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Sample records for resin bees hypanthidioides

  1. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  2. Diversity matters: how bees benefit from different resin sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Nora; Wallace, Helen M; Katouli, Mohammad; Massaro, Carmelina F; Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2014-12-01

    Biodiverse environments provide a variety of resources that can be exploited by consumers. While many studies revealed a positive correlation between biodiversity and consumer biomass and richness, only few studies have investigated how resource diversity affects single consumers. To better understand whether a single consumer species benefits from diverse resources, we tested how the protective function of a defensive plant resource (i.e. resin exploited by social bees) varied among different sources and target organisms (predators, parasites and pathogens). To assess synergistic effects, resins from different plant genera were tested separately and in combination. We found that resin diversity is beneficial for bees, with its functional properties depending on the target organisms, type and composition of resin. Different resins showed different effects, and mixtures were more effective than some of the single resins (functional complementarity). We conclude that resins of different plant species target different organisms and act synergistically where combined. Bees that rely on resin for protection benefit more when they have access to diverse resin sources. Loss of biodiversity may in turn destabilize consumer populations due to restricted access to a variety of resources.

  3. Stingless bees use terpenes as olfactory cues to find resin sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, S D; Zeilhofer, S; Blüthgen, N; Schmitt, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Insects largely rely on olfactory cues when seeking and judging information on nests, partners, or resources. Bees are known to use volatile compounds-besides visual cues-to find flowers suitable for pollen and nectar collection. Tropical stingless bees additionally collect large amounts of plant resins for nest construction, nest maintenance, nest defense, and to derive chemical constituents for their cuticular profiles. We here demonstrate that stingless bees of Borneo also use olfactory cues to find tree resins. They rely on volatile mono- and sesquiterpenes to locate or recognize known resin sources. Moreover, by modifying resin extracts, we found that stingless bees do not use the entire resin bouquet but relative proportions of several terpenes. In doing so, the bees are able to learn specific tree resin profiles and distinguish between tree species and partly even tree individuals.

  4. Tree resin composition, collection behavior and selective filters shape chemical profiles of tropical bees (Apidae: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific "filtering" of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans.

  5. Tree Resin Composition, Collection Behavior and Selective Filters Shape Chemical Profiles of Tropical Bees (Apidae: Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Schmitt, Thomas; Blüthgen, Nico

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of species is striking, but can be far exceeded by the chemical diversity of compounds collected, produced or used by them. Here, we relate the specificity of plant-consumer interactions to chemical diversity applying a comparative network analysis to both levels. Chemical diversity was explored for interactions between tropical stingless bees and plant resins, which bees collect for nest construction and to deter predators and microbes. Resins also function as an environmental source for terpenes that serve as appeasement allomones and protection against predators when accumulated on the bees' body surfaces. To unravel the origin of the bees' complex chemical profiles, we investigated resin collection and the processing of resin-derived terpenes. We therefore analyzed chemical networks of tree resins, foraging networks of resin collecting bees, and their acquired chemical networks. We revealed that 113 terpenes in nests of six bee species and 83 on their body surfaces comprised a subset of the 1,117 compounds found in resins from seven tree species. Sesquiterpenes were the most variable class of terpenes. Albeit widely present in tree resins, they were only found on the body surface of some species, but entirely lacking in others. Moreover, whereas the nest profile of Tetragonula melanocephala contained sesquiterpenes, its surface profile did not. Stingless bees showed a generalized collecting behavior among resin sources, and only a hitherto undescribed species-specific “filtering” of resin-derived terpenes can explain the variation in chemical profiles of nests and body surfaces from different species. The tight relationship between bees and tree resins of a large variety of species elucidates why the bees' surfaces contain a much higher chemodiversity than other hymenopterans. PMID:21858119

  6. Handling sticky Resin by Stingless Bees: Adhesive Properties of Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARKUS GASTAUER

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Meliponini like Tetragonisca angustula collect resin to defend their nests against intruders like ants or Robber Bees. Small portions of resin are attached to intruders bodies and extremities causing their immobilization. It has been observed that resin is removed easily from the bee's mandible but adheres strongly to the intruder's cuticle. We tested the hypothesis that resin sticks lesser to the mandibles of Stingless Bees than to the surface of intruders due to special surface structures or adhesive properties of these structures. The surface structures of the mandible of T. angustula and the trochanter of Camponotus sericeiventris were studied by scanning electron microscopy. To measure adhesion properties, selected surfaces were fixed on a fine glass pin and withdrawn from a glass tip covered with resin. The deformation of the glass pin indicates adhesion forces operating between the resin and the selective surface. The absolute value of the forces is computed from the glass pin's stiffness. It has been shown that resin sticks more to the smooth mandible of the bee than to the structured trochanter of the ant. A new hypothesis to be tested says that the bees might lubricate their mandibles with nectar or honey to reduce the resin's adhesion temporarily.

  7. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael D; Spivak, Marla

    2012-01-01

    The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB). Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self-medication by increasing the

  8. Increased resin collection after parasite challenge: a case of self-medication in honey bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Simone-Finstrom

    Full Text Available The constant pressure posed by parasites has caused species throughout the animal kingdom to evolve suites of mechanisms to resist infection. Individual barriers and physiological defenses are considered the main barriers against parasites in invertebrate species. However, behavioral traits and other non-immunological defenses can also effectively reduce parasite transmission and infection intensity. In social insects, behaviors that reduce colony-level parasite loads are termed "social immunity." One example of a behavioral defense is resin collection. Honey bees forage for plant-produced resins and incorporate them into their nest architecture. This use of resins can reduce chronic elevation of an individual bee's immune response. Since high activation of individual immunity can impose colony-level fitness costs, collection of resins may benefit both the individual and colony fitness. However the use of resins as a more direct defense against pathogens is unclear. Here we present evidence that honey bee colonies may self-medicate with plant resins in response to a fungal infection. Self-medication is generally defined as an individual responding to infection by ingesting or harvesting non-nutritive compounds or plant materials. Our results show that colonies increase resin foraging rates after a challenge with a fungal parasite (Ascophaera apis: chalkbrood or CB. Additionally, colonies experimentally enriched with resin had decreased infection intensities of this fungal parasite. If considered self-medication, this is a particularly unique example because it operates at the colony level. Most instances of self-medication involve pharmacophagy, whereby individuals change their diet in response to direct infection with a parasite. In this case with honey bees, resins are not ingested but used within the hive by adult bees exposed to fungal spores. Thus the colony, as the unit of selection, may be responding to infection through self

  9. Masculinization on tilapia (Oreochromis sp. by natural hormone steroid agent from bee resin through artificial diet

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    Dinar Tri Soelistyowati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Masculinization on tilapia ( Oreochromis sp. has been done with approach of natural hormone steroid agent  from bee resin  through artificial diet before sexual differentiation. This research aim to increase male sex ratio and production performance. Treatment of bee resin dose is 0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4; 3.0 feed ml/kg compared to Control (0 ml/kg diet were given  during 28 days at larva age 7 day in aquarium, then transferred to the farm ground until age 12 weeks. Average of masculine phenotype percentage increased significantly (PKeywords: bee resin, masculinization, masculine sex ratio, Oreochromis sp. ABSTRAKMaskulinisasi pada ikan nila  (Oreochromis sp. telah dilakukan dengan pendekatan hormonal menggunakan bahan aktif steroid alami yang berasal dari resin lebah melalui pakan buatan sebelum diferensiasi kelamin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan meliputi kelangsungan hidup, nisbah kelamin jantan, laju pertambahan bobot, dan konversi pakan (FCR.  Perlakuan yang diuji terdiri dari 5 dosis resin lebah  (0,6; 1,2; 1,8; 2,4; 3,0 mL/kg pakan dan Kontrol, diberikan selama 28 hari pada larva berumur 7 hari di akuarium, kemudian ikan dipelihara di kolam tanah sampai umur 12 minggu. Rata-rata persentase fenotipe jantan meningkat secara nyata (PKata kunci: Oreochromis sp, maskulinisasi, nisbah kelamin jantan, resin lebah.

  10. The giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis Smith: new distributional records for the mid- and gulf-south USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megachile (Callomegachile) sculpturalis Smith, the giant resin bee, is an adventive species in the United States. First established in the United States during the early 1990s, records currently exist from most states east of the Mississippi River along with Iowa and Kansas. New distributional recor...

  11. Range expansion of the Asian native giant resin beeMegachile sculpturalis(Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Megachilidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Féon, Violette; Aubert, Matthieu; Genoud, David; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Westrich, Paul; Geslin, Benoît

    2018-02-01

    In 2008, a new species for the French bee fauna was recorded in Allauch near Marseille: the giant resin bee, Megachile sculpturalis (Smith, 1853). This was the first European record of this species that is native to East Asia. To our knowledge, it is the first introduced bee species in Europe. Here, we provide an overview of the current distribution of M. sculpturalis in France and we describe the history of its range expansion. Besides our own observations, information was compiled from literature and Internet websites, and by contacting naturalist networks. We collected a total of 117 records ( locality  ×  year combinations) for the 2008-2016 period. The geographical range of M. sculpturalis has extended remarkably, now occupying a third of continental France, with the most northern and western records located 335 and 520 km from Allauch, respectively. Information on its phenology, feeding, and nesting behavior is also provided. We report several events of nest occupation or eviction of Osmia sp. and Xylocopa sp. individuals by M. sculpturalis . Our results show that M. sculpturalis is now well established in France. Given its capacity to adapt and rapidly expand its range, we recommend amplifying the monitoring of this species to better anticipate the changes in its geographical range and its potential impacts on native bees.

  12. Anti-staphylococcal activity of C-methyl flavanones from propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) and fruit resins of Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, C F; Katouli, M; Grkovic, T; Vu, H; Quinn, R J; Heard, T A; Carvalho, C; Manley-Harris, M; Wallace, H M; Brooks, P

    2014-06-01

    Propolis of Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria, Meliponini) originating from Corymbia torelliana (Myrtaceae) fruit resins was tested for its antimicrobial activities as well as its flavonoid contents. This study aimed at the isolation, structural elucidation and antibacterial testing of flavanones of C. torelliana fruit resins that are incorporated into stingless bee propolis. Flavanones of this study were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric methods including UV, 1D and 2D NMR, EI-MS, ESI-MS and HR-MS. The results indicated known C-methylated flavanones namely, 1 (2S)-cryptostrobin, its regioisomer 2 (2S)- stroboponin, 3 (2S)- cryptostrobin 7-methyl ether, and 6 (2S)- desmethoxymatteucinol, and known flavanones 4 (2S)- pinostrobin and 5 (2S)- pinocembrin as markers for C. torelliana fruit resins and one propolis type. Ethanolic preparations of propolis were shown to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and to a lesser extent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). C. torelliana flavanones inhibited the growth of S. aureus therefore contributing to the antibacterial effects observed for Australian stingless bee propolis extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called venom. Africanized bee colonies are very sensitive to being disturbed. When ... Bee, wasp, hornet, and yellow jacket venom can cause an allergic reaction in some people.

  14. Bee health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine

    of the year. The successful running of the colony is also affected by the numerous pests mentioned above. Part two of the thesis deals with what effects a microsporidian gut parasite, Nosema ceranae can have on the behaviour of groups of honey bees exposed from early-on in their adult life. The creation...... pathogens to other pollinators. The threat of inter-specific pathogen transmission appears to be real, and testing the infectivity of honey bee pathogens on other bee pollinators, represents a logical step following on from the recent detection of those pathogens using molecular methods. The preliminary...

  15. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de Sarrasin.

  16. Resin collection and use in stingless bees

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2010-01-01

    Harz ist ein klebriges Pflanzenprodukt mit einem oft intensiven aromatischen Geruch. Es wird von Bäumen produziert, um Wunden zu verschließen und schädliche Besucher abzuwehren. Einige Insektenarten haben jedoch die erstaunliche Fähigkeit entwickelt, mit der klebrigen Substanz umzugehen und sie sich gar zu Nutzen zu machen. So verwenden Bienen Harz beispielsweise zum Nestbau und zur Verteidigung ihrer Kolonien. Während allgemein bekannt ist, dass Bienen Pollen und Nektar sammeln, wird der Tat...

  17. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  18. Blackawton bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackawton, P S; Airzee, S; Allen, A; Baker, S; Berrow, A; Blair, C; Churchill, M; Coles, J; Cumming, R F-J; Fraquelli, L; Hackford, C; Hinton Mellor, A; Hutchcroft, M; Ireland, B; Jewsbury, D; Littlejohns, A; Littlejohns, G M; Lotto, M; McKeown, J; O'Toole, A; Richards, H; Robbins-Davey, L; Roblyn, S; Rodwell-Lynn, H; Schenck, D; Springer, J; Wishy, A; Rodwell-Lynn, T; Strudwick, D; Lotto, R B

    2011-04-23

    Real science has the potential to not only amaze, but also transform the way one thinks of the world and oneself. This is because the process of science is little different from the deeply resonant, natural processes of play. Play enables humans (and other mammals) to discover (and create) relationships and patterns. When one adds rules to play, a game is created. the process of playing with rules that enables one to reveal previously unseen patterns of relationships that extend our collective understanding of nature and human nature. When thought of in this way, science education becomes a more enlightened and intuitive process of asking questions and devising games to address those questions. But, because the outcome of all game-playing is unpredictable, supporting this 'messyness', which is the engine of science, is critical to good science education (and indeed creative education generally). Indeed, we have learned that doing 'real' science in public spaces can stimulate tremendous interest in children and adults in understanding the processes by which we make sense of the world. The present study (on the vision of bumble-bees) goes even further, since it was not only performed outside my laboratory (in a Norman church in the southwest of England), but the 'games' were themselves devised in collaboration with 25 8- to 10-year-old children. They asked the questions, hypothesized the answers, designed the games (in other words, the experiments) to test these hypotheses and analysed the data. They also drew the figures (in coloured pencil) and wrote the paper. Their headteacher (Dave Strudwick) and I devised the educational programme (we call 'i,scientist'), and I trained the bees and transcribed the childrens' words into text (which was done with smaller groups of children at the school's local village pub). So what follows is a novel study (scientifically and conceptually) in 'kids speak' without references to past literature, which is a challenge. Although the

  19. Glucose oxidase production does not increase after colony infection: Testing its role in honey bee social immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees rely on a variety of defense mechanisms to reduce disease infection and spread throughout the colony. Hygienic behavior, resin collection, and antimicrobial peptide production are some examples of defenses that bees use against parasites (Evans & Spivak, 2010 J Invertebr Pathol 103:S62). ...

  20. The corbiculate bees arose from New World oil-collecting bees: implications for the origin of pollen baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline C; Melo, Gabriel A R; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-11-01

    The economically most important group of bees is the "corbiculates", or pollen basket bees, some 890 species of honeybees (Apis), bumblebees (Bombus), stingless bees (Meliponini), and orchid bees (Euglossini). Molecular studies have indicated that the corbiculates are closest to the New World genera Centris, with 230 species, and Epicharis, with 35, albeit without resolving the precise relationships. Instead of concave baskets, these bees have hairy hind legs on which they transport pollen mixed with floral oil, collected with setae on the anterior and middle legs. We sampled two-thirds of all Epicharis, a third of all Centris, and representatives of the four lineages of corbiculates for four nuclear gene regions, obtaining a well-supported phylogeny that has the corbiculate bees nested inside the Centris/Epicharis clade. Fossil-calibrated molecular clocks, combined with a biogeographic reconstruction incorporating insights from the fossil record, indicate that the corbiculate clade arose in the New World and diverged from Centris 84 (72-95)mya. The ancestral state preceding corbiculae thus was a hairy hind leg, perhaps adapted for oil transport as in Epicharis and Centris bees. Its replacement by glabrous, concave baskets represents a key innovation, allowing efficient transport of plant resins and large pollen/nectar loads and freeing the corbiculate clade from dependence on oil-offering flowers. The transformation could have involved a novel function of Ubx, the gene known to change hairy into smooth pollen baskets in Apis and Bombus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. This was due to the absence of herbicides and to practices inherent to organic farming systems, such as use of clover (a high value bee plant) as a green manure and fodder crop. Solitary bees responded with significantly higher numbers......Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... use as a proxy at four different scales (250, 500, 750 and 1000 m). In 2012, the effect of a four-fold larger area of organic arable fields in simple, homogeneous landscapes on bumblebees and solitary bees was investigated in eight circular landscapes (radius 1000 m). Bumblebees and solitary bees were...

  3. Effect of Propolis Oral Intake on Physiological Condition of Young Worker Honey Bees, Apis Mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiani Natalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees collect resin from various plant species and transform it into propolis that is incorporated into the nest. The role of resins in the bee health field is poorly understood. The aim was to evaluate the effects of forced consumption of propolis on the physiological condition and short-term survival of Apis mellifera worker bees. It was tested if the number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph, the abdominal fat bodies and the hypopharyngeal glands development were affected by the feeding with propolis extracts in laboratory conditions during the warm and the cold seasons. Propolis added to sugar candy was consumed by workers for fourteen days without affecting the bee survival. The number of circulating hemocytes in hemolymph remained constant despite the differential diet during the experiment. However, the development of fat bodies and hypopharyngeal glands was altered by propolis ingestion. The abdominal fat body development in winter bees diminished after fourteen days of propolis consumption, while it increased in summer bees. The hypopharyngeal gland development decreased for the assayed period in workers from both seasons. Our results encourage us to continue exploring this research field and learn how long-term forced ingestion of a plant-derived compound, a non-nutritive substance, can modify physiological bee parameters. A broader understanding of the multiple roles of propolis in the health of the honey bee colonies could be obtained by studying the ways in which it is processed and metabolized and the effect that generates in another physiological responses.

  4. Africanized Honey Bee

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Stanley, Cory A.; Roe, Alan H.; Downey, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    African honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) are native to sub-Saharan Africa and were introduced in the Americas to improve honey production in the tropics. These African honey bees were accidentally released and began to interbreed with European honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica), the most common subspecies used for pollination and honey production in the United States (Fig. 1). As a result, the hybrid offspring are called “Africanized” because of their shared characteristics. Africani...

  5. Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Borba, Renata S.; Wilson, Michael; Spivak, Marla

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are constantly dealing with threats from pathogens, pests, pesticides and poor nutrition. It is critically important to understand how honey bees’ natural immune responses (individual immunity) and collective behavioral defenses (social immunity) can improve bee health and productivity. One form of social immunity in honey bee colonies is the collection of antimicrobial plant resins and their use in the nest architecture as propolis. We review research on the constitutive benefits of propolis on the honey bee immune system, and its known therapeutic, colony-level effects against the pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis. We also review the limited research on the effects of propolis against other pathogens, parasites and pests (Nosema, viruses, Varroa destructor, and hive beetles) and how propolis may enhance bee products such as royal jelly and honey. Although propolis may be a source of pesticide contamination, it also has the potential to be a detoxifying agent or primer of detoxification pathways, as well as increasing bee longevity via antioxidant-related pathways. Throughout this paper, we discuss opportunities for future research goals and present ways in which the beekeeping community can promote propolis use in standard colonies, as one way to improve and maintain colony health and resiliency. PMID:28468244

  6. Plastic casting resin poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epoxy poisoning; Resin poisoning ... Epoxy and resin can be poisonous if they are swallowed or their fumes are breathed in. ... Plastic casting resins are found in various plastic casting resin products.

  7. One World: Service Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  8. Geok Bee Teh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geok Bee Teh. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 35 Issue 1 February 2010 pp 87-95. Preparation and characterization of plasticized high molecular weight PVC-based polymer electrolytes · S Ramesh Geok Bee Teh Rong-Fuh Louh Yong Kong Hou Pung Yen Sin Lim Jing Yi · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  9. Bee deaths need analysing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alarm bells are ringing all over the world about the death of bee populations. Although it is not known exactly how severe the decline is, it is important to take the problem seriously. The signals are alarming and the bee is important, not just for natural ecosystems but also for the pollination of

  10. Honey bee toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M

    2015-01-07

    Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acaricides that are introduced by beekeepers; and fungicides, herbicides, and other environmental contaminants. Although often regarded as uniquely sensitive to toxic compounds, honey bees are adapted to tolerate and even thrive in the presence of toxic compounds that occur naturally in their environment. The harm caused by exposure to a particular concentration of a toxic compound may depend on the level of simultaneous exposure to other compounds, pathogen levels, nutritional status, and a host of other factors. This review takes a holistic view of bee toxicology by taking into account the spectrum of xenobiotics to which bees are exposed.

  11. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... assessed. In 2011, bumblebees and solitary bees were trapped in road verges bordering 14 organic (organic sites) and 14 conventional (conventional sites) winter wheat fields. The quantity and quality of local flower resources in the road verge and adjacent field headland were estimated as overall density...... use as a proxy at four different scales (250, 500, 750 and 1000 m). In 2012, the effect of a four-fold larger area of organic arable fields in simple, homogeneous landscapes on bumblebees and solitary bees was investigated in eight circular landscapes (radius 1000 m). Bumblebees and solitary bees were...

  12. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  13. Resin composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the modulus of elasticity of resin composites influences marginal quality in restorations submitted to thermocyclic and mechanical loading. METHODS: Charisma, Filtek Supreme XTE and Grandio were selected as they were found to possess different moduli of elasticity...... of resin composite (p=0.81) on the quality of dentine margins was observed, before or after loading. Deterioration of all margins was evident after loading (p....008). CONCLUSIONS: The resin composite with the highest modulus of elasticity resulted in the highest number of gap-free enamel margins but with an increased incidence of paramarginal enamel fractures. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The results from this study suggest that the marginal quality of restorations can...

  14. BEE VENOM TRAP DESIGN FOR PRODUCE BEE VENOM OF APIS MELLIFERA L. HONEY BEES

    OpenAIRE

    Budiaman

    2015-01-01

    Bee venom is one honey bee products are very expensive and are required in the pharmaceutical industry and as an anti-cancer known as nanobee, but the production technique is still done in the traditional way. The purpose of this study was to design a bee venom trap to produce bee venom of Apis mellifera L honey bees. The method used is to design several models of bee venom apparatus equipped weak current (DC current) with 3 variations of voltage, ie 12 volts, 15 volts and 18 volts coupled...

  15. Hey! A Bee Stung Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bee is the honeybee. These bees build nests out of wax in old trees and manmade ... black with white markings, and they build papery nests shaped like footballs in trees and shrubs. Yellowjackets ...

  16. Magnetic effect on dancing bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M.; Martin, H.

    1972-01-01

    Bee sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field is studied. Data cover sensitivity range and the use of magnetoreception for orientation purposes. Experimental results indicate bee orientation is aided by gravity fields when the magnetic field is compensated.

  17. Stakeholder Conference on Bee Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA and EPA released a comprehensive scientific report on honey bee health in May 2013. The report points to multiple factors playing a role in honey bee colony declines, including parasites and disease, genetics, poor nutrition, and pesticide exposure.

  18. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    OpenAIRE

    Desmond Ng; Jimmy C. M. Hsiao; Keith C. T. Tong; Harry Kim; Yanjie Mai; Keith H. S. Chan

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin ...

  19. Resin Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    to see plastic deformation of the surface. 8.1.4.3 Density: Density using the Archimedes principle (ASTM D 792). 8.1.4.4 Density as a Function of...the cure and postcure, quickly cool the sample to 0 °C or lower the temperature to quench the reaction, and then ramp the temperature at 5 °C/min to...prepared by pouring 10 g of resin into a 30-mL screw-cap scintillation vial and adding appropriate amounts of initiator, catalyst, and inhibitor

  20. Immunology of Bee Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elieh Ali Komi, Daniel; Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Zwiener, Ricardo D

    2017-01-20

    Bee venom is a blend of biochemicals ranging from small peptides and enzymes to biogenic amines. It is capable of triggering severe immunologic reactions owing to its allergenic fraction. Venom components are presented to the T cells by antigen-presenting cells within the skin. These Th2 type T cells then release IL-4 and IL-13 which subsequently direct B cells to class switch to production of IgE. Generating venom-specific IgE and crosslinking FcεR1(s) on the surface of mast cells complete the sensitizing stage in allergic individuals who are most likely to experience severe and even fatal allergic reactions after being stung. Specific IgE for bee venom is a double-edged sword as it is a powerful mediator in triggering allergic events but is also applied successfully in diagnosis of the venom allergic patient. The healing capacity of bee venom has been rediscovered under laboratory-controlled conditions using animal models and cell cultures. The potential role of enzymatic fraction of bee venom including phospholipase A2 in the initiation and development of immune responses also has been studied in numerous research settings. Undoubtedly, having insights into immunologic interactions between bee venom components and innate/specific immune cells both locally and systematically will contribute to the development of immunologic strategies in specific and epitope-based immunotherapy especially in individuals with Hymenoptera venom allergy.

  1. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  2. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees determining the three bee species of each surveyed locality that presented the highest number of interactions. We found 47 localities and 39 species of bees. Most of them belong to Apidae (31 species and Halictidae (6 families and to Meliponini (14 and Xylocopini (6 tribes. However, most of the surveys presented Apis mellifera and/or Trigona spinipes as the most generalist species. Apis mellifera is an exotic bee species and Trigona spinipes, a native species, is also widespread and presents broad diet breath and high number of individuals per colony.

  3. Influence of the temperature on the dielectric properties of epoxy resins

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, S. J.; Chalashkanov, N. M.; Fothergill, J.; Dissado, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical degradation processes in epoxy resins, such as electrical treeing, were found to be dependent on the temperature at which the experiments were carried out. Therefore, it is of considerable research interest to study the influence of temperature on the dielectric properties of the polymers and to relate the effect of temperature on these properties to the possible electrical degradation mechanisms. In this work, the dielectric properties of two different epoxy resin systems have bee...

  4. Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for determination of gallic acid · Fereshteh Chekin Samira Bagheri Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. A simple approach for the preparation of gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide ...

  5. Bees have magnetic remanence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J L; Kirschvink, J L; Deffeyes, K S

    1978-09-15

    Honey bees orient to the earth's magnetic field. This ability may be associated with a region of transversely oriented magnetic material in the front of the abdomen. The magnetic moment apparently develops in the pupal state and persists in the adults.

  6. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-10-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field.

  7. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  8. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  9. Recent Honey Bee Colony Declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    the scientists who are researching this phenomenon, include but may not be limited to ! parasites , mites, and disease loads in the bees and brood ...thrips; ants; butterflies; moths; bats; and hummingbirds and other birds . 2 Berenbaum, M.R., University of Illinois, Statement before the...bee population losses due to bee pests, parasites , pathogens, and disease. Most notable are declines due to two parasitic mites, the so-called

  10. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Ng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  11. Review: Resin Composite Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keith H. S.; Mai, Yanjie; Kim, Harry; Tong, Keith C. T.; Ng, Desmond; Hsiao, Jimmy C. M.

    2010-01-01

    The leading cause of oral pain and tooth loss is from caries and their treatment include restoration using amalgam, resin, porcelain and gold, endodontic therapy and extraction. Resin composite restorations have grown popular over the last half a century because it can take shades more similar to enamel. Here, we discuss the history and use of resin, comparison between amalgam and resin, clinical procedures involved and finishing and polishing techniques for resin restoration. Although resin composite has aesthetic advantages over amalgam, one of the major disadvantage include polymerization shrinkage and future research is needed on reaction kinetics and viscoelastic behaviour to minimize shrinkage stress.

  12. Bees brought to their knees: Microbes affecting honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biology and health of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been of interest to human societies since the advent of beekeeping. Descriptive scientific research on pathogens affecting honey bees have been published for nearly a century, but it wasn’t until the recent outbreak of heavy colony losses...

  13. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary pollen on honey bees (Apis mellifera) infested by Varroa mite ectoparasites

    OpenAIRE

    Annoscia, Desiderato; Zanni, Virginia; Galbraith, David; Quirici, Anna; Grozinger, Christina; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Nazzi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Parasites and pathogens of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are key factors underlying colony losses, which are threatening the beekeeping industry and agriculture as a whole. To control the spread and development of pathogen infections within the colony, honey bees use plant resins with antibiotic activity, but little is known about the properties of other substances, that are mainly used as a foodstuff, for controlling possible diseases both at the individual and colony level. In this study, ...

