a predictor of chronic kidney disease (CKD.This study was conducted as a prospective cohort study as part of the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis.We measured plasma BDNF concentration in 324 patients without CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2, and with cardiovascular risk factors. As potential confounders, sleep condition, nocturnal hypertension, and autonomic function were quantitatively examined. The patients were followed for a median 37 months (range 2-59 months and occurrence of CKD was noted.Plasma BDNF concentration was significantly and independently associated with CKD development, which occurred in 38 patients (11.7%. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with reduced plasma BDNF concentration exhibited a significantly (p = 0.029 greater number of CKD events as compared to those with a higher concentration. Moreover, comparisons of key subgroups showed that the risk of CKD in association with low plasma BDNF concentration was more prominent in patients with a greater reduction of nocturnal systolic blood pressure, better movement index, higher standard deviations of the NN(RR interval or average NN(RR interval for each 5-minute period, and without past cardiovascular disease events, smoking habit, or albuminuria.Plasma BDNF concentration is an independent predictor for development of CKD in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. Coronary Artery Calcium Volume and Density: Potential Interactions and Overall Predictive Value: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criqui, Michael H; Knox, Jessica B; Denenberg, Julie O; Forbang, Nketi I; McClelland, Robyn L; Novotny, Thomas E; Sandfort, Veit; Waalen, Jill; Blaha, Michael J; Allison, Matthew A

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine the possibility of interactions between coronary artery calcium (CAC) volume or CAC density with each other, and with age, sex, ethnicity, the new atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score, diabetes status, and renal function by estimated glomerular filtration rate, and, using differing CAC scores, to determine the improvement over the ASCVD risk score in risk prediction and reclassification. In MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), CAC volume was positively and CAC density inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. A total of 3,398 MESA participants free of clinical CVD but with prevalent CAC at baseline were followed for incident CVD events. During a median 11.0 years of follow-up, there were 390 CVD events, 264 of which were coronary heart disease (CHD). With each SD increase of ln CAC volume (1.62), risk of CHD increased 73% (p present). In multivariable Cox models, significant interactions were present for CAC volume with age and ASCVD risk score for both CHD and CVD, and CAC density with ASCVD risk score for CVD. Hazard ratios were generally stronger in the lower risk groups. Receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve and Net Reclassification Index analyses showed better prediction by CAC volume than by Agatston, and the addition of CAC density to CAC volume further significantly improved prediction. The inverse association between CAC density and incident CHD and CVD events is robust across strata of other CVD risk factors. Added to the ASCVD risk score, CAC volume and density provided the strongest prediction for CHD and CVD events, and the highest correct reclassification. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thyroid function, reduced kidney function and incident chronic kidney disease in a community-based population: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Ulla T; Daya, Natalie; Grams, Morgan E; Seufert, Jochen; Steffes, Michael; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth; Köttgen, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Reduced kidney function is a common public health problem that increases risk for a wide variety of adverse outcomes, making the identification of potentially modifiable factors associated with the development of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) important. Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis have been linked to reduced kidney function, but the association of thyroid function with the development of incident CKD is largely uncharacterized. Concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were quantified in 12 785 black and white participants of the ongoing community-based prospective Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Thyroid markers and clinical categories of thyroid dysfunction (euthyroidism, combined subclinical and overt hypothyroidism, combined subclinical and overt hyperthyroidism) were also evaluated for their association with reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate kidney function at study baseline. The clinical entities hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were also associated with higher odds of baseline reduced kidney function, but this was not significant. However, none of the markers of thyroid function nor different clinical categories of thyroid dysfunction (hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism or TPOAb positivity) were associated with incident CKD in adjusted analyses. Elevated TSH, FT4 and reduced T3 concentrations were associated with reduced kidney function cross-sectionally. The lack of association with the development of incident CKD suggests that altered thyroid function in the general population is not causally related to CKD development, but screening for thyroidal status may be especially relevant in persons with reduced kidney function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. Arterial wave reflections and kidney function decline among persons with preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey J; Katz, Ronit; Chirinos, Julio A; Jacobs, David R; Duprez, Daniel A; Peralta, Carmen A

    2016-05-01

    Differences in arterial wave reflections have been associated with increased risk for heart failure and mortality. Whether these measures are also associated with kidney function decline is not well established. Reflection magnitude (RM, defined as the ratio of the backward wave [Pb] to that of the forward wave [Pf]), augmentation index (AIx), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA) were derived from radial tonometry measures among 5232 participants free of cardiovascular disease who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Kidney function was estimated by creatinine and cystatin C measurements, as well as albumin-to-creatinine ratio. We evaluated the associations of Pb, Pf, RM, AIx, and PPA with annualized estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) change and rapid kidney function decline over 5 years, using generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression, respectively. Of the study participants, 48% were male, mean age was 62 years, mean eGFR and median albumin-to-creatinine ratio at baseline were 84 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 5.3 mg/g, respectively. In demographically adjusted models, both Pb and Pf had similarly strong associations with kidney function decline; compared to those in the lowest tertiles, the persons in the highest tertiles of Pb and Pf had a 1.01 and 0.99 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year faster eGFR decline, respectively (P function decline. In conclusion, the reflected and forward wave components were similarly associated with kidney function decline, and these associations were explained by differences in systolic blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery After Mobilization of Pushing on Qiao-Gong: A Safety Study Using an Animal Model of Carotid Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Shaoqun; Zhang, Lei; Ping, Ruiyue; Ping, Kaike; Ye, Da; Shen, Honggui; Chen, Yili; Li, Yikai

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to preliminarily explore the effects of the soft tissue mobilization of pushing on Qiao-Gong (MPQ) on biomechanical properties of the carotid artery using an animal model of carotid atherosclerosis (CAS). Fifty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: animals with CAS treated with MPQ (CAS-MPQ [n = 15]); animals with CAS treated without MPQ (CAS [n = 15]); normal animals treated with MPQ (normal-MPQ [n = 10]); and a blank control group (n = 10). The MPQ procedure consisted of soft tissue mobilization of the Qiao-Gong acupoint on the front edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle applied from top to bottom, by flat pushing with the thumb repeatedly for 20 times. Disease in the CAS models was induced by carotid artery balloon injury combined with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. At the end of modeling, carotid color Doppler ultrasonography examination was performed to confirm which animal models were successfully induced with CAS, excluding model rabbits without typical CAS at the same time. Then, MPQ was applied on rabbits in the CAS-MPQ and the normal-MPQ groups for 3 weeks. By contrast, rabbits in the other 2 groups were fed normally without MPQ. Uniaxial failure tests were later performed on carotid arteries in all 4 groups, and at the end of the study, a 2-way factorial analysis of variance of the results was conducted. (1) At the end of modeling, 10 rabbits in the CAS-MPQ group and 9 in the CAS group were included with typical carotid atherosclerotic characteristics. (2) Young's elastic modulus of the rabbit carotid artery increased more significantly in the CAS-MPQ group than the CAS group. (3) Compared with normal rabbit carotid arteries, atherosclerotic carotid arteries had lower levels of ultimate stress and ultimate strain but higher levels of ultimate load. The uniaxial tensile mechanical properties of the rabbit atherosclerotic carotid artery were impaired after MPQ. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Relationship between the cortisol awakening response and other features of the diurnal cortisol rhythm: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Sánchez, Brisa N; Wu, Meihua; Champaneri, Shivam; Diez Roux, Ana V; Seeman, Teresa; Wand, Gary S

    2013-11-01

    Cumulative cortisol burden is known to influence neuropsychiatric and metabolic disorders. To better understand the relationship between daily cortisol exposure and measures of the diurnal circadian cortisol rhythm, we examined the cross-sectional association of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with wake-up cortisol, bedtime cortisol, diurnal slope, and total cortisol area under the curve (AUC). Up to 18 salivary cortisol samples were collected over 3 days from 935 White, Hispanic, and Black individuals (mean age 65 ± 9.8 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Outcome measures included awakening cortisol, CAR (awakening to 30 min post-awakening), early decline (30 min to 2h post-awakening), late decline (2h post-awakening to bedtime), and the corresponding AUCs. Total cortisol AUC was a summary measure of cumulative cortisol exposure. Higher CAR was associated with significantly lower wake-up cortisol (β=-0.56; 95% CI: -0.59 to -0.53) and a higher early decline AUC (β=0.38; 95% CI: 0.34-0.42) but was not associated with total cortisol AUC (β=0.04; 95% CI: -0.01 to 0.09), or other diurnal cortisol curve components following multivariable adjustment. Total cortisol AUC was significantly and positively associated with wake-up cortisol (β=0.36; 95% CI: 0.32-0.40), bedtime cortisol (β=0.61; 95% CI: 0.58-0.64), and other AUC measures, following multivariable adjustment. Associations were similar by sex, race/ethnicity, and age categories. We conclude that bedtime cortisol showed the strongest correlation with total cortisol AUC, suggesting it may be a marker of daily cortisol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations of Socioeconomic Status and Processed Food Intake with Serum Phosphorus in Community-Living Adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A.; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Roux, Ana Diez; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Ix, Joachim H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting and Participants We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Predictor Variables Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives (processed meats, sodas) and frequency of fast food consumption. Outcomes Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. Results In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus in multivariable-adjusted analyses. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dl lower serum phosphorus (95% confidence interval, −0.04, −0.01). Conclusions Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. PMID:22217539

  7. Associations of socioeconomic status and processed food intake with serum phosphorus concentration in community-living adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Katz, Ronit; Peralta, Carmen A; de Boer, Ian H; Siscovick, David; Wolf, Myles; Diez Roux, Ana; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Ix, Joachim H

    2012-09-01

    Higher serum phosphorus concentrations are associated with cardiovascular disease events and mortality. Low socioeconomic status is linked with higher serum phosphorus concentration, but the reasons are unclear. Poor individuals disproportionately consume inexpensive processed foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food preservatives. Accordingly, we hypothesized that excess intake of these foods accounts for a relationship between lower socioeconomic status and higher serum phosphorus concentration. Cross-sectional analysis. We examined a random cohort of 2,664 participants with available phosphorus measurements in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a community-based sample of individuals free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease from across the United States. Socioeconomic status, the intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus-based food additives (processed meats, sodas), and frequency of fast-food consumption. Fasting morning serum phosphorus concentrations. In unadjusted analyses, lower income and lower educational achievement categories were associated with modestly higher serum phosphorus concentration (by 0.02 to 0.10 mg/dL, P fast-food consumption with serum phosphorus. In contrast, each serving per day higher soda intake was associated with 0.02 mg/dL lower serum phosphorus concentration (95% confidence interval, -0.04, -0.01). Greater intake of foods commonly enriched with phosphorus additives was not associated with higher serum phosphorus concentration in a community-living sample with largely preserved kidney function. These results suggest that excess intake of processed and fast foods may not impact fasting serum phosphorus concentrations among individuals without kidney disease. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do psychosocial stress and social disadvantage modify the association between air pollution and blood pressure?: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Margaret T; Adar, Sara D; Diez Roux, Ana V; O'Neill, Marie S; Magzamen, Sheryl; Auchincloss, Amy H; Kaufman, Joel D

    2013-11-15

    Researchers have theorized that social and psychosocial factors increase vulnerability to the deleterious health effects of environmental hazards. We used baseline examination data (2000-2002) from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were 45-84 years of age and free of clinical cardiovascular disease at enrollment (n = 6814). The modifying role of social and psychosocial factors on the association between exposure to air pollution comprising particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and blood pressure measures were examined using linear regression models. There was no evidence of synergistic effects of higher PM2.5 and adverse social/psychosocial factors on blood pressure. In contrast, there was weak evidence of stronger associations of PM2.5 with blood pressure in higher socioeconomic status groups. For example, those in the 10th percentile of the income distribution (i.e., low income) showed no association between PM2.5 and diastolic blood pressure (b = -0.41 mmHg; 95% confidence interval: -1.40, 0.61), whereas those in the 90th percentile of the income distribution (i.e., high income) showed a 1.52-mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure for each 10-µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 (95% confidence interval: 0.22, 2.83). Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that there are stronger associations between PM2.5 exposures and blood pressure in persons of lower socioeconomic status or those with greater psychosocial adversity.

  9. Neighborhood Prices of Healthier and Unhealthier Foods and Associations with Diet Quality: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, David M; Auchincloss, Amy H; Stehr, Mark F; Roux, Ana V Diez; Moore, Latetia V; Kanter, Genevieve P; Robinson, Lucy F

    2017-11-16

    It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual's neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010-2012 n = 2765); a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc. (n = 794 supermarkets). For each individual, the average price of select indicators of healthier foods (vegetables, fruits, dairy) and unhealthier foods (soda, sweets, salty snacks), as well as their ratio, was computed for supermarkets within three miles of the person's residential address. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios of a high-quality diet (top quintile of Healthy Eating Index 2010) associated with healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses used an instrumental variable (IV) approach. Healthier foods cost nearly twice as much as unhealthier foods per serving on average (mean healthy-to-unhealthy ratio = 1.97 [SD 0.14]). A larger healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio was associated with lower odds of a high-quality diet (OR = 0.76 per SD increase in the ratio, 95% CI = [0.64-0.9]). IV analyses largely confirmed these findings although-as expected with IV adjustment-confidence intervals were wide (OR = 0.82 [0.57-1.19]). Policies to address the large price differences between healthier and unhealthy foods may help improve diet quality in the United States.

  10. Neighborhood Prices of Healthier and Unhealthier Foods and Associations with Diet Quality: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kern

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the price of food influences the purchasing and consumption decisions of individuals; however, little work has examined if the price of healthier food relative to unhealthier food in an individual’s neighborhood is associated with overall dietary quality while using data from multiple regions in the United States. Cross-sectional person-level data came from The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (exam 5, 2010–2012, n = 2765; a food frequency questionnaire assessed diet. Supermarket food/beverage prices came from Information Resources Inc. (n = 794 supermarkets. For each individual, the average price of select indicators of healthier foods (vegetables, fruits, dairy and unhealthier foods (soda, sweets, salty snacks, as well as their ratio, was computed for supermarkets within three miles of the person’s residential address. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios of a high-quality diet (top quintile of Healthy Eating Index 2010 associated with healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses used an instrumental variable (IV approach. Healthier foods cost nearly twice as much as unhealthier foods per serving on average (mean healthy-to-unhealthy ratio = 1.97 [SD 0.14]. A larger healthy-to-unhealthy price ratio was associated with lower odds of a high-quality diet (OR = 0.76 per SD increase in the ratio, 95% CI = [0.64–0.9]. IV analyses largely confirmed these findings although—as expected with IV adjustment—confidence intervals were wide (OR = 0.82 [0.57–1.19]. Policies to address the large price differences between healthier and unhealthy foods may help improve diet quality in the United States.

  11. Implications of the Eighth Joint National Committee Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure for Aging Adults: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedema, Michael D; Lopez, Faye L; Blaha, Michael J; Virani, Salim S; Coresh, Josef; Ballantyne, Christie M; Folsom, Aaron R

    2015-09-01

    The recent 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults from the Eight Joint National Committee Panel may significantly affect the aging US population. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of black and white participants in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities who participated in the fifth study visit (2011-2013). Sitting blood pressure was calculated from the average of 3 successive readings taken after a 5-minute rest. Currently, prescribed antihypertensive medications were recorded by reviewing medication containers brought to the visit. Blood pressure control was defined using both the Seventh and Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds. Of 6088 participants (mean age, 75.6 [range, 66-90] years, 58.4% women; 23.2% black), 54.9% had either diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of hypertension according to Seventh Joint National Committee thresholds was 81.9%, and 62.8% of the entire sample were at blood pressure goal. Using the Eighth Joint National Committee thresholds, 79.4% were at blood pressure goal (16.6% were reclassified as at-goal). Reclassification was higher for individuals with diabetes mellitus or chronic kidney disease (20.6%) when compared with individuals without either condition (11.6%). The use of antihypertensive medications in our cohort was high, with 75.0% prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive medication and 46.7% on ≥2 antihypertensive agents. In conclusion, in a US cohort of aging white and black individuals, ≈1 in 6 individuals were reclassified as having blood pressure at goal by Eighth Joint National Committee guidelines. Despite these less aggressive goals, >20% remain uncontrolled by the new criteria. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. [Chronic mild inflammation links obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis and diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, M; Polák, J; Kraml, P; Dlouhý, P; Stich, V

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low grade inflammation is relatively new concept in metabolic medicine. This concept describes the relations between the inflammation and adipose tissue, insulin resistence, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Macrophages and lymphocytes deposed in adipose tissue produce proinflammatory cytokines which directly or through the CRP liver secretion are targeting endothelial cells, hepatocytes and beta cells of Langerhans islets of pancreas. The dysfunction of these cells follows often further disturbances and in case of beta cells - the cell death. The connection between the adipose tissue insulin resistence, atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes was earlier described with endocrine and metabolic descriptors. The concept of chronic low grade inflammation creates also another description of multilateral connections in metabolic syndome. The salicylates and the drugs related to them seem to have some glucose lowering properties. The recent development in the field ofchronic low grade inflammation represents also certain therapeutic hope for antiinflammatory intervention in type 2 diabetes.