  14. Resin-Powder Dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standfield, Clarence E.

    1994-01-01

    Resin-powder dispenser used at NASA's Langley Research Center for processing of composite-material prepregs. Dispenser evenly distributes powder (resin polymer and other matrix materials in powder form) onto wet uncured prepregs. Provides versatility in distribution of solid resin in prepreg operation. Used wherever there is requirement for even, continuous distribution of small amount of powder.

  15. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  16. Safety with Wasps and Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with safe learning activities concerning bees and wasps. The following topics are included: (1) the importance of a positive teacher attitude towards bees and wasps; (2) special problems posed by paper wasps; (3) what to do when a child is bothered by a wasp; (4) what to do if a wasp…

  17. Native bees and plant pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators, but evidence suggests that numbers of some species are declining. Decreases have been documented in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (which was introduced to North America), but there are no monitoring programs for the vast majority of native species, so we cannot be sure about the extent of this problem. Recent efforts to develop standardized protocols for bee sampling will help us collect the data needed to assess trends in bee populations. Unfortunately, diversity of bee life cycles and phenologies, and the large number of rare species, make it difficult to assess trends in bee faunas. Changes in bee populations can affect plant reproduction, which can influence plant population density and cover, thus potentially modifying horizontal and vertical structure of a community, microclimate near the ground, patterns of nitrogen deposition, etc. These potential effects of changes in pollination patterns have not been assessed in natural communities. Effects of management actions on bees and other pollinators should be considered in conservation planning.

  18. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must be...

  19. Bee sting of the cornea. Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Vélez; Gloria I. Salazar; Patricia Monsalve

    2010-01-01

    Bee stings of the eye are uncommon entities and ocular reactions to the bee venom are wide, ranging from mild conjunctivitis to sudden vision loss. We present the case of a patient who suffered a bee sting of the cornea and the response to the poison components. We go through the bee venom properties, its actual treatment, and propose a new management alternative.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  1. Honey bee pathology: current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genersch, Elke

    2010-06-01

    Managed honey bees are the most important commercial pollinators of those crops which depend on animal pollination for reproduction and which account for 35% of the global food production. Hence, they are vital for an economic, sustainable agriculture and for food security. In addition, honey bees also pollinate a variety of wild flowers and, therefore, contribute to the biodiversity of many ecosystems. Honey and other hive products are, at least economically and ecologically rather, by-products of beekeeping. Due to this outstanding role of honey bees, severe and inexplicable honey bee colony losses, which have been reported recently to be steadily increasing, have attracted much attention and stimulated many research activities. Although the phenomenon "decline of honey bees" is far from being finally solved, consensus exists that pests and pathogens are the single most important cause of otherwise inexplicable colony losses. This review will focus on selected bee pathogens and parasites which have been demonstrated to be involved in colony losses in different regions of the world and which, therefore, are considered current threats to honey bees and beekeeping.

  2. Bee or Wasp Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-09-01

    While jogging in a local park in Hong Kong, a 55-year-old, previously healthy man was stung on the ventral aspect of his right wrist. The tiny stinger was gently removed with nail cutters and examined under a microscope at 80x magni cation; plucking the stinger is ill- advised as this may inject more venom into the wounded site. Two days after stinging, the microscopic appearance of the stinger con rmed the diagnosis to be from a bee instead of a wasp or other insect. A simple method of con rming the nature of insect stings and an overview of Hymenoptera stings and their management are provided herein.

  3. Red mason bees cannot compete with honey bees for floral resources in a cage experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra?Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive beekeeping to mitigate crop pollination deficits and habitat loss may cause interspecific competition between bees. Studies show negative correlations between flower visitation of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees, but effects on the reproduction of wild bees were not proven. Likely reasons are that honey bees can hardly be excluded from controls and wild bee nests are generally difficult to detect in field experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate whet...

  4. Do managed bees drive parasite spread and emergence in wild bees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Graystock

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bees have been managed and utilised for honey production for centuries and, more recently, pollination services. Since the mid 20th Century, the use and production of managed bees has intensified with hundreds of thousands of hives being moved across countries and around the globe on an annual basis. However, the introduction of unnaturally high densities of bees to areas could have adverse effects. Importation and deployment of managed honey bee and bumblebees may be responsible for parasite introductions or a change in the dynamics of native parasites that ultimately increases disease prevalence in wild bees. Here we review the domestication and deployment of managed bees and explain the evidence for the role of managed bees in causing adverse effects on the health of wild bees. Correlations with the use of managed bees and decreases in wild bee health from territories across the globe are discussed along with suggestions to mitigate further health reductions in wild bees.

  5. Honey Bee Viruses in Wild Bees: Viral Prevalence, Loads, and Experimental Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Hendrix, Stephen D; Scavo, Nicole A; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Harris, Mary A; Wheelock, M Joseph; O'Neal, Matthew E; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees. Although virus detection was very common, virus levels in the wild bees were minimal-similar to or lower than foraging honey bees and substantially lower than honey bees collected from hives. Furthermore, when we experimentally inoculated adults of two different bee species (Megachile rotundata and Colletes inaequalis) with a mixture of common viruses that is lethal to honey bees, we saw no effect on short term survival. Overall, we found that honey bee RNA viruses can be commonly detected at low levels in many wild bee species, but we found no evidence that these pathogens cause elevated short-term mortality effects. However, more work on these viruses is greatly needed to assess effects on additional bee species and life stages.

  6. Rhabdomyolysis Secondary to Bee Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okhan Akdur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect stings belonging to Hymenoptera defined as wasps, yellow jackets, bees, or hornets by human usually result in unserious clinical pictures that go with pain. Rhabdomyolysis following a bee sting is a rare condition. This paper emphasizes “rhabdomyolysis” as a rare complication of this frequently observed envenomation. Rare but severe clinical results may occur due to multiple bee stings, such as intravascular hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, acute renal insufficiency, and hepatic dysfunction. In bee stings as in our case, clinicians should be alert for rhabdomyolysis in cases with generalized body and muscle pain. Early onset alkaline diuresis and management in patients with rhabdomyolysis are vital in protecting the renal functions and preventing morbidity and mortality.

  7. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  8. ZigBee-2007 Security Essentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising standard for wireless networks due to its low resource requirements. As in other wireless network standards, security is an important issue and each new version of the ZigBee Specification enhances the level of the ZigBee security. In this paper, we present...... the security essentials of the latest ZigBee Specification, ZigBee-2007. We explain the key concepts, protocols, and computations. In addition, we formulate the protocols using standard protocol narrations. Finally, we identify the key challenges to be considered for consolidating ZigBee....

  9. The Academic Quilting Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Julia A.; Ko, Marcia G.; Blair, Janis E.

    2009-01-01

    In medicine, the challenges faced by female faculty members who are attempting to achieve academic advancement have been well described. Various strategies have been proposed to increase academic productivity to aid the promotion of women in medicine. We propose an innovative collaboration strategy that encourages completion of an academic writing project. This strategy acknowledges the challenges inherent in achieving work–life balance and utilizes a collaborative work style with a group of peer physicians. The model is designed to encourage the completion and collation of independently prepared sections of an academic paper within a setting that emphasizes social networking and collaboration. This approach has many similarities to the construction of a quilt during a “quilting bee.” PMID:19172365

  10. Chemical Ecology of Stingless Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2017-04-01

    Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae: Meliponini) represent a highly diverse group of social bees confined to the world's tropics and subtropics. They show a striking diversity of structural and behavioral adaptations and are important pollinators of tropical plants. Despite their diversity and functional importance, their ecology, and especially chemical ecology, has received relatively little attention, particularly compared to their relative the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Here, I review various aspects of the chemical ecology of stingless bees, from communication over resource allocation to defense. I list examples in which functions of specific compounds (or compound groups) have been demonstrated by behavioral experiments, and show that many aspects (e.g., queen-worker interactions, host-parasite interactions, neuronal processing etc.) remain little studied. This review further reveals that the vast majority of studies on the chemical ecology of stingless bees have been conducted in the New World, whereas studies on Old World stingless bees are still comparatively rare. Given the diversity of species, behaviors and, apparently, chemical compounds used, I suggest that stingless bees provide an ideal subject for studying how functional context and the need for species specificity may interact to shape pheromone diversification in social insects.

  11. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  12. A Beeline into Bee-Lining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ernst, Ulrich R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 10 (2016), s. 908-909 ISSN 0006-3568 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : honeybees * bees * Apis mellifera * bee hunting * beeline Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.378, year: 2016

  13. Proceedings "… Towards Resilient Honey Bees …"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.A.; Zweep, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Roadmap is a co-creation by Bees@wur and the Dutch government, and the (inter)national researchers participating in the workshop Resilient Honey bees 23-24 November 2015, Castle Hoekelum, Bennekom, The Netherlands

  14. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Mastrocinque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem.

  15. Honey bees as pollinators in natural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Jennifer Marie

    2017-01-01

    Honey bees are the most widespread pollinating animal species in natural plant communities worldwide, and in San Diego, California, despite high native bee diversity, the introduced honey bee is responsible for over 75% of flower visits. We performed a) a meta-analysis of published studies which report the per-visit efficiency of honey bees as pollinators relative to other floral visitors and b) a field survey documenting seasonal change in floral abundances and pollinator visitation in a co...

  16. Do Hybrid Trees Inherit Invasive Characteristics? Fruits of Corymbia torelliana X C. citriodora Hybrids and Potential for Seed Dispersal by Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Helen Margaret; Leonhardt, Sara Diana

    2015-01-01

    Tree invasions have substantial impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and trees that are dispersed by animals are more likely to become invasive. In addition, hybridisation between plants is well documented as a source of new weeds, as hybrids gain new characteristics that allow them to become invasive. Corymbia torelliana is an invasive tree with an unusual animal dispersal mechanism: seed dispersal by stingless bees, that hybridizes readily with other species. We examined hybrids between C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora to determine whether hybrids have inherited the seed dispersal characteristics of C. torelliana that allow bee dispersal. Some hybrid fruits displayed the characteristic hollowness, resin production and resin chemistry associated with seed dispersal by bees. However, we did not observe bees foraging on any hybrid fruits until they had been damaged. We conclude that C. torelliana and C. citriodora subsp. citriodora hybrids can inherit some fruit characters that are associated with dispersal by bees, but we did not find a hybrid with the complete set of characters that would enable bee dispersal. However, around 20,000 hybrids have been planted in Australia, and ongoing monitoring is necessary to identify any hybrids that may become invasive.

  17. Africanized bees extend their distribution in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; McBroome, Jakob; Rehman, Mahwish; Johnson, Brian R

    2018-01-01

    Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) arrived in the western hemisphere in the 1950s and quickly spread north reaching California in the 1990s. These bees are highly defensive and somewhat more difficult to manage for commercial purposes than the European honey bees traditionally kept. The arrival of these bees and their potentially replacing European bees over much of the state is thus of great concern. After a 25 year period of little systematic sampling, a recent small scale study found Africanized honey bees in the Bay Area of California, far north of their last recorded distribution. The purpose of the present study was to expand this study by conducting more intensive sampling of bees from across northern California. We found Africanized honey bees as far north as Napa and Sacramento. We also found Africanized bees in all counties south of these counties. Africanized honey bees were particularly abundant in parts of the central valley and Monterey. This work suggests the northern spread of Africanized honey bees may not have stopped. They may still be moving north at a slow rate, although due to the long gaps in sampling it is currently impossible to tell for certain. Future work should routinely monitor the distribution of these bees to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  18. Aging and body size in solitary bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solitary bees are important pollinators of crops and non-domestic plants. Osmia lignaria is a native, commercially-reared solitary bee used to maximize pollination in orchard crops. In solitary bees, adult body size is extremely variable depending on the nutritional resources available to the develo...

  19. Honey bee genotypes and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D; Büchler, Ralph; Costa, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Although knowledge about honey bee geographic and genetic diversity has increased tremendously in recent decades, the adaptation of honey bees to their local environment has not been well studied. The current demand for high economic performance of bee colonies with desirable behavioural characte...

  20. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  1. A Whole Day of Bees? Buzz Off!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, David

    2017-01-01

    In March 2016, the school that the author teaches at held its annual science day and the theme was "bees." Each class was given a different question relating to bees to investigate. The children in the authors' year 2 class (ages 6-7) were challenged to investigate the life cycle of a bee. The whole day was focused around the life cycle…

  2. Bumble bees at home and at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM

    1997-01-01

    Do you know how bumble bees live and what they need? You can discover a lot about bumble bees if you watch them while they visit flowers. This article is a shortened version of a chapter from the IBRA publication Bumble bees for pleasure and profit*, and gives you information on how to do

  3. Hologenome theory and the honey bee pathosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research shows substantial genomic diversity among the parasites and pathogens honey bees encounter, a robust microbiota living within bees, and a genome-level view of relationships across global honey bee races. Different combinations of these genomic complexes may explain regional variatio...

  4. Reduction of polyester resin shrinkage by means of epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak, M.; Brzostowski, A.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt was made to decrease the shrinkage of unsaturated polyester resin, taking place during radiation-induced curing, by the addition of epoxy resin. In order to combine chemically both resins, the epoxy component was modified with cinnamic and acrylic acids. A composition of 90 parts of polyester resin, 10 parts of epoxy resin modified with cinnamic acid, and 150 parts of a silica filler showed a volume shrinkage of 1.2%. (author)

  5. Swimming of the Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chris; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    When the weather gets hot, nursing honey bees nudge foragers to collect water for thermoregulation of their hive. While on their mission to collect water, foragers sometimes get trapped on the water surface, forced to interact with a different fluid environment. In this study, we present the survival strategy of the honey bees at the air-water interface. A high-speed videography and shadowgraph were used to record the honey bees swimming. A unique thrust mechanism through rapid vibration of their wings at 60 to 150 Hz was observed. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBET-1511414; additional support by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469.

  6. Resin composite repair: Quantitative microleakage evaluation of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces with different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Celik, Cigdem; Cehreli, Sevi Burcak; Arhun, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of different adhesive systems and surface treatments on the integrity of resin-resin and resin-tooth interfaces after partial removal of preexisting resin composites using quantitative image analysis for microleakage testing protocol. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 human molar teeth were restored with either of the resin composites (Filtek Z250/GrandioSO) occlusally. The teeth were thermocycled (1000?). Mesial and distal 1/3 parts of the res...

  7. The plight of the bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Marla; Mader, Eric; Vaughan, Mace; Euliss, Ned H.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a trend that is garnering much concern. As organisms have evolved mutualistic and synergistic relationships, the loss of one or a few species can have a much wider environmental impact. Since much pollination is facilitated by bees, the reported colony collapse disorder has many worried of widespread agricultural fallout and thus deleterious impact on human foodstocks. In this Feature, Spivak et al. review what is known of the present state of bee populations and provide information on how to mitigate and reverse the trend.

  8. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  9. Structural studies of bee melittin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, D.; Terwilliger, T.C.; Tsui, F.

    1980-10-01

    The question of how proteins refold in passing from an aqueous phase to an amphipathic environment such as a membrane is beig addressed by a structural study of bee melittin. Melittin is the toxic, main protein of bee venom, and has been shown by others to integrate into natural and synthetic membranes and to lyse a variety of cells. This function is presumably related to its unusual sequence. Except for charges at the N-terminus and at lysine 7, the first 20 residues are largely apolar. In contrast, the last six residues contain four charges and two polar residues.

  10. Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The goal of this study was to synthesize the literature documenting the effects of managed honey bees and bumble bees on wild bees in three areas: (1) competition for floral and nesting resources, (2) indirect effects via changes in plant communities, including the spread of exotic plants and decline of native plants, and (3) transmission of pathogens. The majority of reviewed studies reported negative effects of managed bees, but trends differed across topical areas. Of studies examining competition, results were highly variable with 53% reporting negative effects on wild bees, while 28% reported no effects and 19% reported mixed effects (varying with the bee species or variables examined). Equal numbers of studies examining plant communities reported positive (36%) and negative (36%) effects, with the remainder reporting no or mixed effects. Finally, the majority of studies on pathogen transmission (70%) reported potential negative effects of managed bees on wild bees. However, most studies across all topical areas documented the potential for impact (e.g. reporting the occurrence of competition or pathogens), but did not measure direct effects on wild bee fitness, abundance, or diversity. Furthermore, we found that results varied depending on whether managed bees were in their native or non-native range; managed bees within their native range had lesser competitive effects, but potentially greater effects on wild bees via pathogen transmission. We conclude that while this field has expanded considerably in recent decades, additional research measuring direct, long-term, and population-level effects of managed bees is needed to understand their

  11. Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E Mallinger

    Full Text Available Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The goal of this study was to synthesize the literature documenting the effects of managed honey bees and bumble bees on wild bees in three areas: (1 competition for floral and nesting resources, (2 indirect effects via changes in plant communities, including the spread of exotic plants and decline of native plants, and (3 transmission of pathogens. The majority of reviewed studies reported negative effects of managed bees, but trends differed across topical areas. Of studies examining competition, results were highly variable with 53% reporting negative effects on wild bees, while 28% reported no effects and 19% reported mixed effects (varying with the bee species or variables examined. Equal numbers of studies examining plant communities reported positive (36% and negative (36% effects, with the remainder reporting no or mixed effects. Finally, the majority of studies on pathogen transmission (70% reported potential negative effects of managed bees on wild bees. However, most studies across all topical areas documented the potential for impact (e.g. reporting the occurrence of competition or pathogens, but did not measure direct effects on wild bee fitness, abundance, or diversity. Furthermore, we found that results varied depending on whether managed bees were in their native or non-native range; managed bees within their native range had lesser competitive effects, but potentially greater effects on wild bees via pathogen transmission. We conclude that while this field has expanded considerably in recent decades, additional research measuring direct, long-term, and population-level effects of managed bees is needed to understand

  12. Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. The goal of this study was to synthesize the literature documenting the effects of managed honey bees and bumble bees on wild bees in three areas: (1) competition for floral and nesting resources, (2) indirect effects via changes in plant communities, including the spread of exotic plants and decline of native plants, and (3) transmission of pathogens. The majority of reviewed studies reported negative effects of managed bees, but trends differed across topical areas. Of studies examining competition, results were highly variable with 53% reporting negative effects on wild bees, while 28% reported no effects and 19% reported mixed effects (varying with the bee species or variables examined). Equal numbers of studies examining plant communities reported positive (36%) and negative (36%) effects, with the remainder reporting no or mixed effects. Finally, the majority of studies on pathogen transmission (70%) reported potential negative effects of managed bees on wild bees. However, most studies across all topical areas documented the potential for impact (e.g. reporting the occurrence of competition or pathogens), but did not measure direct effects on wild bee fitness, abundance, or diversity. Furthermore, we found that results varied depending on whether managed bees were in their native or non-native range; managed bees within their native range had lesser competitive effects, but potentially greater effects on wild bees via pathogen transmission. We conclude that while this field has expanded considerably in recent decades, additional research measuring direct, long-term, and population-level effects of managed bees is needed to understand their

  13. Bee cups: Single-use cages for honey bee experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees face challenges ranging from poor nutrition to exposure to parasites, pathogens, and environmental chemicals. These challenges drain colony resources and have been tied to both subtle and extreme colony declines, including the enigmatic Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Understanding how ...

  14. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. In this study winter worker bees were experimentally infected using three different experiments. Bees were inoculated orally or topically with CBPV to evaluate the l...

  15. Bee venom in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oršolić, Nada

    2012-06-01

    Bee venom (BV) (api-toxin) has been widely used in the treatment of some immune-related diseases, as well as in recent times in treatment of tumors. Several cancer cells, including renal, lung, liver, prostate, bladder, and mammary cancer cells as well as leukemia cells, can be targets of bee venom peptides such as melittin and phospholipase A2. The cell cytotoxic effects through the activation of PLA2 by melittin have been suggested to be the critical mechanism for the anti-cancer activity of BV. The induction of apoptotic cell death through several cancer cell death mechanisms, including the activation of caspase and matrix metalloproteinases, is important for the melittin-induced anti-cancer effects. The conjugation of cell lytic peptide (melittin) with hormone receptors and gene therapy carrying melittin can be useful as a novel targeted therapy for some types of cancer, such as prostate and breast cancer. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding potential of bee venom and its compounds such as melittin to induce cytotoxic, antitumor, immunomodulatory, and apoptotic effects in different tumor cells in vivo or in vitro. The recent applications of melittin in various cancers and a molecular explanation for the antiproliferative properties of bee venom are discussed.

  16. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per

    2016-01-01

    them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite...

  17. Biological and therapeutic effects of honey produced by honey bees and stingless bees: a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Krishnan, Kumara Thevan; Salleh, Naguib; Gan, Siew Hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Honey is a natural product produced by both honey bees and stingless bees. Both types of honey contain unique and distinct types of phenolic and flavonoid compounds of variable biological and clinical importance. Honey is one of the most effective natural products used for wound healing. In this review, the traditional uses and clinical applications of both honey bee and stingless bee honey – such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and c...

  18. Do linden trees kill bees? Reviewing the causes of bee deaths on silver linden (Tilia tomentosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Hauke; Stevenson, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    For decades, linden trees (basswoods or lime trees), and particularly silver linden (Tilia tomentosa), have been linked to mass bee deaths. This phenomenon is often attributed to the purported occurrence of the carbohydrate mannose, which is toxic to bees, in Tilia nectar. In this review, however, we conclude that from existing literature there is no experimental evidence for toxicity to bees in linden nectar. Bee deaths on Tilia probably result from starvation, owing to insufficient nectar r...

  19. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  20. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina; Büchler, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed...... a similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced...... contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107...

  1. Pollination value of male bees: The specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males can comprise a substantial fraction of the bees that visit flowers, particularly at floral hosts of those bee species that are taxonomic floral specialists for pollen. Despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, contributions of male bees to host pollination have been largely ...

  2. Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, James E; Page, Christopher J; Uygun, Mehmet B; Holmbergh, Marie; Li, Yueru; Wheeler, Jonathan G; Laycock, Ian; Pook, Christopher J; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Smirnoff, Nick; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and the sustainability of pollination services. One potential threat to bees is the unintended impact of systemic insecticides, which are ingested by bees in the nectar and pollen from flowers of treated crops. To establish whether imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid and insect neurotoxin, harms individual bees when ingested at environmentally realistic levels, we exposed adult worker bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to dietary imidacloprid in feeder syrup at dosages between 0.08 and 125μg l(-1). Honey bees showed no response to dietary imidacloprid on any variable that we measured (feeding, locomotion and longevity). In contrast, bumble bees progressively developed over time a dose-dependent reduction in feeding rate with declines of 10-30% in the environmentally relevant range of up to 10μg l(-1), but neither their locomotory activity nor longevity varied with diet. To explain their differential sensitivity, we speculate that honey bees are better pre-adapted than bumble bees to feed on nectars containing synthetic alkaloids, such as imidacloprid, by virtue of their ancestral adaptation to tropical nectars in which natural alkaloids are prevalent. We emphasise that our study does not suggest that honey bee colonies are invulnerable to dietary imidacloprid under field conditions, but our findings do raise new concern about the impact of agricultural neonicotinoids on wild bumble bee populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. To bee or not to bee (interview with T. Blacquière & J. Calis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, E.; Blacquière, T.; Calis, J.

    2009-01-01

    The honey bee is not doing very well. both in europe and in the United states, beekeepers increasingly see their bees fall victim to the ‘disappearing disease’. The symptom, an empty hive without any bees – neither living nor dead – poses a riddle to scientists. researchers from Wageningen Ur are

  4. Bee sting after seizure and ischemic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yurtseven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insect bites, bee stings are the most frequently encountered. Often seen after bee stings usually only local allergic reactions. Sometimes with very serious clinical condition may also be confronted. Of this rare clinical findings; polyneuritis, parkinsonism, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, hemolytic anemia and renal disease has. Here a rare convulsions after a bee sting is presented.

  5. Effect of Australian Propolis from Stingless Bees (Tetragonula carbonaria) on Pre-Contracted Human and Porcine Isolated Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Flavia C.; Brooks, Peter R.; Wallace, Helen M.; Nsengiyumva, Vianne; Narokai, Lorraine; Russell, Fraser D.

    2013-01-01

    Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria). The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml), which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca2+ in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca2+-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml) reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria) propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised. PMID:24260567

  6. Nutritional Physiology and Ecology of Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Geraldine A; Nicolson, Susan W; Shafir, Sharoni

    2018-01-07

    Honey bees feed on floral nectar and pollen that they store in their colonies as honey and bee bread. Social division of labor enables the collection of stores of food that are consumed by within-hive bees that convert stored pollen and honey into royal jelly. Royal jelly and other glandular secretions are the primary food of growing larvae and of the queen but are also fed to other colony members. Research clearly shows that bees regulate their intake, like other animals, around specific proportions of macronutrients. This form of regulation is done as individuals and at the colony level by foragers.

  7. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  8. Honey Bee Hemocyte Profiling by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marringa, William J.; Krueger, Michael J.; Burritt, Nancy L.; Burritt, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple stress factors in honey bees are causing loss of bee colonies worldwide. Several infectious agents of bees are believed to contribute to this problem. The mechanisms of honey bee immunity are not completely understood, in part due to limited information about the types and abundances of hemocytes that help bees resist disease. Our study utilized flow cytometry and microscopy to examine populations of hemolymph particulates in honey bees. We found bee hemolymph includes permeabilized cells, plasmatocytes, and acellular objects that resemble microparticles, listed in order of increasing abundance. The permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes showed unexpected differences with respect to properties of the plasma membrane and labeling with annexin V. Both permeabilized cells and plasmatocytes failed to show measurable mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry using the JC-1 probe. Our results suggest hemolymph particulate populations are dynamic, revealing significant differences when comparing individual hive members, and when comparing colonies exposed to diverse conditions. Shifts in hemocyte populations in bees likely represent changing conditions or metabolic differences of colony members. A better understanding of hemocyte profiles may provide insight into physiological responses of honey bees to stress factors, some of which may be related to colony failure. PMID:25285798

  9. Foraging pattern and harvesting of resources of subterranean stingless bee Geotrigona subterranea (Friese, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Flight activity of bees is influenced both by environmental factors and by internal condition of the colonies. Information about external activity of bees is very important, because it provides data of the species biology, supplying subsidies for the use of these insects in the pollination of crops. The present work aim to evaluate the flight activity of Geotrigona subterranea (Friese, 1901 (Hymenoptera: Apidae in natural environment. This study was performed on the Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, in the municipality Januária, Minas Gerais State. Two natural nests were observed. The activities of bees of the colonies were recorded three days each month, during the period of December 2011 to November 2012, totaling 924 observations. It was recorded the number of bees leaving and entering the nest, and the type of material transported by them for ten minutes each hour from 5 a.m. to 7 p.m. The bees entered the colony carrying pollen, resin, detritus and also without apparent material. The bees began external activities by 6 a.m. at 20°C and finished at 6 p.m. at 28.8°C. The peak of activity of G. subterranea occurs on schedule from 1 to 2 p.m. Even though G. subterranea makes their nests in underground, their foraging activities are very similar to others stingless bee species that usually nest on tree cavities or aerial places. This indicate that despite their particular nesting way the external factors as climatic ones will significantly modulate their foraging pattern in a daily and seasonal way.

  10. Effects of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) presence on cranberry (Ericales: Ericaceae) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E C; Spivak, M

    2006-06-01

    Honey bees, Apis mellifera L., are frequently used to pollinate commercial cranberries, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait., but information is lacking on the relative contribution of honey bees and native bees, the effects of surrounding vegetation on bee visitation, and on optimal timing for honey bee introduction. We begin with a descriptive study of numbers of honey bees, bumble bees, and other bees visiting cranberry blossoms, and their subsequent effect on cranberry yield, on three cranberry properties in 1999. The property surrounded by agricultural land, as opposed to wetlands and woodlands, had fewer numbers of all bee types. In 2000, one property did not introduce honey bee colonies, providing an opportunity to document the effect of lack of honey bees on yield. With no honey bees, plants along the edge of the bed had significantly higher berry weights compared with nonedge plants, suggesting that wild pollinators were only effective along the edge. Comparing the same bed between 1999, with three honey bee colonies per acre, and 2000, with no honey bees, we found a significant reduction in average berry size. In 2000, we compared stigma loading on properties with and without honey bees. Significantly more stigmas received the minimum number of tetrads required for fruit set on the property with honey bees. Significantly more tetrads were deposited during mid-bloom compared with early bloom, indicating that mid-bloom was the best time to have honey bees present. This study emphasizes the importance and effectiveness of honey bees as pollinators of commercial size cranberry plantings.