  13. Atherosclerosis profile and incidence of cardiovascular events: a population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bullano Michael F

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a chronic progressive disease often presenting as clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD events. This study evaluated the characteristics of individuals with a diagnosis of atherosclerosis and estimated the incidence of CVD events to assist in the early identification of high-risk individuals. Methods Respondents to the US SHIELD baseline survey were followed for 2 years to observe incident self-reported CVD. Respondents had subclinical atherosclerosis if they reported a diagnosis of narrow or blocked arteries/carotid artery disease without a past clinical CVD event (heart attack, stroke or revascularization. Characteristics of those with atherosclerosis and incident CVD were compared with those who did not report atherosclerosis at baseline but had CVD in the following 2 years using chi-square tests. Logistic regression model identified characteristics associated with atherosclerosis and incident events. Results Of 17,640 respondents, 488 (2.8% reported having subclinical atherosclerosis at baseline. Subclinical atherosclerosis was associated with age, male gender, dyslipidemia, circulation problems, hypertension, past smoker, and a cholesterol test in past year (OR = 2.2 [all p Conclusion Self-report of subclinical atherosclerosis identified an extremely high-risk group with a >25% risk of a CVD event in the next 2 years. These characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals for more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic efforts.

  14. Fatores de risco de aterosclerose na infância. Um estudo epidemiológico Risk factors of atherosclerosis in children. An epidemiologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoffi Roberto S. Gerber

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Obter um perfil dos fatores de risco coronário em uma amostra populacional pediátrica da cidade de Bento Gonçalves, RS, no período de maio/90 a junho/91. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 1501 escolares de 6 a 16 anos incompletos, visando a detecção dos níveis séricos de colesterol total, lipoproteínas, triglicerídeos, bem como a avaliação da pressão arterial e da história familiar de doença cardiovascular isquêmica e obesidade. RESULTADOS: Foram detectadas 420 (27,98% crianças com hipercolesterolemia, sendo que 75 (5% apresentavam hipertensão arterial sistólica e 48 (3,20% hipertensão arterial diastólica. A história familiar foi importante quando positiva, porém, sua ausência não excluia a presença de fatores de risco para a aterosclerose. A hipertrigliceridemia foi encontrada em 136 (9,06% escolares e a LDL-colesterol elevada em 155 (10,33%, mostrando forte associação com hipercolesterolemia. Apresentaram índice de massa corporal acima de percentil 95, não mostrando uma maior prevalência de hipercolesterolemia, 111 crianças. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores de risco para a aterosclerose estão presentes na infância e deveriam ser pesquisados independentemente do nível socioeconômico, da história familiar, da idade e do sexo, devendo o pediatra ser um dos responsáveis por esta investigação.PURPOSE: To obtain a profile of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis in a pediatric population from Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, from May 1990 to June 1991. METHODS: One thousand five hundred and one children with ages from 6 to 15 years were studied to assess serum cholesterol levels and their association with other risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty (27.98% children showed cholesterol levels over 180mg%; 75 (5% had systolic hypertension and 48 (3.20% diastolic hypertension. The family history was important to search

  15. An Experimental Study of the Electrical Contact Resistance in Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

    2005-01-01

    Electrical contact resistance is of critical importance in resistance welding. In this article, the contact resistance is experimentally investigated for welding mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum to themselves. A parametric study was carried out on a Gleeble® machine, investigating...

  16. Multi-organ expression profiling uncovers a gene module in coronary artery disease involving transendothelial migration of leukocytes and LIM domain binding 2: The Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study

    KAUST Repository

    Hägg, Sara

    2009-12-04

    Environmental exposures filtered through the genetic make-up of each individual alter the transcriptional repertoire in organs central to metabolic homeostasis, thereby affecting arterial lipid accumulation, inflammation, and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). The primary aim of the Stockholm Atherosclerosis Gene Expression (STAGE) study was to determine whether there are functionally associated genes (rather than individual genes) important for CAD development. To this end, two-way clustering was used on 278 transcriptional profiles of liver, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat (n =66/tissue) and atherosclerotic and unaffected arterial wall (n =40/tissue) isolated from CAD patients during coronary artery bypass surgery. The first step, across all mRNA signals (n =15,042/12,621 RefSeqs/genes) in each tissue, resulted in a total of 60 tissue clusters (n= 3958 genes). In the second step (performed within tissue clusters), one atherosclerotic lesion (n =49/48) and one visceral fat (n =59) cluster segregated the patients into two groups that differed in the extent of coronary stenosis (P=0.008 and P=0.00015). The associations of these clusters with coronary atherosclerosis were validated by analyzing carotid atherosclerosis expression profiles. Remarkably, in one cluster (n =55/54) relating to carotid stenosis (P =0.04), 27 genes in the two clusters relating to coronary stenosis were confirmed (n= 16/17, P<10 -27and-30). Genes in the transendothelial migration of leukocytes (TEML) pathway were overrepresented in all three clusters, referred to as the atherosclerosis module (A-module). In a second validation step, using three independent cohorts, the Amodule was found to be genetically enriched with CAD risk by 1.8-fold (P<0.004). The transcription co-factor LIM domain binding 2 (LDB2) was identified as a potential high-hierarchy regulator of the A-module, a notion supported by subnetwork analysis, by cellular and lesion expression of LDB2, and by the

  17. Expression Study of Banana Pathogenic Resistance Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny M. Dwivany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Banana is one of the world's most important trade commodities. However, infection of banana pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum race 4 is one of the major causes of decreasing production in Indonesia. Genetic engineering has become an alternative way to control this problem by isolating genes that involved in plant defense mechanism against pathogens. Two of the important genes are API5 and ChiI1, each gene encodes apoptosis inhibitory protein and chitinase enzymes. The purpose of this study was to study the expression of API5 and ChiI1 genes as candidate pathogenic resistance genes. The amplified fragments were then cloned, sequenced, and confirmed with in silico studies. Based on sequence analysis, it is showed that partial API5 gene has putative transactivation domain and ChiI1 has 9 chitinase family GH19 protein motifs. Data obtained from this study will contribute in banana genetic improvement.

  18. Biomarkers of Dairy Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Otto, de M.C.; Nettleton, J.A.; Lemaitre, R.N.; Steffen, L.M.; Kromhout, D.; Rich, R.L.; Tsai, M.Y.; Jacobs, D.R.; Mozaffarian, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence regarding the role of dairy fat intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been mixed and inconclusive. Most earlier studies have used self-reported measures of dietary intake and focused on relatively racially homogeneous populations. Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat in a

  19. Prevalence and anatomic characteristics of infarct-like lesions on MR images of middle-aged adults: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R N; Cai, J; Burke, G; Hutchinson, R G; Liao, D; Toole, J F; Dagher, A P; Cooper, L

    1999-08-01

    MR imaging has revealed putative evidence of subclinical cerebrovascular disease (CVD) as reflected by white matter signal changes and infarct-like lesions (ILLs). Nonetheless, the prevalence of this condition in the general population has been defined only to a limited extent. We herein report the prevalence and anatomic characteristics of ILLs seen on cranial MR images obtained as part of a population-based study of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged adults. These results are contrasted to those of previous similar studies, particularly those of an elderly population in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). This Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort consists of a probability sample of community-living persons who were 55 to 72 years old at the time of MR examination. MR imaging of 1890 participants was performed at two ARIC field centers, based on a common protocol. MR studies were evaluated by trained readers at the MR Reading Center using original digital data displayed on a high-resolution workstation. The measures of lesion size, anatomic location, and signal intensity were collected. The definition for an ILL was a non-mass, hyperintense region with an arterial vascular distribution on spin-density and T2-weighted images. Two hundred ninety participants had ILLs, for an overall prevalence of 15.3%. Eighty-two percent of participants with ILLs had lesions that were 3 mm or larger in maximal dimension, although 87% of these lesions were 20 mm or smaller in maximal dimension. The prevalence of ILLs increased with age, from 7.9% in the 55- to 59-year-old age group to 22.9% in the 65- to 72-year-old age group (P male and female participants. The basal ganglia and thalamic region was the most commonly affected anatomic site, accounting for 78.9% of the lesions. Considering that the prevalence of self-reported stroke or transient ischemic attack in ARIC participants is 1.5%, these results suggest that there is significantly more subclinical than

  20. A multiscale modelling approach to understand atherosclerosis formation: A patient-specific case study in the aortic bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Mona; Pichardo-Almarza, Cesar; Agu, Obiekezie; Díaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Atherogenesis, the formation of plaques in the wall of blood vessels, starts as a result of lipid accumulation (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in the vessel wall. Such accumulation is related to the site of endothelial mechanotransduction, the endothelial response to mechanical stimuli and haemodynamics, which determines biochemical processes regulating the vessel wall permeability. This interaction between biomechanical and biochemical phenomena is complex, spanning different biological scales and is patient-specific, requiring tools able to capture such mathematical and biological complexity in a unified framework. Mathematical models offer an elegant and efficient way of doing this, by taking into account multifactorial and multiscale processes and mechanisms, in order to capture the fundamentals of plaque formation in individual patients. In this study, a mathematical model to understand plaque and calcification locations is presented: this model provides a strong interpretability and physical meaning through a multiscale, complex index or metric (the penetration site of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, expressed as volumetric flux). Computed tomography scans of the aortic bifurcation and iliac arteries are analysed and compared with the results of the multifactorial model. The results indicate that the model shows potential to predict the majority of the plaque locations, also not predicting regions where plaques are absent. The promising results from this case study provide a proof of concept that can be applied to a larger patient population. PMID:28427316

  1. Red cell distribution width in relation to incidence of stroke and carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Söderholm

    Full Text Available Increased red cell distribution width (RDW has been related to poor prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease, and is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in the general population. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if RDW is associated with increased incidence of stroke and its subtypes in individuals from the general population.Red cell distribution width was measured in 26,879 participants (16,561 women and 10,318 men aged 45-73 years without history of coronary events or stroke, from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Incidences of total stroke and stroke subtypes over a mean follow-up of 15.2 years were calculated in relation to sex-specific quartiles of RDW. The presence of carotid plaque and intima-media thickness, as assessed by ultrasound, was studied in relation to RDW in a randomly selected subcohort (n = 5,309.Incidences of total stroke (n = 1,869 and cerebral infarction (n = 1,544 were both increased in individuals with high RDW. Hazard ratios (HRs in the highest compared to the lowest quartile were 1.31 for total stroke (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.54, p for trend = 0.004 and 1.32 for cerebral infarction (95% CI: 1.10-1.58, p for trend = 0.004 after adjustment for stroke risk factors and hematological parameters. The adjusted HR for intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 230 was 1.44 (95% CI: 0.90-2.30 and the HR for subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 75 was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.43-2.07, in the highest compared to the lowest quartile of RDW. Red cell distribution width was positively associated with intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (p for trend = 0.011.Red cell distribution width in the highest quartile was associated with increased incidence of total stroke and cerebral infarction. There was no significant association between RDW and incidence of intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  2. Frequency of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Brazilian HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmazo, Péricles Sidnei; Bazan, Silméia Garcia Zanati; Shiraishi, Flávio Gobbis; Bazan, Rodrigo; Okoshi, Katashi; Hueb, João Carlos

    2018-04-09

    AIDS as well as atherosclerosis are important public health problems. The longer survival among HIV-infected is associated with increased number of cardiovascular events in this population, and this association is not fully understood. To identify the frequency of subclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients compared to control subjects; to analyze associations between atherosclerosis and clinical and laboratory variables, cardiovascular risk factors, and the Framingham coronary heart disease risk score (FCRS). Prospective cross-sectional case-control study assessing the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in 264 HIV-infected patients and 279 controls. Clinical evaluation included ultrasound examination of the carotid arteries, arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), laboratory analysis of peripheral blood, and cardiovascular risk according to FCRS criteria. The significance level adopted in the statistical analysis was p media thickness was higher in the HIV group than in controls (p media thickness, was not associated with carotid plaque frequency, and did not alter the mechanical characteristics of the arterial system (PWV and AIx). HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of atherosclerosis in association with classical cardiovascular risk factors. Treatment with protease inhibitors does not promote functional changes in the arteries, and shows no association with increased frequency of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid arteries. The FCRS may be inappropriate for this population.

  3. Association between circulating specific leukocyte types and incident chronic kidney disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Niu; Penman, Alan D; Manning, R Davis; Flessner, Michael F; Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Progressive renal fibrosis is a characteristic of all the diseases that cause renal failure and is invariably accompanied by a prominent leukocyte infiltration in the kidney. The goal of this study was to determine the association between the circulating specific leukocyte types and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a cohort of 10,056 middle-aged white and African American adults, levels of circulating neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were measured at baseline; blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine were measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated at baseline and 3 and 9 years later; and surveillance for first hospitalization or death with CKD was carried out over a mean follow-up of 7.4 years (maximum, 11.9 years). Increased neutrophil levels and decreased lymphocyte levels were significantly associated with greater CKD incidence after adjustment for covariates. African Americans tended to have similar but stronger patterns of association between circulating leukocytes and CKD incidence than whites, although the differences between race groups were not statistically significant. We also found that eGFR and BP were higher at each visit in African Americans than whites between ages 45 and 65. These findings support a potential role for circulating specific leukocytes in the pathogenesis of kidney dysfunction, especially in African Americans, indicating the leukocyte-related renal mechanism of essential hypertension (HT). Copyright © 2012 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Resting heart rate and the incidence and progression of valvular calcium: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoakwa, Kojo; Fashanu, Oluwaseun E; Tibuakuu, Martin; Zhao, Di; Guallar, Eliseo; Whelton, Seamus P; O'Neal, Wesley T; Post, Wendy S; Budoff, Matthew J; Michos, Erin D

    2018-06-01

    Left-sided valvular calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Resting heart rate (RHR) may influence valvular calcium progression through shear stress. Whether RHR, an established CVD risk factor, is associated with valvular calcium progression is unknown. We assessed whether RHR predicts incidence and progression of mitral annular calcium (MAC) and aortic valve calcium (AVC) in a community-based cohort free of CVD at baseline. RHR was obtained from baseline electrocardiograms of 5498 MESA participants. MAC and AVC were quantified using Agatston scoring from cardiac computed tomography scans obtained at baseline and at a second examination during follow-up. We examined associations of RHR with incident MAC/AVC and annual change in MAC/AVC scores, after adjusting for demographics, CVD risk factors, physical activity, and atrioventricular nodal blocker use. At baseline, participants had mean age of 62 ± 10 years and mean RHR of 63 ± 10 bpm; 12.3% and 8.9% had prevalent AVC and MAC, respectively. Over a median of 2.3 years, 4.1% and 4.5% developed incident AVC and MAC, respectively. Each 10 bpm higher RHR was significantly associated with incident MAC [Risk Ratio 1.17 (95% CI 1.03-1.34)], but not incident AVC. However, RHR was associated with AVC progression [β = 1.62 (0.45-2.80) Agatston units/year for every 10 bpm increment], but not MAC progression. Higher RHR was associated with MAC incidence and AVC progression, independent of traditional CVD risk factors. Future studies are needed to determine whether modification of RHR through lifestyle or pharmacologic interventions can reduce valvular calcium incidence or progression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex and race/ethnic disparities in the cross-sectional association between depressive symptoms and muscle mass: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Allison, Matthew A; Schreiner, Pamela J; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Szklo, Moyses; Crum, Rosa M; Leuotsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Franco, Manuel; Jensky, Nicole; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2015-09-18

    The cross-sectional area of total muscle mass has been reported to decrease by about 40% for those 20-60 years of age. Depressive symptoms may discourage motivation to engage in physical activity such as strength training shown to negate muscle loss. Inflammation related to depressive symptoms may also contribute to muscle atrophy. Physiological differences by sex and race/ethnicity may also modify the association between depression and muscle mass. Evidence on the relationship between depression (or depressive symptoms) and adiposity has been mounting; however, little is known about the depressive symptoms-muscle mass association. We sought to determine the association between elevated depressive symptoms (EDS) and lean muscle mass and whether this varies by sex and race/ethnicity. Evaluating 1605 adults (45-84 years of age) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Abdominal Body Composition, Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease Study, we examined the cross-sectional association between EDS (Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression Scale score≥16 and/or antidepressant use) and computed tomography-measured abdominal lean muscle mass using linear regression. Muscles were evaluated as a whole and by functionality (locomotion vs. stabilization/posture). Covariates included height, body mass index, sociodemographics, comorbidities, inflammatory markers and health behaviors (pack-years of smoking, alcohol locomotion compared to men, total intentional exercise, daily caloric intake). Sex and race/ethnicity were assessed as potential modifiers. Statistical significance was at a pdepressive symptoms had 5.9 cm2 lower lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to men without EDS, fully-adjusted (CI=-10.5, -1.4, p=0.011). This was statistically significantly different from the null finding among women (interaction p=0.05). Chinese participants with EDS had 10.2 cm2 lower abdominal lean muscle mass for locomotion compared to those without EDS (fully

  6. Coronary calcium predicts events better with absolute calcium scores than age-sex-race/ethnicity percentiles: MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram; McClelland, Robyn L; Detrano, Robert; Wong, Nathan; Blumenthal, Roger S; Kondos, George; Kronmal, Richard A

    2009-01-27

    In this study, we aimed to establish whether age-sex-specific percentiles of coronary artery calcium (CAC) predict cardiovascular outcomes better than the actual (absolute) CAC score. The presence and extent of CAC correlates with the overall magnitude of coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden and with the development of subsequent coronary events. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is a prospective cohort study of 6,814 asymptomatic participants followed for coronary heart disease (CHD) events including myocardial infarction, angina, resuscitated cardiac arrest, or CHD death. Time to incident CHD was modeled with Cox regression, and we compared models with percentiles based on age, sex, and/or race/ethnicity to categories commonly used (0, 1 to 100, 101 to 400, 400+ Agatston units). There were 163 (2.4%) incident CHD events (median follow-up 3.75 years). Expressing CAC in terms of age- and sex-specific percentiles had significantly lower area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) than when using absolute scores (women: AUC 0.73 versus 0.76, p = 0.044; men: AUC 0.73 versus 0.77, p better model fit with the overall score. Both methods robustly predicted events (>90th percentile associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 16.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.30 to 28.9, and score >400 associated with HR of 20.6, 95% CI: 11.8 to 36.0). Within groups based on age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentiles there remains a clear trend of increasing risk across levels of the absolute CAC groups. In contrast, once absolute CAC category is fixed, there is no increasing trend across levels of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific categories. Patients with low absolute scores are low-risk, regardless of age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific percentile rank. Persons with an absolute CAC score of >400 are high risk, regardless of percentile rank. Using absolute CAC in standard groups performed better than age-, sex-, and race

  7. Associations between vitamin D status and atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødesen, Camilla U; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low levels of vitamin D are suspected to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis among Inuit in Greenland, and to evaluate the association with vitamin D status. We hypo...