  11. Contact allergy to epoxy resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Menné, Torkil

    2012-01-01

    to epoxy resin remained stable over the study period. Of the patients with an epoxy resin-positive patch test, 71% returned a questionnaire; 95 patients had worked with epoxy resin in the occupational setting, and, of these, one-third did not use protective gloves and only 50.5% (48) had participated...

  12. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  13. Enhancement of adhesion between resin coating materials and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoaki; Nikaido, Toru; Ikeda, Masaomi; Weerasinghe, Dinesh S; Harada, Naoko; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    Resin coating technique is a unique method that improves the dentin bond strength of resin cements in indirect restorations. However, the weak link of a specimen bonded using the resin coating technique was reported to be the bonded interface between the resin coating material and resin cement. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to enhance the bonding performance between a resin coating material and a resin cement. Two light-cured flowable composites, Protect Liner F and Clearfil Flow FX, were used as coating materials, and two dual-cure composite materials, Panavia F 2.0 and Clearfil DC Core Automix, were used as resin cements. The ultimate tensile strength of each material and the microtensile bond strengths of the bonded specimens of resin coating material and resin cement were measured using a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Three-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the highest microtensile bond strength was obtained using a combination of Clearfil Flow FX and Clearfil DC Core Automix, and when the surface of the coating material was treated with ED Primer II. It was strongly suggested that materials with a higher ultimate tensile strength, when used in both resin coating and cementation, could enhance the bond strength between the two.

  14. Resin impregnation process for producing a resin-fiber composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Raymond J. (Inventor); Moore, William E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Process for vacuum impregnation of a dry fiber reinforcement with a curable resin to produce a resin-fiber composite, by drawing a vacuum to permit flow of curable liquid resin into and through a fiber reinforcement to impregnate same and curing the resin-impregnated fiber reinforcement at a sufficient temperature and pressure to effect final curing. Both vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are applied to the dry fiber reinforcement prior to application of heat and prior to any resin flow to compact the dry fiber reinforcement, and produce a resin-fiber composite of reduced weight, thickness and resin content, and improved mechanical properties. Preferably both a vacuum and positive pressure, e.g. autoclave pressure, are also applied during final curing.

  15. Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis: dermatitis due to live bee acupuncture therapy in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Soo; Lee, Min Jung; Chung, Ki Hun; Ko, Dong Kyun; Chung, Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Live bee acupuncture (Bong-Chim) dermatitis is an iatrogenic disease induced by so-called live bee acupuncture therapy, which applies the honeybee (Apis cerana) stinger directly into the lesion to treat various diseases in Korea. We present two cases of live bee acupuncture dermatitis and review previously published articles about this disease. We classify this entity into three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute stage is an inflammatory reaction, such as anaphylaxis or urticaria. In the chronic stage, a foreign body granuloma may develop from the remaining stingers, similar to that of a bee sting reaction. However, in the subacute stage, unlike bee stings, we see the characteristic histological "flame" figures resulting from eosinophilic stimulation induced by excessive bee venom exposure. We consider this stage to be different from the adverse skin reaction of accidental bee sting. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  16. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of dietary pollen on honey bees (Apis mellifera) infested by Varroa mite ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annoscia, Desiderato; Zanni, Virginia; Galbraith, David; Quirici, Anna; Grozinger, Christina; Bortolomeazzi, Renzo; Nazzi, Francesco

    2017-07-24

    Parasites and pathogens of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are key factors underlying colony losses, which are threatening the beekeeping industry and agriculture as a whole. To control the spread and development of pathogen infections within the colony, honey bees use plant resins with antibiotic activity, but little is known about the properties of other substances, that are mainly used as a foodstuff, for controlling possible diseases both at the individual and colony level. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that pollen is beneficial for honey bees challenged with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor associated to the Deformed Wing Virus. First, we studied the effects of pollen on the survival of infested bees, under laboratory and field conditions, and observed that a pollen rich diet can compensate the deleterious effects of mite parasitization. Subsequently, we characterized the pollen compounds responsible for the observed positive effects. Finally, based on the results of a transcriptomic analysis of parasitized bees fed with pollen or not, we developed a comprehensive framework for interpreting the observed effects of pollen on honey bee health, which incorporates the possible effects on cuticle integrity, energetic metabolism and immune response.

  17. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C; Wright, Geraldine A

    2015-05-07

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  18. Pattern recognition in bees : orientation discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Srinivasan, M.V.; Wait, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera, worker) were trained to discriminate between two random gratings oriented perpendicularly to each other. This task was quickly learned with vertical, horizontal, and oblique gratings. After being trained on perpendicularly-oriented random gratings, bees could discriminate

  19. bees of southern Africa (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Fideliidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Zygophyllaceae). Parafidelia friesei visits flowers of Sesamum. (Pedaliaceae) and Fidelia braunsiana is confined to Berkheya. (Asteraceae). The rainfall pattern divides the species into early summer bees (7 species) of the winter rainfall and autumn bees. (4 species) of the summer rainfall areas. Two of the above species.

  20. Physiology and biochemistry of honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite their tremendous economic importance, honey bees are not a typical model system for studying general questions of insect physiology. This is primarily due to the fact that honey bees live in complex social settings which impact their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Not surpris...

  1. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  2. The Plight of the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockridge, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…

  3. Allee effects and colony collapse disorder in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...

  4. Bee Hive management and colonisation: a practical approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The managerial issues include the method of approaching the bees and hives, feeding of the bees and prevention of predators. Exploitation of the colony for bee products is usually done with special tools that ensure no disturbance of the inhabitants while also protecting the harvester. The market for bee products varies ...

  5. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  6. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  7. Antiviral Defense Mechanisms in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutscher, Laura M; Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-08-01

    Honey bees are significant pollinators of agricultural crops and other important plant species. High annual losses of honey bee colonies in North America and in some parts of Europe have profound ecological and economic implications. Colony losses have been attributed to multiple factors including RNA viruses, thus understanding bee antiviral defense mechanisms may result in the development of strategies that mitigate colony losses. Honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms include RNA-interference, pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered signal transduction cascades, and reactive oxygen species generation. However, the relative importance of these and other pathways is largely uncharacterized. Herein we review the current understanding of honey bee antiviral defense mechanisms and suggest important avenues for future investigation.

  8. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Al Toufailia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony. These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001, and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008. This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because

  9. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Ozge Tozkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers of apiculture, harboring 5 subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. 60 megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp., neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae, Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, Apis filamentous virus and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus, Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly. We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  10. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö.; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9–10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  11. Hygienic behaviour in Brazilian stingless bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Denise A.; Bento, José M. S.; Marchini, Luis C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Social insects have many defence mechanisms against pests and pathogens. One of these is hygienic behaviour, which has been studied in detail in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Hygienic honey bee workers remove dead and diseased larvae and pupae from sealed brood cells, thereby reducing disease transfer within the colony. Stingless bees, Meliponini, also rear broods in sealed cells. We investigated hygienic behaviour in three species of Brazilian stingless bees (Melipona scutellaris, Scaptotrigona depilis, Tetragonisca angustula) in response to freeze-killed brood. All three species had high mean levels of freeze-killed brood removal after 48 h ∼99% in M. scutellaris, 80% in S. depilis and 62% in T. angustula (N=8 colonies per species; three trials per colony). These levels are greater than in unselected honey bee populations, ∼46%. In S. depilis there was also considerable intercolony variation, ranging from 27% to 100% removal after 2 days. Interestingly, in the S. depilis colony with the slowest removal of freeze-killed brood, 15% of the adult bees emerging from their cells had shrivelled wings indicating a disease or disorder, which is as yet unidentified. Although the gross symptoms resembled the effects of deformed wing virus in the honey bee, this virus was not detected in the samples. When brood comb from the diseased colony was introduced to the other S. depilis colonies, there was a significant negative correlation between freeze-killed brood removal and the emergence of deformed worker bees (P=0.001), and a positive correlation with the cleaning out of brood cells (P=0.0008). This shows that the more hygienic colonies were detecting and removing unhealthy brood prior to adult emergence. Our results indicate that hygienic behaviour may play an important role in colony health in stingless bees. The low levels of disease normally seen in stingless bees may be because they have effective mechanisms of disease management, not because they lack

  12. The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stella; Sapir, Yuval; Segal, Bosmat; Dafni, Amots

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The coastal plain of Israel hosts the last few remaining populations of the endemic Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae), a Red List species of high conservation priority. The flowers offer no nectar reward. Here the role of night-sheltering male solitary bees, honey-bees and female solitary bees as pollinators of I. atropurpurea is documented. Methods Breeding system, floral longevity, stigma receptivity, visitation rates, pollen loads, pollen deposition and removal and fruit- and seed-set were investigated. Key Results The main wild pollinators of this plant are male eucerine bees, and to a lesser extent, but with the potential to transfer pollen, female solitary bees. Honey-bees were found to be frequent diurnal visitors; they removed large quantities of pollen and were as effective as male sheltering bees at pollinating this species. The low density of pollen carried by male solitary bees was attributed to grooming activities, pollen displacement when bees aggregated together in flowers and pollen depletion by honey-bees. In the population free of honey-bee hives, male bees carried significantly more pollen grains on their bodies. Results from pollen analysis and pollen deposited on stigmas suggest that inadequate pollination may be an important factor limiting fruit-set. In the presence of honey-bees, eucerine bees were low removal–low deposition pollinators, whereas honey-bees were high removal–low deposition pollinators, because they removed large amounts into corbiculae and deposited relatively little onto receptive stigmas. Conclusions Even though overall, both bee taxa were equally effective pollinators, we suggest that honey-bees have the potential to reduce the amount of pollen available for plant reproduction, and to reduce the amount of resources available to solitary bee communities. The results of this study have potential implications for the conservation of this highly endangered plant species if hives are permitted inside

  13. The endangered Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae) in Israel: honey-bees, night-sheltering male bees and female solitary bees as pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Stella; Sapir, Yuval; Segal, Bosmat; Dafni, Amots

    2013-03-01

    The coastal plain of Israel hosts the last few remaining populations of the endemic Iris atropurpurea (Iridaceae), a Red List species of high conservation priority. The flowers offer no nectar reward. Here the role of night-sheltering male solitary bees, honey-bees and female solitary bees as pollinators of I. atropurpurea is documented. Breeding system, floral longevity, stigma receptivity, visitation rates, pollen loads, pollen deposition and removal and fruit- and seed-set were investigated. The main wild pollinators of this plant are male eucerine bees, and to a lesser extent, but with the potential to transfer pollen, female solitary bees. Honey-bees were found to be frequent diurnal visitors; they removed large quantities of pollen and were as effective as male sheltering bees at pollinating this species. The low density of pollen carried by male solitary bees was attributed to grooming activities, pollen displacement when bees aggregated together in flowers and pollen depletion by honey-bees. In the population free of honey-bee hives, male bees carried significantly more pollen grains on their bodies. Results from pollen analysis and pollen deposited on stigmas suggest that inadequate pollination may be an important factor limiting fruit-set. In the presence of honey-bees, eucerine bees were low removal-low deposition pollinators, whereas honey-bees were high removal-low deposition pollinators, because they removed large amounts into corbiculae and deposited relatively little onto receptive stigmas. Even though overall, both bee taxa were equally effective pollinators, we suggest that honey-bees have the potential to reduce the amount of pollen available for plant reproduction, and to reduce the amount of resources available to solitary bee communities. The results of this study have potential implications for the conservation of this highly endangered plant species if hives are permitted inside reserves, where the bulk of Oncocyclus iris species are

  14. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis vanEngelsdorp

    Full Text Available Honey bee (Apis mellifera colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions, and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees, we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and

  15. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and bee age impact honey bee pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Traynor, Kirsten S; Andree, Michael; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chen, Yanping; Saegerman, Claude; Cox-Foster, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies continue to experience high annual losses that remain poorly explained. Numerous interacting factors have been linked to colony declines. Understanding the pathways linking pathophysiology with symptoms is an important step in understanding the mechanisms of disease. In this study we examined the specific pathologies associated with honey bees collected from colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) and compared these with bees collected from apparently healthy colonies. We identified a set of pathological physical characteristics that occurred at different rates in CCD diagnosed colonies prior to their collapse: rectum distension, Malpighian tubule iridescence, fecal matter consistency, rectal enteroliths (hard concretions), and venom sac color. The multiple differences in rectum symptomology in bees from CCD apiaries and colonies suggest effected bees had trouble regulating water. To ensure that pathologies we found associated with CCD were indeed pathologies and not due to normal changes in physical appearances that occur as an adult bee ages (CCD colonies are assumed to be composed mostly of young bees), we documented the changes in bees of different ages taken from healthy colonies. We found that young bees had much greater incidences of white nodules than older cohorts. Prevalent in newly-emerged bees, these white nodules or cellular encapsulations indicate an active immune response. Comparing the two sets of characteristics, we determined a subset of pathologies that reliably predict CCD status rather than bee age (fecal matter consistency, rectal distension size, rectal enteroliths and Malpighian tubule iridescence) and that may serve as biomarkers for colony health. In addition, these pathologies suggest that CCD bees are experiencing disrupted excretory physiology. Our identification of these symptoms is an important first step in understanding the physiological pathways that underlie CCD and factors

  16. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  17. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  18. Bismaleimide Copolymer Matrix Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John A.; Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.; Chen, Timothy S.

    1987-01-01

    Graphite composites, prepared from 1:1 copolymer of two new bismaleimides based on N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have mechanical properties superior to those prepared from other bismaleimide-type resins. New heat-resistant composites replace metal in some structural applications. Monomers used to form copolymers with superior mechanical properties prepared by reaction of MMAB with maleic or citraconic anhydride.

  19. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  20. Paramagnetic epoxy resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Vazquez Barreiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates that macrocycles can be used as crosslinking agents for curing epoxy resins, provided that they have appropriate organic functionalities. As macrocycles can complex metal ions in their structure, this curing reaction allows for the introduction of that metal ion into the resin network. As a result, some characteristic physical properties of the metallomacrocycle could be transferred to the new material. The bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE, n = 0 and hemin (a protoporphyrin IX containing the Fe(III ion, and an additional chloride ligand have been chosen. The new material has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Fe(III remains in the high-spin state during the curing process and, consequently, the final material exhibits the magnetic characteristics of hemin. The loss of the chlorine atom ligand during the cure of the resin allows that Fe(III can act as Lewis acid, catalyzing the crosslinking reactions. At high BADGE n = 0/hemin ratios, the formation of ether and ester bonds occurs simultaneously during the process.

  1. The effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte, localized fat accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Min-Ki Kim; Si Hyeong, Lee; Jo Young Shin; Kang San Kim; Nam Guen Cho; Ki Rok Kwon; Tae Jin Rhim

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the primary cultured preadipocyte, adipocytes, and localized fat tissue. Methods : Decreased preadipocyte proliferation and decreased lipogenesis are mechanisms to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures using Sprague-Dawley Rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom. And porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bee Ve...

  2. Interactions between bee foraging and floral resource phenology shape bee populations and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Forrest, Jessica Rk

    2017-06-01

    Flowers are ephemeral, yet bees rely on them for food throughout their lives. Floral resource phenology - which can be altered by changes in climate and land-use - is therefore key to bee fitness and community composition. Here, we discuss the interactions between floral resource phenology, bee foraging behaviour, and traits such as diet breadth, sociality, and body size. Recent research on bumble bees has examined behavioural responses to local floral turnover and effects of landscape-scale floral resource phenology on fitness, abundance, and foraging distances. Comparable studies are needed on non-social, pollen-specialist species. We also encourage greater use of information contained in museum collections on bee phenologies and floral hosts to test how phenology has shaped the evolution of bee-plant associations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biokompatibilitas Gelas Ionomer Modifikasi Resin

    OpenAIRE

    Rotua Lestari M

    2008-01-01

    Saat ini banyak berkembang material baru dalam dunia kedokteran gigi diantaranya adalah Gelas ionomer modifikasi resin yang dikembangkan untuk mengatasi kekurangan-kekurangan dari gelas ionomer konvensional. Adanya penambahan monomer resin daIam bentuk 2-hydroxyethylmetacylate (HEMA) telah meningkatkan kekuatan dari bahan ini. Gelas ionomer modifikasi resin mempunyai sifat-sifat fisis dan mekanis yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan gelas ionomer konvensional. Gelas ionomer modifikasi ...

  4. Differences of floral resource use between honey bees and wild bees in an intensive farming system

    OpenAIRE

    Bretagnolle, Vincent; Decourtye, Axel; Aptel, Jean; Michel, Nadia; Vaissière, Bernard; Henry, Mickaël

    2013-01-01

    Bees provide an essential pollination service for crops and wild plants. However, substantial declines in bee populations and diversity have been observed in Europe and North America for the past 50 years, partly due to the loss of natural habitats and reduction of plant diversity resulting from agricultural intensification. To mitigate the negative effects of agricultural intensification, agri-environmental schemes (AES) have been proposed to sustain bees and others pollinators in agrosystem...

  5. A Study on Allergic responses Between Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Seon Lee

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Sweet bee venom is made by removing allergen from the bee venom through gel filtration chromatography and propionic acid/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The aim of this study was to verify allergy inhibitory action in Sweet Bee Venom in which the allergy causing enzyme is removed. Methods : 95 healthy adult men and women were selected through a survey whom had never received the bee venom therapy in the past. The concentration of bee venom pharmacopuncture and Sweet BV pharmacopuncture was equally at 0.1mg/㎖ and the experiment was conducted as the double blind test. Experiment groups were classified into low dosage groups (0.1㎖ for both bee venom pharmacopuncture and Sweet BV and high dosage groups where 0.4㎖ of respective administrations were rendered made observations for allergic responses. Results : Participants of the study was comprised of 71 men and 24 women with the average age of 29.0 years. According to results of the low dosage groups, Sweet BV group showed significant reduction in pain after 4 hours and 24 hours compared to the bee venom pharmacopuncture group. Other allergic responses were insignificant between the groups. For the high dosage groups, Sweet bee venom group showed reduction in pain after 30 minutes and 4 hours. Other allergic responses such as edema, itchiness, dizziness from hypersensitivity, and fatigue were significantly lower in the Sweet bee venom administered group after 30 minutes. Conclusions : As a result of removed allergen, Sweet bee venom significantly inhibits allergic responses both locally and throughout the body. This indicates wider and easier application of Sweet bee venom for the symptoms applicable to the bee venom pharmacopuncture. Further comparative studies should be conducted to yield more objective verification.

  6. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  7. Antiproliferative effects of Tubi-bee propolis in glioblastoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiton Silva Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resin formed by a complex chemical composition of substances that bees collect from plants. Since ancient times, propolis has been used in folk medicine, due to its biological properties, that include antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral and immunomodulatory activities. Glioblastoma is the most common human brain tumor. Despite the improvements in GBM standard treatment, patients' prognosis is still very poor. The aim of this work was to evaluate in vitro the Tubi-bee propolis effects on human glioblastoma (U251 and U343 and fibroblast (MRC-5 cell lines. Proliferation, clonogenic capacity and apoptosis were analyzed after treatment with 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL propolis concentrations for different time periods. Additionally, glioblastoma cell lines were submitted to treatment with propolis combined with temozolomide (TMZ. Data showed an antiproliferative effect of tubi-bee propolis against glioblastoma and fibroblast cell lines. Combination of propolis with TMZ had a synergic antiproliferative effect. Moreover, propolis caused decrease in colony formation in glioblastoma cell lines. Propolis treatment had no effects on apoptosis, demonstrating a cytostatic action. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the antitumor effect of propolis, and the study of its individual components may reveal specific molecules with antiproliferative capacity.

  8. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  9. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  10. A simple and distinctive microbiota associated with honey bees and bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Vincent G; Danforth, Bryan N; Minckley, Robert L; Rueppell, Olav; Tingek, Salim; Moran, Nancy A

    2011-02-01

    Specialized relationships with bacteria often allow animals to exploit a new diet by providing a novel set of metabolic capabilities. Bees are a monophyletic group of Hymenoptera that transitioned to a completely herbivorous diet from the carnivorous diet of their wasp ancestors. Recent culture-independent studies suggest that a set of distinctive bacterial species inhabits the gut of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Here we survey the gut microbiotae of diverse bee and wasp species to test whether acquisition of these bacteria was associated with the transition to herbivory in bees generally. We found that most bee species lack phylotypes that are the same or similar to those typical of A. mellifera, rejecting the hypothesis that this dietary transition was symbiont-dependent. The most common bacteria in solitary bee species are a widespread phylotype of Burkholderia and the pervasive insect associate, Wolbachia. In contrast, several social representatives of corbiculate bees do possess distinctive bacterial phylotypes. Samples of A. mellifera harboured the same microbiota as in previous surveys, and closely related bacterial phylotypes were identified in two Asian honey bees (Apis andreniformis and Apis dorsata) and several bumble bee (Bombus) species. Potentially, the sociality of Apis and Bombus species facilitates symbiont transmission and thus is key to the maintenance of a more consistent gut microbiota. Phylogenetic analyses provide a more refined taxonomic placement of the A. mellifera symbionts. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner. PMID:23303545

  12. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-07

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner.

  13. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees.

  14. Properties of the Carboxylate ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Bert; Dario, Maarten; Boren, Hans; Torstenfelt, Boerje; Puigdomenech, Ignasi; Johansson, Claes

    2002-09-01

    Weakly acidic, carboxylic resin has been selected, together with strong base anion resins, for water purification at the Forsmark 1 and 2 reactors. For the strong (but not the weak) ion exchange resin the Nuclear Power Inspectorate has given permission to dispose the spent resins in the SFR 1 (the Final Repository for Radioactive Operational Waste). This report gives a review of the carboxylic resins and comes to the conclusion that the resins are very stable and that there should not exist any risks for increased leaching of radionuclides from SFR 1 if these resins are disposed (compared to the strong resins)

  15. The toxicology of honey bee poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, Maria; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Koutselinis, Antonios

    2003-10-01

    The use of insecticides continues to be a basic tool in pest management, since there are many pest situations for which there are no known alternative management methods. However, the harmful effects of insecticides against beneficial Insects continuous to be a serious problem. Poisoning of bee pollinators is a serious adverse effect of insecticide use which leads to a decrease in insect population, to reduction of honey yields, to destruction of plant communities, to insecticide residues in food, and to a significant loss of beekeepers' income. In bee poisoning, the identification of the responsible toxicant is necessary by both environmental and biological monitoring, to prevent bee poisoning and for the protection of public health. The different aspects of bee poisoning with anticholinesterase insecticides are discussed in detail.

  16. Gut microbial communities of social bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiota can have profound effects on hosts, but the study of these relationships in humans is challenging. The specialized gut microbial community of honey bees is similar to the mammalian microbiota, as both are mostly composed of host-adapted, facultatively anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. However, the microbial community of the bee gut is far simpler than the mammalian microbiota, being dominated by only nine bacterial species clusters that are specific to bees and that are transmitted through social interactions between individuals. Recent developments, which include the discovery of extensive strain-level variation, evidence of protective and nutritional functions, and reports of eco-physiological or disease-associated perturbations to the microbial community, have drawn attention to the role of the microbiota in bee health and its potential as a model for studying the ecology and evolution of gut symbionts.

  17. Using Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling to Analyze Bee Visitation in East Tennessee Crops as an Indicator of Pollination Services Provided by Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) and Native Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael E; Skinner, John A; Wszelaki, Annette L; Drummond, Frank

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated bee visitation on 10 agricultural crops grown on diverse small farms in Tennessee to determine the abundance of native bees and honey bees and the partitioning of visitation among crops. Summaries for each crop are used to generate mean proportions of bee visitation by categories of bees. This shows that native bee visits often occur as frequently, or in greater proportions than non-native honey bee visits. Visitation across multiple crops is then analyzed together with nonmetric multidimensional scaling to show how communities of bees that provide crop pollination change depending on the crop. Within squash and pumpkin plantings, continuous and discrete factors, such as "time of day" and "organic practices," further explain shifts in the community composition of flower visitors. Results from this study show that native bees frequently visit flowers on various crops, indicating that they are likely contributing to pollination services in addition to honey bees. Furthermore, the community of bees visiting flowers changes based on crop type, phenology, and spatial-temporal factors. Results suggest that developing pollinator conservation for farms that grow a wide variety of crops will likely require multiple conservation strategies. Farms that concentrate on a single crop may be able to tailor conservation practices toward the most important bees in their system and geographic locale. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Berry

    Full Text Available In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate and Check Mite+ (coumaphos and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  19. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jennifer A; Hood, W Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  20. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  1. Cure shrinkage in casting resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J. Brock [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method is described whereby the shrinkage of a casting resin can be determined. Values for the shrinkage of several resin systems in frequent use by Sandia have been measured. A discussion of possible methods for determining the stresses generated by cure shrinkage and thermal contraction is also included.

  2. Chalkbrood disease in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, K A; Murray, K D

    2010-01-01

    Chalkbrood is a fungal disease of honey bee brood caused by Ascosphaera apis. This disease is now found throughout the world, and there are indications that chalkbrood incidence may be on the rise. In this review we consolidate both historic knowledge and recent scientific findings. We document the worldwide spread of the fungus, which is aided by increased global travel and the migratory nature of many beekeeping operations. We discuss the current taxonomic classification in light of the recent complete reworking of fungal systematics brought on by application of molecular methods. In addition, we discuss epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease, as well as pathogen biology, morphology and reproduction. New attempts at disease control methods and management tactics are reviewed. We report on research tools developed for identification and monitoring, and also include recent findings on genomic and molecular studies not covered by previous reviews, including sequencing of the A. apis genome and identification of the mating type locus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Behavior genetics: Bees as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nates Parra, Guiomar

    2011-01-01

    The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae) is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behavior, in particular social behavior. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behavior are genetically determined, including defensive, hygienic, reproductive and foraging behavior. For example, genetic diversity is associated with specialization to collect water, nectar and pollen. Also, control of worker reproduction is associated with genetic differences. In this paper, I review the methods and the main results from the study of the genetic and genomic basis of some behaviors in bees.

  4. Management of Corneal Bee Sting Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ruju R; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Luis A; Papakostas, Thanos D; Siracuse-Lee, Donna; Dunphy, Robert; Fanciullo, Lisa; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Daly, Mary K

    2017-01-01

    To review the management of keratitis after corneal bee stings and to report a case of deep stromal corneal infiltrate secondary to a retained bee stinger managed conservatively in a patient who presented three days after unsanitary manipulation of the stinger apparatus. Case report and review of literature. A 57-year-old male beekeeper was evaluated for pain, blurry vision, and photosensitivity after a corneal bee sting. Of note, the venom sac had been removed with dirty tweezers three days prior to his visit. On exam, a focal infiltrate with diffuse edema was seen surrounding a retained bee stinger in the peripheral cornea. Trace cells in the anterior chamber were also noted. Based on a high suspicion for infectious keratitis, a conservative treatment strategy was elected. Administration of broad-spectrum topical antibiotics with concomitant abstention of corticosteroids led to rapid resolution of the symptoms. Over 16 months of follow-up, the stinger has remained in situ without migration and the patient has maintained 20/20 visual acuity without complications. There is debate on the preferred method for the management of corneal injury secondary to bee stings, especially when it is associated with a retained stinger. We herein present our findings in our appraisal of reported cases. In the aftermath of an ocular bee sting, close surveillance for inflammation and infection is essential. Individual manifestations of these injuries vary in timing, type, and severity; therefore, the accessibility of the stinger and the evolving clinical picture should guide therapeutic decisions.

  5. Bees without Flowers: Before Peak Bloom, Diverse Native Bees Find Insect-Produced Honeydew Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Joan M; Griswold, Terry L; Harris, David J; Ernest, S K Morgan

    2017-08-01

    Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields are well studied. Bee foraging behaviors in the absence of floral cues, however, are rarely considered. We observed 42 species of wild bees visiting inconspicuous, nonflowering shrubs during early spring in a protected Mediterranean habitat. We determined experimentally that these bees were accessing sugary honeydew secretions from scale insects without the aid of standard cues. While honeydew use is known among some social Hymenoptera, its use across a diverse community of solitary bees is a novel observation. The widespread ability of native bees to locate and use unadvertised, nonfloral sugars suggests unappreciated sensory mechanisms and/or the existence of an interspecific foraging network among solitary bees that may influence how native bees cope with scarcity of floral resources and increasing environmental change.

  6. Bee Mite ID - an online resource on identification of mites associated with bees of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitic mites are known to be a factor in recent declines in bee pollinator populations. In particular, Varroa destructor, an introduced parasite and disease vector, has decimated colonies of the western honey bee, one of the most important agricultural pollinators in the world. Further, global tr...

  7. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera, to other important bee species.

  8. Imidacloprid Alters Foraging and Decreases Bee Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species. PMID:25025334

  9. Country-specific effects of neonicotinoid pesticides on honey bees and wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, B A; Bullock, J M; Shore, R F; Heard, M S; Pereira, M G; Redhead, J; Ridding, L; Dean, H; Sleep, D; Henrys, P; Peyton, J; Hulmes, S; Hulmes, L; Sárospataki, M; Saure, C; Edwards, M; Genersch, E; Knäbe, S; Pywell, R F

    2017-06-30

    Neonicotinoid seed dressings have caused concern world-wide. We use large field experiments to assess the effects of neonicotinoid-treated crops on three bee species across three countries (Hungary, Germany, and the United Kingdom). Winter-sown oilseed rape was grown commercially with either seed coatings containing neonicotinoids (clothianidin or thiamethoxam) or no seed treatment (control). For honey bees, we found both negative (Hungary and United Kingdom) and positive (Germany) effects during crop flowering. In Hungary, negative effects on honey bees (associated with clothianidin) persisted over winter and resulted in smaller colonies in the following spring (24% declines). In wild bees ( Bombus terrestris and Osmia bicornis ), reproduction was negatively correlated with neonicotinoid residues. These findings point to neonicotinoids causing a reduced capacity of bee species to establish new populations in the year following exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Cunha Marcos Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties.

  11. Context affects nestmate recognition errors in honey bees and stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J; Segers, Francisca H I D; Cooper-Bowman, Roseanne; Truslove, Gemma; Nascimento, Daniela L; Nascimento, Fabio S; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-08-15

    Nestmate recognition studies, where a discriminator first recognises and then behaviourally discriminates (accepts/rejects) another individual, have used a variety of methodologies and contexts. This is potentially problematic because recognition errors in discrimination behaviour are predicted to be context-dependent. Here we compare the recognition decisions (accept/reject) of discriminators in two eusocial bees, Apis mellifera and Tetragonisca angustula, under different contexts. These contexts include natural guards at the hive entrance (control); natural guards held in plastic test arenas away from the hive entrance that vary either in the presence or absence of colony odour or the presence or absence of an additional nestmate discriminator; and, for the honey bee, the inside of the nest. For both honey bee and stingless bee guards, total recognition errors of behavioural discrimination made by guards (% nestmates rejected + % non-nestmates accepted) are much lower at the colony entrance (honey bee: 30.9%; stingless bee: 33.3%) than in the test arenas (honey bee: 60-86%; stingless bee: 61-81%; Phoney bees, although this reduction still fell short of bringing error levels down to what was found at the colony entrance. Lastly, in honey bees, the data show that the in-nest collective behavioural discrimination by ca. 30 workers that contact an intruder is insufficient to achieve error-free recognition and is not as effective as the discrimination by guards at the entrance. Overall, these data demonstrate that context is a significant factor in a discriminators' ability to make appropriate recognition decisions, and should be considered when designing recognition study methodologies.

  12. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Gerritsen, Lonne; Cornelissen, Bram; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; van Langevelde, Frank; Blacquière, Tjeerd

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. Methodology/Principal Findings Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated). We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts) increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. Conclusions/Significance This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. PMID:22558421

  13. Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia M. Bernauer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens. Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems.

  14. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  15. Late Onset of Acute Urticaria after Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Asai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the cases of five patients with a late onset of acute urticaria after a bee sting. The ages of the five Japanese patients ranged from 33 to 86 years (median: 61. All patients had no history of an allergic reaction to bee stings. The onset of urticaria was 6–14 days (median: 10 after a bee sting. Although four of the patients did not describe experiencing a bee sting at their presentation, the subsequent examination detected anti-bee-specific IgE antibodies. So, we think a history of a bee sting should thus be part of the medical interview sheet for patients with acute urticaria, and an examination of IgE for bees may help prevent a severe bee-related anaphylactic reaction in the future.

  16. Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, De Adriana; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Aizen, Marcelo A.; Albrecht, Matthias; Basset, Yves; Bates, Adam; Blake, Robin J.; Boutin, Céline; Bugter, Rob; Connop, Stuart; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Cunningham, Saul A.; Darvill, Ben; Diekötter, Tim; Dorn, Silvia; Downing, Nicola; Entling, Martin H.; Farwig, Nina; Felicioli, Antonio; Fonte, Steven J.; Fowler, Robert; Franzén, Markus; Goulson, Dave; Grass, Ingo; Hanley, Mick E.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Herrmann, Farina; Herzog, Felix; Holzschuh, Andrea; Jauker, Birgit; Kessler, Michael; Knight, M.E.; Kruess, Andreas; Lavelle, Patrick; Féon, Le Violette; Lentini, Pia; Malone, Louise A.; Marshall, Jon; Pachón, Eliana Martínez; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Morales, Carolina L.; Mudri-Stojnic, Sonja; Nates-Parra, Guiomar; Nilsson, Sven G.; Öckinger, Erik; Osgathorpe, Lynne; Parra-H, Alejandro; Peres, Carlos A.; Persson, Anna S.; Petanidou, Theodora; Poveda, Katja; Power, Eileen F.; Quaranta, Marino; Quintero, Carolina; Rader, Romina; Richards, Miriam H.; Roulston, Tai; Rousseau, Laurent; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Samnegård, Ulrika; Schellhorn, Nancy A.; Schüepp, Christof; Schweiger, Oliver; Smith-Pardo, Allan H.; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C.; Tonietto, Rebecca K.; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Verboven, Hans A.F.; Vergara, Carlos H.; Verhulst, Jort; Westphal, Catrin; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Purvis, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Land-use change and intensification threaten bee populations worldwide, imperilling pollination services. Global models are needed to better characterise, project, and mitigate bees' responses to these human impacts. The available data are, however, geographically and taxonomically

  17. Mycobacterium chelonae infections associated with bee venom acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun Young; Peck, Kyong Ran; Kim, Jungok; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2014-03-01

    We report 3 cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections after bee venom acupuncture. All were treated with antibiotics and surgery. Mycobacterium chelonae infections should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic skin and soft tissue infections following bee venom acupuncture.

  18. Chromatography resin support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, James G.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3140 - Resin applicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Resin applicator. 872.3140 Section 872.3140 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3140 Resin applicator. (a) Identification. A resin applicator is a brushlike device intended for use in spreading dental resin on a tooth during application of...

  20. Anti-arthritic effects of microneedling with bee venom gel

    OpenAIRE

    Mengdi Zhao; Jie Bai; Yang Lu; Shouying Du; Kexin Shang; Pengyue Li; Liu Yang; Boyu Dong; Ning Tan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To combine with transdermal drug delivery using microneedle to simulate the bee venom therapy to evaluate the permeation of bee venom gel. Methods: In this study, the sodium urate and LPS were used on rats and mice to construct the model. Bee venom gel–microneedle combination effect on the model is to determine the role of microneedle gel permeation by observing inflammation factors. Results: Compared with the model group, the bee venom gel–microneedle combination group can r...

  1. Assessing Patterns of Admixture and Ancestry in Canadian Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada has a large beekeeping industry comprised of 8483 beekeepers managing 672094 23 colonies. Canadian honey bees, like all honey bees in the New World, originate from centuries of importation of predominately European honey bees, but their precise ancestry remains unknown. There have been no i...

  2. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  3. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with the...

  4. The honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae: transmissible via food exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Smith

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097. Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%. Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

  5. Occurrence of Nosema species in honey bee colonies in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide critical pollination services and livelihood for small-holder farmers in Kenya, thus contributing to nutrition and food security. While honey bee colonies in North America and Europe are in decline due to parasites and pathogens, little is known about the status and effects of the honey bee ...

  6. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a

  7. Multiyear survey targeting disease incidence in US honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Honey Bee Disease Survey sampled colony pests and diseases from 2009 to 2014. We verified the absence of Tropilaelaps spp., the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), and slow bee paralysis virus. Endemic health threats were quantified, including Varroa destructor, Nosema spp., and eight hon...

  8. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  9. Stingless Bees as Alternative Pollinators of Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sidia; Nunes-Silva, Patrícia; Lisboa, Bruno B; Tirelli, Flavia P; Sattler, Aroni; Both Hilgert-Moreira, Suzane; Blochtein, Betina

    2015-06-01

    Alternative pollinators can ensure pollination services if the availability of the managed or most common pollinator is compromised. In this study, the behavior and pollination efficiency of Apis mellifera L. and two species of stingless bees, Plebeia emerina Friese and Tetragonisca fiebrigi Schwarz, were evaluated and compared in flowers of Brassica napus L. 'Hyola 61'. A. mellifera was an efficient pollinator when collecting nectar because it effectively touched the reproductive organs of the flower. In contrast, stingless bees were efficient pollinators only when collecting pollen. The number of pollen grains deposited on the stigma after a single visit by worker bees of the three species was greater than the number of grains resulting from pollination without the bee visits. On average, the three species deposited enough pollen grains to fertilize all of the flower ovules. A. mellifera and P. emerina had similar pollination efficiency because no significant differences were observed in the characteristics of the siliques produced. Although T. fiebrigi is also an effective pollinator, the seed mass produced by their pollination was lower. Native bees promoted similar rates of fruit set compared with A. mellifera. Thus, P. emerina has potential to be used for pollination in canola crops. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Mapping Sleeping Bees within Their Nest: Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Worker Honey Bee Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns. PMID:25029445

  11. Do linden trees kill bees? Reviewing the causes of bee deaths on silver linden (Tilia tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Hauke; Stevenson, Philip C

    2017-09-01

    For decades, linden trees (basswoods or lime trees), and particularly silver linden ( Tilia tomentosa ), have been linked to mass bee deaths. This phenomenon is often attributed to the purported occurrence of the carbohydrate mannose, which is toxic to bees, in Tilia nectar. In this review, however, we conclude that from existing literature there is no experimental evidence for toxicity to bees in linden nectar. Bee deaths on Tilia probably result from starvation, owing to insufficient nectar resources late in the tree's flowering period. We recommend ensuring sufficient alternative food sources in cities during late summer to reduce bee deaths on silver linden. Silver linden metabolites such as floral volatiles, pollen chemistry and nectar secondary compounds remain underexplored, particularly their toxic or behavioural effects on bees. Some evidence for the presence of caffeine in linden nectar may mean that linden trees can chemically deceive foraging bees to make sub-optimal foraging decisions, in some cases leading to their starvation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  13. and phenol–formaldehyde resin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    formaldehyde resin (PFR) modified with tetraethylorthosilicate are investigated in detail. The chemical synthesis of PFR, its modification with nanometer- sized SiO2 particles created by sol–gel method and subsequent coating, enables a preparation of ...

  14. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  15. Epoxy hydantoins as matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile strength and fracture toughness of castings of the hydantoin resins cured with methylenedianiline are significantly higher than MY 720 control castings. Water absorption of an ethyl, amyl hydantoin formulation is 2.1 percent at equilibrium and Tg's are about 160 C, approximately 15 deg below the final cure temperature. Two series of urethane and ester-extended hydantoin epoxy resins were synthesized to determine the effect of crosslink density and functional groups on properties. Castings cured with methylenedianiline or with hexahydrophthalic anhydride were made from these compounds and evaluated. The glass transition temperatures, tensile strengths and moduli, and fracture toughness values were all much lower than that of the simple hydantoin epoxy resins. Using a methylene bishydantoin epoxy with a more rigid structure gave brittle, low-energy fractures, while a more flexible, ethoxy-extended hydantoin epoxy resin gave a very low Tg.

  16. Resin glycosides from Porana duclouxii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Dai-Gui; Liu, Chun-Jie; Li, Guan-Hua; Li, You-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    A new intact resin glycoside (3) and two glycosidic acids (1 and 2), all having a common trisaccharide moiety and (11S)-hydroxytetradecanoic acid or (3S,11S)-dihydroxytetradecanoic acid as the aglycone, were obtained from the roots of Porana duclouxii. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides from the genus Porana.

  17. Karakteristik Komposit Resin Berkemampuan Mengalir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of resin composites as posterior restoratives has markedly increased over the past decade. The patients demand for better esthetics, concerns related to possible mercury toxicity from amalgam and improvements in resin composite materials have significantly contributed the popularity of these materials. Early problems related to composites included excessive wear, less of anatomic form, post operative sensitivity, secondary caries and marginal leakage. Marginal adaptation still remains an unavoidable problem for composite restoration, especially at the gingival wall of cervical or Class II restoration. In an attempt to improve marginal sealing, many techniques and lining materials have been designed. To reduce stress generated by polymerization shrinkage, applying and curing of resin composites in layers is often recommended. Using a thick adhesive layer or low-viscosity resin may, due to its elastic properties, serve as a flexible intermediate layer and compensate for the polymerization stress created in resin composite. Flowable composites were created by retaining the same small particle size of traditional hybrid composite but reducing the filler content and allowing the increased resin to reduce the viscosity of the mixture. Flowable composites were introduced in 1996 as liners, fissure sealants and also in tunnel preparations. They have been suggested for Class I, II, III and V cavity restorations, preventive resin restorations and composite, porcelain and amalgam repairing. Their usage as a liner under high filled resins in posterior restorations has been shown to improve the adaptation of composites and effectively achieve clinically acceptable results. This article attempts to give a broad characteristics of different types of flowable composites. 

  18. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  19. The presence of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus infection in Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) infection in the U.S. is reported for the first time. Using molecular methods, the evidence of infection of honey bees with CBPV has been detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic bees. While our seven year’s survey showed that the CBPV infect...

  20. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Blacquiere, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to

  1. Current Pesticide Risk Assessment Protocols Do Not Adequately Address Differences Between Honey Bees (Apis mellifera and Bumble Bees (Bombus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Stoner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated colony-level sublethal effects of imidacloprid on bumble bees, affecting foraging and food consumption, and thus colony growth and reproduction, at lower pesticide concentrations than for honey bee colonies. However, these studies may not reflect the full effects of neonicotinoids on bumble bees because bumble bee life cycles are different from those of honey bees. Unlike honey bees, bumble bees live in colonies for only a few months each year. Assessing the sublethal effects of systemic insecticides only on the colony level is appropriate for honey bees, but for bumble bees, this approach addresses just part of their annual life cycle. Queens are solitary from the time they leave their home colonies in fall until they produce their first workers the following year. Queens forage for pollen and nectar, and are thus exposed to more risk of direct pesticide exposure than honey bee queens. Almost no research has been done on pesticide exposure to and effects on bumble bee queens. Additional research should focus on critical periods in a bumble bee queen’s life which have the greatest nutritional demands, foraging requirements, and potential for exposure to pesticides, particularly the period during and after nest establishment in the spring when the queen must forage for the nutritional needs of her brood and for her own needs while she maintains an elevated body temperature in order to incubate the brood.

  2. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu

    1989-09-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  3. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.

    1989-01-01

    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  4. Large Carpenter Bees as Agricultural Pollinators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Keasar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Large carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa are wood-nesting generalist pollinators of broad geographical distribution that exhibit varying levels of sociality. Their foraging is characterized by a wide range of food plants, long season of activity, tolerance of high temperatures, and activity under low illumination levels. These traits make them attractive candidates for agricultural pollination in hot climates, particularly in greenhouses, and of night-blooming crops. Carpenter bees have demonstrated efficient pollination service in passionflower, blueberries, greenhouse tomatoes and greenhouse melons. Current challenges to the commercialization of these attempts lie in the difficulties of mass-rearing Xylocopa, and in the high levels of nectar robbing exhibited by the bees.

  5. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-06-15

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees.

  6. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3–poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3–rich diets, or omega-3–rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal. PMID:26644556

  7. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Cornman

    Full Text Available Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  8. Pathogen webs in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Evans, Jay D

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, and strong colonies from across the United States. Although pathogen identities differed between the eastern and western United States, there was a greater incidence and abundance of pathogens in CCD colonies. Pathogen loads were highly covariant in CCD but not control hives, suggesting that CCD colonies rapidly become susceptible to a diverse set of pathogens, or that co-infections can act synergistically to produce the rapid depletion of workers that characterizes the disorder. We also tested workers from a CCD-free apiary to confirm that significant positive correlations among pathogen loads can develop at the level of individual bees and not merely as a secondary effect of CCD. This observation and other recent data highlight pathogen interactions as important components of bee disease. Finally, we used deep RNA sequencing to further characterize microbial diversity in CCD and non-CCD hives. We identified novel strains of the recently described Lake Sinai viruses (LSV) and found evidence of a shift in gut bacterial composition that may be a biomarker of CCD. The results are discussed with respect to host-parasite interactions and other environmental stressors of honey bees.

  9. Omega-3 deficiency impairs honey bee learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arien, Yael; Dag, Arnon; Zarchin, Shlomi; Masci, Tania; Shafir, Sharoni

    2015-12-22

    Deficiency in essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly the long-chain form of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has been linked to health problems in mammals, including many mental disorders and reduced cognitive performance. Insects have very low long-chain PUFA concentrations, and the effect of omega-3 deficiency on cognition in insects has not been studied. We show a low omega-6:3 ratio of pollen collected by honey bee colonies in heterogenous landscapes and in many hand-collected pollens that we analyzed. We identified Eucalyptus as an important bee-forage plant particularly poor in omega-3 and high in the omega-6:3 ratio. We tested the effect of dietary omega-3 deficiency on olfactory and tactile associative learning of the economically highly valued honey bee. Bees fed either of two omega-3-poor diets, or Eucalyptus pollen, showed greatly reduced learning abilities in conditioned proboscis-extension assays compared with those fed omega-3-rich diets, or omega-3-rich pollen mixture. The effect on performance was not due to reduced sucrose sensitivity. Omega-3 deficiency also led to smaller hypopharyngeal glands. Bee brains contained high omega-3 concentrations, which were only slightly affected by diet, suggesting additional peripheral effects on learning. The shift from a low to high omega-6:3 ratio in the Western human diet is deemed a primary cause of many diseases and reduced mental health. A similar shift seems to be occurring in bee forage, possibly an important factor in colony declines. Our study shows the detrimental effect on cognitive performance of omega-3 deficiency in a nonmammal.

  10. Study on Bee venom and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study Bee venom and Pain, We searched Journals and Internet. The results were as follows: 1. The domestic papers were total 13. 4 papers were published at The journal of korean acupuncture & moxibustion society, 3 papers were published at The journal of korean oriental medical society, Each The journal of KyoungHee University Oriental Medicine and The journal of korean sports oriental medical society published 1 papers and Unpublished desertations were 3. The clinical studies were 4 and the experimental studies were 9. 2. The domestic clinical studies reported that Bee venom Herbal Acupuncture therapy was effective on HIVD, Subacute arthritis of Knee Joint and Sequale of sprain. In the domestic experimental studies, 5 were related to analgesic effect of Bee vnom and 4 were related to mechanism of analgesia. 3. The journals searched by PubMed were total 18. 5 papers were published at Pain, Each 2 papers were published at Neurosci Lett. and Br J Pharmacol, and Each Eur J Pain, J Rheumatol, Brain Res, Neuroscience, Nature and Toxicon et al published 1 paper. 4. In the journals searched by PubMed, Only the experimental studies were existed. 8 papers used Bee Venom as pain induction substance and 1 paper was related to analgesic effects of Bee venom. 5. 15 webpage were searched by internet related to Bee Venom and pain. 11 were the introduction related to arthritis, 1 was the advertisement, 1 was the patient's experience, 1 was the case report on RA, 1 was review article.

  11. The Comparison of Effectiveness between Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom Therapy on Low back pain with Radiating pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tae-ho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study is to investigate if Sweet Bee Venom therapy has the equal effect in comparison with Bee Venom Therapy on Low back pain with Radiation pain. Methods : Clinical studies were done 24 patients who were treated low back pain with radiation pain to Dept. of Acupuncture & Moxibusition, of Oriental Medicine Se-Myung University from April 1, 2007 to September 30, 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups ; Bee Venom treated group(Group A, n=10, Sweet Bee Venom treatred group(Group B, n=14. In Bee Venom treated group(Group A, we treated patients with dry needle acupuncture and Bee Venom therapy. In Sweet Bee Venom treatred group(Group B, we treated patients with dry needle acupuncture and Sweet Bee Venom therapy. All process of treatment were performed by double blinding method. To estimate the efficacy of controlling pain. we checked Visual Analog Scale(VAS. For evaluating functional change of patients, Straight Leg Raising Test(S.L.R.T was measured. Results :1. In controlling pain, Sweet Bee Venom treatred group(Group B had similar ability in comparison with Bee Venom treated group(Group A. 2. In promoting function, Sweet Bee Venom treatred group(Group B had similar ability in comparison with Bee Venom treated group(Group A. Conclusions : It may be equal effects as compared with using Bee Venom to treat low back pain with radiation pain using Sweet Bee Venom. We can try to treat other disease known to have effect with Bee Venom.

  12. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaux, Cédric; Dantec, Christelle; Parrinello, Hughes; Le Conte, Yves

    2011-10-10

    Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen) were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis on bee abdomens. Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome). Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce the susceptibility of bees to (less virulent) pathogens.

  13. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrinello Hughes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera, pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome. Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce

  14. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen) were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome). Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce the susceptibility of bees

  15. STUDY ON ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BEE VENOM.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeon Jo Ha; Chi Won Noh; Woo Young Bang; Sam Woong Kim; Sang Wan Gal.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity against Salmonella infection which causes intestinal diseases from bee venom which is one of the social insects, and to find a way which use ghost vaccine. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of bee venom against Salmonella Typhimurium χ3339 was 101.81 ug/ml. Based on the result of MIC, the antimicrobial activity according to amount of the cells showed strong activities below 106 CFU/ml, but exhibited no and low ac...

  16. Disentangling urban habitat and matrix effects on wild bee species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie K. Fischer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In face of a dramatic decline of wild bee species in many rural landscapes, potential conservation functions of urban areas gain importance. Yet effects of urbanization on pollinators, and in particular on wild bees, remain ambiguous and not comprehensively understood. This is especially true for amenity grassland and extensively managed wastelands within large-scale residential housing areas. Using Berlin as a study region, we aimed to investigate (a if these greenspaces are accepted by wild bee assemblages as foraging habitats; (b how assemblage structure of bees and individual bee species are affected by different habitat (e.g., management, flower density and urban matrix variables (e.g., isolation, urbanization; and (c to what extent grassland restoration can promote bees in urban environments. In summer 2012, we collected 62 bee species belonging to more than 20% of the taxa known for Berlin. Urbanization significantly affected species composition of bees; 18 species were affiliated to different levels of urbanization. Most bee species were not affected by any of the environmental variables tested, and urbanization had a negative effect only for one bee species. Further, we determined that restoration of diverse grasslands positively affected bee species richnesss in urban environments. We conclude that differently structured and managed greenspaces in large-scale housing areas can provide additional foraging habitats and refuges for pollinators. This supports approaches towards a biodiversity friendly management within urban regions and may be of particular importance given that anthropogenic pressure is increasing in many rural landscapes.

  17. Video Tracking Protocol to Screen Deterrent Chemistries for Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicholas R; Anderson, Troy D

    2017-06-12

    The European honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is an economically and agriculturally important pollinator that generates billions of dollars annually. Honey bee colony numbers have been declining in the United States and many European countries since 1947. A number of factors play a role in this decline, including the unintentional exposure of honey bees to pesticides. The development of new methods and regulations are warranted to reduce pesticide exposures to these pollinators. One approach is the use of repellent chemistries that deter honey bees from a recently pesticide-treated crop. Here, we describe a protocol to discern the deterrence of honey bees exposed to select repellent chemistries. Honey bee foragers are collected and starved overnight in an incubator 15 h prior to testing. Individual honey bees are placed into Petri dishes that have either a sugar-agarose cube (control treatment) or sugar-agarose-compound cube (repellent treatment) placed into the middle of the dish. The Petri dish serves as the arena that is placed under a camera in a light box to record the honey bee locomotor activities using video tracking software. A total of 8 control and 8 repellent treatments were analyzed for a 10 min period with each treatment was duplicated with new honey bees. Here, we demonstrate that honey bees are deterred from the sugar-agarose cubes with a compound treatment whereas honey bees are attracted to the sugar-agarose cubes without an added compound.

  18. The antiquity and evolutionary history of social behavior in bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cardinal

    Full Text Available A long-standing controversy in bee social evolution concerns whether highly eusocial behavior has evolved once or twice within the corbiculate Apidae. Corbiculate bees include the highly eusocial honey bees and stingless bees, the primitively eusocial bumble bees, and the predominantly solitary or communal orchid bees. Here we use a model-based approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of eusociality and date the antiquity of eusocial behavior in apid bees, using a recent molecular phylogeny of the Apidae. We conclude that eusociality evolved once in the common ancestor of the corbiculate Apidae, advanced eusociality evolved independently in the honey and stingless bees, and that eusociality was lost in the orchid bees. Fossil-calibrated divergence time estimates reveal that eusociality first evolved at least 87 Mya (78 to 95 Mya in the corbiculates, much earlier than in other groups of bees with less complex social behavior. These results provide a robust new evolutionary framework for studies of the organization and genetic basis of social behavior in honey bees and their relatives.

  19. The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing controversy in bee social evolution concerns whether highly eusocial behavior has evolved once or twice within the corbiculate Apidae. Corbiculate bees include the highly eusocial honey bees and stingless bees, the primitively eusocial bumble bees, and the predominantly solitary or communal orchid bees. Here we use a model-based approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of eusociality and date the antiquity of eusocial behavior in apid bees, using a recent molecular phylogeny of the Apidae. We conclude that eusociality evolved once in the common ancestor of the corbiculate Apidae, advanced eusociality evolved independently in the honey and stingless bees, and that eusociality was lost in the orchid bees. Fossil-calibrated divergence time estimates reveal that eusociality first evolved at least 87 Mya (78 to 95 Mya) in the corbiculates, much earlier than in other groups of bees with less complex social behavior. These results provide a robust new evolutionary framework for studies of the organization and genetic basis of social behavior in honey bees and their relatives. PMID:21695157

  20. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    despite the fact that value of bee pollination of cultured crops is estimated to approach 800 million DKK. This thesis explores how regional, landscape and local differences affect biodiversity and abundance of wild bees (paper I and II) and wild bee foraging behaviour in terms of spatial distribution...... and small clusters of trees positively affected activity-density of bees at scales from 100 m - 2000 m from where the bees were trapped, which shows the conservation value these habitats represent for wild bees in the agricultural land. Forest negatively affected activity-density at all spatial scales...... possibly due to the low biodiversity offered by many commercially driven, single species, Danish forests. At field scale (I) bee species richness was higher in field margins compared to field centres but there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. Sampling time had...

  1. Bats and bees are pollinating Parkia biglobosa in the Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Ræbild, Anders; Hansen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees...... as replicates. The pollinators’ identity, efficiency, and relative effect were determined. Bats, honey bees, and stingless bees were able to pollinate the species. Bat-visited capitula produced more pods, but not significantly more than honey bees. Honey bees were more efficient than stingless bees, resulting...... was analysed and a positive correlation between number of seeds per pod and the sugar content was found. Improved pollination success may thus result in sweeter fruits. We conclude it is important to strive against a pollinator-friendly environment in order to attract bats and bees. Furthermore, we suggest...