  8. Predictors of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Verma

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: In the present study, FMD and CIMT were impaired in RA, indicating endothelial dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis respectively. CRP, TNF-α, serum nitrite, DAS-28 and depleted EPC population predicted endothelial dysfunction. Age, IL-6, HDL, LDL and depleted EPC population predicted accelerated atherosclerosis.

  9. Identifying novel genes for atherosclerosis through mouse-human comparative genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, XS; Ishimori, N; Korstanje, R; Rollins, J; Paigen, B

    Susceptibility to atherosclerosis is determined by both environmental and genetic factors. Its genetic determinants have been studied by use of quantitative- trait - locus ( QTL) analysis. So far, 21 atherosclerosis QTLs have been identified in the mouse: 7 in a high- fat - diet model only, 9 in a

  10. Study of multidrug resistance and radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoon Koo; Yoo, Young Do

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the mechanism of 5-FU, adriamycin, radiation resistance in Korean gastric cancer cells. First we investigated the relation between Rb and multidrug resistance. Rb stable transfectants exhibited 5- to 10- fold more resistance to adriamycin than the control cells. These Rb transfectants showed increased MDR1 expression. We also investigated up-regulation in radiation-resistant tumor tissues. HSP27, MRP-8, GST, and NKEF-B were up-regulated in radiation resistant tumor. Expression of NKEF-B was also increased by radiation exposure in Head and Neck cells. These results demonstrated that NKEF-B is a stress response protein and it may have an important role in radiation resistance

  11. Rationale, Design, and Baseline Characteristics of the Utopia Trial for Preventing Diabetic Atherosclerosis Using an SGLT2 Inhibitor: A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label, Parallel-Group Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakami, Naoto; Mita, Tomoya; Yoshii, Hidenori; Shiraiwa, Toshihiko; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Okada, Yosuke; Umayahara, Yutaka; Kaneto, Hideaki; Osonoi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Tsunehiko; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Kosugi, Keisuke; Ohtoshi, Kentaro; Hayashi, Isao; Sumitani, Satoru; Tsugawa, Mamiko; Ohashi, Makoto; Taki, Hideki; Nakamura, Tadashi; Kawashima, Satoshi; Sato, Yasunori; Watada, Hirotaka; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2017-10-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are anti-diabetic agents that improve glycemic control with a low risk of hypoglycemia and ameliorate a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the ongoing study described herein is to investigate the preventive effects of tofogliflozin, a potent and selective SGLT2 inhibitor, on the progression of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), an established marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as a marker. The Study of Using Tofogliflozin for Possible better Intervention against Atherosclerosis for type 2 diabetes patients (UTOPIA) trial is a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, multicenter, and parallel-group comparative study. The aim was to recruit a total of 340 subjects with T2DM but no history of apparent CVD at 24 clinical sites and randomly allocate these to a tofogliflozin treatment group or a conventional treatment group using drugs other than SGLT2 inhibitors. As primary outcomes, changes in mean and maximum IMT of the common carotid artery during a 104-week treatment period will be measured by carotid echography. Secondary outcomes include changes in glycemic control, parameters related to β-cell function and diabetic nephropathy, the occurrence of CVD and adverse events, and biochemical measurements reflecting vascular function. This is the first study to address the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the progression of carotid IMT in subjects with T2DM without a history of CVD. The results will be available in the very near future, and these findings are expected to provide clinical data that will be helpful in the prevention of diabetic atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD. Kowa Co., Ltd. UMIN000017607.

  12. Association of albumin-creatinine ratio and cystatin C with change in ankle-brachial index: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Pranav S; Ix, Joachim H; Katz, Ronit; Shlipak, Michael G; Criqui, Michael H; Siscovick, David S; Kramer, Holly; Sibley, Christopher T; Sarnak, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a reflection of atherosclerotic disease, and high ABI is an indicator of calcified vessels. The associations of albuminuria and cystatin C level with incidence of either low or high ABI are unknown. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) enrolled community-dwelling adults (N=6,814) aged 45-84 years who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline. Baseline albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum cystatin C level. Development of low (high (>1.40) ABI using multinomial regression among persons with ABI of 0.90-1.40 at baseline. During 9.8 years of follow-up, 221 and 89 participants progressed to low and high ABIs, respectively. Baseline ACR and cystatin C level were higher among progressors compared with nonprogressors. In multivariable analyses, doubling of ACR was associated with increased risk of progression to low (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.99-1.20) and high (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32) ABIs. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of ACR had a significantly increased risk of progression to low (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.12) and high (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.32-5.77) ABIs. Higher cystatin C levels were associated with progression to low (OR per 1-SD greater, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26) but not high (OR per 1-SD greater, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.81-1.25) ABI, but the highest quintile of cystatin C was not associated independently with either outcome. Single measure of albuminuria and low number of progressors to high ABI. In adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease, albuminuria was a strong independent risk factor for the development of both high and low ABIs, important and different measures of peripheral artery disease. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary protein intake and coronary heart disease in a large community based cohort: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Haring

    Full Text Available Prospective data examining the relationship between dietary protein intake and incident coronary heart disease (CHD are inconclusive. Most evidence is derived from homogenous populations such as health professionals. Large community-based analyses in more diverse samples are lacking.We studied the association of protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for incident CHD in 12,066 middle-aged adults (aged 45-64 at baseline, 1987-1989 from four U.S. communities enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study who were free of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary protein intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up by food frequency questionnaire. Our primary outcome was adjudicated coronary heart disease events or deaths with following up through December 31, 2010. Cox proportional hazard models with multivariable adjustment were used for statistical analyses.During a median follow-up of 22 years, there were 1,147 CHD events. In multivariable analyses total, animal and vegetable protein were not associated with an increased risk for CHD before or after adjustment. In food group analyses of major dietary protein sources, protein intake from red and processed meat, dairy products, fish, nuts, eggs, and legumes were not significantly associated with CHD risk. The hazard ratios [with 95% confidence intervals] for risk of CHD across quintiles of protein from poultry were 1.00 [ref], 0.83 [0.70-0.99], 0.93 [0.75-1.15], 0.88 [0.73-1.06], 0.79 [0.64-0.98], P for trend  = 0.16. Replacement analyses evaluating the association of substituting one source of dietary protein for another or of decreasing protein intake at the expense of carbohydrates or total fats did not show any statistically significant association with CHD risk.Based on a large community cohort we found no overall relationship between protein type and major dietary protein sources and risk for CHD.

  14. Atherosclerosis induced by arsenic in drinking water in rats through altering lipid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Tain-Junn; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye; Chang, Chia-Yu; Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Guo, How-Ran

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a global environmental health problem, and the exposure may increase cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases mortalities, most likely through causing atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure is still unclear. To study the mechanism of atherosclerosis formation after arsenic exposure and explore the role of high cholesterol diet (HCD) in this process, we fed spontaneous hypertensive rats and Wistar Kyoto rats with basal diet or HCD and provided with them drinking water containing arsenic at different ages and orders for 20 consecutive weeks. We measured high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70), and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) at predetermined intervals and determined expressions of cholesteryl ester transfer protein-1 (CETP-1) and liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the liver. Atherosclerosis was determined by examining the aorta with hematoxylin and eosin stain. After 20 weeks, we found arsenic, alone or combined with HCD, may promote atherosclerosis formation with transient increases in HSP 70 and hs-CRP. Early combination exposure decreased the HDL-C/LDL-C ratio without changing the levels of total cholesterol and triglyceride until 30 weeks old. Both CETP-1 and LXRβ activities were suppressed, most significantly in early combination exposure. In conclusion, arsenic exposure may induce atherosclerosis through modifying reverse cholesterol transport in cholesterol metabolism and suppressing LXRβ and CEPT-1 expressions. For decreasing atherosclerosis related mortality associated with arsenic, preventing exposure from environmental sources in early life is an important element. - Highlights: → Arsenic causes cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases through atherosclerosis. → Arsenic may promote atherosclerosis with transient increase in HSP 70 and hs

  15. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanchas Garcia-Zarco, S.; Alfosin Perez, V.; Suarez Garcia, A.; Urrejola Madrinan, S.; Sanchez Bermudez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  16. Genetics of Plasma Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products and Cardiovascular Outcomes in a Community-based Population: Results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa M Maruthur

    Full Text Available Plasma soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (sRAGE is a strong marker of vascular outcomes although evidence on the direction of association is mixed. Compared to whites, blacks have lower levels of sRAGE. We hypothesized that genetic determinants of sRAGE would help clarify the causal role of sRAGE and the black-white difference in sRAGE levels. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of sRAGE in whites and blacks from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Median plasma sRAGE levels were lower in blacks than whites (728 vs. 1067 pg/ml; P<0.0001. The T (vs. C allele of rs2070600, a missense variant in AGER, the gene encoding RAGE, was associated with approximately 50% lower sRAGE levels in both whites (N = 1,737; P = 7.26x10-16; minor allele frequency (MAF = 0.04 and blacks (N = 581; P = 0.02; MAF = 0.01. In blacks, the T (vs. C allele of rs2071288, intronic to AGER, was associated with 43% lower sRAGE levels (P = 2.22x10-8; MAF = 0.10 and was nearly absent in whites. These AGER SNPs explained 21.5% and 26% of the variation in sRAGE in blacks and whites, respectively, but did not explain the black-white difference in sRAGE. These SNPs were not significantly associated with incident death, coronary heart disease, diabetes, heart failure, or chronic kidney disease in whites (N = 8,130-9,017 or blacks (N = 2,293-2,871 (median follow up ~20 years. We identified strong genetic determinants of sRAGE that did not explain the large black-white difference in sRAGE levels or clearly influence risk of clinical outcomes, suggesting that sRAGE may not be a causal factor in development of these outcomes.

  17. Redox balance and blood elemental levels in atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napoleao, P. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal) and Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: pnapoleao@itn.pt; Lopes, P.A. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Santos, M. [Centro de Quimica e Bioquimica and Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Steghens, J.-P. [Federation de Biochimie, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 3 Place d' Arsonval, 69437 03 Lyon (France); Viegas-Crespo, A.M. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental and Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, C2, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Pinheiro, T. [Laboratorio de Feixes de Ioes, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. no 10, 2685-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1700 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-08-15

    Oxidation of lipids and proteins represents a causative event for atherogenesis, which can be opposed by antioxidant activity. Elements, such as, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se can be involved in both mechanisms. Thus, evaluation of blood elemental levels, easily detected by PIXE, and of redox parameters may be useful in assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. A group of stable patients suffering from atherosclerosis, was matched with a cohort of normo-tensive and -lipidemic volunteers. Although no major discrepancies were observed for trace elemental levels in blood, increased concentrations of K and Ca were found in atherosclerotic group. Patients presented enhance levels of antioxidant ({alpha}-tocopherol) and decreased of protein oxidation (protein carbonyls), while for the lipid oxidation marker (malondialdehyde) no variation was observed. This study contributes to a better understanding of atherosclerosis development and its relationship with blood elemental levels, and set basis for further clinical trials with pathological groups in acute phase.

  18. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Wang; Chaoshu, Tang; Hongfang, Jin; Junbao, Du

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, complex, and progressive pathological process in large and medium sized arteries. The exact mechanism of this process remains unclear. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a novel gasotransmitter, was confirmed as playing a major role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. It plays a role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and apoptosis, participates in the progress of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), inhibits atherogenic modification of LDL, interferes with vascular calcification, intervenes with platelet function, and there are interactions between H 2 S and inflammatory processes. The role of H 2 S in atherosclerotic pathogenesis highlights the mysteries of atherosclerosis and inspires the search for innovative therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the studies to date that have considered the role of H 2 S in atherosclerosis.

  19. Macrophages and Their Role in Atherosclerosis: Pathophysiology and Transcriptome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Bobryshev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis can be regarded as a chronic inflammatory state, in which macrophages play different and important roles. Phagocytic proinflammatory cells populate growing atherosclerotic lesions, where they actively participate in cholesterol accumulation. Moreover, macrophages promote formation of complicated and unstable plaques by maintaining proinflammatory microenvironment. At the same time, anti-inflammatory macrophages contribute to tissue repair and remodelling and plaque stabilization. Macrophages therefore represent attractive targets for development of antiatherosclerotic therapy, which can aim to reduce monocyte recruitment to the lesion site, inhibit proinflammatory macrophages, or stimulate anti-inflammatory responses and cholesterol efflux. More studies are needed, however, to create a comprehensive classification of different macrophage phenotypes and to define their roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on macrophage diversity, activation, and plasticity in atherosclerosis and describe macrophage-based cellular tests for evaluation of potential antiatherosclerotic substances.

  20. Circumflex coronary artery with aberrant origin and atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Celik, T.; Tasar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Circumflex (Cx) coronary artery congenital anomaly is reported to be less than 1% incidence. Coronary arteries with aberrant origin are more likely to have atherosclerosis according to some published literatures. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present computed tomography (CT) angiography findings of a patient, who has Cx artery with aberrant origin and atherosclerotic. Materials and methods: 57-year-old woman without any symptoms who has risk factors to atherosclerosis was referred to our clinic for coronary CT angiography. Results: In CT angiography; we detected Cx coronary artery with aberrant origin (right sinus of valsalva) and retroaortic course. Also we saw intimal irregularities and calcified plaque causing severe narrowing in the proximal segment of artery. Right coronary and left anterior descendant arteries had mild atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Coroner CT angiography, which allows multiplanar imaging with high resolution, is an effective diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease, like not only congenital anomalies but also acquired atherosclerotic disease

  1. Probiotics and atherosclerosis – a new challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yee Kwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Atherosclerosis is the major cause of cardiovascular disease and stroke, which are among the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs can activate toll-like receptors (TLRs and activate nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB signaling, a central pathway in inflammation, which regulates genes that encode proinflammatory molecules essential in atherogenesis. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which is unique to gram negative bacteria, as well as peptidoglycan (PGN, which is found in gram positive bacteria are PAMPS and ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, both of which are essential in plaque progression in atherosclerosis. Gastrointestinal tract is suggested to be the major site for absorption and translocation of TLR2 and TLR4 stimulants. Inflammation can result in a ‘leaky gut’ that leads to higher bacterial translocation, eventually the accumulation of LPS and PGN would activate TLRs and trigger inflammation through NFκB and promote further systemic complication like atherosclerosis. Probiotics, can protect the intestinal barrier to reduce bacterial translocation and have potential systemic anti-inflammatory properties.To evaluate whether probiotics can help reduce atherosclerotic development using in vivo study.Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/ −  mice were fed on high fat diet alone, with telmisartan (Tel (1 or 5 mg/kg/day, positive controls or with probiotics (VSL#3/LGG with or without Tel (1 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks.Probiotics, Tel, or a combination of both reduced lesion size at the aortic root significantly; VSL#3 reduced serum inflammatory adhesion molecules soluble E- (sE-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1, and plaque disrupting factor matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9 significantly; probiotics and Tel at 5 mg/kg/day could induce changes in gut microbiota population; the efficiency of lesion reduction seemed

  2. THE STUDY OF RESISTENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS TO ANTIMICROBIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarchuk GG; Paliy DV; Nazarchuk OA

    2012-01-01

    In the research work the results of the study of resistance forming to antibiotics, antiseptics and decametoxine composition with modified polysaccharides in S.aureus strains are presented. The development of resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, glycopeptides, macrolides is shown. Slow forming of resistance to decasan and decametoxine composition with carboxymethylamylum, oxyethylcellulose was determined.

  3. THE STUDY OF RESISTENCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS STRAINS TO ANTIMICROBIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarchuk GG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the research work the results of the study of resistance forming to antibiotics, antiseptics and decametoxine composition with modified polysaccharides in S.aureus strains are presented. The development of resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins, glycopeptides, macrolides is shown. Slow forming of resistance to decasan and decametoxine composition with carboxymethylamylum, oxyethylcellulose was determined.

  4. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  5. Ferritin levels, inflammatory biomarkers, and mortality in peripheral arterial disease: a substudy of the Iron (Fe) and Atherosclerosis Study (FeAST) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalma, Ralph G; Hayes, Virginia W; Chow, Bruce K; Shamayeva, Galina; May, Patricia E; Zacharski, Leo R

    2010-06-01

    This study delineated correlations between ferritin, inflammatory biomarkers, and mortality in a cohort of 100 cancer-free patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) participating in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Study #410, the Iron (Fe) and Atherosclerosis Study (FeAST). FeAST, a prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical trial, tested the hypothesis that reduction of iron stores using phlebotomy would influence clinical outcomes in 1227 PAD patients randomized to iron reduction or control groups. The effects of statin administration were also examined in the Sierra Nevada Health Care (SNHC) cohort by measuring serum ferritin levels at entry and during the 6-year study period. No difference was documented between treatment groups in all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes of death plus nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke. Iron reduction in the main study caused a significant age-related improvement in cardiovascular disease outcomes, new cancer diagnoses, and cancer-specific death. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, TNF-alpha receptors 1 and 2, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured at entry and at 6-month intervals for 6 years. Average levels of ferritin and lipids at entry and at the end of the study were compared. The clinical course and ferritin levels of 23 participants who died during the study were reviewed. At entry, mean age of entry was 67 +/- 9 years for the SNHCS cohort, comparable to FeAST and clinical and laboratory parameters were equivalent in substudy participants randomized to iron reduction (n = 51) or control (n = 49). At baseline, 53 participants on statins had slightly lower mean entry-level ferritin values (114.06 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] 93.43-134.69) vs the 47 off statins (127.62 ng/mL; 95% CI, 103.21-152.02). Longitudinal analysis of follow-up data, after adjusting for the phlebotomy treatment effect, showed that statin use was associated with

  6. High fat diet induced atherosclerosis is accompanied with low colonic bacterial diversity and altered abundances that correlates with plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol: a pilot study of high fat diet and its intervention with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or telmisartan in ApoE-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yee Kwan; Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V; Chen, Yan; Peng, Jiao; Li, Daxu; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-11-08

    Atherosclerosis appears to have multifactorial causes - microbial component like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other pathogen associated molecular patterns may be plausible factors. The gut microbiota is an ample source of such stimulants, and its dependent metabolites and altered gut metagenome has been an established link to atherosclerosis. In this exploratory pilot study, we aimed to elucidate whether microbial intervention with probiotics L. rhamnosus GG (LGG) or pharmaceuticals telmisartan (TLM) could improve atherosclerosis in a gut microbiota associated manner. Atherosclerotic phenotype was established by 12 weeks feeding of high fat (HF) diet as opposed to normal chow diet (ND) in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice. LGG or TLM supplementation to HF diet was studied. Both LGG and TLM significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and improved various biomarkers including endotoxin to different extents. Colonial microbiota analysis revealed that TLM restored HF diet induced increase in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and decrease in alpha diversity; and led to a more distinct microbial clustering closer to ND in PCoA plot. Eubacteria, Anaeroplasma, Roseburia, Oscillospira and Dehalobacteria appeared to be protective against atherosclerosis and showed significant negative correlation with atherosclerotic plaque size and plasma adipocyte - fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and cholesterol. LGG and TLM improved atherosclerosis with TLM having a more distinct alteration in the colonic gut microbiota. Altered bacteria genera and reduced alpha diversity had significant correlations to atherosclerotic plaque size, plasma A-FABP and cholesterol. Future studies on such bacterial functional influence in lipid metabolism will be warranted.

  7. Diet and Atherosclerosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-14

    Aug 14, 1974 ... Animal experiments have demonstrated the possibility of producing lesions ... countries. Mortality statistics, hospital records and necropsy ... opportunity to study possible associations between diet .... risk of American men.".

  8. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n=377 adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37% in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90 (P<0.0001 overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94, Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83, African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02, and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65. Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87 for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20 for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC remained associated with CVD events (HR=1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32 overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR

  9. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35

  10. Genomic Analysis of Circulating Cells: A Window into Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Patino, Willmar D.; Matoba, Satoaki; Hwang, Paul M.

    2006-01-01

    Translational studies using genomic techniques in cardiovascular diseases are still in their infancy. Access to disease-associated cardiovascular tissues from patients has been a major impediment to progress in contrast to the diagnostic advances made by oncologists using gene expression on readily available tumor samples. Nonetheless, progress is being made for atherosclerosis by carefully designed experiments using diseased tissue or surrogate specimens. This review details the rationale and findings of a study using freshly isolated blood mononuclear cells from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy due to atherosclerotic stenosis and from matched normal subjects. Using this cardiovascular tissue surrogate, the mRNA levels of the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins osteosarcoma (FOS) gene in circulating monocytes were found to correlate with atherosclerosis severity in patients, and with HMG CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy in normal subjects. The major finding of this investigation is discussed in relation to observations from other human atherosclerosis gene expression studies. These distinct studies converge to demonstrate the unequivocal importance of inflammation in atherosclerosis. Although the clinical utility of the specific findings remains open, the identification of similar genes by different investigations serves to validate their reports. They also provide us with insights into pathogenesis that may impact future translational applications. PMID:16781950

  11. Intra‑operative grading of coronary artery atherosclerosis associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Atherosclerosis is one of the common causes of morbidity and mortality, in postmenopausal women. Homocysteine, a sulfur‑containing amino acid product of methionine metabolism, may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship ...

  12. Histomorphological features of atherosclerosis in the left anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of coronary artery atherosclerosis is valuable in informing mitigation strategies for coronary heart disease. Histomorphological data on this disease among Africans living in Sub Saharan Africa are, however, scarce. The left anterior descending is one of the most commonly afflicted arteries. This study, therefore ...

  13. Atherosclerosis and Nutrition with Special Reference to Populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe atherosclerosis and its sequelae-coronary heart disease, cerebral vascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease-share major responsibility for half the mortality rate in affluent Western populations. In Africa, particularly South Africa, a study of the extent and severity of lesions is particularly interesting because of ...

  14. Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still unclear, and the current technique of using radioisotopes has clinical limitation. However, the current study techniques or methods excellently elucidate the functional aspects of ...

  15. Premature atherosclerosis after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sadurska

    2018-03-01

    Survivors of childhood ALL in the examined group demonstrated elevated concentrations of selected new biomarkers and increased IMT values, compared to controls, which may confirm the occurrence of endothelial injuries in blood vessels. This study indicates that subjects treated for childhood malignancy are at a higher risk of prematurely developing atherosclerosis.

  16. Leukocyte Overexpression of Intracellular NAMPT Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Regulating PPARγ-Dependent Monocyte Differentiation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Dahl, Tuva Borresdatter; Medina, Indira; Groeneweg, Mathijs; Holm, Sverre; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rousch, Mat; Otten, Jeroen; Herias, Veronica; Varela, Lourdes M; Ranheim, Trine; Yndestad, Arne; Ortega-Gomez, Almudena; Abia, Rocio; Nagy, Laszlo; Aukrust, Pal; Muriana, Francisco J G; Halvorsen, Bente; Biessen, Erik Anna Leonardus

    2017-06-01

    Extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT) mediates inflammatory and potentially proatherogenic effects, whereas the role of intracellular NAMPT (iNAMPT), the rate limiting enzyme in the salvage pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + generation, in atherogenesis is largely unknown. Here we investigated the effects of iNAMPT overexpression in leukocytes on inflammation and atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice with hematopoietic overexpression of human iNAMPT (iNAMPT hi ), on a western type diet, showed attenuated plaque burden with features of lesion stabilization. This anti-atherogenic effect was caused by improved resistance of macrophages to apoptosis by attenuated chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2-dependent monocyte chemotaxis and by skewing macrophage polarization toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. The iNAMPT hi phenotype was almost fully reversed by treatment with the NAMPT inhibitor FK866, indicating that iNAMPT catalytic activity is instrumental in the atheroprotection. Importantly, iNAMPT overexpression did not induce any increase in eNAMPT, and eNAMPT had no effect on chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 expression and promoted an inflammatory M1 phenotype in macrophages. The iNAMPT-mediated effects at least partly involved sirtuin 1-dependent molecular crosstalk of NAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. Finally, iNAMPT and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ showed a strong correlation in human atherosclerotic, but not healthy arteries, hinting to a relevance of iNAMPT/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ pathway also in human carotid atherosclerosis. This study highlights the functional dichotomy of intracellular versus extracellular NAMPT, and unveils a critical role for the iNAMPT-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ axis in atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Oxyradical Stress, Endocannabinoids, and Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anberitha T. Matthews

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is responsible for most cardiovascular disease (CVD and is caused by several factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and chronic inflammation. Oxidants and electrophiles have roles in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and the concentrations of these reactive molecules are an important factor in disease initiation and progression. Overactive NADPH oxidase (Nox produces excess superoxide resulting in oxidized macromolecules, which is an important factor in atherogenesis. Although superoxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS have obvious toxic properties, they also have fundamental roles in signaling pathways that enable cells to adapt to stress. In addition to inflammation and ROS, the endocannabinoid system (eCB is also important in atherogenesis. Linkages have been postulated between the eCB system, Nox, oxidative stress, and atherosclerosis. For instance, CB2 receptor-evoked signaling has been shown to upregulate anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative pathways, whereas CB1 signaling appears to induce opposite effects. The second messenger lipid molecule diacylglycerol is implicated in the regulation of Nox activity and diacylglycerol lipase β (DAGLβ is a key biosynthetic enzyme in the biosynthesis eCB ligand 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG. Furthermore, Nrf2 is a vital transcription factor that protects against the cytotoxic effects of both oxidant and electrophile stress. This review will highlight the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in intracellular signaling and the impact of deregulated ROS-mediated signaling in atherogenesis. In addition, there is also emerging knowledge that the eCB system has an important role in atherogenesis. We will attempt to integrate oxidative stress and the eCB system into a conceptual framework that provides insights into this pathology.

  18. Studies on general resistance to stem rust in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Eight cultivars that were thought to have field resistance to stem rust were selected and crossed to produce four four-cultivar hybrids. From those crosses lines were produced that lacked seedling resistance to race 15B-1 of stem rust but had good field resistance to it. They also proved to have field resistance to many other races and it is hoped that the resistance is general. Genetic studies indicated that there is some variation in the lines, but resistance is generally inherited as a quantitative character with several largely recessive genes having small additive effects. This suggests that in an induced mutation programme, no one plant is likely to accumulate sufficient mutant genes that it will appear resistant. (author)

  19. Proinflammatory Status, Genetics and Atherosclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poledne, R.; Lorenzová, A.; Stávek, P.; Valenta, Zdeněk; Hubáček, J.; Suchánek, R.; Piťha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, Suppl. 2 (2009), S111-S118 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Program:1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : atherosclerosis * inflammation * C-reactive protein * genetics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009 http://www.biomed.cas.cz/physiolres/pdf/58%20Suppl%202/58_S111.pdf

  20. Genome-wide study of percent emphysema on computed tomography in the general population. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Lung/SNP Health Association Resource Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manichaikul, Ani; Hoffman, Eric A.; Smolonska, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Cho, Michael H.; Baumhauer, Heather; Budoff, Matthew; Austin, John H. M.; Washko, George R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kaufman, Joel D.; Pottinger, Tess; Powell, Charles A.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Groen, Harry J.M.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Wanner, Adam; Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Powell, Rhea; Smith, Benjamin M.; Rabinowitz, Dan; Raffel, Leslie J.; Stukovsky, Karen D. Hinckley; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Hokanson, John E.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Dupuis, Josee; O'Connor, George T.; Boezen, Hendrika; Rich, Stephen S.; Barr, R. Graham

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary emphysema overlaps partially with spirometrically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is heritable, with moderately high familial clustering. Objectives: To complete a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the percentage of emphysema-like lung on computed

  1. Cell cycle and apoptosis genes in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, Lianne Simone Mirjam

    2006-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was aimed at identifying the role of cell cycle and apoptosis genes in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of cardiovascular disease, a disorder occurring in the large and medium-sized arteries of the body. Although in the beginning 90s promising

  2. Regulation of T cell responses in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puijvelde, Gijsbrecht Henricus Maria van

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important characteristics of atherosclerosis is the chronic inflammatory response in which T cells and NKT cells are very important. In this thesis several methods to modulate the activity of these T and NKT cells in atherosclerosis are described. The induction of regulatory T cells

  3. In-Vivo Assessment of Coronary Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIntravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has emerged as a highly accurate tool for the serial assessment of the natural history of coronary atherosclerosis and to evaluate the effect of different conventional and emerging drug therapies on the progression of atherosclerosis. The

  4. Inflammation and immune system interactions in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legein, Bart; Temmerman, Lieve; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Lutgens, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, accounting for 16.7 million deaths each year. The underlying cause of the majority of CVD is atherosclerosis. In the past, atherosclerosis was considered to be the result of passive lipid accumulation in the vessel wall.

  5. Cytokines in atherosclerosis: an intricate balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, M.C.S.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology in the majority of clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases, which are nowadays the main global cause of mortality. Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. This inflammatory response, with cytokines as

  6. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  7. Association Between Smoking and Serum GlycA and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Levels: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianoush, Sina; Bittencourt, Marcio S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M; Jones, Steven R; DeFilippis, Andrew P; Toth, Peter P; Otvos, James D; Tibuakuu, Martin; Hall, Michael E; Harada, Paulo H N; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-08-23

    Inflammation is suggested to be a central feature of atherosclerosis, particularly among smokers. We studied whether inflammatory biomarkers GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are associated with cigarette smoking. A total of 11 509 participants, 6774 from the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) and 4735 from ELSA-Brasil (The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health) were included. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between multiple measures of smoking behavior and the inflammatory biomarkers, GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, using regression models adjusted for demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics. Participants were 57.7±11.1 years old and 46.4% were men. Never, former, and current smokers comprised 51.7%, 34.0%, and 14.3% of the population, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted mean absolute difference in GlycA levels (μmol/L) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were higher for former (4.1, 95% CI, 1.7-6.6 μmol/L) and current smokers (19.9, 95% CI, 16.6-23.2 μmol/L), compared with never smokers. Each 5-unit increase in pack-years of smoking was associated with higher GlycA levels among former (0.7, 95% CI, 0.3-1.1 μmol/L) and current smokers (1.6, 95% CI, 0.8-2.4 μmol/L). Among former smokers, each 5-year increase in time since quitting smoking was associated with lower GlycA levels (-1.6, 95% CI, -2.4 to -0.8 μmol/L) and each 10-unit increase in number of cigarettes/day was associated with higher GlycA among current smokers (2.8, 95% CI, 0.5-5.2 μmol/L). There were similar significant associations between all measures of smoking behavior, and both log-transformed GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Acute and chronic exposure to tobacco smoking is associated with inflammation, as quantified by both GlycA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. These biomarkers may have utility for the study and regulation of novel and traditional tobacco products. © 2017 The Authors

  8. Coronary atherosclerosis in medico-legal autopsy cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VN Prasad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary atherosclerosis is the major cause of death worldwide. Lifestyle and habits are the major contributory factor in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is an autopsy-based study in which 45 autopsy cases were randomly selected for study. Proximal one third of all three epicardial coronary arteries (LAD, LCX and RCA were dissected out for study and serial sections were made and stained with H&E method and under the light microscope. Atherosclerosis was graded according to American heart association classification. The risk factors (cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, alcohol consumption, age, sex were also correlated with the grade of atherosclerosis. Results: Seventy-Eight percent of American Heart Association classification grade V lesions were seen in > 70 yrs of age. Almost all cases of > 70 yrs of age had American Heart Association classification grade > IV lesions. Out of all grade IV lesions, 88.9% was seen in male while only 11.1% in female. Similarly out of all grade V lesions, 77.8% was seen in male while 22.2% in female. LAD showed maximum involvement by higher grade lesion, followed by LCX and RCA. American Heart Association classification grade > IV in LAD, LCX and RCA was seen in 25(55.6%, 5(11.1%, and 3(6.7% cases respectively. Conclusion: Higher grade lesion occurs in advancing age. Various cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with higher grade of lesions. The multiple risk factors had a synergistic effect on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i8.11492 Journal of Pathology of Nepal; Vol.4,No8(2014 607-611

  9. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  10. Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually doesn't cause symptoms until it severely narrows or totally blocks an artery. Many people don't know they have it until they have a medical emergency. A physical exam, imaging, and other diagnostic tests can tell ...