  2. Bee venom therapy: Potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Yi; Ye, Yang; Wang, Xue-Rui; Lin, Li-Ting; Xiao, Ling-Yong; Zhou, Ping; Shi, Guang-Xia; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2018-04-11

    Bee venom is a very complex mixture of natural products extracted from honey bee which contains various pharmaceutical properties such as peptides, enzymes, biologically active amines and nonpeptide components. The use of bee venom into the specific points is so called bee venom therapy, which is widely used as a complementary and alternative therapy for 3000 years. A growing number of evidence has demonstrated the anti-inflammation, the anti-apoptosis, the anti-fibrosis and the anti-arthrosclerosis effects of bee venom therapy. With these pharmaceutical characteristics, bee venom therapy has also been used as the therapeutic method in treating rheumatoid arthritis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, liver fibrosis, atherosclerosis, pain and others. Although widely used, several cases still reported that bee venom therapy might cause some adverse effects, such as local itching or swelling. In this review, we summarize its potential mechanisms, therapeutic applications, and discuss its existing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ZigBee Test Harness: An Innovative Tool for ZigBee Node Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ranalli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The document describes an innovative tool called Test Harness, developed by Telecom Italia S.p.A (TIT.MI. The purpose of this software is to tests any ZigBee node compliant to the ZigBee public application profile specifications. The tool can be used to debug a device before its certification process, a step that needs to be done within the ZigBee Alliance in order to commercialize a product with the ZigBee logo. Typical testing include finding malformed packets format, wrong field values, checks the correct behavior of the node when receiving or sending messages, etc… The tool tries to speed up the activities of Test Houses, helping them to automate a test plan. Finally, the tool supports also a distribute mode testing, allowing companies to run remote testing and reduce budget cost (flights, accommodation, etc....

  4. Local bumble bee decline linked to recovery of honey bees, drought effects on floral resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Diane M

    2016-10-01

    Time series of abundances are critical for understanding how abiotic factors and species interactions affect population dynamics, but are rarely linked with experiments and also scarce for bee pollinators. This gap is important given concerns about declines in some bee species. I monitored honey bee (Apis mellifera) and bumble bee (Bombus spp.) foragers in coastal California from 1999, when feral A. mellifera populations were low due to Varroa destructor, until 2014. Apis mellifera increased substantially, except between 2006 and 2011, coinciding with declines in managed populations. Increases in A. mellifera strongly correlated with declines in Bombus and reduced diet overlap between them, suggesting resource competition consistent with past experimental results. Lower Bombus numbers also correlated with diminished floral resources. Declines in floral abundances were associated with drought and reduced spring rainfall. These results illustrate how competition with an introduced species may interact with climate to drive local decline of native pollinators. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Wick, Charles H; Stanford, Michael F; Zulich, Alan W; Jabbour, Rabih E; Deshpande, Samir V; McCubbin, Patrick E; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Williams, Trevor; Firth, David R; Skowronski, Evan; Lehmann, Margaret M; Bilimoria, Shan L; Gress, Joanna; Wanner, Kevin W; Cramer, Robert A

    2010-10-06

    In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP) to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV) (Iridoviridae) associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1) bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2) bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3) bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  6. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J Bromenshenk

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses.We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone.These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey bee losses.

  7. Complementary crops and landscape features sustain wild bee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Kyle T; Albert, Cécile H; Lechowicz, Martin J; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Wild bees, which are important for commercial pollination, depend on floral and nesting resources both at farms and in the surrounding landscape. Mass-flowering crops are only in bloom for a few weeks and unable to support bee populations that persist throughout the year. Farm fields and orchards that flower in succession potentially can extend the availability of floral resources for pollinators. However, it is unclear whether the same bee species or genera will forage from one crop to the next, which bees specialize on particular crops, and to what degree inter-crop visitation patterns will be mediated by landscape context. We therefore studied local- and landscape-level drivers of bee diversity and species turnover in apple orchards, blueberry fields and raspberry fields that bloom sequentially in southern Quebec, Canada. Despite the presence of high bee species turnover, orchards and small fruit fields complemented each other phenologically by supporting two bee genera essential to their pollination: mining bees (Andrena spp.) and bumble bees (Bombus spp.). A number of bee species specialized on apple, blueberry or raspberry blossoms, suggesting that all three crops could be used to promote regional bee diversity. Bee diversity (rarefied richness, wild bee abundance) was highest across crops in landscapes containing hedgerows, meadows and suburban areas that provide ancillary nesting and floral resources throughout the spring and summer. Promoting phenological complementarity in floral resources at the farmstead and landscape scales is essential to sustaining diverse wild bee populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Chem I Supplement: Bee Sting: The Chemistry of an Insect Venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rod; Peck, Larry

    1980-01-01

    Considers various aspects of bee stings including the physical mechanism of the venom apparatus in the bee, categorization of physiological responses of nonprotected individuals to bee sting, chemical composition of bee venom and the mechanisms of venom action, and areas of interest in the synthesis of bee venom. (CS)

  9. Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    FARNESI, A. P.; AQUINO-FERREIRA, R.; JONG, D. De; BASTOS, J. K.; SOARES, A. E. E.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the antibacterial activities of several types of propolis, including Africanized honey bee green propolis and propolis produced by meliponini bees. The antibacterial activity of green propolis against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus was superior to that of Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona sp propolis. Only two samples of propolis (green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis) were efficient against Escherichia coli. Melipona quadrifasciata propolis was better...

  10. The neglected bee trees: European beech forests as a home for feral honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Laurenz Kohl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a common belief that feral honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L. were eradicated in Europe through the loss of habitats, domestication by man and spread of pathogens and parasites. Interestingly, no scientific data are available, neither about the past nor the present status of naturally nesting honeybee colonies. We expected near-natural beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests to provide enough suitable nest sites to be a home for feral honey bee colonies in Europe. Here, we made a first assessment of their occurrence and density in two German woodland areas based on two methods, the tracing of nest sites based on forager flight routes (beelining technique, and the direct inspection of potential cavity trees. Further, we established experimental swarms at forest edges and decoded dances for nest sites performed by scout bees in order to study how far swarms from beekeeper-managed hives would potentially move into a forest. We found that feral honey bee colonies regularly inhabit tree cavities in near-natural beech forests at densities of at least 0.11–0.14 colonies/km2. Colonies were not confined to the forest edges; they were also living deep inside the forests. We estimated a median distance of 2,600 m from the bee trees to the next apiaries, while scout bees in experimental swarms communicated nest sites in close distances (median: 470 m. We extrapolate that there are several thousand feral honey bee colonies in German woodlands. These have to be taken in account when assessing the role of forest areas in providing pollination services to the surrounding land, and their occurrence has implications for the species’ perception among researchers, beekeepers and conservationists. This study provides a starting point for investigating the life-histories and the ecological interactions of honey bees in temperate European forest environments.

  11. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, C; Williams, N; Kremen, C; Klein, AM

    2013-01-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orcha...

  12. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  13. The challenge of accurately documenting bee species richness in agroecosystems: bee diversity in eastern apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura; Park, Mia; Gibbs, Jason; Danforth, Bryan

    2015-09-01

    Bees are important pollinators of agricultural crops, and bee diversity has been shown to be closely associated with pollination, a valuable ecosystem service. Higher functional diversity and species richness of bees have been shown to lead to higher crop yield. Bees simultaneously represent a mega-diverse taxon that is extremely challenging to sample thoroughly and an important group to understand because of pollination services. We sampled bees visiting apple blossoms in 28 orchards over 6 years. We used species rarefaction analyses to test for the completeness of sampling and the relationship between species richness and sampling effort, orchard size, and percent agriculture in the surrounding landscape. We performed more than 190 h of sampling, collecting 11,219 specimens representing 104 species. Despite the sampling intensity, we captured pollinator fauna of agroecosystems can be diverse and challenging to thoroughly sample. We demonstrate that there is high temporal variation in community composition and that sites vary widely in the sampling effort required to fully describe their diversity. In order to maximize pollination services provided by wild bee species, we must first accurately estimate species richness. For researchers interested in providing this estimate, we recommend multiyear studies and rarefaction analyses to quantify the gap between observed and expected species richness.

  14. Can we disrupt the sensing of honey bees by the bee parasite Varroa destructor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliash, Nurit; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kamer, Yosef; Pinnelli, Govardhana Reddy; Plettner, Erika; Soroker, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is considered to be one of the most significant threats to apiculture around the world. Chemical cues are known to play a significant role in the host-finding behavior of Varroa. The mites distinguish between bees from different task groups, and prefer nurses over foragers. We examined the possibility of disrupting the Varroa--honey bee interaction by targeting the mite's olfactory system. In particular, we examined the effect of volatile compounds, ethers of cis 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl) cyclopent-2-en-1-ol or of dihydroquinone, resorcinol or catechol. We tested the effect of these compounds on the Varroa chemosensory organ by electrophysiology and on behavior in a choice bioassay. The electrophysiological studies were conducted on the isolated foreleg. In the behavioral bioassay, the mite's preference between a nurse and a forager bee was evaluated. We found that in the presence of some compounds, the response of the Varroa chemosensory organ to honey bee headspace volatiles significantly decreased. This effect was dose dependent and, for some of the compounds, long lasting (>1 min). Furthermore, disruption of the Varroa volatile detection was accompanied by a reversal of the mite's preference from a nurse to a forager bee. Long-term inhibition of the electrophysiological responses of mites to the tested compounds was a good predictor for an alteration in the mite's host preference. These data indicate the potential of the selected compounds to disrupt the Varroa--honey bee associations, thus opening new avenues for Varroa control.

  15. Pesticides and reduced-risk insecticides, native bees and pantropical stingless bees: pitfalls and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Wagner F; Smagghe, Guy; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2015-08-01

    Although invertebrates generally have a low public profile, the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., is a flagship species whose popularity likely derives from the products it provides and its perceived ecological services. Therefore, the raging debate regarding honey bee decline has surpassed the realm of beekeepers, academia, industry and regulatory agencies and now also encompasses non-governmental agencies, media, fiction writers and the general public. The early interest and concern about honey bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) soon shifted to the bigger issue of pollinator decline, with a focus on the potential involvement of pesticides in such a phenomenon. Pesticides were previously recognised as the potential culprits of the reported declines, particularly the neonicotinoid insecticides owing to their widespread and peculiar use in agriculture. However, the evidence for the potential pivotal role of these neonicotinoids in honey bee decline remains a matter of debate, with an increased recognition of the multifactorial nature of the problem and the lack of a direct association between the noted decline and neonicotinoid use. The focus on the decline of honey bee populations subsequently spread to other species, and bumblebees became another matter of concern, particularly in Europe and the United States. Other bee species, ones that are particularly important in other regions of the world, remain the object of little concern (unjustifiably so). Furthermore, the continuous focus on neonicotinoids is also in need of revision, as the current evidence suggests that a broad spectrum of compounds deserve attention. Here we address both shortcomings. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Resin technologies: construction and staining of resin TMA's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howat, William J; Wilson, Susan J

    2010-01-01

    The traditional formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and therefore the tissue microarrays created from it, provide good morphology but with a compromised antigenicity when compared to frozen tissue. In contrast, while solving the issue of antigenicity, frozen tissue suffers from a lack of morphology. We have demonstrated that tissue microarrays constructed in glycol methacrylate resin, when combined with a cold acetone fixation step, have been able to combine the superior morphology of resin-embedded sections with the superior antigenicity of frozen tissue for prospectively collected material.

  17. HomePort ZigBee Adapter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Smedegaard, Jacob Haubach; Hansen, Rene

    the existing tool, Homeport, to act as a middleware and bridge between ConLAN's existing network and the ZigBee network. This report primarily discusses three possible solutions for constructing this bridge and current status on the implementation of a Develco SmartAMM and Zigbee stack for HomePort....

  18. Reproduction in eusocial bees (Apidae: Apini, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinh, T.X.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents some key aspects of the regulation and the mechanisms of colony reproduction in honeybees and stingless bees. Special attention is paid to key questions about how the production of males, gynes and swarms takes place, and what intranidal and extranidal factors are related to

  19. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  20. Electrophysiological effects of the solitary bee "Anthophora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt. ABSTRACT. Effects of the crude venom of the solitary bee (Anthophora pauperata) on cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscles were studied to reveal the mechanism of action of this venom. The main toxic effects on the ECG of isolated toads'.

  1. Parkinsonism following Bee Sting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting here a rare case of Parkinsonism (Hypokinetic dysarthria caused after a bee stung, a member of the hymenoptera order. The main aim of this report is to orient the clinicians with the possibility of extrapyramidal syndromes because of hymenoptera stings.

  2. Epoxy Resins in Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Henry

    1960-01-01

    A method of embedding biological specimens in araldite 502 (Ciba) has been developed for materials available in the United States. Araldite-embedded tissues are suitable for electron microscopy, but the cutting qualities of the resin necessitates more than routine attention during microtomy. The rather high viscosity of araldite 502 also seems to be an unnecessary handicap. The less viscous epoxy epon 812 (Shell) produces specimens with improved cutting qualities, and has several features—low shrinkage and absence of specimen damage during cure, minimal compression of sections, relative absence of electron beam-induced section damage, etc.—which recommends it as a routine embedding material. The hardness of the cured resin can be easily adjusted by several methods to suit the materials embedded in it. Several problems and advantages of working with sections of epoxy resins are also discussed. PMID:13822825

  3. Process for Molding Nonreinforced (Neat) Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Void free moldings obtained for neat, condensation, thermosetting resins. Thermally and mechanically treat resin prior to molding to reduce amount of volatiles. With volatiles reduced molding temperature and pressure are applied in way to drive out remaining volatiles during molding.

  4. 21 CFR 172.280 - Terpene resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.280 Terpene resin. The food additive terpene resin may be safely used...

  5. Action of ionizing radiation on epoxy resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Voorde, M. E.

    1970-12-01

    The resistance of classical and experimental epoxy resins to irradiation was studied. The resistance to irradiation of epoxy resins of diverse compositions as well as the development of resins having a radioresistance that approaches that of certain ceramics are discussed. Sources of irradiation and the techniques of dosimetry used are described. The structures of certain epoxy resins and of hardeners are given. The preparation of these resins and their physical properties is described. The effects of radiation on epoxy resins, as well as conditions of irradiation, and suggested mechanisms for degradation of the irradiated resins are discussed. The relationship between chemical structure of the resins and their physical properties is evaluated. (115 references) (JCB)

  6. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  7. Microbial Communities of Three Sympatric Australian Stingless Bee Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D.; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing – among other taxa – host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4–5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  8. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday's Enemy Becomes Today's Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-02-22

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson's disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes.

  9. Physiological processes related to the bee swarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Svoboda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential genetically subjected behaviours of a bee-colony is swarming. However, in the time of queen breeding and technical approach to colony division, swarming constitutes a problem in the effectiveness of controlled beekeeping and subsequently in decreasing of the attainable economic profits. The intensity of swarming is a polyfactorial phenomenon whose characteristic feature is seasonality (the availability of breed, course of weather so the swarming intensity is different in particular years. This study is connected with the research carried out at the Department of Zoo­lo­gy, Fisheries, Hydrobiology and Apiculture at Mendel University in Brno. The experiment focused on the relationship between the swarming and biological state of bee-colony was realized in three seasons of the period 2003–2005. Experimental bee-colonies were stimulated to the swarming fever by zoo-technical practices, at the same time the biological status of given bee-colony was observed. Within the process of marking of newly emerged workers there was observed their number continuously during the particular season. The samples of 3- and 4-week-old workers were instrumental to the analysis of the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The study has proved that a bee-colonies building higher number of queen cells are likely expected to be in swarming fever, b 3-week-old workers have hypopharyngeal glands in higher stage of development than 4-week-old workers, c higher stage of swarming fever is closely correlated with higher stage of de­ve­lop­ment of hypopharyngeal glands. These facts can contribute to the comprehension of the reason and relationships of the swarming.

  10. Learning context modulates aversive taste strength in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Serre, Marion; Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Dyer, Adrian G; Giurfa, Martin

    2015-03-01

    The capacity of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to detect bitter substances is controversial because they ingest without reluctance different kinds of bitter solutions in the laboratory, whereas free-flying bees avoid them in visual discrimination tasks. Here, we asked whether the gustatory perception of bees changes with the behavioral context so that tastes that are less effective as negative reinforcements in a given context become more effective in a different context. We trained bees to discriminate an odorant paired with 1 mol l(-1) sucrose solution from another odorant paired with either distilled water, 3 mol l(-1) NaCl or 60 mmol l(-1) quinine. Training was either Pavlovian [olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) in harnessed bees], or mainly operant (olfactory conditioning of free-walking bees in a Y-maze). PER-trained and maze-trained bees were subsequently tested both in their original context and in the alternative context. Whereas PER-trained bees transferred their choice to the Y-maze situation, Y-maze-trained bees did not respond with a PER to odors when subsequently harnessed. In both conditioning protocols, NaCl and distilled water were the strongest and the weakest aversive reinforcement, respectively. A significant variation was found for quinine, which had an intermediate aversive effect in PER conditioning but a more powerful effect in the Y-maze, similar to that of NaCl. These results thus show that the aversive strength of quinine varies with the learning context, and reveal the plasticity of the bee's gustatory system. We discuss the experimental constraints of both learning contexts and focus on stress as a key modulator of taste in the honey bee. Further explorations of bee taste are proposed to understand the physiology of taste modulation in bees. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Method for loading resin beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.; Rainey, R.H.; Greene, C.W.; Shockley, W.E.

    1978-01-01

    An improved method of preparing nuclear reactor fuel by carbonizing a uranium loaded cation exchange resin provided by contacting a H+ loaded resin with a uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate, comprises providing the nitrate deficient solution by a method comprising the steps of reacting in a reaction zone maintained between about 145 to 200 0 C, a first aqueous component comprising a uranyl nitrate solution having a boiling point of at least 145 0 C with a second aqueous component to provide a gaseous phase containing HNO 3 and a reaction product comprising an aqueous uranyl nitrate solution deficient in nitrate

  12. Uranium sorption by tannin resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares Rieumont, S.; Martinez Luzardo, J.; Torres Hernandez, J.; Lima Cazorla, D. de la Rosa.

    1998-01-01

    The sorption of uranium by immobilised Eucalyptus Saligna Sm. and Lysiloma latisiliqua L tannins was investigated. Immobilization condition were analyzed. These resins resulted suitable adsorbent for the concentration of uranium from aqueous systems. The sorption of uranium is pH dependent. At pH 5.5 maximum in sorption capacity is registered. The presence of appreciable amount of sodium chloride do not have any effect on uranium removal. Carbonate and calcium ions in concentrations similar to these that could be found in sea water and other natural water do not decrease the uranium uptake. Tannin resins can be used several times without an appreciable decay of their sorption capacity

  13. Antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of stingless bee Melipona scutellaris geopropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Geopropolis is a type of propolis containing resin, wax, and soil, collected by threatened stingless bee species native to tropical countries and used in folk medicine. However, studies concerning the biological activity and chemical composition of geopropolis are scarce. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antiproliferative activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) collected by Melipona scutellaris and its bioactive fraction against important clinical microorganisms as well as their in vitro cytotoxicity and chemical profile. Methods The antimicrobial activity of EEGP and fractions was examined by determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against six bacteria strains as well as their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm adherence. Total growth inhibition (TGI) was chosen to assay the antiproliferative activity of EEGP and its bioactive fraction against normal and cancer cell lines. The chemical composition of M. scutellaris geopropolis was identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results EEGP significantly inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains and S. mutans at low concentrations, and its hexane fraction (HF) presented the highest antibacterial activity. Also, both EEGP and HF inhibited S. mutans biofilm adherence (p HF demonstrated selectivity at low concentrations. The chemical analyses performed suggest the absence of flavonoids and the presence of benzophenones as geopropolis major compounds. Conclusions The empirical use of this unique type of geopropolis by folk medicine practitioners was confirmed in the present study, since it showed antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential against the cancer cell lines studied. It is possible that the major compounds found in this type of geopropolis are responsible for its properties. PMID:23356696

  14. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); DeLaurentiis, Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  15. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert,George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Hand,Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Delaurentiis,Gary M. (Jamestown, CA)

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  17. The bee microbiome: Impact on bee health and model for evolution and ecology of host-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K.; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E.; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, Robert S.; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D.; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L.; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A.; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G.; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J.; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M.; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health.

  18. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Engel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health.

  19. Pollination of tomatoes by the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, S A Bispo; Roselino, A C; Hrncir, M; Bego, L R

    2009-06-30

    The pollination effectiveness of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera was tested in tomato plots. The experiment was conducted in four greenhouses as well as in an external open plot in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The tomato plants were exposed to visits by M. quadrifasciata in one greenhouse and to A. mellifera in another; two greenhouses were maintained without bees (controls) and an open field plot was exposed to pollinators in an area where both honey bee and stingless bee colonies are abundant. We counted the number of tomatoes produced in each plot. Two hundred tomatoes from each plot were weighed, their vertical and transversal circumferences were measured, and the seeds were counted. We collected 253 Chrysomelidae, 17 Halictidae, one Paratrigona sp, and one honey bee from the flowers of the tomato plants in the open area. The largest number of fruits (1414 tomatoes), the heaviest and largest tomatoes, and the ones with the most seed were collected from the greenhouse with stingless bees. Fruits cultivated in the greenhouse with honey bees had the same weight and size as those produced in one of the control greenhouses. The stingless bee, M. quadrifasciata, was significantly more efficient than honey bees in pollinating greenhouse tomatoes.

  20. The Resin and Carder bees of south India (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae: Anthidiini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the Anthidiini of southern India. A study focused on the state of Karnataka found a hitherto unknown diversity of thirteen species. Though the number of species is not large, the generic diversity is noteworthy (eight genera represented): Anthidiellum (2 species), Anthidium (2 ...

  1. SOCIAL COMPLEXITY AND LEARNING FORAGING TASKS IN BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMAYA-MÁRQUEZ MARISOL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Social complexity and models concerning central place foraging were tested with respect to learning predictions using the social honey bee (Apis mellifera and solitary blue orchard bee (Osmia lignaria when given foraging problems. Both species were presented the same foraging problems, where 1 only reward molarity varied between flower morphs, and 2 only reward volume varied between flower morphs. Experiments utilized blue vs. white flower patches to standardize rewards in each experimental situation. Although honey bees learned faster than blue orchard bees when given a molarity difference reward problem, there was no significant difference in learning rate when presented a volume difference reward problem. Further, the rate at which blue orchard bees learned the volume difference problem was not significantly different from that with which honey bees learned about reward molarity differences. The results do not support the predictions of the social complexity theory, but do support those of the central place model

  2. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10......Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses...

  3. Cerumen of Australian stingless bees ( Tetragonula carbonaria): gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and potential anti-inflammatory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Flavia Carmelina; Brooks, Peter Richard; Wallace, Helen Margaret; Russell, Fraser Donald

    2011-04-01

    Cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. In Australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colony's health. While extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee ( Apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of Australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. In this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from Tetragonula carbonaria in South East Queensland, Australia were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and in vitro 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) cell-free assays. Extracts were tested against comparative (commercial tincture of A. mellifera propolis) and positive controls (Trolox and gallic acid). Distinct GC-MS fingerprints of a mixed diterpenic profile typical of native bee cerumen were obtained with pimaric acid (6.31 ± 0.97%, w/w), isopimaric acid (12.23 ± 3.03%, w/w), and gallic acid (5.79 ± 0.81%, w/w) tentatively identified as useful chemical markers. Characteristic flavonoids and prenylated phenolics found in honeybee propolis were absent. Cerumen extracts from T. carbonaria inhibited activity of 5-LOX, an enzyme known to catalyse production of proinflammatory mediators (IC50 19.97 ± 2.67 μg/ml, mean ± SEM, n = 4). Extracts had similar potency to Trolox (IC50 12.78 ± 1.82 μg/ml), but were less potent than honeybee propolis (IC50 5.90 ± 0.62 μg/ml) or gallic acid (IC50 5.62 ± 0.35 μg/ml, P beekeeping industry.

  4. Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, W.

    2008-05-01

    Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite

  5. Diterpene resin acids in conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2006-11-01

    Diterpene resin acids are a significant component of conifer oleoresin, which is a viscous mixture of terpenoids present constitutively or inducibly upon herbivore or pathogen attack and comprises one form of chemical resistance to such attacks. This review focuses on the recent discoveries in the chemistry, biosynthesis, molecular biology, regulation, and biology of these compounds in conifers.

  6. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.; Kersting, K.

    2014-01-01

    Products based on epoxy resins as a binder have become popular in various settings, among which the construction industry and in windmill blade production, as a result of their excellent technical properties. However, due to the same properties epoxy products are a notorious cause of allergic skin

  7. Habitat Fragmentation and Native Bees: a Premature Verdict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cane

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies directly address the consequences of habitat fragmentation for communities of pollinating insects, particularly for the key pollinator group, bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes. Bees typically live in habitats where nesting substrates and bloom are patchily distributed and spatially dissociated. Bee studies have all defined habitat fragments as remnant patches of floral hosts or forests, overlooking the nesting needs of bees. Several authors conclude that habitat fragmentation is broadly deleterious, but their own data show that some native species proliferate in sampled fragments. Other studies report greater densities and comparable diversities of native bees at flowers in some fragment size classes relative to undisrupted habitats, but find dramatic shifts in species composition. Insightful studies of habitat fragmentation and bees will consider fragmentation, alteration, and loss of nesting habitats, not just patches of forage plants, as well as the permeability of the surrounding matrix to interpatch movement. Inasmuch as the floral associations and nesting habits of bees are often attributes of species or subgenera, ecological interpretations hinge on authoritative identifications. Study designs must accommodate statistical problems associated with bee community samples, especially non-normal data and frequent zero values. The spatial scale of fragmentation must be appreciated: bees of medium body size can regularly fly 1-2 km from nest site to forage patch. Overall, evidence for prolonged persistence of substantial diversity and abundances of native bee communities in habitat fragments of modest size promises practical solutions for maintaining bee populations. Provided that reserve selection, design, and management can address the foraging and nesting needs of bees, networks of even small reserves may hold hope for sustaining considerable pollinator diversity and the ecological services pollinators provide.

  8. Anti-arthritic effects of microneedling with bee venom gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengdi Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Bee venom can significantly suppress the occurrence of gouty arthritis inflammation in rats and mice LPS inflammatory reaction. Choose the 750 μm microneedle with 10N force on skin about 3 minutes, bee venom can play the optimal role, and the anti-inflammatory effect is obvious. Microneedles can promote the percutaneous absorption of the active macromolecules bee venom gel.

  9. Flight of the bumble bee: Buzzes predict pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Struttmann, Nicole E; Heise, David; Schul, Johannes; Geib, Jennifer C; Galen, Candace

    2017-01-01

    Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search. We analyzed passive acoustic survey data from three locations on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado to estimate bumble bee activity. We developed an algorithm based on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis that identified and quantified the number of buzzes recorded in each location. We then compared visual and acoustic estimates of bumble bee activity. Using pollinator exclusion experiments, we tested the power of buzz density to predict pollination services at the landscape scale for two bumble bee pollinated alpine forbs (Trifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi). We found that the characteristic frequency was correlated with traits known to affect pollination efficacy, explaining 30-52% of variation in body size and tongue length. Buzz density was highly correlated with visual estimates of bumble bee density (r = 0.97), indicating that acoustic signals are predictive of bumble bee activity. Buzz density predicted seed set in two alpine forbs when bumble bees were permitted access to the flowers, but not when they were excluded from visiting. Our results indicate that acoustic signatures of flight can be deciphered to monitor bee activity and pollination services to bumble bee pollinated plants. We propose that applications of this technique could assist scientists and farmers in rapidly detecting and responding to bee

  10. Flight of the bumble bee: Buzzes predict pollination services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Miller-Struttmann

    Full Text Available Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search. We analyzed passive acoustic survey data from three locations on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado to estimate bumble bee activity. We developed an algorithm based on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis that identified and quantified the number of buzzes recorded in each location. We then compared visual and acoustic estimates of bumble bee activity. Using pollinator exclusion experiments, we tested the power of buzz density to predict pollination services at the landscape scale for two bumble bee pollinated alpine forbs (Trifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi. We found that the characteristic frequency was correlated with traits known to affect pollination efficacy, explaining 30-52% of variation in body size and tongue length. Buzz density was highly correlated with visual estimates of bumble bee density (r = 0.97, indicating that acoustic signals are predictive of bumble bee activity. Buzz density predicted seed set in two alpine forbs when bumble bees were permitted access to the flowers, but not when they were excluded from visiting. Our results indicate that acoustic signatures of flight can be deciphered to monitor bee activity and pollination services to bumble bee pollinated plants. We propose that applications of this technique could assist scientists and farmers in rapidly detecting and

  11. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahmoud Abdu Al-Samie Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.