  11. Osteocalcin expression by circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gössl, Mario; Mödder, Ulrike I; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Lerman, Amir; Khosla, Sundeep

    2008-10-14

    This study was designed to test whether patients with coronary atherosclerosis have increases in circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) expressing an osteogenic phenotype. Increasing evidence indicates a link between bone and the vasculature, and bone marrow and circulating osteogenic cells have been identified by staining for the osteoblastic marker, osteocalcin (OCN). Endothelial progenitor cells contribute to vascular repair, but repair of vascular injury may result in calcification. Using cell surface markers (CD34, CD133, kinase insert domain receptor [KDR]) to identify EPCs, we examined whether patients with coronary atherosclerosis had increases in the percentage of EPCs expressing OCN. We studied 72 patients undergoing invasive coronary assessment: control patients (normal coronary arteries and no endothelial dysfunction, n = 21) versus 2 groups with coronary atherosclerosis-early coronary atherosclerosis (normal coronary arteries but with endothelial dysfunction, n = 22) and late coronary atherosclerosis (severe, multivessel coronary artery disease, n = 29). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. Compared with control patients, patients with early or late coronary atherosclerosis had significant increases (approximately 2-fold) in the percentage of CD34+/KDR+ and CD34+/CD133+/KDR+ cells costaining for OCN. Even larger increases were noted in the early and late coronary atherosclerosis patients in the percentage of CD34+/CD133-/KDR+ cells costaining for OCN (5- and 2-fold, p < 0.001 and 0.05, respectively). A higher percentage of EPCs express OCN in patients with coronary atherosclerosis compared with subjects with normal endothelial function and no structural coronary artery disease. These findings have potential implications for the mechanisms of vascular calcification and for the development of novel markers for coronary atherosclerosis.

  12. Nutraceuticals as therapeutic agents for atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joe W E; Williams, Jessica O; Ramji, Dipak P

    2018-05-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of medium and large arteries and an underlying cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD), is responsible for a third of all global deaths. Current treatments for CVD, such as optimized statin therapy, are associated with considerable residual risk and several side effects in some patients. The outcome of research on the identification of alternative pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of CVD has been relatively disappointing with many promising leads failing at the clinical level. Nutraceuticals, products from food sources with health benefits beyond their nutritional value, represent promising agents in the prevention of CVD or as an add-on therapy with current treatments. This review will highlight the potential of several nutraceuticals, including polyunsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids and other polyphenols, as anti-CVD therapies based on clinical and pre-clinical mechanism-based studies. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  14. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  15. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  16. Induced mutations for horizontal resistance. A model study using leaf rust resistance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, V.L.; Sawhney, R.N.; Kumar, R.

    1983-01-01

    A mutant with seemingly non-specific resistance to leaf rust was obtained some time ago from the wheat variety Kharchia Local treated with NMH. This mutant is being studied genetically and in its disease reaction by laboratories in Australia, Canada and India in co-operation. The mutant showed a dominant inheritance of resistance in F 1 , but different segregation in F 2 and F 3 . This peculiar genetic behaviour has so far not been explained. (author)

  17. Pilot study on multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and 4 were deemed to be contaminants, leaving 35 specimens for analysis of DST. DST was performed in 32 of the 35 isolates; 10 (31%) were resistant to at least one of .... (PCR) technologies that are emerging elsewhere. Future studies should investigate if extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) strains are also affecting.

  18. Aging, Atherosclerosis, and IGF-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an endocrine and autocrine/paracrine growth factor that circulates at high levels in the plasma and is expressed in most cell types. IGF-1 has major effects on development, cell growth and differentiation, and tissue repair. Recent evidence indicates that IGF-1 reduces atherosclerosis burden and improves features of atherosclerotic plaque stability in animal models. Potential mechanisms for this atheroprotective effect include IGF-1–induced reduction in oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, proinflammatory signaling, and endothelial dysfunction. Aging is associated with increased vascular oxidative stress and vascular disease, suggesting that IGF-1 may exert salutary effects on vascular aging processes. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive update on IGF-1's ability to modulate vascular oxidative stress and to limit atherogenesis and the vascular complications of aging. PMID:22491965

  19. Resistive MHD studies of TFTR discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M.H.; Phillips, M.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Budny, R.V.

    1991-01-01

    MHD instabilities, thought to be resistive in character, are frequently observed in the supershot operating regime of TFTR (var-epsilon β p ≤ 0.7). These instabilities are always accompanied by substantial degradation of the confinement. Similarly of interest are recent experiments at much larger β p (var-epsilon β p ≤ 1.6), achieved through ramping the current during the beam heating phase of the discharge. In this latter regime the confinement can exceed three times the corresponding L-mode value and the β value normalized to I/aB can be as large as 4.7. Representative discharges from each of these operating regimes have been analyzed using a linear resistive MHD stability code with equilibrium pressure and q profiles obtained initially from the TRANSP analysis code. The main difference between the two types of discharge, as far as stability is concerned is shown to be the shape of the current density profile. The sensitivity to the assumed parameters is discussed. 1 ref

  20. Comparative study of resist stabilization techniques for metal etch processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Gerry; Ross, Matthew F.; Wong, Selmer S.; Minter, Jason P.; Marlowe, Trey; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    This study investigates resist stabilization techniques as they are applied to a metal etch application. The techniques that are compared are conventional deep-UV/thermal stabilization, or UV bake, and electron beam stabilization. The electron beam tool use din this study, an ElectronCure system from AlliedSignal Inc., ELectron Vision Group, utilizes a flood electron source and a non-thermal process. These stabilization techniques are compared with respect to a metal etch process. In this study, two types of resist are considered for stabilization and etch: a g/i-line resist, Shipley SPR-3012, and an advanced i-line, Shipley SPR 955- Cm. For each of these resist the effects of stabilization on resist features are evaluated by post-stabilization SEM analysis. Etch selectivity in all cases is evaluated by using a timed metal etch, and measuring resists remaining relative to total metal thickness etched. Etch selectivity is presented as a function of stabilization condition. Analyses of the effects of the type of stabilization on this method of selectivity measurement are also presented. SEM analysis was also performed on the features after a compete etch process, and is detailed as a function of stabilization condition. Post-etch cleaning is also an important factor impacted by pre-etch resist stabilization. Results of post- etch cleaning are presented for both stabilization methods. SEM inspection is also detailed for the metal features after resist removal processing.

  1. Adiponectin provides additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis in both genders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relation between adiponectin and atherosclerosis in both genders, and investigated whether adiponectin provides useful additional information for assessing the risk of atherosclerosis. METHODS: We measured serum adiponectin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors in 1033 subjects (454 men, 579 women from the Korean Genomic Rural Cohort study. Carotid intima-media-thickness (CIMT was used as measure of atherosclerosis. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated using multiple logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC, the category-free net reclassification improvement (NRI and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI were calculated. RESULTS: After adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors, such as age, waist circumference, smoking history, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance, the ORs (95%CI of the third tertile adiponectin group were 0.42 (0.25-0.72 in men and 0.47 (0.29-0.75 in women. The area under the curve (AUC on the ROC analysis increased significantly by 0.025 in men and 0.022 in women when adiponectin was added to the logistic model of conventional cardiovascular risk factors (AUC in men: 0.655 to 0.680, p = 0.038; AUC in women: 0.654 to 0.676, p = 0.041. The NRI was 0.32 (95%CI: 0.13-0.50, p<0.001, and the IDI was 0.03 (95%CI: 0.01-0.04, p<0.001 for men. For women, the category-free NRI was 0.18 (95%CI: 0.02-0.34, p = 0.031 and the IDI was 0.003 (95%CI: -0.002-0.008, p = 0.189. CONCLUSION: Adiponectin and atherosclerosis were significantly related in both genders, and these relationships were independent of conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, adiponectin provided additional information to conventional cardiovascular risk factors regarding the risk of atherosclerosis.

  2. Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Anna-Helene; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Karup Pedersen, Freddy

    2016-01-01

    Many studies show that Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is associated with early subclinical signs of atherosclerosis. Chronic inflammation per se may be an important driver but other known risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin insensitivity, a physically inactive lifestyle...

  3. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate and Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatomi, Yutaka

    2018-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent lipid mediator that works on five kinds of S1P receptors located on the cell membrane. In the circulation, S1P is distributed to HDL, followed by albumin. Since S1P and HDL share several bioactivities, S1P is believed to be responsible for the pleiotropic effects of HDL. Plasma S1P levels are reportedly lower in subjects with coronary artery disease, suggesting that S1P might be deeply involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In basic experiments, however, S1P appears to possess both pro-atherosclerotic and anti-atherosclerotic properties; for example, S1P possesses anti-apoptosis, anti-inflammation, and vaso-relaxation properties and maintains the barrier function of endothelial cells, while S1P also promotes the egress and activation of lymphocytes and exhibits pro-thrombotic properties. Recently, the mechanism for the biased distribution of S1P on HDL has been elucidated; apolipoprotein M (apoM) carries S1P on HDL. ApoM is also a modulator of S1P, and the metabolism of apoM-containing lipoproteins largely affects the plasma S1P level. Moreover, apoM modulates the biological properties of S1P. S1P bound to albumin exerts both beneficial and harmful effects in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, while S1P bound to apoM strengthens anti-atherosclerotic properties and might weaken the pro-atherosclerotic properties of S1P. Although the detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated, apoM and S1P might be novel targets for the alleviation of atherosclerotic diseases in the future. PMID:28724841

  4. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECT OF PERINDOPRIL AND LOSARTAN POTASSIUM IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND STENOTIC CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS BEFORE REVASCULARIZATION: AN OPEN RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osipova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare effects of perindopril and losartan potassium on the parameters of the ambulatory blood pressure (BP monitoring (ABPM and circadian BP profile in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and stenotic coronary atherosclerosis before myocardium revascularization. Material and methods. 59 patients with HT degree 2-3 at the age of 35-69 were examined. ABPM was performed in all patients. Daily profile was assessed by the degree of nocturnal BP reduction. Patients were randomized to receive perindopril or losartan potassium. Perindopril was administered at dose of 4 mg/day with subsequent rising up to 8 mg/day in next 7 days. The initial dose of losartan potassium was 25 mg with subsequent rising up to 50 mg 2 times a day. Duration of observation was 8 weeks. Results. Perindopril reduced 24-hour and daytime systolic BP (SBP by 17.2% (p<0.0001, nighttime SBP - by 22.5% (p<0.0001, 24-hour and daytime diastolic BP (DBP - by 18.3% and 17.6% (p<0.0001, respectively , nighttime DBP - by 27.2% (p<0.0001. Losartan potassium reduced 24-hour SBP by 25.7% (p<0.0001, daytime SBP - by 23.6% (p<0.0001, night-time SBP – by 25.5% (p<0.0001, 24-hour DBP - by 27.4%, daytime DBP - by 26.3%, nighttime DBP - by 18.5% (p=0.003. Perindopril decreased in number of non-dippers by 24,3% and night-peakers by 5.4% as well as increased in number of dippers by 27% and over-dippers by 2.7%. A number of patients with SAD profile corresponding to non-dipper type was 45.5% more in losartan taking than this when perindopril receiving (p=0.027. Conclusion. In patients with HT and stenotic coronary atherosclerosis perindopril therapy increases a number of patients with normal BP profile before myocardium revascularization.

  5. Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women With Remote Histories of Preeclampsia: Results From a Rochester Epidemiology Project-Based Study and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garovic, Vesna D; Milic, Natasa M; Weissgerber, Tracey L; Mielke, Michelle M; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian; Jayachandran, Muthuvel; White, Wendy M; Hodis, Howard N; Miller, Virginia M

    2017-09-01

    To measure carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, in postmenopausal women with and without histories of preeclampsia and to synthesize these results with those from prior studies of CIMT performed 10 or more years after preeclamptic pregnancies. Forty women (median age, 59 years) with histories of preeclampsia and 40 with histories of normotensive pregnancy (confirmed by medical record review) were selected from women who resided and gave birth in Olmsted County, Minnesota, between January 1, 1976, and December 31, 1982. The participants were identified and recruited in 2014-2015, and CIMT was measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Meta-analysis included CIMT studies that were performed 10 or more years after preeclamptic pregnancies and which were identified through PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistic. Standardized mean difference was used as a measure of effect size. Carotid artery intima-media thickness, expressed as a median (interquartile range), was greater in the preeclamptic than in the normotensive group (0.80 mm [0.75-0.85 mm] vs 0.73 mm [0.70-0.78]; P=.004); the odds of having CIMT higher than threshold (0.77 mm) was statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.10-9.14). A meta-analysis of 10 studies conducted 10 or more years post partum included 813 women with and 2874 without histories of preeclampsia. Carotid artery intima-media thickness was greater among women with histories of preeclampsia, with a standardized mean difference of 0.18 and 95% CI of 0.05 to 0.30 mm (P=.004). Among women with histories of preeclampsia, CIMT may identify those with subclinical atherosclerosis, thus offering an opportunity for early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Shigeyuki; Hamasaki, Osamu; Sakoda, Katsuaki

    2002-01-01

    We report on two patients with intracranial atherosclerosis of the carotid artery or vertebral artery treated with stent-assisted angioplasty. Both patients have severe intracranial atherosclerosis (>70%) with refractory symptoms despite optimal medical treatment. In both patients, a coronary balloon-expandable stent was successfully placed using a protective balloon technique without procedural complications. The patients were asymptomatic and neurologically intact at a mean clinical follow-up of 13 months. Follow-up angiograms did not show restenosis 3 or 4 months after procedure, respectively. Stent-assisted angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerosis in the elective patient has proven effective, with an acceptable low rate of morbidity and mortality. (orig.)

  7. Fasting insulin has a stronger association with an adverse cardiometabolic risk profile than insulin resistance: the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Rooij, Susanne R; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kozakova, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fasting insulin concentrations are often used as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance. We investigated the relative contributions of fasting insulin and insulin resistance to cardiometabolic risk and preclinical atherosclerosis. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Relationship between Insulin...... of the metabolic syndrome in 1177 participants. Carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) was measured by ultrasound to assess preclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Fasting insulin was correlated with all elements of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin sensitivity (M/I) was correlated with most elements. The odds...... ratio for the metabolic syndrome of those in the highest quartile of fasting insulin compared with those in the lower quartiles was 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10.3, adjusted for insulin sensitivity) in men and 5.1 (2.6-9.9) in women. The odds ratio for metabolic syndrome of those with insulin...

  8. Periodontal Pathogens and Atherosclerosis: Implications of Inflammation and Oxidative Modification of LDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is well accepted to play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, and recent studies have demonstrated an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, causative agents of destructive chronic inflammation in the periodontium, can accelerate atheroma deposition in animal models. Emerging evidence suggests that vaccination against virulence factors of these pathogens and anti-inflammatory therapy may confer disease resistance. In this review, we focus on the role of inflammatory mechanisms and oxidative modification in the formation and activation of atherosclerotic plaques accelerated by P. gingivalis or A. actinomycetemcomitans in an ApoE-deficient mouse model and high-fat-diet-fed mice. Furthermore, we examine whether mucosal vaccination with a periodontal pathogen or the anti-inflammatory activity of catechins can reduce periodontal pathogen-accelerated atherosclerosis.

  9. Endothelium Protective Function of Statins in Men and Women with Coronary Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Klimushina; N. G. Gumanova; A. Ju. Gorshkov; N. E. Gavrilova; V. A. Metel'skaja; S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the relationship between serum endothelin levels and lipid-lowering therapy in patients with confirmed coronary atherosclerosis.Material and methods. Patients (n=447; 320 men and 127 women; mean age 62.7±8.8 years) with coronary atherosclerosis, confirmed by coronary angiography, were included into the study. Serum endothelin levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).Results. Negative correlation between the statins receiving and serum endothelin level was found in men ...

  10. Association of hepatitis C virus with insulin resistance: evidences from animal studies and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Sadaf; Khubaib, Bushra; Idrees, Muhammad; Hussain, Abrar; Awan, Zunaira; Butt, Sadia; Afzal, Samia; Akram, Madeeha; Fatima, Zareen; Aftab, Mahwish; Saleem, Sana; Munir, Sara; Rauff, Bisma; Naudhani, Mahrukh; Ali, Liaquat; Ali, Muhammaad; Rehman, Irshadul

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is strongly associated with development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, however molecular mechanism of these associations is not known. The aim of this review was to conduct a comprehensive literature search to understand the nature of the association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and insulin resistance (IR). We also explored the role of HCV core protein and NS5a in modulating the course of the insulin-signaling pathway. We searched Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO), Web of Science (TS and PakMediNet). Emerging evidence suggests an association between HCV infection and carotid/coronary vascular disease. IR appears to be a dominant underlying cause of accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). HCV can induce IR directly through the stimulation of SOCS3 and PPA2, and both of these molecules have been shown to inhibit interferon-α signaling. Improvement of insulin sensitivity may increase the response rate to antiviral treatment and prevent IR complications, including vascular diseases. The results of several clinical trials that have used insulin sensitizers (metformin and PPAR-γ agonists) have been inconclusive. Beside the association between HCV and IR, the published data also have showed the possible association of HCV core and NS5A protein with IR.

  11. Comparison of osteoprotegerin to traditional atherosclerotic risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein for diagnosis of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Pedersen, Sune Holm; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of cardiovascular disease, but the extent of atherosclerosis in individual patients is difficult to estimate. A biomarker of the atherosclerotic burden would be very valuable. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma osteoprotegerin ...

  12. Enhanced susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to oxidation in coronary bypass patients with progression of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijke, Y.B. de; Verwey, H.F.; Vogelezang, C.J.M.; Velde, E.A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.; Laarse, A. van der; Bruschke, A.V.G.; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    1995-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play a causal role in atherosclerosis. In this study we analyzed whether the severity of progression of coronary atherosclerosis is related to the susceptibility of LDL to oxidative modification. On the basis of repeated coronary angiography, 28

  13. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tracey G; Trejo, Maria Esther Perez; Zeb, Irfan; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; McClelland, Robyn L; Chung, Raymond T; Budoff, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated CVD risk is unknown. We examined 3710 ethnically-diverse participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, without history of known liver disease, and with available coffee data from a validated 120-item food frequency questionnaire. All participants underwent baseline non-contrast cardiac CT from which NAFLD was defined by liver:spleen ratio (L:S0. Major CVD events were defined by the first occurrence of myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, angina, stroke, or CVD death. We used log-binomial regression to calculate the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for CAC>0 by coffee intake and NAFLD status, and events were compared between groups using frequency of events within adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Seventeen percent (N=637) of participants met criteria for NAFLD. NAFLD participants were more likely to have elevated BMI (mean 31.1±5.5kg/m 2 vs. 28.0±5.2kg/m 2 , pcoffee consumption (p=0.97). Among NAFLD participants, coffee consumption was not associated with prevalent, baseline CAC>0 (PR=1.02 [0.98-1.07]). Over 12.8years of follow-up, 93 NAFLD and 415 non-NAFLD participants experienced a CV event. However, coffee intake was not associated with incident CVD events, in either NAFLD (HR=1.05 [0.91-1.21]) or non-NAFLD participants (HR=1.03 [0.97-1.11]). In a large, population-based cohort, coffee consumption was not associated with the prevalence of subclinical CVD, nor did coffee impact the future risk of major CVD events, regardless of underlying NAFLD status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between the surfactant protein D (SFTPD) gene and subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Bladbjerg, Else Marie; Steffensen, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a defense collectin with inflammation-modulating properties. SP-D deficiency inhibits atherosclerosis in vivo, and the circulatory SP-D levels have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. We hypothesized that plasma SP-D (p......SP-D) and SP-D gene (SFTPD) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are risk factors for atherosclerosis. METHODS: We evaluated individuals who were all 60 years old and participated in The Glostrup Population Study. Subclinical atherosclerosis was diagnosed based on the ultrasonographic measurement of intima......: The results do not support that pSP-D levels influence the development of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the SFTPD SNP data support previous observations from animal studies that SP-D plays a role in the etiology of atherosclerotic disease development. The nominal significant effects are likely...

  15. Murine Norovirus 4 (MNV-4 Infections Trigger Various Effects on Atherosclerosis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafeezul Mohamed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Murine norovirus (MNV infection can cause morbidity and mortality to immune compromised mice, especially colonies in research laboratory. MNV also can infect and propagates in macrophages and dendritic cells which trigger atherosclerosis development through the accumulation of these cells followed by the formation of foam cells. Recently, MNV-4 infection was associated with an increase in aortic sinus lesion size in LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor and ApoE (Apolipoprotein E deficient mice, both are well established mouse models for atherosclerosis research. Therefore, this review is intended to summarize the impacts of MNV infection in these two mouse models of atherosclerosis. The findings from all the related studies are important in understanding the fundamental effect of MNV infection on atherosclerosis development. In addition, this information could provide insight to researchers on the evaluation to eliminate MNV infection in research facility to avoid any unintended effect in their research, particularly in-vivo studies involving mice.

  16. Modulation of ambient temperature promotes inflammation and initiates atherosclerosis in wild type C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Giles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Obesity and obesity-associated inflammation is central to a variety of end-organ sequelae including atherosclerosis, a leading cause of death worldwide. Although mouse models have provided important insights into the immunopathogenesis of various diseases, modeling atherosclerosis in mice has proven difficult. Specifically, wild-type (WT mice are resistant to developing atherosclerosis, while commonly used genetically modified mouse models of atherosclerosis are poor mimics of human disease. The lack of a physiologically relevant experimental model of atherosclerosis has hindered the understanding of mechanisms regulating disease development and progression as well as the development of translational therapies. Recent evidence suggests that housing mice within their thermoneutral zone profoundly alters murine physiology, including both metabolic and immune processes. We hypothesized that thermoneutral housing would allow for augmentation of atherosclerosis induction and progression in mice. Methods: ApoE−/− and WT mice were housed at either standard (TS or thermoneutral (TN temperatures and fed either a chow or obesogenic “Western” diet. Analysis included quantification of (i obesity and obesity-associated downstream sequelae, (ii the development and progression of atherosclerosis, and (iii inflammatory gene expression pathways related to atherosclerosis. Results: Housing mice at TN, in combination with an obesogenic “Western” diet, profoundly augmented obesity development, exacerbated atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice, and initiated atherosclerosis development in WT mice. This increased disease burden was associated with altered lipid profiles, including cholesterol levels and fractions, and increased aortic plaque size. In addition to the mild induction of atherosclerosis, we similarly observed increased levels of aortic and white adipose tissue inflammation and increased circulating immune cell expression of pathways

  17. Mouse models for atherosclerosis and pharmaceutical modifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Vries-van der Weij, J. de; Hoorn, J. van der; Princen, H.M.; Kooistra, T.

    2007-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial highly-complex disease with numerous etiologies that work synergistically to promote lesion development. The ability to develop preventive and ameliorative treatments will depend on animal models that mimic the human subject metabolically and pathophysiologically

  18. Gender-Related Differences in Atherosclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mathur, P.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Romeo, F.; Mehta, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2015), s. 319-327 ISSN 0920-3206 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : atherosclerosis * gender Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 3.189, year: 2015

  19. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, S

    2002-01-01

    ...), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S...

  20. A Role of RIP3-Mediated Macrophage Necrosis in Atherosclerosis Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Juan; Li, Hanjie; Yang, Min; Ren, Junming; Huang, Zhe; Han, Felicia; Huang, Jian; Ma, Jianhui; Zhang, Duanwu; Zhang, Zhirong; Wu, Jianfeng; Huang, Deli; Qiao, Muzhen; Jin, Guanghui; Wu, Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Necrotic death of macrophages has long been known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions but has not been studied. We examined the role of receptor interacting protein (RIP) 3, a mediator of necrotic cell death, in atherosclerosis and found that RIP3−/−;Ldlr−/− mice were no different from RIP3+/+;Ldlr−/− mice in early atherosclerosis but had significant reduction in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. Similar results were observed in Apoe−/− background mice. Bone marrow transplantation reveal...

  1. Immune Response to Lipoproteins in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Samson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease, is characterized by chronic inflammation and altered immune response. Cholesterol is a well-known risk factor associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Elevated serum cholesterol is unique because it can lead to development of atherosclerosis in animals and humans even in the absence of other risk factors. Modifications of low-density lipoproteins mediated by oxidation, enzymatic degradation, and aggregation result in changes in their function and activate both innate and adaptive immune system. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL has been identified as one of the most important autoantigens in atherosclerosis. This escape from self-tolerance is dependent on the formation of oxidized phospholipids. The emerging understanding of the importance of immune responses against oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis has focused attention on the possibility of development of novel therapy for atherosclerosis. This review provides an overview of immune response to lipoproteins and the fascinating possibility of developing an immunomodulatory therapy for atherosclerosis.

  2. Oral microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fåk, Frida; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bergström, Göran; Bäckhed, Fredrik

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the microbiota may be considered as an environmental factor that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease has been associated with cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and inflammation in the periodontium is suggested to increase the systemic inflammatory level of the host, which may in turn influence plaque composition and rupture. We previously showed that bacteria from the oral cavity and the gut could be found in atherosclerotic plaques. To elucidate whether the oral microbiota composition differed between patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis we performed pyrosequencing of the oral microbiota of 92 individuals including patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis and control individuals without carotid plaques or previous stroke or myocardial infarction. The overall microbial structure was similar in controls and atherosclerosis patients, but patients with symptomatic atherosclerosis had higher relative abundance of Anaeroglobus (mean 0.040% (SD 0.049)) than the control group (0.010% (SD 0.028)) (P = 0.03). Using linear regression analysis, we found that Parvimonas associated positively with uCRP and Capnocytophaga, Catonella and Lactobacillus associated with blood lipid markers. In conclusion, abundance of Anaeroglobus in the oral cavity could be associated with symptomatic atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Telomere Length and the Cancer-Atherosclerosis Trade-Off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivka C Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans, the longest-living terrestrial mammals, display short telomeres and repressed telomerase activity in somatic tissues compared with most short-living small mammals. The dual trait of short telomeres and repressed telomerase might render humans relatively resistant to cancer compared with short-living small mammals. However, the trade-off for cancer resistance is ostensibly increased age-related degenerative diseases, principally in the form of atherosclerosis. In this communication, we discuss (a the genetics of human telomere length, a highly heritable complex trait that is influenced by genetic ancestry, sex, and paternal age at conception, (b how cancer might have played a role in the evolution of telomere biology across mammals, (c evidence that in modern humans telomere length is a determinant (rather than only a biomarker of cancer and atherosclerosis, and (d the potential influence of relatively recent evolutionary forces in fashioning the variation in telomere length across and within populations, and their likely lasting impact on major diseases in humans. Finally, we propose venues for future research on human telomere genetics in the context of its potential role in shaping the modern human lifespan.

  4. Basic mechanisms in intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Alvarez-Sabín, José

    2005-01-01

    Intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis is a major cause of ischemic stroke worldwide. Patients affected by this disease are at a high risk of suffering recurrent ischemic events despite antithrombotic therapy. Progression and a greater extent of intracranial atherosclerosis imply a higher risk for recurrence. Studies performed by our group in patients with symptomatic intracranial large-artery atherosclerosis have shown that: (1) C-reactive protein predicts its progression and recurrence, suggesting that inflammation may play a deleterious role in this condition; (2) a high level of the anti-angiogenic endostatin is also associated with a progressive and recurrent intracranial atherosclerosis, which might support a beneficial role for angiogenesis in this group of patients; and (3) elevated lipoprotein(a) concentration and diabetes mellitus characterize those patients with a higher number of intracranial stenoses. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. The study on corrosion resistance of decorative satin nickel plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Wenya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the corrosion resistance of satin nickel plating on conductive plastic.The electrochemical tests were to analyze the corrosion behavior of satin nickel plating with different processes in 3.5% NaCl solution.The results show that,because the satin nickel plating has an organic film on its surface due to process characteristics,the film results in different corrosion resistance.By increasing satin additive dosage,the nickel plating chroma decreases,the microsurface of the plating becomes rough,and the corrosion resistance is followed by decrease.

  6. Kapitza thermal resistance studied by high-frequency photothermal radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horny, Nicolas; Chirtoc, Mihai; Hamaoui, Georges; Fleming, Austin; Ban, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Kapitza thermal resistance is determined using high-frequency photothermal radiometry (PTR) extended for modulation up to 10 MHz. Interfaces between 50 nm thick titanium coatings and silicon or stainless steel substrates are studied. In the used configuration, the PTR signal is not sensitive to the thermal conductivity of the film nor to its optical absorption coefficient, thus the Kapitza resistance is directly determined from single thermal parameter fits. Results of thermal resistances show the significant influence of the nature of the substrate, as well as of the presence of free electrons at the interface.

  7. Fractal characteristic study of shearer cutter cutting resistance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Heilongjiang Scientific and Technical Institute, Haerbin (China). Dept of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    The cutting resistance curve is the most useful tool for reflecting the overall cutting performance of a cutting machine. The cutting resistance curve is influenced by many factors such as the pick structure and arrangement, the cutter operation parameters, coal quality and geologic conditions. This paper discusses the use of fractal geometry to study the properties of the cutting resistance curve, and the use of fractal dimensions to evaluate cutting performance. On the basis of fractal theory, the general form and calculation method of fractal characteristics are given. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effect of 1-year anti-TNF-α therapy on aortic stiffness, carotid atherosclerosis, and calprotectin in inflammatory arthropathies: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Kristin; Provan, Sella A; Fagerhol, Magne K; Mowinckel, Petter; Kvien, Tore K; Atar, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Premature arterial stiffening and atherosclerosis are increased in patients with inflammatory arthropathies such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The proinflammatory protein calprotectin is associated with inflammatory arthropathies, vascular pathology, and acute coronary events. We examined the long-term effects of treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonists on aortic stiffness and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in patients with inflammatory arthropathies, and the relationships to the levels of calprotectin. Fifty-five patients with RA, AS, or PsA and a clinical indication for anti-TNF-α therapy were included and followed with regular examinations for 1 year. Thirty-six patients starting with anti-TNF-α therapy were compared with a nontreatment group of 19 patients. Examinations included assessments of aortic stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, aPWV), CIMT, and plasma calprotectin. After 1 year, aPWV (mean (s.d.)) was improved in the treatment group, but not in the control group (-0.54 [0.79] m/s vs. 0.06 [0.61] m/s, respectively; P = 0.004), and CIMT progression (median (quartile cut-points, 25th and 75th percentiles)) was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (-0.002 [-0.038, 0.030] mm vs. 0.030 [0.011, 0.043] mm, respectively; P = 0.01). In multivariable analyses, anti-TNF-α therapy over time was associated with improved aPWV (P = 0.02) and reduced CIMT progression (P = 0.04), and calprotectin was longitudinally associated with aPWV (P = 0.02). Long-term anti-TNF-α therapy improved aortic stiffness and CIMT progression in patients with inflammatory arthropathies. Calprotectin may be a soluble biomarker reflecting aortic stiffening in these patients.

  9. Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherosclerosis and its clinical sequelae represent the leading cause of mortality among patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While epidemiologic data support the hepatoprotective benefits of coffee in NAFLD, whether coffee improves NAFLD-associated Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) ri...

  10. Rationale and design of a multicenter echocardiographic study to assess the relationship between cardiac structure and function and heart failure risk in a biracial cohort of community-dwelling elderly persons: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amil M; Cheng, Susan; Skali, Hicham; Wu, Justina; Mangion, Judy R; Kitzman, Dalane; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Konety, Suma; Butler, Kenneth R; Fox, Ervin R; Cook, Nakela; Ni, Hanyu; Coresh, Josef; Mosley, Thomas H; Heiss, Gerardo; Folsom, Aaron R; Solomon, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is an important public health concern, particularly among persons>65 years of age. Women and blacks are critically understudied populations that carry a sizeable portion of the heart failure burden. Limited normative and prognostic data exist on measures of cardiac structure, diastolic function, and novel measures of systolic deformation in older adults living in the community. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study is a large, predominantly biracial, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored epidemiological cohort study. Between 2011 and 2013, ≈6000 surviving participants, now in their seventh to ninth decade of life, are expected to return for a fifth study visit during which comprehensive 2-dimensional, Doppler, tissue Doppler, and speckle-tracking echocardiography will be performed uniformly in all cohort clinic visit participants. The following objectives will be addressed: (1) to characterize cardiac structural and functional abnormalities among the elderly and to determine how they differ by sex and race/ethnicity, (2) to determine the relationship between ventricular and vascular abnormalities, and (3) to prospectively examine the extent to which these noninvasive measures associate with incident heart failure. We describe the design, imaging acquisition and analysis methods, and quality assurance metrics for echocardiography in visit 5 of the ARIC cohort. A better understanding of the differences in cardiac structure and function through the spectrum of heart failure stages in elderly persons generally, and between sexes and racial/ethnic groups specifically, will deepen our understanding of the pathophysiology driving heart failure progression in these at-risk populations and may inform novel prevention or therapeutic strategies.