  12. Flight of the bumble bee: Buzzes predict pollination services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, David; Schul, Johannes; Geib, Jennifer C.; Galen, Candace

    2017-01-01

    Multiple interacting factors drive recent declines in wild and managed bees, threatening their pollination services. Widespread and intensive monitoring could lead to more effective management of wild and managed bees. However, tracking their dynamic populations is costly. We tested the effectiveness of an inexpensive, noninvasive and passive acoustic survey technique for monitoring bumble bee behavior and pollination services. First, we assessed the relationship between the first harmonic of the flight buzz (characteristic frequency) and pollinator functional traits that influence pollination success using flight cage experiments and a literature search. We analyzed passive acoustic survey data from three locations on Pennsylvania Mountain, Colorado to estimate bumble bee activity. We developed an algorithm based on Computational Auditory Scene Analysis that identified and quantified the number of buzzes recorded in each location. We then compared visual and acoustic estimates of bumble bee activity. Using pollinator exclusion experiments, we tested the power of buzz density to predict pollination services at the landscape scale for two bumble bee pollinated alpine forbs (Trifolium dasyphyllum and T. parryi). We found that the characteristic frequency was correlated with traits known to affect pollination efficacy, explaining 30–52% of variation in body size and tongue length. Buzz density was highly correlated with visual estimates of bumble bee density (r = 0.97), indicating that acoustic signals are predictive of bumble bee activity. Buzz density predicted seed set in two alpine forbs when bumble bees were permitted access to the flowers, but not when they were excluded from visiting. Our results indicate that acoustic signatures of flight can be deciphered to monitor bee activity and pollination services to bumble bee pollinated plants. We propose that applications of this technique could assist scientists and farmers in rapidly detecting and responding to

  13. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology).

  14. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenghua; Pan, Dongdong; Teichroew, Jonathan; An, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover) and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover) in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s) to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity.

  15. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghua Xie

    Full Text Available Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity.

  16. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report......, we identify an important gap in the specification on key updates, and present a methodology for determining optimal key update policies and security parameters. We exploit the stochastic model checking approach using the probabilistic model checker PRISM, and assess the security needs for realistic...

  17. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS QUEEN BEES MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern queens maintenance systems are based on the use of artificial insemination, queens’ maintenance in the so called „queens bank” , in this way assuring an increased economic efficiency in beekeeping. This study aimed to compare the economic efficiency of the implementation of A.I. to various queen bees maintenance systems. Three alternatives have been taken into account: V1-a queen bee in a cage together with her bees, V2- a queen bank system and V3 – a queen bee in a nucleus. For each queen bee maintenance alternative have been evaluated the most important indicators such as: expenses, incomes, profit, number of marketable inseminated and selected queen bees, honey production, cost/queen, revenue/queen, profit/queen, profit rate. The most effective alternative was the queen bank system assuring 2,400 marketable queen bees and 20 kg honey delivered yearly, USD 12,442 incomes, USD 3,400 expenses, USD 9,042 profit, that is USD 3.77/queen bee and 265.72 % profit rate under the condition as A.I. costs are just USD 1,058, representing 31.1 % of total queen bees maintenance costs.

  18. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    Denmark and under widespread cultivation in the rest of the world. A review study (IV) of the literature on wild bees and their pollination services in flowering crops make up the final part of the thesis. The review study aimed to assess how wild bees may respond to landscape parameters based...... on their biology, in particular diet, habitat requirements and sociality. At a regional scale (I) bee activity-density and species richness was higher in Denmark and Germany compared to South and Mid Norway, whereas the mean bee body size was higher in South- and Mid-Norway. At landscape scale (II) hedges...

  19. Bees of the Azores: an annotated checklist (Apidae, Hymenoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Julie A; Picanço, Ana; Borges, Paulo A V; Schaefer, Hanno

    2017-01-01

    We report 18 species of wild bees plus the domesticated honeybee from the Azores, which adds nine species to earlier lists. One species, Hylaeus azorae , seems to be a single island endemic, and three species are possibly native ( Colletes eous , Halictus villosulus , and Hylaeus pictipes ). All the remaining bee species are most likely accidental introductions that arrived after human colonization of the archipelago in the 15 th century. Bee diversity in the Azores is similar to bee diversity of Madeira and Cape Verde but nearly ten times lower than it is in the Canary Islands.

  20. Comparative bioacoustical studies on flight and buzzing of neotropical bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Burkart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bees is typically accompanied by the humming sound of their flight. Bees of several tribes are also capable of pollen collecting by vibration, known as buzzing behaviour, which produces a buzzing sound, different from the flight sound. An open question is whether bee species have species-specific buzzing patterns or frequencies dependent of the bees' morphology or are capable to adjust their indivudual buzzing sound to optimize pollen return. The investigations to approach this issue were performed in northeastern Brazil near Recife in the state of Pernambuco. We present a new field method using a commercially available portable system able to record the sound of bees during flight and buzzing at flowers. Further, we describe computer linguistical algorithms to analyse the frequency of the recorded sound sequences. With this method, we recorded the flight and buzzing sequences of 59 individual bees out of 12 species visiting the flowers of Solanum stramoniifolium and S. paniculatum. Our findings demonstrate a typical frequency range for the sounds produced by the bees of a species. Our statistical analysis shows a strong correlation of bee size and flight frequency and demonstrate that bee species use different frequency patterns.

  1. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Responses According to Sasang Constitution and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chaeweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300 or sexual difference (P = 0.163. Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference.

  2. Determination of acute oral toxicity of flumethrin in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Hranitz, J M; Sorucu, A; Duell, M; Cakmak, I; Aydin, L; Orman, A

    2012-12-01

    Flumethrin is one of many pesticides used for the control and treatment of varroatosis in honey bees and for the control of mosquitoes and ticks in the environment. For the control of varroatosis, flumethrin is applied to hives formulated as a plastic strip for several weeks. During this time, honey bees are treated topically with flumethrin, and hive products may accumulate the pesticide. Honey bees may indirectly ingest flumethrin through hygienic behaviors during the application period and receive low doses of flumethrin through comb wax remodeling after the application period. The goal of our study was to determine the acute oral toxicity of flumethrin and observe the acute effects on motor coordination in honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca). Six doses (between 0.125 and 4.000 microg per bee) in a geometric series were studied. The acute oral LD50 of flumethrin was determined to be 0.527 and 0.178 microg per bee (n = 210, 95% CI) for 24 and 48 h, respectively. Orally administered flumethrin is highly toxic to honey bees. Oral flumethrin disrupted the motor coordination of honey bees. Honey bees that ingested flumethrin exhibited convulsions in the antennae, legs, and wings at low doses. At higher doses, partial and total paralysis in the antennae, legs, wings, proboscises, bodies, and twitches in the antennae and legs were observed.

  3. Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremen, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Thorp, Robbin W

    2002-12-24

    Ecosystem services are critical to human survival; in selected cases, maintaining these services provides a powerful argument for conserving biodiversity. Yet, the ecological and economic underpinnings of most services are poorly understood, impeding their conservation and management. For centuries, farmers have imported colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to fields and orchards for pollination services. These colonies are becoming increasingly scarce, however, because of diseases, pesticides, and other impacts. Native bee communities also provide pollination services, but the amount they provide and how this varies with land management practices are unknown. Here, we document the individual species and aggregate community contributions of native bees to crop pollination, on farms that varied both in their proximity to natural habitat and management type (organic versus conventional). On organic farms near natural habitat, we found that native bee communities could provide full pollination services even for a crop with heavy pollination requirements (e.g., watermelon, Citrullus lanatus), without the intervention of managed honey bees. All other farms, however, experienced greatly reduced diversity and abundance of native bees, resulting in insufficient pollination services from native bees alone. We found that diversity was essential for sustaining the service, because of year-to-year variation in community composition. Continued degradation of the agro-natural landscape will destroy this "free" service, but conservation and restoration of bee habitat are potentially viable economic alternatives for reducing dependence on managed honey bees.

  4. Infestation of Japanese native honey bees by tracheal mite and virus from non-native European honey bees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Morimoto, Tomomi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-11-01

    Invasion of alien species has been shown to cause detrimental effects on habitats of native species. Insect pollinators represent such examples; the introduction of commercial bumble bee species for crop pollination has resulted in competition for an ecological niche with native species, genetic disturbance caused by mating with native species, and pathogen spillover to native species. The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, was first introduced into Japan for apiculture in 1877, and queen bees have been imported from several countries for many years. However, its effects on Japanese native honey bee, Apis cerana japonica, have never been addressed. We thus conducted the survey of honey bee viruses and Acarapis mites using both A. mellifera and A. c. japonica colonies to examine their infestation in native and non-native honey bee species in Japan. Honey bee viruses, Deformed wing virus (DWV), Black queen cell virus (BQCV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and Sacbrood virus (SBV), were found in both A. mellifera and A. c. japonica colonies; however, the infection frequency of viruses in A. c. japonica was lower than that in A. mellifera colonies. Based on the phylogenies of DWV, BQCV, and SBV isolates from A. mellifera and A. c. japonica, DWV and BQCV may infect both honey bee species; meanwhile, SBV has a clear species barrier. For the first time in Japan, tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) was specifically found in the dead honey bees from collapsing A. c. japonica colonies. This paper thus provides further evidence that tracheal-mite-infested honey bee colonies can die during cool winters with no other disease present. These results demonstrate the infestation of native honey bees by parasite and pathogens of non-native honey bees that are traded globally.

  5. EDF specifications on nuclear grade resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Darren; Gressier, Frederic; Taunier, Stephane; Le-Calvar, Marc; Ranchoux, Gilles; Marteau, Herve; Labed, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchange resins are widely used across EDF, especially within the nuclear division for the purification of water. Important applications include primary circuit, secondary circuit and effluent treatment, which require high quality nuclear grade resins to retain the dissolved species, some of which may be radioactive. There is a need for more and more efficient purification in order to decrease worker dose during maintenance but also to decrease volumes of radioactive resin waste. Resin performance is subject to several forms of degradation, including physical, chemical, thermal and radioactive, therefore appropriate resin properties have to be selected to reduce such effects. Work has been done with research institutes, manufacturers and on EDF sites to select these properties, create specifications and to continuously improve on these specifications. An interesting example of research regarding resin performance is the resin degradation under irradiation. Resins used in the CVCS circuit of EDF nuclear power plants are subject to irradiation over their lifetime. A study was carried out on the effects of total integrated doses of 0.1, 1 and 10 MGy on typically used EDF mixed bed resins in a 'mini-CVCS' apparatus to simultaneously test actual primary circuit fluid. The tests confirmed that the resins still perform efficiently after a typical CVCS radiation dose. Certain resins also need additional specifications in order to maintain the integrity of the particular circuits they are used in. Recently, EDF has updated its requirements on these high purity nuclear grade resins, produced generic doctrines for all products and materials used on site which include resins of all grades, and as a result have also updated a guide on recommended resin usage for the French fleet of reactors. An overview of the evolutions will be presented. (authors)

  6. Importance of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Bee Products

    OpenAIRE

    OZANSOY, GÖRKEM; KÜPLÜLÜ, ÖZLEM

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidinealkaloids are one of the groups of harmful chemicals of plants, which arenatural toxins. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in about 3% of all floweringplants of widespread geographical distribution are known as one of thecomponents of the hepatotoxic group of plant origin and referred as hepatotoxicpyrrolizidine alkaloids. According to researches, bee products is regarded asone of the main food sources in the exposure of people to pyrrolizidinealkaloids. Consumption of pyrrolizidine ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  8. A review of ecosystem service benefits from wild bees across social contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Denise Margaret S; Leventon, Julia; Rau, Anna-Lena; Borgemeister, Christian; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2017-05-01

    In order to understand the role of wild bees in both social and ecological systems, we conducted a quantitative and qualitative review of publications dealing with wild bees and the benefits they provide in social contexts. We classified publications according to several attributes such as services and benefits derived from wild bees, types of bee-human interactions, recipients of direct benefits, social contexts where wild bees are found, and sources of changes to the bee-human system. We found that most of the services and benefits from wild bees are related to food, medicine, and pollination. We also found that wild bees directly provide benefits to communities to a greater extent than individuals. In the social contexts where they are found, wild bees occupy a central role. Several drivers of change affect bee-human systems, ranging from environmental to political drivers. These are the areas where we recommend making interventions for conserving the bee-human system.

  9. Why does bee health matter? The science surrounding honey bee health concerns and what we can do about it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Marla S; Browning, Zac; Goblirsch, Mike; Lee, Katie; Otto, Clint R.; Smart, Matthew; Wu-Smart, Judy

    2017-01-01

    A colony of honey bees is an amazing organism when it is healthy; it is a superorganism in many senses of the word. As with any organism, maintaining a state of health requires cohesiveness and interplay among cells and tissues and, in the case of a honey bee colony, the bees themselves. The individual bees that make up a honey bee colony deliver to the superorganism what it needs: pollen and nectar collected from flowering plants that contain nutrients necessary for growth and survival. Honey bees with access to better and more complete nutrition exhibit improved immune system function and behavioral defenses for fighting off effects of pathogens and pesticides (Evans and Spivak 2010; Mao, Schuler, and Berenbaum 2013; Wahl and Ulm 1983). Sadly, as this story is often told in the headlines, the focus is rarely about what it means for a honey bee colony to be healthy and is instead primarily focused on colony survival rates. Bee colonies are chronically exposed to parasitic mites, viruses, diseases, miticides, pesticides, and poor nutrition, which weaken and make innate defenses insufficient at overcoming these combined stressors. Colonies that are chronically weakened can be even more susceptible to infections and levels of pesticide exposure that might otherwise be innocuous, further promoting a downward spiral of health. Sick and weakened bees diminish the colony’s resiliency, ultimately leading to a breakdown in the social structure, production, efficiency, immunity, and reproduction of the colony, and eventual or sudden colony death.

  10. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Claudio; Mutinelli, Franco; Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  11. Can we disrupt the sensing of honey bees by the bee parasite Varroa destructor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Eliash

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is considered to be one of the most significant threats to apiculture around the world. Chemical cues are known to play a significant role in the host-finding behavior of Varroa. The mites distinguish between bees from different task groups, and prefer nurses over foragers. We examined the possibility of disrupting the Varroa--honey bee interaction by targeting the mite's olfactory system. In particular, we examined the effect of volatile compounds, ethers of cis 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl cyclopent-2-en-1-ol or of dihydroquinone, resorcinol or catechol. We tested the effect of these compounds on the Varroa chemosensory organ by electrophysiology and on behavior in a choice bioassay. The electrophysiological studies were conducted on the isolated foreleg. In the behavioral bioassay, the mite's preference between a nurse and a forager bee was evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that in the presence of some compounds, the response of the Varroa chemosensory organ to honey bee headspace volatiles significantly decreased. This effect was dose dependent and, for some of the compounds, long lasting (>1 min. Furthermore, disruption of the Varroa volatile detection was accompanied by a reversal of the mite's preference from a nurse to a forager bee. Long-term inhibition of the electrophysiological responses of mites to the tested compounds was a good predictor for an alteration in the mite's host preference. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate the potential of the selected compounds to disrupt the Varroa--honey bee associations, thus opening new avenues for Varroa control.

  12. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  13. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  14. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Garratt, Michael P D; Howlett, Brad G; Winfree, Rachael; Cunningham, Saul A; Mayfield, Margaret M; Arthur, Anthony D; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Chacoff, Natacha P; Entling, Martin H; Foully, Benjamin; Freitas, Breno M; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Griffin, Sean R; Gross, Caroline L; Herbertsson, Lina; Herzog, Felix; Hipólito, Juliana; Jaggar, Sue; Jauker, Frank; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleijn, David; Krishnan, Smitha; Lemos, Camila Q; Lindström, Sandra A M; Mandelik, Yael; Monteiro, Victor M; Nelson, Warrick; Nilsson, Lovisa; Pattemore, David E; Pereira, Natália de O; Pisanty, Gideon; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Rundlöf, Maj; Sheffield, Cory S; Scheper, Jeroen; Schüepp, Christof; Smith, Henrik G; Stanley, Dara A; Stout, Jane C; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Taki, Hisatomo; Vergara, Carlos H; Viana, Blandina F; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-05

    Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25-50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines.

  15. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Howlett, Brad G.; Winfree, Rachael; Cunningham, Saul A.; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Arthur, Anthony D.; Andersson, Georg K. S.; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luísa G.; Chacoff, Natacha P.; Entling, Martin H.; Foully, Benjamin; Freitas, Breno M.; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Griffin, Sean R.; Gross, Caroline L.; Herbertsson, Lina; Herzog, Felix; Hipólito, Juliana; Jaggar, Sue; Jauker, Frank; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleijn, David; Krishnan, Smitha; Lemos, Camila Q.; Lindström, Sandra A. M.; Mandelik, Yael; Monteiro, Victor M.; Nelson, Warrick; Nilsson, Lovisa; Pattemore, David E.; de O. Pereira, Natália; Pisanty, Gideon; Potts, Simon G.; Reemer, Menno; Rundlöf, Maj; Sheffield, Cory S.; Scheper, Jeroen; Schüepp, Christof; Smith, Henrik G.; Stanley, Dara A.; Stout, Jane C.; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Taki, Hisatomo; Vergara, Carlos H.; Viana, Blandina F.; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25–50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines. PMID:26621730

  16. ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON NATIVE BEES BY THE INVASIVE AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID ROUBIK

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Very little effort has been made to investigate bee population dynamics among intact wilderness areas. The presence of newly-arrived feral Africanized honey bee (AHB, Apis mellifera (Apidae, populations was studied for 10-17 years in areas previously with few or no escaped European apiary honey bees. Here I describe and interpret the major results from studies in three neotropical forests: French Guiana, Panama and Yucatan, Mexico (5° to 19° N. latitude. The exotic Africanized honey bees did not produce a negative effect on native bees, including species that were solitary or highly eusocial. Major differences over time were found in honey bee abundance on flowers near habitat experiencing the greatest degree of disturbance, compared to deep forest areas. At the population level, sampled at nest blocks, or at flower patches, or at light traps, there was no sudden decline in bees after AHB arrival, and relatively steady or sinusoidal population dynamics. However, the native bees shifted their foraging time or floral species. A principal conclusion is that such competition is silent, in floristically rich habitats, because bees compensate behaviorally for competition. Other factors limit their populations. Key words: Africanized honey bee, native bees, competition, population dynamics, neotropical forests RESUMEN Pocos estudios han considerado la dinámica de poblaciones de abejas en bosques o hábitats no alterados por el hombre. La presencia de abejas silvestres Africanizadas de Apis mellifera (Apidae fue estudiado por 10-17 años en áreas previamente sin esta especie. Aquí presento e interpreto resultados de tres bosques neotropicales: Guyana Francesa, Panamá y Yucatán, México (5° a 19° N. latitud. La abeja Africanizada exótica no produjo efecto negativo en las abejas nativas, incluyendo especies altamente sociales y solitarias. Diferencias mayores a través del tiempo fueron encontradas en la abundancia de las abejas de miel

  17. Synthesis of Hydrophobic, Crosslinkable Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    Bismaleimides have also been crosslinked with radical initiators to produce brittle networks [4].If a damine is added, chain extension and radical crosslinkinq...are produced during cure.The company also produced a similar phenylene based resin, with pendant nitrile groups which could be crosslinked without the...benzenes and tetra substituted cyclopentadienones [881. g. Preparation of poly 1,4 phenylene by nickel (0> catalysed electropolymerisation 1891. Cont’d

  18. RNAi and Antiviral Defense in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Brutscher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees play an important agricultural and ecological role as pollinators of numerous agricultural crops and other plant species. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with high annual losses of honey bee colonies in the US is an important and active area of research. Pathogen incidence and abundance correlate with Colony Collapse Disorder- (CCD- affected colonies in the US and colony losses in the US and in some European countries. Honey bees are readily infected by single-stranded positive sense RNA viruses. Largely dependent on the host immune response, virus infections can either remain asymptomatic or result in deformities, paralysis, or death of adults or larvae. RNA interference (RNAi is an important antiviral defense mechanism in insects, including honey bees. Herein, we review the role of RNAi in honey bee antiviral defense and highlight some parallels between insect and mammalian immune systems. A more thorough understanding of the role of pathogens on honey bee health and the immune mechanisms bees utilize to combat infectious agents may lead to the development of strategies that enhance honey bee health and result in the discovery of additional mechanisms of immunity in metazoans.

  19. Bee Diversity (Hymenoptera: Apoidea in a Tropical Rainforest Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Smith-Pardo

    2007-01-01

    15.356 specimens were collected, belonging to four families and 287 species, representing 62% of all bee species found in Colombia. About 50% of all individuals sampled were stingless social bees (Apidae, Meliponini. Trigona (Trigona fulviventris was the most abundant species (~10% in the survey. Augochlora and Megachile were the most specious genera. The pasture and secondary forest showed high values of diversity and richness and were significantly higher than those of the mature forest and low shrubs. In all successional stages, except in the mature forest, the number of new species collected in each sample period approached zero and the species accumulation curves tended to stabilize as time and sampling area increased. The net was the most efficient method in all successional stages, except in the forest, where most bee species and individuals were collected with the Van Somer trap. However, a higher percentage (50% of rare species was collected with the Malaise trap. The number of new species collected in each sampled period and the species accumulation curves suggest that our survey was nearly sufficient to estimate the bee diversity in these early successional stages, but insufficient to study the mature forest apifauna. Due to the high efficiency of the Van Somer trap to attract bees in the forest, this trap should be used regularly in additional bee surveys in tropical rain forests. We also summarize the bee surveys in Colombia and highlight the importance of using other less common sampling methods to study bees from tropical ecosystems.

  20. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Appler, R Holden; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Tarpy, David R; Frank, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  1. The importance of bees in natural and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rhoades

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s most important group of pollinators, bees are a crucial part of agricultural production and natural ecosystem function. Bees and the pollination they provide are relevant to the nursery industry because of their role in the performance of seed increase plots as well as the importance of pollination in supporting persistent plant communities in restored...

  2. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per; Nieh, James C

    2016-02-25

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite manipulation to increase colony infection. However, reduction in queen contacts could help bees limit the spread of infection. Such accelerated age polyethism may provide a form of behavioural immunity, particularly if it is elicited by a wide variety of pathogens.

  3. Found in Translation: Weather, your bees live or die

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies, along with humans and the rest of life on Earth, are strongly impacted by the weather. As a species, Apis mellifera has succeeded incredibly well from the tropics to the colder regions of Europe and Asia. With help from their human keepers, honey bees now live across most of the ...

  4. Toxicity assessment of glyphosate on honey bee (Apis mellifera) spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2016-2017, 33.2% of managed honey bee colonies in the U.S. were lost due to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Commonly used pesticides are among the suspected reasons for bee mortality. N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate) is a widely used herbicide in the U.S. and has previously been shown ...

  5. The basic concept of honey bee breeding programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzunov, A.; Brascamp, Pim; Büchler, R.

    2017-01-01

    Selective honey bee breeding is a phenomenon that fascinates beekeepers around the world. They often regard it as one of the most enigmatic and complex aspects of beekeeping. Indeed, according to our experiences participating in many international projects, both beekeepers and bee experts without a

  6. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Uribe, Margarita M.; Tarpy, David R.; Frank, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus), the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators. PMID:26536606

  7. Determinants of poverty among bee farmers: An antidote for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the poverty status of bee-farmers in two ecological zones of Kwara State, Nigeria with modern bee-keeping farmers as a case study. Primary data subjected to a pre-survey which involved structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered using multistage random technique to selected ...

  8. A survey of indigenous knowledge of stingless bees (Apidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The indigenous knowledge on stingless bees was assessed using questionnaires and semi-directive methods from five farming communities around the Kakum National Park in the Central Region of. Ghana. Stingless bees are very good pollinators of both wild and cultivated crops and also produce honey and propolis that ...

  9. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in Practice for Earth's Buzzing Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John

    2010-01-01

    The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…

  10. The pollen-collecting activities of some andrenid bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans-Bakels, F.N.

    1972-01-01

    Information about the pollen-collecting activities of bees is usually based on field observations. From such records it cannot be inferred whether pollen was actually collected, as bees, especially the males, also may visit flowers to suck honey or to rest. One may expect more exact data from an

  11. Behavioural evidence of colour vision in free flying stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaethe, J; Streinzer, M; Eckert, J; May, S; Dyer, A G

    2014-06-01

    Colour vision was first demonstrated with behavioural experiments in honeybees 100 years ago. Since that time a wealth of quality physiological data has shown a highly conserved set of trichromatic colour receptors in most bee species. Despite the subsequent wealth of behavioural research on honeybees and bumblebees, there currently is a relative dearth of data on stingless bees, which are the largest tribe of the eusocial bees comprising of more than 600 species. In our first experiment we tested Trigona cf. fuscipennis, a stingless bee species from Costa Rica in a field setting using the von Frisch method and show functional colour vision. In a second experiment with these bees, we use a simultaneous colour discrimination test designed for honeybees to enable a comparative analysis of relative colour discrimination. In a third experiment, we test in laboratory conditions Tetragonula carbonaria, an Australian stingless bee species using a similar simultaneous colour discrimination test. Both stingless bee species show relatively poorer colour discrimination compared to honeybees and bumblebees; and we discuss the value of being able to use these behavioural methods to efficiently extend our current knowledge of colour vision and discrimination in different bee species.

  12. A honey bee can threat ear: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzenli, Ufuk; Bozan, Nazım; Ayral, Abdurrahman; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Kıroğlu, Ahmet Faruk

    2017-11-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is an otologic emergency. Many etiological factors can lead to this pathology. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sting may lead to local and systemic reactions due to sensitization of the patient. In this paper we described a sudden sensorineural hearing loss occurred after honey bee sting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymatic basis of mannose toxicity in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLS, A; CADENAS, E; ALVARADO, F

    1960-01-29

    Honey bees have a negligible amount of phosphomannoseisomerase, together with a high content of a hexokinase which phosphorylates mannose more efficiently than fructose or glucose. Competition at the phosphorylation level plus accumulation of mannose-6-phosphate can fully account for the toxicity of mannose in honey bees.

  14. A comparative study of marriage in honey bees optimisation (MBO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-15

    Feb 15, 2012 ... lar social animals considered in swarm intelligence studies. Among different honey bee activities, foraging, nest site selec- tion and mating are the most important fields used to create artificial algorithms. Yonezawa and Kikuchi (1996) examined the foraging behavior of honey bees and constructed an ...

  15. Evaluation of adhesion of reline resins to the thermoplastic denture base resin for non-metal clasp denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hye; Choe, Han Cheol; Son, Mee Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the tensile and transverse bond strength of chairside reline resins (Tokuyama Rebase II, Mild Rebaron LC) to a thermoplastic acrylic resin (Acrytone) used for non metal clasp denture. The results were compared with those of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin (Paladent 20) and a thermoplastic polyamide resin (Biotone). The failure sites were examined by scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the mode of failure. As results, the bond strength of reline resins to a thermoplastic acrylic resin was similar to the value of a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin. However, thermoplastic polyamide resin showed the lowest value. The results of this study indicated that a thermoplastic acrylic resin for non metal clasps denture allows chairside reline and repair. It was also found that the light-polymerized reline resin had better bond strength than the autopolymerizing reline resin in relining for a conventional heat polymerized acrylic resin and a thermoplastic acrylic resin.