  11. Liraglutide Reduces Both Atherosclerosis and Kidney Inflammation in Moderately Uremic LDLr-/- Mice.

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    Line S Bisgaard

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD leads to uremia. CKD is characterized by a gradual increase in kidney fibrosis and loss of kidney function, which is associated with a progressive increase in risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular death. To prevent progression of both kidney fibrosis and atherosclerosis in uremic settings, insight into new treatment options with effects on both parameters is warranted. The GLP-1 analogue liraglutide improves glucose homeostasis, and is approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Animal studies suggest that GLP-1 also dampens inflammation and atherosclerosis. Our aim was to examine effects of liraglutide on kidney fibrosis and atherosclerosis in a mouse model of moderate uremia (5/6 nephrectomy (NX. Uremic (n = 29 and sham-operated (n = 14 atherosclerosis-prone low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice were treated with liraglutide (1000 μg/kg, s.c. once daily or vehicle for 13 weeks. As expected, uremia increased aortic atherosclerosis. In the remnant kidneys from NX mice, flow cytometry revealed an increase in the number of monocyte-like cells (CD68+F4/80-, CD4+, and CD8+ T-cells, suggesting that moderate uremia induced kidney inflammation. Furthermore, markers of fibrosis (i.e. Col1a1 and Col3a1 were upregulated, and histological examinations showed increased glomerular diameter in NX mice. Importantly, liraglutide treatment attenuated atherosclerosis (~40%, p < 0.05 and reduced kidney inflammation in NX mice. There was no effect of liraglutide on expression of fibrosis markers and/or kidney histology. This study suggests that liraglutide has beneficial effects in a mouse model of moderate uremia by reducing atherosclerosis and attenuating kidney inflammation.

  12. Study on the high temperature crack resistance of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, E.I.; Babak, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility of a multiple use of tungsten specimens in crack resistance tests in the temperature range of 600-2000 deg C is studied. It is established experimentally that the minimum length of growth of a main crack is 1x10 -4 m for the most effective repeated use of specimens. A flow diagram of mechanical tests is suggested for investigating high temperature tungsten crack resistance and estimating the degree of weakening the grain-boundary bond

  13. Noninvasive assessment of preclinical atherosclerosis

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    Helen A Lane

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Helen A Lane, Jamie C Smith, J Stephen DaviesDepartment of Endocrinology, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff, Wales, UKAbstract: Initially considered as a semipermeable barrier separating lumen from vessel wall, the endothelium is now recognised as a complex endocrine organ responsible for a variety of physiological processes vital for vascular homeostasis. These include the regulation of vascular tone, luminal diameter, and blood flow; hemostasis and thrombolysis; platelet and leucocyte vessel-wall interactions; the regulation of vascular permeability; and tissue growth and remodelling. The endothelium modulates arterial stiffness, which precedes overt atherosclerosis and is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Unsurprisingly, dysfunction of the endothelium may be considered as an early and potentially reversible step in the process of atherogenesis and numerous methods have been developed to assess endothelial status and large artery stiffness. Methodology includes flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, assessment of coronary flow reserve, carotid intimamedia thickness, pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity, and plethysmography. This review outlines the various modalities, indications, and limitations of available methods to assess arterial dysfunction and vascular risk.Keywords: endothelial function, vascular risk, vascular stiffness

  14. Association between air pollution and coronary artery calcification within six metropolitan areas in the USA (the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution): a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Joel D; Adar, Sara D; Barr, R Graham; Budoff, Matthew; Burke, Gregory L; Curl, Cynthia L; Daviglus, Martha L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Gassett, Amanda J; Jacobs, David R; Kronmal, Richard; Larson, Timothy V; Navas-Acien, Ana; Olives, Casey; Sampson, Paul D; Sheppard, Lianne; Siscovick, David S; Stein, James H; Szpiro, Adam A; Watson, Karol E

    2016-08-13

    Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and traffic-related air pollutant concentrations are associated with cardiovascular risk. The disease process underlying these associations remains uncertain. We aim to assess association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and progression of coronary artery calcium and common carotid artery intima-media thickness. In this prospective 10-year cohort study, we repeatedly measured coronary artery calcium by CT in 6795 participants aged 45-84 years enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) in six metropolitan areas in the USA. Repeated scans were done for nearly all participants between 2002 and 2005, for a subset of participants between 2005 and 2007, and for half of all participants between 2010 and 2012. Common carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured by ultrasound in all participants at baseline and in 2010-12 for 3459 participants. Residence-specific spatio-temporal pollution concentration models, incorporating community-specific measurements, agency monitoring data, and geographical predictors, estimated concentrations of PM2.5 and nitrogen oxides (NOX) between 1999 and 2012. The primary aim was to examine the association between both progression of coronary artery calcium and mean carotid artery intima-media thickness and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutant concentrations (PM2.5, NOX, and black carbon) between examinations and within the six metropolitan areas, adjusting for baseline age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, site, and CT scanner technology. In this population, coronary calcium increased on average by 24 Agatston units per year (SD 58), and intima-media thickness by 12 μm per year (10), before adjusting for risk factors or air pollutant exposures. Participant-specific pollutant concentrations averaged over the years 2000-10 ranged from 9.2-22.6

  15. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Deficiency Promotes Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-/- Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Petteri; Kadiri, James J; Velasco-Delgado, Mauricio; Nuutinen, Salla; Viitala, Miro; Hollmén, Maija; Rami, Martina; Savontaus, Eriika; Steffens, Sabine

    2018-02-01

    The MC1-R (melanocortin 1 receptor) is expressed by monocytes and macrophages where it mediates anti-inflammatory actions. MC1-R also protects against macrophage foam cell formation primarily by promoting cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily A member 1) and ABCG1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily G member 1). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether global deficiency in MC1-R signaling affects the development of atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- (apolipoprotein E deficient) mice were crossed with recessive yellow (Mc1r e/e ) mice carrying dysfunctional MC1-R and fed a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice developed significantly larger atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus and in the whole aorta compared with Apoe -/- controls. In terms of plaque composition, MC1-R deficiency was associated with less collagen and smooth muscle cells and increased necrotic core, indicative of more vulnerable lesions. These changes were accompanied by reduced Abca1 and Abcg1 expression in the aorta. Furthermore, Apoe -/- Mc1r e/e mice showed a defect in bile acid metabolism that aggravated high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Flow cytometric analysis of leukocyte profile revealed that dysfunctional MC1-R enhanced arterial accumulation of classical Ly6C high monocytes and macrophages, effects that were evident in mice fed a normal chow diet but not under high-fat diet conditions. In support of enhanced arterial recruitment of Ly6C high monocytes, these cells had increased expression of L-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1. The present study highlights the importance of MC1-R in the development of atherosclerosis. Deficiency in MC1-R signaling exacerbates atherosclerosis by disturbing cholesterol handling and by increasing arterial monocyte accumulation. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. IL-25 inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

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    Polyxeni T Mantani

    Full Text Available IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice.Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apoE deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease.The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses.

  17. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Lisa R; de Vries, Margreet R; de Jong, Rob C M; Katiraei, Saeed; Pronk, Amanda; Quax, Paul H A; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2018-02-03

    The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden ( E3L ) mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  18. The Prebiotic Inulin Aggravates Accelerated Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Hoving

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prebiotic inulin has proven effective at lowering inflammation and plasma lipid levels. As atherosclerosis is provoked by both inflammation and hyperlipidemia, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice. Male E3L mice were fed a high-cholesterol (1% diet, supplemented with or without 10% inulin for 5 weeks. At week 3, a non-constrictive cuff was placed around the right femoral artery to induce accelerated atherosclerosis. At week 5, vascular pathology was determined by lesion thickness, vascular remodeling, and lesion composition. Throughout the study, plasma lipids were measured and in week 5, blood monocyte subtypes were determined using flow cytometry analysis. In contrast to our hypothesis, inulin exacerbated atherosclerosis development, characterized by increased lesion formation and outward vascular remodeling. The lesions showed increased number of macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and collagen content. No effects on blood monocyte composition were found. Inulin significantly increased plasma total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol exposure. In conclusion, inulin aggravated accelerated atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolemic E3L mice, accompanied by adverse lesion composition and outward remodeling. This process was not accompanied by differences in blood monocyte composition, suggesting that the aggravated atherosclerosis development was driven by increased plasma cholesterol.

  19. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis and neighbourhood deprivation in an urban region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragano, Nico; Hoffmann, Barbara; Stang, Andreas; Moebus, Susanne; Verde, Pablo E.; Weyers, Simone; Moehlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Mann, Klaus; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Siegrist, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Inhabitants of deprived neighbourhoods are at higher risk of coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate the hypothesis that social inequalities at neighbourhood level become already manifest in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis, as defined by electron-beam computed tomography derived measures. Coronary artery calcification was assessed as a marker of atherosclerosis in a population based sample of 4301 men and women (45-75 years) without a history of coronary heart disease. Participants lived in three adjacent cities in Germany and were examined between 2000 and 2003 as part of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. Individual level data was combined with neighbourhood level information about unemployment, welfare and living space per inhabitant. This dataset was analysed with descriptive and multilevel regression methods. An association between neighbourhood deprivation and subclinical coronary calcification was observed. After adjustment for age and individual socioeconomic status male inhabitants of high unemployment neighbourhoods had an odds ratio of 1.45 (1.11, 1.96) of exhibiting a high calcification score (>75th percentile) compared to men living in low unemployment areas. The respective odds for women was 1.29 (0.97, 1.70). Additional explorative analyses suggest that clustering of unhealthy lifestyles in deprived neighbourhoods contributes to the observed association. In conclusion, findings suggest that certain neighbourhood characteristics promote the emergence of coronary atherosclerosis. This might point to a pathway from neighbourhood deprivation to manifest coronary heart disease

  20. Curcumin analog L3 alleviates diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Yang, Liu; Wen, Caixia; Huang, Xiuwang; Xu, Chenxia; Lee, Kuan-Han; Xu, Jianhua

    2016-03-15

    L3, an analog of curcumin, is a compound isolated from a traditional Chinese medicine Turmeric. In this paper, we aims to explore the efficacy of L3 on diabetic atherosclerosis and the related mechanism. The effect of L3 was studied on glucose and lipid metabolism, antioxidant status, atherosclerosis-related indexes and pathological changes of main organs in the mice model of diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. The results showed that L3 treatment could meliorate dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, reduce oxidative stress, enhance the activity of antioxidases, increase the nitric oxide level in plasma and aortic arch, decrease the production of reactive oxygen species in pancreas and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 expression in aortic arch, and meliorate the fatty and atherosclerotic degeneration in aortic arch, thereby preventing the development of diabetes and its complications. These results suggested that L3 can alleviate the diabetic atherosclerosis by multiple effects. This study provided scientific basis for the further research and clinical application of L3. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  2. Influences of Pinpoint Plantar Long-Wavelength Infrared Light Irradiation (Stress-Free Therapy on Chorioretinal Hemodynamics, Atherosclerosis Factors, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisou Ishimaru

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We previously reported that pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (stress-free therapy; SFT is useful for alleviating insulin resistance and improving intracranial blood flow in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influences of SFT on chorioretinal hemodynamics (retinal artery and vein blood flows as well as atherosclerosis-related factors (TG, LDL-C and VEGF in patients with dyslipidemia. Methods: Four patients with dyslipidemia received 15-minute irradiation with a stress-free apparatus (far-infrared wavelength, 30 mW. Using laser speckle flowgraphy, associations of chorioretinal blood flow with peripheral atherosclerosis-inducing factors/VEGF levels before and after irradiation were analyzed. Results: Chorioretinal blood flow increased, while TG/LDL-C levels decreased, after irradiation. VEGF tended to rise in cases with pre-irradiation baseline levels at the lower limit but tended to decrease in cases in which baseline levels had exceeded the normal range. Conclusion: SFT was suggested to enhance chorioretinal circulation and to normalize VEGF, thereby possibly contributing to amelioration of atherosclerosis-inducing factors. Abnormalities in chorioretinal hemodynamics are known to be highly involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, and anti-VEGF antibody has been used for treating these conditions. The necessity of risk management, involving chorioretinal blood flow, has been pointed out when dealing with central retinal vein occlusion, diabetes mellitus, ischemic cerebral/cardiac disease, dementia and so on. SFT is therefore a potential complementary medical strategy which can be expected to contribute to normalization of chorioretinal blood flow and atherosclerosis-inducing factors/VEGF levels, and thereby to the prevention of lifestyle-related chronic diseases. Keywords: Pinpoint plantar long

  3. Association of emphysema-like lung on cardiac computed tomography and mortality in persons without airflow obstruction: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Lung Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelsner, Elizabeth C.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Enright, Paul L.; Kawut, Steven M.; Kronmal, Richard; Lederer, David; Lima, Joao A. C.; Lovasi, Gina S.; Shea, Steven; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Background Whereas low lung function is known to predict mortality in the general population, the prognostic significance of emphysema on computed tomography (CT) in persons without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. Objective To determine whether greater emphysema-like lung on CT is associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in the general population. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based, multiethnic sample from 6 US communities. Participants 2965 participants ages 45-84 years without airflow obstruction on spirometry. Measurements Emphysema-like lung was defined on cardiac CT as the number of lung voxels less than -950 Hounsfield Units, and was adjusted for the number of total imaged lung voxels. Results Among 2965 participants, 50.9% of whom never smoked, there were 186 deaths over a median of 6.2 years. Greater emphysema-like lung was independently associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]1.14 per one-half of the interquartile range, 95% CI 1.04-1.24, P=0.004), adjusting for potential confounders including cardiovascular risk factors and the forced expiratory volume in one second. Generalized additive models supported a linear association between emphysema-like lung and mortality without evidence for a threshold. The association was of greatest magnitude among smokers, although multiplicative interaction terms did not support effect modification by smoking status. Limitations Cardiac CT scans did not include lung apices. The number of deaths was limited among subgroup analyses. Conclusions Emphysema-like lung on CT was associated with all-cause mortality among persons without airflow obstruction or COPD in a general population sample, particularly among smokers. Recognition of the independent prognostic significance of emphysema on CT among patients without COPD on spirometry is warranted. Primary Funding Source NIH/NHLBI. PMID:25506855

  4. Biomarkers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Patients with Autoimmune Disorders

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    Elisabetta Profumo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is accelerated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and psoriatic arthritis (PsA. We investigated a possible association of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDLs, nitric oxide (NO, 3-nitrotyrosine, vitamin A, vitamin E, and β-carotene serum levels with subclinical atherosclerosis in RA and PsA. By the use of ELISA, we observed higher ox-LDL levels in patients with intima-media thickness (IMT > 1 than in patients with IMT ≤ 1 and a negative correlation between NO levels and IMT values. By the use of high-performance liquid chromatography, we determined higher levels of vitamin A in patients with PsA and IMT ≤ 1 than in controls and lower levels of β-carotene in patients with RA and PsA than in controls. β-carotene concentrations were negatively correlated to the duration of disease in RA. Our study confirms that ox-LDLs and NO may be markers of accelerated atherosclerosis in RA and PsA whereas vitamins seem to be associated only to the presence of the autoimmune disorders.

  5. Protective role for properdin in progression of experimental murine atherosclerosis.

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    Tanja Steiner

    Full Text Available Genetic, dietary and immune factors contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in humans and mice. Complement activation is an integral part of the innate immune defence but also shapes cellular responses and influences directly triglyceride synthesis. Deficiency of Factor B of the alternative pathway (AP of complement is beneficial in LDLR(-/- mice fed a high fat diet. The serum glycoprotein properdin is a key positive regulator of the AP but has not been studied in experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was assessed after feeding low fat (LFD or high fat (HFD Western type diets to newly generated LDLR(-/- Properdin(KO (LDLR(-/-P(KO and LDLR-/-PWT mice. Lipids, lymphocytes and monocytes were similar among genotypes, genders and diets. Complement C3, but not C3adesarg, levels were enhanced in LDLR(-/-P(KO mice regardless of diet type or gender. Non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA were decreased in male LDLR(-/-P(KO fed a HFD compared with controls. All mice showed significant atherosclerotic burden in aortae and at aortic roots but male LDLR(-/- mice fed a LFD were affected to the greatest extent by the absence of properdin. The protective effect of properdin expression was overwhelmed in both genders of LDLR(-/-mice when fed a HFD. We conclude that properdin plays an unexpectedly beneficial role in the development and progression of early atherosclerotic lesions.