  16. Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae): The elusive "dwarf bee" of the Galapagos Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endemic large carpenter bee, Xylocopa darwini Cockerell, was the only known bee pollinator to the Galapagos Archipelago but as early as 1964 locals also spoke of the "dwarf bee of Floreana". We report the presence of the wool carder bee, Anthidium vigintiduopunctatum Friese, on the island of Fl...

  17. 75 FR 76405 - Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [CPSC Docket No. 11-C0002] Winter Bee, Inc., Provisional...(e).\\1\\ Published below is a provisionally-accepted Settlement Agreement with Winter Bee, Inc... 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Winter Bee, Inc. (``Winter Bee'') and the staff (``Staff'') of...

  18. An artificial bee colony algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szeto, W.Y.; Wu, Yongzhong; Ho, Sin C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces an artificial bee colony heuristic for solving the capacitated vehicle routing problem. The artificial bee colony heuristic is a swarm-based heuristic, which mimics the foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. An enhanced version of the artificial bee colony heuristic is also...

  19. Comparative testing of different methods for evaluation of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay D. Dobrynin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different methods for evaluation of the degree of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies were tested. The methods using in vivo evaluation were the most sparing for the bees but less precise. The methods using evaluation with the killing of the bees or brood were the most precise but less sparing for bees.

  20. Ecological and evolutionary approaches to managing honey bee disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Berry J.; Delaplane, Keith S.; Boots, Michael; de Roode, Jacobus C.

    2017-01-01

    Honey bee declines are a serious threat to global agricultural security and productivity. While multiple factors contribute to these declines, parasites are a key driver. Disease problems in honey bees have intensified in recent years, despite increasing attention to addressing them. Here we argue that we must focus on the principles of disease ecology and evolution to understand disease dynamics, assess the severity of disease threats, and manage these threats via honey bee management. We cover the ecological context of honey bee disease, including both host and parasite factors driving current transmission dynamics, and then discuss evolutionary dynamics including how beekeeping management practices may drive selection for more virulent parasites. We then outline how ecological and evolutionary principles can guide disease mitigation in honey bees, including several practical management suggestions for addressing short- and long-term disease dynamics and consequences. PMID:29046562

  1. Bees without flowers: before peak bloom, diverse native bees find insect-produced honeydew sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee foragers respond to complex visual, olfactory, and extrasensory cues to optimize searches for floral rewards. Their abilities to detect and distinguish floral colors, shapes, volatiles, and ultraviolet signals, and even gauge nectar availability from changes in floral humidity or electric fields...

  2. Bee++: An Object-Oriented, Agent-Based Simulator for Honey Bee Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Betti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a model and associated simulation package (www.beeplusplus.ca to capture the natural dynamics of a honey bee colony in a spatially-explicit landscape, with temporally-variable, weather-dependent parameters. The simulation tracks bees of different ages and castes, food stores within the colony, pollen and nectar sources and the spatial position of individual foragers outside the hive. We track explicitly the intake of pesticides in individual bees and their ability to metabolize these toxins, such that the impact of sub-lethal doses of pesticides can be explored. Moreover, pathogen populations (in particular, Nosema apis, Nosema cerenae and Varroa mites have been included in the model and may be introduced at any time or location. The ability to study interactions among pesticides, climate, biodiversity and pathogens in this predictive framework should prove useful to a wide range of researchers studying honey bee populations. To this end, the simulation package is written in open source, object-oriented code (C++ and can be easily modified by the user. Here, we demonstrate the use of the model by exploring the effects of sub-lethal pesticide exposure on the flight behaviour of foragers.

  3. Resin selection criteria for tough composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Smith, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    Resin selection criteria are derived using a structured methodology consisting of an upward integrated mechanistic theory and its inverse (top-down structured theory). These criteria are expressed in a "criteria selection space" which are used to identify resin bulk properties for improved composite "toughness". The resin selection criteria correlate with a variety of experimental data including laminate strength, elevated temperature effects and impact resistance.

  4. Solidifying power station resins and sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.S.D.; Haigh, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive ion exchange resins and sludges arise at nuclear power stations from various operations associated with effluent treatment and liquid waste management. As the result of an intensive development programme, the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has designed a process to convert power station resins and sludges into a shielded, packaged solid monolithic form suitable for final disposal. Research and development, the generic CEGB sludge/resin conditioning plant and the CEGB Active Waste Project are described. (U.K.)

  5. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Nagem Filho, Halim; Nagem, Haline Drumond; Francisconi, Paulo Afonso Silveira; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Coutinho, Kennedy Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill ...

  6. Porous Ceramic Spheres from Ion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynys, Fred

    2005-01-01

    A commercial cation ion exchange resin, cross-linked polystyrene, has been successfully used as a template to fabricate 20 to 50 micron porous ceramic spheres. Ion exchange resins have dual template capabilities. Pore architecture of the ceramic spheres can be altered by changing the template pattern. Templating can be achieved by utilizing the internal porous structure or the external surface of the resin beads. Synthesis methods and chemical/physical characteristics of the ceramic spheres will be reported.

  7. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion wit...

  8. Molecular genetic analysis of Varroa destructor mites in brood, fallen injured mites and worker bee longevity in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important traits that contribute to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony survival are resistance to Varroa destructor and longevity of worker bees. We investigated the relationship between a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and three phenotypic measurements of colonies: a) perc...

  9. Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J; Henderson, Colin B; Seccomb, Robert A; Welch, Phillip M; Debnam, Scott E; Firth, David R

    2015-10-30

    This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%-80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

  10. Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J. Bromenshenk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%–80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

  11. Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.; Seccomb, Robert A.; Welch, Phillip M.; Debnam, Scott E.; Firth, David R.

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%–80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management. PMID:26529030

  12. Studies of learned helplessness in honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinges, Christopher W; Varnon, Christopher A; Cota, Lisa D; Slykerman, Stephen; Abramson, Charles I

    2017-04-01

    The current study reports 2 experiments investigating learned helplessness in the honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica). In Experiment 1, we used a traditional escape method but found the bees' activity levels too high to observe changes due to treatment conditions. The bees were not able to learn in this traditional escape procedure; thus, such procedures may be inappropriate to study learned helplessness in honey bees. In Experiment 2, we used an alternative punishment, or passive avoidance, method to investigate learned helplessness. Using a master and yoked design where bees were trained as either master or yoked and tested as either master or yoked, we found that prior training with unavoidable and inescapable shock in the yoked condition interfered with avoidance and escape behavior in the later master condition. Unlike control bees, learned helplessness bees failed to restrict their movement to the safe compartment following inescapable shock. Unlike learned helplessness studies in other animals, no decrease in general activity was observed. Furthermore, we did not observe a "freezing" response to inescapable aversive stimuli-a phenomenon, thus far, consistently observed in learned helplessness tests with other species. The bees, instead, continued to move back and forth between compartments despite punishment in the incorrect compartment. These findings suggest that, although traditional escape methods may not be suitable, honey bees display learned helplessness in passive avoidance procedures. Thus, regardless of behavioral differences from other species, honey bees can be a unique invertebrate model organism for the study of learned helplessness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenum assay. Total polyphenol content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and total flavonoid content by aluminium-chloride method. Secondary was also evaluated antimicrobial activity in bee bread samples with disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antioxidant activity expressed as mg TEAC per g of dry weight (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was the highest in bee bread from Poltava oblast in DPPH and also phosphomolybdenum method. Samples of bee bread contained high levels of total polyphenols (12.36 - 18.24 mg GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight and flavonoids (13.56 - 18.24 μg QE - quercetin equivalent per g of dry weight with the best values of bee bread from Poltava oblast. An elevated level of antioxidant potential in the bee bread determines its biological properties, which conditioned of the biological active substances. The best antibacterial activity of bee bred with disc diffusion method was found against Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19. The antibacterial activity inhibited by the bee bread extract in the present study indicate that best minimal inhibition concentration was against bacteria Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Salmonella enterica subs. enterica CCM 3807.

  14. A Study on Major Components of Bee Venom Using Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jin-Seon

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study on major components of various Bee Venom(Bee Venom by electrical stimulation in Korea; K-BV I, Bee Venom by Microwave stimulation in Korea; K -BV II, 0.5rng/ml, Fu Yu Pharmaceutical Factory, China; C-BV, 1mg /ml, Monmouth Pain Institute, Inc., U.S.A.; A-BV using Electrophoresis. The results were summarized as follows: 1. In 1:4000 Bee Venom solution rate, the band was not displayed distinctly usmg Electrophoresis. But in 1: 1000, the band showed clearly. 2. The results of Electrophoresis at solution rate 1:1000, K-BV I and K-BVII showed similar band. 3. The molecular weight of Phospholipase A2 was known as 19,000 but its band was seen at 17,000 in Electrophoresis. 4. Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was different at solution rate 1:4000 ; C-BV was 250μg/ml, K-BV I was 190μg/ml, K-BV Ⅱ was 160μg/ml and C-BV was 45μg/ml. 5. Electrophoresis method was unuseful for analysis of Bee Venom when solution rate is above 1:4000 but Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was possible. These data from the study can be applied to establish the standard measurement of Bee Venom and prevent pure bee venom from mixing of another components. I think it is desirable to study more about safety of Bee Venom as time goes by.

  15. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  16. Microbiological study of water-softener resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, J M; Engelhard, W E; Parsons, J E

    1969-09-01

    Microbial identification using effluents backflushed from exhausted urban and rural tank resins and cleaned resins containing the sulfonated copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene (SDB) were completed, along with microbial assessment of the concentrated stock salt brine. Forty-four different bacterial and fungal genera were identified. Extensive biochemical and animal virulence tests completed on one of the six bacterial salt brine isolates indicated a pathogenic staphylococcal strain. The retention of Staphylococcus aureus, a Flavobacterium sp, and Escherichia coli B bacteriophage was demonstrated both by using the nonexhausted sodium-regenerated resin and by using the same resin exchanged with different mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. Effluent counts completed after bacterial seepage through the resins indicated the Pb(++) exchanged resin removed 55% of the bacteria; Na(+), Fe(++), and Al(+++) removed 31 to 36% and Ca(++) and Cu(++) removed about 10 to 15%. Seventy per cent or more of the bacteriophage was removed by Fe(++), Cu(++), and Al(+++), whereas the Ca(++) and Na(++) cations removed 25 to 31%. Over a 77-day period, nonsterile tap water was passed through bacterial seeded and uninoculated SDB (Na) resin columns. Effluent and resin elution counts demonstrated the growth and survival of 2 different bacteria per column. Increased bacterial retention, survival, and multiplication occurred concomitantly with accumulation of organic and inorganic materials and the Ca(++) and Mg(++) cations from the tap water. Furthermore, microbial elution from resin particles taken from column depths of 1, 8, and 16 cm indicated a bacterial diminution with increasing depths.

  17. Wing shape of four new bee fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila provides insights to bee evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Dehon

    Full Text Available Bees (Anthophila are one of the major groups of angiosperm-pollinating insects and accordingly are widely studied in both basic and applied research, for which it is essential to have a clear understanding of their phylogeny, and evolutionary history. Direct evidence of bee evolutionary history has been hindered by a dearth of available fossils needed to determine the timing and tempo of their diversification, as well as episodes of extinction. Here we describe four new compression fossils of bees from three different deposits (Miocene of la Cerdanya, Spain; Oligocene of Céreste, France; and Eocene of the Green River Formation, U.S.A.. We assess the similarity of the forewing shape of the new fossils with extant and fossil taxa using geometric morphometrics analyses. Predictive discriminant analyses show that three fossils share similar forewing shapes with the Apidae [one of uncertain tribal placement and perhaps near Euglossini, one definitive bumble bee (Bombini, and one digger bee (Anthophorini], while one fossil is more similar to the Andrenidae. The corbiculate fossils are described as Euglossopteryx biesmeijeri De Meulemeester, Michez, & Engel, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Euglossopteryx Dehon & Engel, n. gen. and Bombus cerdanyensis Dehon, De Meulemeester, & Engel, sp. nov. They provide new information on the distribution and timing of particular corbiculate groups, most notably the extension into North America of possible Eocene-Oligocene cooling-induced extinctions. Protohabropoda pauli De Meulemeester & Michez, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Protohabropoda Dehon & Engel, n. gen. reinforces previous hypotheses of anthophorine evolution in terms of ecological shifts by the Oligocene from tropical to mesic or xeric habitats. Lastly, a new fossil of the Andreninae, Andrena antoinei Michez & De Meulemeester, sp. nov., further documents the presence of the today widespread genus Andrena Fabricius in the Late Oligocene of France.

  18. Wing shape of four new bee fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) provides insights to bee evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Nel, André; Engel, Michael S; De Meulemeester, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Bees (Anthophila) are one of the major groups of angiosperm-pollinating insects and accordingly are widely studied in both basic and applied research, for which it is essential to have a clear understanding of their phylogeny, and evolutionary history. Direct evidence of bee evolutionary history has been hindered by a dearth of available fossils needed to determine the timing and tempo of their diversification, as well as episodes of extinction. Here we describe four new compression fossils of bees from three different deposits (Miocene of la Cerdanya, Spain; Oligocene of Céreste, France; and Eocene of the Green River Formation, U.S.A.). We assess the similarity of the forewing shape of the new fossils with extant and fossil taxa using geometric morphometrics analyses. Predictive discriminant analyses show that three fossils share similar forewing shapes with the Apidae [one of uncertain tribal placement and perhaps near Euglossini, one definitive bumble bee (Bombini), and one digger bee (Anthophorini)], while one fossil is more similar to the Andrenidae. The corbiculate fossils are described as Euglossopteryx biesmeijeri De Meulemeester, Michez, & Engel, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Euglossopteryx Dehon & Engel, n. gen.) and Bombus cerdanyensis Dehon, De Meulemeester, & Engel, sp. nov. They provide new information on the distribution and timing of particular corbiculate groups, most notably the extension into North America of possible Eocene-Oligocene cooling-induced extinctions. Protohabropoda pauli De Meulemeester & Michez, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Protohabropoda Dehon & Engel, n. gen.) reinforces previous hypotheses of anthophorine evolution in terms of ecological shifts by the Oligocene from tropical to mesic or xeric habitats. Lastly, a new fossil of the Andreninae, Andrena antoinei Michez & De Meulemeester, sp. nov., further documents the presence of the today widespread genus Andrena Fabricius in the Late Oligocene of France.

  19. Heat-cured Acrylic Resin versus Light-activated Resin: A Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Although light-activated resins (Eclipse) have been reported to possess superior physical and mechanical properties compared with the heat-cured acrylic resins (Lucitone-199), a few studies have compared overdentures with a locator attachment constructed from heat-cured acrylic resins with those constructed ...

  20. Intelligent Control for the BEES Flyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, K.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Aftosmis, Mike; Nemec, Marian; Limes, Greg; Berry, Misty; Logan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the effort to provide a preliminary capability analysis and a neural network based adaptive flight control system for the JPL-led BEES aircraft project. The BEES flyer was envisioned to be a small, autonomous platform with sensing and control systems mimicking those of biological systems for the purpose of scientific exploration on the surface of Mars. The platform is physically tightly constrained by the necessity of efficient packing within rockets for the trip to Mars. Given the physical constraints, the system is not an ideal configuration for aerodynamics or stability and control. The objectives of this effort are to evaluate the aerodynamics characteristics of the existing design, to make recommendaaons as to potential improvements and to provide a control system that stabilizes the existing aircraft for nominal flight and damaged conditions. Towards this several questions are raised and analyses are presented to arrive at answers to some of the questions raised. CART3D, a high-fidelity inviscid analysis package for conceptual and preliminary aerodynamic design, was used to compute a parametric set of solutions over the expected flight domain. Stability and control derivatives were extracted from the database and integrated with the neural flight control system. The Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment (IVME) was also used for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics. A generic neural flight control system is used to provide adaptive control without the requirement for extensive gain scheduling or explicit system identification. The neural flight control system uses reference models to specify desired handling qualities in the roll, pitch, and yaw axes, and incorporates both pre-trained and on-line learning neural networks in the inverse model portion of the controller. Results are presented for the BEES aircraft in the subsonic regime for terrestrial and Martian environments.

  1. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lebrero, Sergio; Quiles-Latorre, Francisco Javier; Ortiz-López, Manuel; Sánchez-Ruiz, Víctor; Gámiz-López, Victoria; Luna-Rodríguez, Juan Jesús

    2016-12-29

    Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees' work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee) based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive-monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  2. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS ) Resin with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    synthetic) resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate ...

  3. Patterns of parasitism by tracheal mites (Locustacarus buchneri) in natural bumble bee populations

    OpenAIRE

    Otterstatter , Michael; Whidden , Troy

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Parasitic mites are among the most destructive enemies of social bees. However, aside from mites of honey bees, virtually nothing is known about the prevalence and effects of parasitic mites in natural bee populations. In this paper, we report on parasitism of bumble bees (Bombus spp.) by the tracheal mite Locustacarus buchneri Stammer in south-western Alberta, Canada. Parasitism of bumble bees by L. buchneri occurred at many sites and in several host species. However,...

  4. Behavioral responses of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to natural and synthetic xenobiotics in food

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Ling-Hsiu; Wu, Wen-Yen; Berenbaum, May R.

    2017-01-01

    While the natural foods of the western honey bee (Apis mellifera) contain diverse phytochemicals, in contemporary agroecosystems honey bees also encounter pesticides as floral tissue contaminants. Whereas some ubiquitous phytochemicals in bee foods up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes, thereby benefiting nestmates, many agrochemical pesticides adversely affect bee health even at sublethal levels. How honey bees assess xenobiotic risk to nestmates as they forage is poorly understood. ...

  5. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) nurses do not consume pollens based on their nutritional quality

    OpenAIRE

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Snyder, Lucy; Meador, Charlotte; Ayotte, Trace

    2018-01-01

    Honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) consume a variety of pollens to meet the majority of their requirements for protein and lipids. Recent work indicates that honey bees prefer diets that reflect the proper ratio of nutrients necessary for optimal survival and homeostasis. This idea relies on the precept that honey bees evaluate the nutritional composition of the foods provided to them. While this has been shown in bumble bees, the data for honey bees are mixed. Further, there is controversy a...

  6. A Cell Line Resource Derived from Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Embryonic Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Goblirsch, Michael J.; Spivak, Marla S.; Kurtti, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    A major hindrance to the study of honey bee pathogens or the effects of pesticides and nutritional deficiencies is the lack of controlled in vitro culture systems comprised of honey bee cells. Such systems are important to determine the impact of these stress factors on the developmental and cell biology of honey bees. We have developed a method incorporating established insect cell culture techniques that supports sustained growth of honey bee cells in vitro. We used honey bee eggs mid to la...

  7. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, R Scott; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-04-26

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health. Copyright © 2016 Engel et al.

  8. Honey bees avoid nectar colonized by three bacterial species, but not by a yeast species, isolated from the bee gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Ashley P; Gauthier, Marie-Pierre L; Vannette, Rachel L; Fukami, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    The gut microflora of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is receiving increasing attention as a potential determinant of the bees' health and their efficacy as pollinators. Studies have focused primarily on the microbial taxa that appear numerically dominant in the bee gut, with the assumption that the dominant status suggests their potential importance to the bees' health. However, numerically minor taxa might also influence the bees' efficacy as pollinators, particularly if they are not only present in the gut, but also capable of growing in floral nectar and altering its chemical properties. Nonetheless, it is not well understood whether honey bees have any feeding preference for or against nectar colonized by specific microbial species. To test whether bees exhibit a preference, we conducted a series of field experiments at an apiary using synthetic nectar inoculated with specific species of bacteria or yeast that had been isolated from the bee gut, but are considered minor components of the gut microflora. These species had also been found in floral nectar. Our results indicated that honey bees avoided nectar colonized by the bacteria Asaia astilbes, Erwinia tasmaniensis, and Lactobacillus kunkeei, whereas the yeast Metschnikowia reukaufii did not affect the feeding preference of the insects. Our results also indicated that avoidance of bacteria-colonized nectar was caused not by the presence of the bacteria per se, but by the chemical changes to nectar made by the bacteria. These findings suggest that gut microbes may not only affect the bees' health as symbionts, but that some of the microbes may possibly affect the efficacy of A. mellifera as pollinators by altering nectar chemistry and influencing their foraging behavior.

  9. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  10. Bee community shifts with landscape context in a tropical countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Berry J; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2007-03-01

    The ongoing scientific controversy over a putative "global pollination crisis" underscores the lack of understanding of the response of bees (the most important taxon of pollinators) to ongoing global land-use changes. We studied the effects of distance to forest, tree management, and floral resources on bee communities in pastures (the dominant land-use type) in southern Costa Rica. Over two years, we sampled bees and floral resources in 21 pastures at three distance classes from a large (approximately 230-ha) forest patch and of three common types: open pasture; pasture with remnant trees; and pasture with live fences. We found no consistent differences in bee diversity or abundance with respect to pasture management or floral resources. Bee community composition, however, was strikingly different at forest edges as compared to deforested countryside only a few hundred meters from forest. At forest edges, native social stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) comprised approximately 50% of the individuals sampled, while the alien honeybee Apis mellifera made up only approximately 5%. Away from forests, meliponines dropped to approximately 20% of sampled bees, whereas Apis increased to approximately 45%. Meliponine bees were also more speciose at forest edge sites than at a distance from forest, their abundance decreased with continuous distance to the nearest forest patch, and their species richness was correlated with the proportion of forest cover surrounding sample sites at scales from 200 to 1200 m. Meliponines and Apis together comprise the eusocial bee fauna of the study area and are unique in quickly recruiting foragers to high-quality resources. The diverse assemblage of native meliponine bees covers a wide range of body sizes and flower foraging behavior not found in Apis, and populations of many bee species (including Apis), are known to fluctuate considerably from year to year. Thus, the forest-related changes in eusocial bee communities we found may have

  11. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emer...

  12. Resin composite for sealing and its use in a solar cell. Fushiyo jushi soseibutsu oyobi sore wo mochiita taiyo denchi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, H.; Mimura, T.; Takehara, N.

    1994-01-28

    This invention presents resin composites for sealing of a solar cell composed of a hardening resin and a thermoplastic resin which has a number average molecular weight larger than that of the hardening resin and is soluble in the hardening resin, and the invention affords a solar cell to endure a long-term stable operation and to give a good performance. The hardening resin includes unsaturated polyester resin, phenolic resin, alkyd resin, unsaturated acrylic resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, melamine resin, diallyl phthalate resin, their oligomers and their modifications. The thermoplastic resin includes saturated polyester resin, phenolic resin, acrylic resin, styrene resin, epoxy resin, polyurethane resin, polyvinyl acetate resin, polyvinyl chloride resin, polyvinyl alcohol resin, polyacetal resin, their modifications and their copolymer resin. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Curing kinetics of alkyd/melamine resin mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jovičić Mirjana C.; Radičević Radmila Ž.

    2009-01-01

    Alkyd resins are the most popular and useful synthetic resins applied as the binder in protective coatings. Frequently they are not used alone but are modified with other synthetic resins in the manufacture of the coatings. An alkyd/melamine resin mixture is the usual composition for the preparation of coating called 'baking enamel' and it is cured through functional groups of resins at high temperatures. In this paper, curing kinetics of alkyd resins based on castor oil and dehydrated castor...

  14. Chinese sacbrood virus infection in Asian honey bees (Apis cerana cerana) and host immune responses to the virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese Sacbrood virus (CSBV) is a common honey bee virus that infects both the European honey bee (A. mellifera) and the Asian honey bee (A. cerana). However, CSBV has much more devastating effects on Asian honey bees than on European honey bees, posing a serious threat to the agricultural and nat...

  15. Input to Resin Column Structural Analysis if Autocatalytic Resin Reaction Occurs in HB-Line Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.F.

    2001-07-10

    Solutions of plutonium in nitric acid are purified and concentrated using anion resin prior to precipitation. There have been instances of resin column explosions caused by autocatalytic reactions of anion resins in nitric acid within the DOE complex

  16. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium concentrations of thiosulfate in the NARS system. Keywords: equilibrium, gold loading, resin capacity, thiosulfate, trithionate

  17. Polyimide Resins Resist Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and extreme high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 provides a slew of additional advantages: It is extremely lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as

  18. The solidification of spent resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiao, S. J.; Tsai, C. M.; Shyu, Y. H.

    1991-01-01

    A quasi-steady apparatus was applied to measure the thermal conductivity of solids ranging in size for 0.3 to 200 L, and temperature distributions in the solids were recorded during the curing, and theoretical equation for conduction in a cylindrical form with uniform energy generation was established to define the thermal state of reaction. The heat of reaction calculated from the theoretical equation with experimental values for the maximum temperature and thermal conductivity agrees very well with the data reported. The relationships among heat of reaction and amount of curing agent, retardant, loading of spent resin, and water were established

  19. Nosema ceranae escapes fumagillin control in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Fone; Solter, Leellen F; Yau, Peter M; Imai, Brian S

    2013-03-01

    Fumagillin is the only antibiotic approved for control of nosema disease in honey bees and has been extensively used in United States apiculture for more than 50 years for control of Nosema apis. It is toxic to mammals and must be applied seasonally and with caution to avoid residues in honey. Fumagillin degrades or is diluted in hives over the foraging season, exposing bees and the microsporidia to declining concentrations of the drug. We showed that spore production by Nosema ceranae, an emerging microsporidian pathogen in honey bees, increased in response to declining fumagillin concentrations, up to 100% higher than that of infected bees that have not been exposed to fumagillin. N. apis spore production was also higher, although not significantly so. Fumagillin inhibits the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase2 (MetAP2) in eukaryotic cells and interferes with protein modifications necessary for normal cell function. We sequenced the MetAP2 gene for apid Nosema species and determined that, although susceptibility to fumagillin differs among species, there are no apparent differences in fumagillin binding sites. Protein assays of uninfected bees showed that fumagillin altered structural and metabolic proteins in honey bee midgut tissues at concentrations that do not suppress microsporidia reproduction. The microsporidia, particularly N. ceranae, are apparently released from the suppressive effects of fumagillin at concentrations that continue to impact honey bee physiology. The current application protocol for fumagillin may exacerbate N. ceranae infection rather than suppress it.

  20. Nosema ceranae escapes fumagillin control in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Fone Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fumagillin is the only antibiotic approved for control of nosema disease in honey bees and has been extensively used in United States apiculture for more than 50 years for control of Nosema apis. It is toxic to mammals and must be applied seasonally and with caution to avoid residues in honey. Fumagillin degrades or is diluted in hives over the foraging season, exposing bees and the microsporidia to declining concentrations of the drug. We showed that spore production by Nosema ceranae, an emerging microsporidian pathogen in honey bees, increased in response to declining fumagillin concentrations, up to 100% higher than that of infected bees that have not been exposed to fumagillin. N. apis spore production was also higher, although not significantly so. Fumagillin inhibits the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase2 (MetAP2 in eukaryotic cells and interferes with protein modifications necessary for normal cell function. We sequenced the MetAP2 gene for apid Nosema species and determined that, although susceptibility to fumagillin differs among species, there are no apparent differences in fumagillin binding sites. Protein assays of uninfected bees showed that fumagillin altered structural and metabolic proteins in honey bee midgut tissues at concentrations that do not suppress microsporidia reproduction. The microsporidia, particularly N. ceranae, are apparently released from the suppressive effects of fumagillin at concentrations that continue to impact honey bee physiology. The current application protocol for fumagillin may exacerbate N. ceranae infection rather than suppress it.

  1. Varroa-virus interaction in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy M Francis

    Full Text Available Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies, pyrethroid (9 colonies and untreated (3 colonies. Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.

  2. Bee venom treatment for refractory postherpetic neuralgia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Jinwoong; Lee, Jae-Dong; Choi, Do-Young; Lee, Sanghoon

    2014-03-01

    Bee venom has been reported to have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental studies. However, questions still remain regarding the clinical use of bee venom. This report describes the successful outcome of bee venom treatment for refractory postherpetic neuralgia. A 72-year-old Korean man had severe pain and hypersensitivity in the region where he had developed a herpes zoster rash 2 years earlier. He was treated with antivirals, painkillers, steroids, and analgesic patches, all to no effect. The patient visited the East-West Pain Clinic, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, to receive collaborative treatment. After being evaluated for bee venom compatibility, he was treated with bee venom injections. A 1:30,000 diluted solution of bee venom was injected subcutaneously along the margins of the rash once per week for 4 weeks. Pain levels were evaluated before every treatment, and by his fifth visit, his pain had decreased from 8 to 2 on a 10-point numerical rating scale. He experienced no adverse effects, and this improvement was maintained at the 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year phone follow-up evaluations. Bee venom treatment demonstrates the potential to become an effective treatment for postherpetic neuralgia. Further large-sample clinical trials should be conducted to evaluate the overall safety and efficacy of this treatment.