  6. Prediabetes is not a risk factor for subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gyung-Min; Cho, Young-Rak; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Won, Ki-Bum; Ann, Soe Hee; Kim, Yong-Giun; Kim, Shin-Jae; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hak; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Lee, Ki-Up; Park, Joong-Yeol; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jaewon; Lee, Sang-Gon

    2017-09-15

    There are limited data regarding the influence of glycemic status on the risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in asymptomatic individuals. We analyzed 6434 asymptomatic individuals who underwent CCTA. The degree and extent of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis were assessed by CCTA, and ≥50% diameter stenosis was defined as significant. Of study participants, 2197 (34.1%), 3122 (48.5%), and 1115 (17.3%) were categorized as normal, prediabetic and diabetic individuals, respectively. Compared with normal individuals, there were no statistically differences in the adjusted odds ratios of prediabetic individuals for significant coronary artery stenosis (0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-1.22, p=0.888), any plaque (0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, p=0.483), calcified plaque (0.90, 95% CI 0.79-1.01, p=0.080), non-calcified plaque (1.02, 95% CI 0.88-1.17, p=0.803), and mixed plaque (1.00, 95% CI 0.82-1.22, p=0.983). However, adjusted odds ratios for significant coronary artery stenosis (1.71, 95% CI 1.34-2.19, pprediabetic individuals were not associated with an increased risk of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ascorbic acid on prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S; Ray, R; Snehlata; Das, N; Srivastava, L M

    2006-04-01

    The notion that oxidation of lipids and propagation of free radicals may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is supported by a large body of evidence. To circumvent the damage caused by oxygen free radicals, antioxidants are needed which provide the much needed neutralization of free radical by allowing the pairing of electrons. In this study we have investigated the effect of ascorbic acid, a water soluble antioxidant on the development of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Rabbits were made hypercholesterolemic and atherosclerotic by feeding 100 mg cholesterol/day. Different doses of ascorbic acid were administered to these rabbits. Low dose of ascorbic acid (0.5 mg/100 g body weight/day) did not have any significant effect on the percent of total area covered by atherosclerotic plaque. However, ascorbic acid when fed at a higher dose (15 mg/100 g body weight/day) was highly effective in reducing the atherogenecity. With this dose the percent of total surface area covered by atherosclerotic plaque was significantly less (p ascorbic acid may have great promise in the prevention of hypercholesterolemia induced atherosclerosis.

  8. Food restriction by intermittent fasting induces diabetes and obesity and aggravates spontaneous atherosclerosis development in hypercholesterolaemic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorighello, Gabriel G; Rovani, Juliana C; Luhman, Christopher J F; Paim, Bruno A; Raposo, Helena F; Vercesi, Anibal E; Oliveira, Helena C F

    2014-03-28

    Different regimens of food restriction have been associated with protection against obesity, diabetes and CVD. In the present study, we hypothesised that food restriction would bring benefits to atherosclerosis- and diabetes-prone hypercholesterolaemic LDL-receptor knockout mice. For this purpose, 2-month-old mice were submitted to an intermittent fasting (IF) regimen (fasting every other day) over a 3-month period, which resulted in an overall 20 % reduction in food intake. Contrary to our expectation, epididymal and carcass fat depots and adipocyte size were significantly enlarged by 15, 72 and 68 %, respectively, in the IF mice compared with the ad libitum-fed mice. Accordingly, plasma levels of leptin were 50 % higher in the IF mice than in the ad libitum-fed mice. In addition, the IF mice showed increased plasma levels of total cholesterol (37 %), VLDL-cholesterol (195 %) and LDL-cholesterol (50 %). As expected, in wild-type mice, the IF regimen decreased plasma cholesterol levels and epididymal fat mass. Glucose homeostasis was also disturbed by the IF regimen in LDL-receptor knockout mice. Elevated levels of glycaemia (40 %), insulinaemia (50 %), glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were observed in the IF mice. Systemic inflammatory markers, TNF-α and C-reactive protein, were significantly increased and spontaneous atherosclerosis development were markedly increased (3-fold) in the IF mice. In conclusion, the IF regimen induced obesity and diabetes and worsened the development of spontaneous atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor knockout mice. Although being efficient in a wild-type background, this type of food restriction is not beneficial in the context of genetic hypercholesterolaemia.

  9. Relationship between Chlamydia pneumonia and helicobacter pylori with atherosclerosis

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    ali Pooria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pooria A1, Maasoomi M2, Rafiee E3, Rezaee M4, Sabzi F5, Hossain Zadegan H6, Salehi M7, Mozaffari P8 1. Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 3. Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pathology 4. Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 5. Assistant Professor, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 6. Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 7. Bsc in Nursing, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences 8. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of deaths in the developed countries and causes one million mortalities per year in the USA. Smoking, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, stress, and low activity are known to be the causes of atherosclerosis. The objective of this study is to confirm the relationship between chlamydia pneumonia (Cpn, as well as helicobacter pylori (Hp and atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: In this analytical case-control study two groups of patients were studied. The first group including 30 patients over 30 years old with coronary artery disease were operated using coronary artery bypass graft. The control group included 30 persons assessed with angiography and having normal coronary arteries. The data were collected and analyzed using statistical methods. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of IgA and IgG anti-Cpn, and IgG anti- Hp but they were statistically different concerning IgA anti-Hp which had more positive cases in the case group in comparison with the

  10. ATHEROSCLEROSIS DISEASE: A MULTI-FACTORIAL PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcieli da Luz Giroldo1; Arienne Serrano Alves1; Francielle Baptista1

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis or arterial stiffening is a gradual disease that restricts the normal blood flow in different areas of body and maylead to secondary illnesses as myocardial infarction and cerebral stroke. Innumerable factors are related to the development ofatherosclerosis, among them are the dyslipidemia; genetic factors; arterial hypertension; diabetes mellitus; obesity; smoking;lack of exercise; pulmonary infection by Chlamydia and stress. Due to multi-factorial atherosclerosis characteristics,innumerable drugs, with differentiated mechanisms of action, are being elaborated to be used in prevention and control of thisdisease. However, beyond the pharmacological therapy, a balanced diet, physical activity and elimination of risk habits, assmoking, also are need for controlling atherosclerosis progression, as well as for the increase of expectative and quality of life

  11. Role of gut microbiota in atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Annika Lindskog; Bäckhed, Gert Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    describe three pathways by which microbiota might affect atherogenesis. First, local or distant infections might cause a harmful inflammatory response that aggravates plaque development or triggers plaque rupture. Second, metabolism of cholesterol and lipids by gut microbiota can affect the development...... of atherosclerotic plaques. Third, diet and specific components that are metabolized by gut microbiota can have various effects on atherosclerosis; for example, dietary fibre is beneficial, whereas the bacterial metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide is considered harmful. Although specific bacterial taxa have been...... associated with atherosclerosis, which is supported by increasing mechanistic evidence, several questions remain to be answered to understand fully how the microbiota contributes to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Such knowledge might pave the way for novel diagnostics and therapeutics based...

  12. Oral microbiota in patients with atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fåk, Frida; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bergström, Göran

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent evidence suggests that the microbiota may be considered as an environmental factor that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. Periodontal disease has been associated with cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and inflammation in the periodontium is suggested...... to increase the systemic inflammatory level of the host, which may in turn influence plaque composition and rupture. We previously showed that bacteria from the oral cavity and the gut could be found in atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: To elucidate whether the oral microbiota composition differed between...... patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis we performed pyrosequencing of the oral microbiota of 92 individuals including patients with asymptomatic and symptomatic atherosclerosis and control individuals without carotid plaques or previous stroke or myocardial infarction. RESULTS...

  13. Carotid Atherosclerosis and Cognitive Impairment in Nonstroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Carotid atherosclerosis can be used to predict the risk of cognitive impairment. Furthermore, diagnosing and treating carotid atherosclerosis at early stage might help clinicians prevent and treat vascular cognitive impairment in nonstroke patients.

  14. Function and Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a complicated disorder and largely attributable to dyslipidaemia and chronic inflammation. Despite therapeutic advances over past decades, atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Due to their capability of immunomodulation and tissue regeneration, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have evolved as an attractive therapeutic agent in various diseases including atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidences support the protective role of MSCs in all stages of atherosclerosis. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of MSCs including their characteristics such as molecular markers, tissue distribution, migratory property, immune-modulatory competence, etc. We also summarize MSC functions in animal models of atherosclerosis. MSC transplantation is able to modulate cytokine and chemokine secretion, reduce endothelial dysfunction, promote regulatory T cell function, decrease dyslipidemia, and stabilize vulnerable plaques during atherosclerosis development. In addition, MSCs may migrate to lesions where they develop into functional cells during atherosclerosis formation. Finally, the perspectives of MSCs in clinical atherosclerosis therapy are discussed.

  15. Impact of Hydroxychloroquine on Atherosclerosis and Vascular Stiffness in the Presence of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh M Shukla

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and end-stage kidney disease, with nearly half of all deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ, an anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to have multiple pleiotropic actions relevant to atherosclerosis. We conducted a proof-of-efficacy study to evaluate the effects of hydroxychloroquine in an animal model of atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice with and without chronic kidney disease. Forty male, 6-week-old mice were divided into four groups in a 2 x 2 design: sham placebo group; sham treatment group; CKD placebo group; and CKD treatment group. CKD was induced by a two-step surgical procedure. All mice received a high-fat diet through the study duration and were sacrificed after 16 weeks of therapy. Mice were monitored with ante-mortem ultrasonic echography (AUE for atherosclerosis and vascular stiffness and with post-mortem histology studies for atherosclerosis. Therapy with HCQ significantly reduced the severity of atherosclerosis in CKD mice and sham treated mice. HCQ reduced the area of aortic atherosclerosis on en face examination by approximately 60% in HCQ treated groups compared to the non-treated groups. Additionally, therapy with HCQ resulted in significant reduction in vascular endothelial dysfunction with improvement in vascular elasticity and flow patterns and better-preserved vascular wall thickness across multiple vascular beds. More importantly, we found that presence of CKD had no mitigating effect on HCQ's anti-atherosclerotic and vasculoprotective effects. These beneficial effects were not due to any significant effect of HCQ on inflammation, renal function, or lipid profile at the end of 16 weeks of therapy. This study, which demonstrates structural and functional protection against atherosclerosis by HCQ, provides a rationale to evaluate its use in CKD patients. Further studies

  16. Aging studies on the first resistive-micromegas quadruplet @ GIF++

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Aging studies of the first resistive-micromegas quadruplet at GIF++: preliminary results A resistive-micromegas quadruplet built at CERN, serving as prototype of the ATLAS micromegas, has been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) with the aim of carrying out a long-term aging study. The detector has four active layers about 0.5 m2 each equipped with 1024 read-out strips and sputtered resistive layer for spark protection. It is exposed to an intense gamma irradiation (~50 MHz/cm2 provided by the 16.65 TBq 137Cs source of GIF++), corresponding to ~10 times more the expected counting rate at High-Luminosity LHC. Two smaller resistive bulk-micromegas produced at the CERN PCB workshop have also been installed at GIF++ in order to provide a comparison of the aging behavior with the micromegas quadruplet. We will give an overview of the aging properties of the resistive micromegas after few months of irradiation at GIF++. Detector aging evolution will be presented in terms of dark and amplifi...

  17. Novel Therapeutic Targets for Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors: current state-of-the-art on systemic arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elisardo C; Gava, Agata L; Graceli, Jones B; Balarini, Camille M; Campagnaro, Bianca P; Pereira, Thiago Melo C; Meyrelles, Silvana S

    2016-01-01

    The usefulness of selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is well known, first for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction and more recently for pulmonary hypertension. The discovery that PDE5 is present in the systemic artery endothelium and smooth muscle cells led investigators to test the extra sexual effects of sildenafil, the first and most investigated PDE5 inhibitor, in diseases affecting the systemic arteries. Cumulative data from experimental and clinical studies have revealed beneficial effects of sildenafil on systemic arterial hypertension and its target organs, such as the heart, kidneys and vasculature. An important effect of sildenafil is reduction of hypertension and improvement of endothelial function in experimental models of hypertension and hypertensive subjects. Interestingly, in angiotensin-dependent hypertension, its beneficial effects on endothelial and kidney dysfunctions seem to at least in part be caused by its ability to decrease the levels of angiotensin II and increase angiotensin 1-7, in addition to improving nitric oxide bioavailability and diminishing reactive oxygen species. Another remarkable finding on the effects of sildenafil comes from studies in apolipoprotein E knockout mice, a model of atherosclerosis that closely resembles human atherosclerotic disease. In this review, we focus on the promising beneficial effects of sildenafil for treating systemic high blood pressure, especially resistant hypertension, and the endothelial dysfunction that is present in hypertension and atherosclerosis.

  18. Aortic smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis in relation to atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PG) are implicated in atherogenesis by their effects on tissue permeability and cell proliferation and their interaction with plasma low density lipoproteins. Using the pigeon model in which an atherosclerosis-susceptible (WC) and -resistant (SR) breed can be compared, PG synthesis by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells was examined by the use of [ 35 S]-sodium sulfate and [ 3 H]-serine or [ 3 H]-glucosamine as labeling precursors. In both SR and WC cells, the majority of newly synthesized PG were secreted into the media. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) PG and dermatan sulfate (DS) PG were the major PG produced. Total PG production was consistently lower in WC compared to SR cultures due in part to reduce PG synthesis but also to degradation of newly synthesized PG. Since increased DS-PG accompanines atherosclerosis progression, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that macrophages modulate smooth muscle cell metabolism to cause increase DS-PG production. Cultured WC aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1 and the production of PG examined. Increasing concentration of conditioned media from both types of macrophages caused increased incorporation of 35 S-sulfate into secreted PG, but no change in cell-associated PG. Lipopolysaccharide activation of P388D1 cells enhanced the effect

  19. Risk of carotid atherosclerosis associated with genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E and inflammatory genes among arsenic exposed residents in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-C.; Hsieh, F.-I; Lien, L.-M.; Chou, Y.-L.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Chen, C.-J.

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic had been reported to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. However, there were few studies to evaluate the association between the susceptible gene of lipid metabolism and inflammation and carotid atherosclerosis among arsenic exposure residents. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between the genetic polymorphisms of APOE and MCP-1 and the risk of carotid atherosclerosis among residents of Lanyang Basin in Taiwan which was a newly confirmed arsenic-endemic area. In total, 479 residents who had been genotyped of these two genes and examined the severity of carotid atherosclerosis were included in this study. The study subjects with carotid intima media thickness (IMT) ≥ 1.0 mm or with the observable plaque in the extracranial carotid artery were diagnosed as carotid atherosclerosis. A significantly age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 2.0 for the development of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in study subjects with ε4 allele of APOE than those without ε4 allele. Compared with study subjects who carried wild genotypes of APOE and MCP-1, those with both risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 had 2.5-fold risk of carotid atherosclerosis after adjustment for age and gender, revealing a significant dose-response relationship between number of risk genotypes of these genes and risk of carotid atherosclerosis. Additionally, study subjects with two risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1 and either had ingested well water contained arsenic level > 10 μg/L or had arsenic exposure > 0.22 mg/L-year would have strikingly highest risk of 10.3-fold and 15.7-fold, respectively, for the development carotid atherosclerosis, showing significant joint effect of arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of APOE and MCP-1

  20. Noninvasive Diagnostic Technique in Stenotic Coronary Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Vasilyev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the sensitivity and specificity of combined stress echocardiography (EchoCG using dipyri-damole and dobutamine in diagnosing and defining the extent of stenotic coronary lesions in coronary heart disease (CHD in a group of critically ill patients who are unable to perform a physical exercise.Materials and methods: the study included 57 male patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome who underwent stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in high doses in combination with dobutamine, as well as coronary angiography.Results: stress EchoCG could bring up to the diagnostic criteria in all the patients, of whom 9 patients were found at coronary angiography to have no coronary lesion, 34 and 14 patients had one- and many-vessel lesions, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of combined stress EchoCG were significantly higher than those of EchoCG used in the diagnosis of CHD.Conclusion: stress EchoCG using dipyridamole in combination with dobutamine is a highly informative safe noninvasive technique for diagnosing CHD, its helps to identify patients with atypical acute coronary syndrome and to form a group of patients to be subject to urgent coronarography and angiosurgical intervention. The pattern of segmental contractile disorders at the height of exercise during combined stress Echo-CG makes it possible to define the site of stenotic coronary atherosclerosis with 97.3% sensitivity and to diagnose many-vessel lesion with 100% sensitivity and 100%specificity.

  1. Antiplatelet therapy: aspirin resistance and all that jazz!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divani, Afshin A; Zantek, Nicole D; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Rao, Gundu H R

    2013-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and stroke. Aspirin used alone or in combination with other antiplatelet drugs has been shown to offer significant benefit to patients at high risk of vasc