  3. Therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Mingsuo; Huang Chaoqun; Chen Zhen; Huang Meiying; Jiang Ying; Wang Tao

    1997-09-01

    The therapeutic effect of bee pollens on acute radiation sickness were evaluated by observing the changes in the peripheral white blood cell (PWBC) count, the total activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of lipid peroxides (LPO) in sera of the irradiated rats following P.O. administration of bee pollens. It was found that bee pollens could remarkably help irradiated rats recover from radiation-induced injury. The functions of bee pollens might be summarized as follows: (1) Stimulating Proliferation of PWBC. The PWBC count of the bee pollens group showed no significant difference as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day postirradiation. (2) Enhancing antioxidative effect of clearing free radicals. The total activity of serum SOD in the bee pollens group increased by 6.48% as compared with the normal control group on the 30 th day after irradiation, and the LPO levels i.e. MDA and POV in sera of the irradiated rats decreased by 54.73% and 21.60% respectively. The result suggests that using bee pollens as antiradiation and health-promoting agents in clinical treatment of acute radiation sickness and during radiotherapy of patients with tumors may has certain practical value. (12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  4. Varroa-virus interaction in collapsing honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Roy M; Nielsen, Steen L; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.

  5. Comparison of Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNS Resin with Polyester Resin in Composite Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Ugoamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resins can compete effectively with the synthetic ones in composite development. In this research, cashew nuts were picked and processed for the extraction of the resin content. The resin (natural resin so obtained was mixed with cobalt amine (accelerator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (catalyst to develop two sets of composite specimens – specimens without fibres and specimens reinforced with glass fibres. This method of sample specimen development was repeated with polyester (synthetic resin. Compressive and tensile strength tests conducted proved that composites developed with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL resin were comparable to those developed with polyester resin. In the results, CNSL has an ultimate compressive strength of 55MPa compared to that of polyester resin with an ultimate strength of 68MPa. The result of tensile strength proved cashew nut shell liquid resin (with ultimate strength of 44MPa to be better than polyester resin with 39MPa as ultimate tensile strength. This means that natural resins could be a better substitute for the synthetic ones when the required quantities of fibers (reinforcements and fillers are used in the fibre-reinforced plastic composite developments.

  6. Parasite Pressures on Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine E.; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Allnutt, Theodore R.; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed. PMID:25126840

  7. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  8. Bumble bees (Bombus spp along a gradient of increasing urbanization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Ahrné

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bumble bees and other wild bees are important pollinators of wild flowers and several cultivated crop plants, and have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. The main cause of the decline is believed to be habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization and agricultural intensification. Urbanization is a process that involves dramatic and persistent changes of the landscape, increasing the amount of built-up areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. However, urban green areas can also provide suitable alternative habitats for wild bees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied bumble bees in allotment gardens, i.e. intensively managed flower rich green areas, along a gradient of urbanization from the inner city of Stockholm towards more rural (periurban areas. Keeping habitat quality similar along the urbanization gradient allowed us to separate the effect of landscape change (e.g. proportion impervious surface from variation in habitat quality. Bumble bee diversity (after rarefaction to 25 individuals decreased with increasing urbanization, from around eight species on sites in more rural areas to between five and six species in urban allotment gardens. Bumble bee abundance and species composition were most affected by qualities related to the management of the allotment areas, such as local flower abundance. The variability in bumble bee visits between allotment gardens was higher in an urban than in a periurban context, particularly among small and long-tongued bumble bee species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that allotment gardens and other urban green areas can serve as important alternatives to natural habitats for many bumble bee species, but that the surrounding urban landscape influences how many species that will be present. The higher variability in abundance of certain species in the most urban areas may indicate a weaker reliability of the ecosystem

  9. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  10. Disentangling metabolic functions of bacteria in the honey bee gut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Kešnerová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presently unclear how much individual community members contribute to the overall metabolic output of a gut microbiota. To address this question, we used the honey bee, which harbors a relatively simple and remarkably conserved gut microbiota with striking parallels to the mammalian system and importance for bee health. Using untargeted metabolomics, we profiled metabolic changes in gnotobiotic bees that were colonized with the complete microbiota reconstituted from cultured strains. We then determined the contribution of individual community members in mono-colonized bees and recapitulated our findings using in vitro cultures. Our results show that the honey bee gut microbiota utilizes a wide range of pollen-derived substrates, including flavonoids and outer pollen wall components, suggesting a key role for degradation of recalcitrant secondary plant metabolites and pollen digestion. In turn, multiple species were responsible for the accumulation of organic acids and aromatic compound degradation intermediates. Moreover, a specific gut symbiont, Bifidobacterium asteroides, stimulated the production of host hormones known to impact bee development. While we found evidence for cross-feeding interactions, approximately 80% of the identified metabolic changes were also observed in mono-colonized bees, with Lactobacilli being responsible for the largest share of the metabolic output. These results show that, despite prolonged evolutionary associations, honey bee gut bacteria can independently establish and metabolize a wide range of compounds in the gut. Our study reveals diverse bacterial functions that are likely to contribute to bee health and provide fundamental insights into how metabolic activities are partitioned within gut communities.

  11. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory.

  12. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Mondelli, José

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1) rinsing with water and drying; (G2) application of an adhesive system; (G3) rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4) rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (presin increments.

  13. Biodemographic analysis of male honey bee mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueppell, Olav; Fondrk, M. Kim; Page, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Biodemographic studies of insects have significantly enhanced our understanding of the biology of aging. Eusocial insects have evolved to form different groups of colony members that are specialized for particular tasks and highly dependent on each other. These different groups (castes and sexes) also differ strongly in their life expectancy but relatively little is known about their mortality dynamics. In this study we present data on the age-specific flight activity and mortality of male honey bees from two different genetic lines that are exclusively dedicated to reproduction. We show that males initiating flight at a young age experience more flight events during their lifetime. No (negative) relation between the age at flight initiation and lifespan exists, as might be predicted on the basis of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging. Furthermore, we fit our data to different aging models and conclude that overall a slight deceleration of the age-dependent mortality increase at advanced ages occurs. However, mortality risk increases according to the Gompertz–Makeham model when only days with flight activity (active days) are taken into account. Our interpretation of the latter is that two mortality components act on honey bee males during flight: increasing, age-dependent deaths (possibly from wear-and-tear), and age-independent deaths (possibly due to predation). The overall mortality curve is caused by the interaction of the distribution of age at foraging initiation and the mortality function during the active (flight) lifespan. PMID:15659209

  14. Wireless ZigBee home automation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona; Fratu, Octavian

    2015-02-01

    The home automation system concept existed for many years but in the last decade, due to the rapid development of sensors and wireless technologies, a large number of various such "intelligent homes" have been developed. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the flexibility, reliability and affordability of home automation projects, based on a simple and affordable implementation. A wireless sensing and control system have been developed and tested, having a number of basic functionalities such as switching on/off the light according to ambient lighting and turning on/off the central heating. The system has been built around low power microcontrollers and ZigBee modems for wireless communication, using a set of Vishay 640 thermistor sensors for temperature measurements and Vishay LDR07 photo-resistor for humidity measurements. A trigger is activated when the temperature or light measurements are above/below a given threshold and a command is transmitted to the central unit through the ZigBee radio module. All the data processing is performed by a low power microcontroller both at the sensing device and at the control unit.

  15. Macroevolution of perfume signalling in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marjorie G; Mitko, Lukasz; Eltz, Thomas; Ramírez, Santiago R

    2016-11-01

    Theory predicts that both stabilising selection and diversifying selection jointly contribute to the evolution of sexual signalling traits by (1) maintaining the integrity of communication signals within species and (2) promoting the diversification of traits among lineages. However, for many important signalling traits, little is known about whether these dynamics translate into predictable macroevolutionary signatures. Here, we test for macroevolutionary patterns consistent with sexual signalling theory in the perfume signals of neotropical orchid bees, a group well studied for their chemical sexual communication. Our results revealed both high species-specificity and elevated rates of evolution in perfume signals compared to nonsignalling traits. Perfume complexity was correlated with the number of congeners in a species' range, suggesting that perfume evolution may be tied to the remarkably high number of orchid bee species coexisting together in some neotropical communities. Finally, sister-pair comparisons were consistent with both rapid divergence at speciation and character displacement upon secondary contact. Together, our results provide new insight into the macroevolution of sexual signalling in insects. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. resin as polymer-supported synthesis support

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    dichloro-5,6-dicyano- benzoqunone ... ports used most widely in SPOS are Merrifield resin .... (2 × 10 mL). The resin was dried at 50°C for one hour to give white beads. IR (KBr): 3108, 3312 cm–1. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7⋅13 (br s, PS), 7⋅01.

  17. [Delayed asthma bronchiale due to epoxy resin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Authried, Georg; Al-Asadi, Haifaa; Møller, Ulla; Sherson, David Lee

    2013-10-28

    Epoxy resin is a low molecular weight agent, which can cause both acute and delayed allergic reactions. However, it is known causing skin reactions with direct or airborne contact. Rarely it can cause airway reactions like asthma bronchiale. We describe a case of a windmill worker who developed delayed asthma bronchiale due to airborne contact with epoxy resin.

  18. Epoxidation of linseed oil-Alkyd resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motawie, A.M.; Ismail, E.A.; Mazroua, A.M.; Abd EI Aziem, M.S.; Ramadan, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three types of different linseed oil-alkyd resin ( Alk (I), Alk (II), and Alk (III) ) were prepared with the calculated amounts of mono glycerides and adipic acid (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 Eq.Wt) respectively via monoglyceride method. The obtained alkyd resins were epoxidized via reaction with the calculated quantities of peracetic acid, which was prepared by the reaction of acetic anhydride with H 2 O 2 . Epoxidation occurred with the ratio (1: 1, 1 :3, and 1:6 Eq. Wt) of alkyd to peracetic acid. The effect of reaction time on the epoxy group content was measured during the epoxidation process. The prepared alkyd resins were analyzed by IR and H 1 NMR. The metal coated film properties of epoxidized alkyd resins were compared with those of unmodified alkyd resins. It was observed that the coating films of epoxidized alkyd resins have better in drying properties, hardness, adhesion, impact and flexibility than those of un epoxidized alkyd resins. The flammability properties of the paper coated films for the prepared brominated epoxidized alkyd resins were found to be fire retardant

  19. Facile synthesis of hypercrosslinked resins via chloromethylation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A sort of non-polystyrene type hypercrosslinked resin was firstly synthesized through chloromethylation of simple aryl molecules (benzene, toluene, naphthalene, diphenyl), succedent continuous Friedel–Crafts alkylation polymerization and post-crosslinking reaction. The chemical and porous structures of these novel resins ...

  20. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Dorado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site, and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the

  1. A Mathematical Model for the Bee Hive of Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Bellom, Fabio Enrici; Montabone, Andrea; Venturino, Ezio

    2010-09-01

    In this work we introduce and discuss a model for the bee hive, in which only adult bees and drones are modeled. The role that the latter have in the system is interesting, their population can retrieve even if they are totally absent from the bee hive. The feasibility and stability of the equilibria is studied numerically. A simplified version of the model shows the importance of the drones' role, in spite of the fact that it allows only a trivial equilibrium. For this simplified system, no Hopf bifurcations are shown to arise.

  2. Three Cases of Radial Nerve Palsy with Bee Venom Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyo-Soo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to report the efficiency of Bee Venom Therapy by managering of radial nerve palsy patients. Methods : Three patients were treatmented by Bee Venom therapy and acupucture therapy. And We took pictures of someone's wrist and checked the power of muscles by the improving phase. Results : Almost cases shows the improvement in the movement of wrist and the numbness of hand. By using acuputure and Bee Venom therapy, the symptoms of radial nerv palsy was more fastly recovered.

  3. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  4. BEE AS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINDICATOR: FIRST RESULTS IN PIEDMONT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guaraldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many investigators have employed honeybees or honeybee products (honey, wax, pollen as tools for assessing environmental pollution in industrial areas. Several reports refer of their utility in monitoring environmental radionuclides or heavy metal contamination. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact of pollution on Biella area, located in the east of Piedmont region. A survey of 6 apiaries was carried out, samples of: honey, beeswax, bees and pollen were collected and analyzed for: pesticides and PCB, neonicotinoides and heavy metal; by GC/MS, LC/MS/MS or AAS. We found 23% of samples of bees contained neonicotinoides, suggesting the correlation with bees mortality.

  5. Radioactive contamination of honey and other bee-keeping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantsevich, L.I.; Komissar, A.D.; Levchenko, I.A.

    1990-01-01

    Great amount of dust is collected in propolis under emergency atmospheric fallouts. Specific coefficient of the product migration amounts to several m 2 per 1 kg. Propolis is a good biological indicator of radioactive fallouts. The propolis collection is inadmissible after radioactive fallouts. Cocoon residuals obtained during bees-wax separation contain many radionuclides and should be disposed in special places. Nuclides are absent in bees-wax. Nuclides accumulated absent in a bee organism migrate into honey and queen milk, the honey is contaminated mainly via biogenic path

  6. Physical Properties of Synthetic Resin Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Meyer

    1939-01-01

    A study was made to determine the physical properties of synthetic resins having paper, canvas, and linen reinforcements, and of laminated wood impregnated with a resin varnish. The results show that commercial resins have moduli of elasticity that are too low for structural considerations. Nevertheless, there do exist plastics that have favorable mechanical properties and, with further development, it should be possible to produce resin products that compare favorably with the light-metal alloys. The results obtained from tests on Compound 1840, resin-impregnated wood, show that this material can stand on its own merit by virtue of a compressive strength four times that of the natural wood. This increase in compressive strength was accomplished with an increase of density to a value slightly below three times the normal value and corrected one of the most serious defects of the natural product.

  7. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  8. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  9. Disinfection of denture base acrylic resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J J; Cameron, S M; Runyan, D A; Craft, D W

    1999-02-01

    During repair or adjustments of acrylic resin removable complete and partial dentures, particles of the acrylic resin from the interior of the prosthesis may expose dental personnel to microbial health hazards if the prosthesis has not been thoroughly disinfected. This study investigates the efficacy of a commercially prepared microbial disinfectant (Alcide) on the external and internal surfaces of acrylic resins. Four groups of acrylic resin were incubated in an experimental model to simulate the oral environment over time. Specimens were treated in 2 groups, disinfected and not disinfected, and then further grouped by breaking and not breaking. Analysis was performed with microbial colony counts, SEM, and statistical analyses. Viable microorganisms still remain on the internal and external surfaces of treated resins. Chlorine dioxide reduces, but does not eliminate, viable microorganisms on these dental prostheses.

  10. Solidification of ion exchange resin wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    Solidification media investigated included portland type I, portland type III and high alumina cements, a proprietary gypsum-based polymer modified cement, and a vinyl ester-styrene thermosetting plastic. Samples formulated with hydraulic cement were analyzed to investigate the effects of resin type, resin loading, waste-to-cement ratio, and water-to-cement ratio. The solidification of cation resin wastes with portland cement was characterized by excessive swelling and cracking of waste forms, both after curing and during immersion testing. Mixed bed resin waste formulations were limited by their cation component. Additives to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were evaluated. High alumina cement formulations dislayed a resistance to deterioration of mechanical integrity during immersion testing, thus providing a significant advantage over portland cements for the solidification of resin wastes. Properties of cement-ion exchange resin waste forms were examined. An experiment was conducted to study the leachability of 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co from resins modified in portland type III and high alumina cements. The cumulative 137 Cs fraction release was at least an order of magnitude greater than that of either 85 Sr or 60 Co. Release rates of 137 Cs in high alumina cement were greater than those in portland III cement by a factor of two.Compressive strength and leach testing were conducted for resin wastes solidified with polymer-modified gypsum based cement. 137 Cs, 85 Sr, and 60 Co fraction releases were about one, two and three orders of magnitude higher, respectively, than in equivalent portland type III cement formulations. As much as 28.6 wt % dry ion exchange resin was successfully solidified using vinyl ester-styrene compared with a maximum of 25 wt % in both portland and gypsum-based cement

  11. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p tomato flowers. However, honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p tomatoes were similar (p>0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods.

  12. Vanishing honey bees: Is the dying of adult worker bees a consequence of short telomeres and premature aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stindl, Reinhard; Stindl, Wolfgang

    2010-10-01

    Einstein is often quoted to have said that without the bee, mankind would have but 4years to live. It is highly unlikely that he made this comment, which was even mentioned in a Lancet article on honey bees. However, the current vanishing of the bees can have serious consequences for human health, because 35% of the human diet is thought to benefit from pollination. Colony collapse disorder (CCD) in honey bees is characterized by the rapid decline of the adult bee population, leaving the brood and the queen poorly or completely unattended, with no dead bodies in or around the hive. A large study found no evidence that the presence or amount of any individual pesticide or infectious agent occurred more frequently or abundantly in CCD-affected colonies. The growing consensus is that honey bees are suffering from comprised immune systems, which allow various infectious pathogens to invade. The question remains, what causes immunosuppression in many colonies of Apis mellifera in North America and Europe? Telomeres are protective DNA structures located at eukaryotic chromosome tips that shorten in the somatic tissues of animals with age. Lifelong tissue regeneration takes place in Apis mellifera, and worker bees have been shown to senesce. In humans, a vast amount of literature has accumulated on exhausted telomere reserves causing impaired tissue regeneration and age-associated diseases, specifically cancer and immunosuppression. Therefore, we propose a new causative mechanism for the vanishing of the bees: critically short telomeres in long-lived winter bees. We term this the telomere premature aging syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abundance and Diversity of Native Bumble Bees Associated with Agricultural Crops: The Willamette Valley Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujaya Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are widespread concerns about declining populations of bumble bees due to conversion of native habitats to agroecosystems. Certain cropping systems, however, provide enormous foraging resources, and are beneficial for population build up of native bees, especially eusocial bees such as bumble bees. In this review, we present evidence of a flourishing bumble bee fauna in the Willamette Valley in western Oregon which we believe is sustained by cultivation of bee-pollinated crops which bloom in sequence, and in synchrony with foraging by queens and workers of a complex of bumble bee species. In support of our perspective, we describe the Oregon landscape and ascribe the large bumble bee populations to the presence of a pollen source in spring (cultivated blueberries followed by one in summer (red clover seed crops. Based on our studies, we recommend integration into conservation approaches of multiple agroecosystems that bloom in sequence for sustaining and building bumble bee populations.

  14. The Comparison of Effectiveness between Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom Therapy on Low back pain with Radiating pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Tae-ho; Hwang Hee-sang; Chang So-young; Cha Jung-ho; Jung Ki-hoon; Lee Eun-young; Roh Jeongdu

    2007-01-01

    Objective : The aim of this study is to investigate if Sweet Bee Venom therapy has the equal effect in comparison with Bee Venom Therapy on Low back pain with Radiation pain. Methods : Clinical studies were done 24 patients who were treated low back pain with radiation pain to Dept. of Acupuncture & Moxibusition, of Oriental Medicine Se-Myung University from April 1, 2007 to September 30, 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups ; Bee Venom treated group(Group A, n=10), Sweet B...

  15. Evaluation of Resin-Resin Interface in Direct Composite Restoration Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoleriu, S.; Andrian, S.; Pancu, G.; Nica, I.; Iovan, G.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the resin-resin interface when a universal bonding agent was used in two different strategies in direct restoration repair. Two composite resins (a micro-filled hybrid and a nano-filled hybrid) as old restorations that have to be repair, a universal bonding agent and a micro-filled hybrid composite resin (different then that aged) as new material for repair were chosen for the study. Non-aged samples were used as control and aged samples were used as study groups. The universal bonding agent was applied in etch-and-rinse and in self-etch strategies. The interface between old and new composite resins was evaluated by SEM and the microleakage was assessed by scoring the dye penetration. Very good adaptation of the two different composite resins placed in direct contact in non-aged samples was recorded. No gaps or defects were visible and strong resin-resin contact was observed. After aging, enlargement of resin-resin junction were observed in most of the samples and a increased dye penetration was recorded irrespective of the strategy (etch-and-rinse or self-etch) used for bonding agent application.

  16. Bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the shear bond strength of a chairside autopolymerizing reline resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four kinds of injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) and PMMA, as a control, were tested. The eight types of surface treatment: ((1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) air abrasion and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating, and (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin) were applied to each specimen. The chairside autopolymerizing reline resins were bonded to disks of the injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. All of the specimens were immersed in water for 4 months and then thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5 and 55°C. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths of the two polyamides treated using air abrasion, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were exceedingly low. The greatest bond strength was recorded for the polyethylene terephthalate copolymer specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.5MPa). The bond strengths of the other injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins increased using 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin were the most effective surface treatments among all denture base resins tested. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Policy Mitigating Acute Risk to Bees from Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide risk management must be based on sound science, consistent with the laws under which pesticides are regulated in the United States. EPA has been working aggressively to protect bees and other pollinators from pesticide exposures.

  18. Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary observations on enemies of stingless bees and honeybee (Apis Mellifera adansonii L.) Colonies from the Miticivanga- Tshibinda sector east of Kahuzi Biega National Park, South-Kivu Province, eastern DR Congo.

  19. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-09

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  20. Optimal Grid Scheduling Using Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    T. Vigneswari; M. A. Maluk Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Job Scheduling plays an important role for efficient utilization of grid resources available across different domains and geographical zones. Scheduling of jobs is challenging and NPcomplete. Evolutionary / Swarm Intelligence algorithms have been extensively used to address the NP problem in grid scheduling. Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) has been proposed for optimization problems based on foraging behaviour of bees. This work proposes a modified ABC algorithm, Cluster Hete...

  1. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  3. The Adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Ae; Westra, John V.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing the adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant honey bees were assessed using a double hurdle model. Results indicate factors associated with the adoption include sales over $1,000 of bee related products, residence in the delta states, internet use, and membership in the AHPA. Negatively associated factors are high percentage of income coming from beekeeping, and membership in the ABF. Intensity of adoption increased with frequent contact with the USDA, and decreased with great...

  4. Effects of cocaine on honey bee dance behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Andrew B.; Maleszka, Ryszard; Helliwell, Paul G.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2008-01-01

    The role of cocaine as an addictive drug of abuse in human society is hard to reconcile with its ecological role as a natural insecticide and plant-protective compound, preventing herbivory of coca plants (Erythroxylum spp.). This paradox is often explained by proposing a fundamental difference in mammalian and invertebrate responses to cocaine, but here we show effects of cocaine on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) that parallel human responses. Forager honey bees perfo...

  5. Fire influences the structure of plant-bee networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Stevani, Erica L; Chacoff, Natacha P; Dorado, Jimena; Vázquez, Diego P

    2017-10-01

    Fire represents a frequent disturbance in many ecosystems, which can affect plant-pollinator assemblages and hence the services they provide. Furthermore, fire events could affect the architecture of plant-pollinator interaction networks, modifying the structure and function of communities. Some pollinators, such as wood-nesting bees, may be particularly affected by fire events due to damage to the nesting material and its long regeneration time. However, it remains unclear whether fire influences the structure of bee-plant interactions. Here, we used quantitative plant-wood-nesting bee interaction networks sampled across four different post-fire age categories (from freshly-burnt to unburnt sites) in an arid ecosystem to test whether the abundance of wood-nesting bees, the breadth of resource use and the plant-bee community structure change along a post-fire age gradient. We demonstrate that freshly-burnt sites present higher abundances of generalist than specialist wood-nesting bees and that this translates into lower network modularity than that of sites with greater post-fire ages. Bees do not seem to change their feeding behaviour across the post-fire age gradient despite changes in floral resource availability. Despite the effects of fire on plant-bee interaction network structure, these mutualistic networks seem to be able to recover a few years after the fire event. This result suggests that these interactions might be highly resilient to this type of disturbance. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  6. BEE VENOM TOLERANCE IN WHITE MICE IN RELATION TO DIET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENTON, A W; MORSE, R G; GUNNISON, A F

    1964-09-25

    In white mice the consumption of a high protein diet either just before, or over a period of 3 days prior to, the injection of venom from the honey bee Apis mellifera L. markedly increases the number of deaths. Conversely, a period of starvation or a nonprotein diet fed to white mice for 3 days prior to the injection of bee venom significantly reduces the number of deaths.

  7. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  8. Investigation of fossil resins and amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Yu. Makarova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil resins and amber are a product of lithogenesis of resinous substances of higher plants – resinite. These components of plants, like other lipoid ingredients (suberins, coutines, sporinins, natural rubbers are resistant to microbial action, so they are well preserved in bacterial processing of organic matter in the stages of sedimento- and diagenesis, and are well diagnosed in microscopic studies. They occur in a rather wide age range of sedimentary rocks. The amber of the Baltic region of the Eocene age is most fully studied. The article presents the results of a study of the collection of fossil resins and amber from various regions of the world. Samples were studied microscopically; carbon isotope analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy were performed. The most informative analysis of high-molecular polymeric compounds is IR spectroscopy. It was found that in the analyzed samples of fossil resins of different ages, aromatic compounds are not observed, most of which are first volatilized in fossilization processes. The possibility of influencing the group composition of amber and amber-like resins for sedimentation, diagenesis and catagenesis is discussed. The IR spectra of fossil and modern resin conifers are compared. Using the IR spectroscopy method, an attempt was made to identify the botanical origin of fossil resins.

  9. Causes and Scale of Winter Flights in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica ) Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Węgrzynowicz Paweł; Gerula Dariusz; Bieńkowska Małgorzata; Panasiuk Beata

    2014-01-01

    Winter honey bee losses were evaluated during the two overwintering periods of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The research included dead bee workers that fell on the hive bottom board (debris) and the ones that flew out of the hive. Differences were observed in the number of bees fallen as debris between the two periods, whereas the number of bees flying out was similar in both years. No differences were found between the numbers of dead bees in strong and weak colonies. The percentage of bees flyi...

  10. Melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin for bonding particleboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Feng Fu; Hui Pan

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a cost-effective melamine-modified urea formaldehyde resin (MUF), the study evaluated the effects of reaction pH and melamine content on resin properties and bond performance of the MUF resin adhesive systems. Eight resins, each with three replicates, were prepared in a factorial experiment that included two formulation variables: two reaction...

  11. Traumatic resin ducts as indicators of bark beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Matthew F. Bekker; James N. Long

    2017-01-01

    The formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRDs) represents an important induced defense in woody plants that enhances oleoresin production and flow in response to environmental perturbations. In some genera (Pinus), resin ducts are copious and conspicuous; however, in others (Picea), resin ducts are relatively rare. The occurrence and strength of resin ducts, in...

  12. ZigBee-based remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Helena; Afonso, José Augusto; Correia, José Higino; Simões, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a developed continuous patient monitoring system based on the ZigBee protocol. The system was tested in the hospital environment using six sensor devices in two different modes. For electrocardiogram transmission and in the absence of hidden-nodes, the system achieved a mean delivery ratio of 100% and 98.56%, respectively for star and 2-hop tree network topologies. When sensor devices were arranged in a way that three of them were unable to hear the transmissions made by the other three, the mean delivery ratio dropped to 83.96%. However, when sensor devices were reprogrammed to transmit only heart rate values, the mean delivery ratio increased to 99.90%, despite the presence of hidden-nodes.

  13. Social polymorphism in the sweat beeLasioglossum(Evylaeus)calceatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, P J; Field, J

    Temperate-zone socially polymorphic sweat bees (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) are ideal model systems for elucidating the origins of eusociality, a major evolutionary transition. Bees express either social or solitary behaviour in different parts of their range, and social phenotype typically correlates with season length. Despite their obvious utility, however, socially polymorphic sweat bees have received relatively little attention with respect to understanding the origins of eusociality. Lasioglossum ( Evylaeus ) calceatum is a widespread sweat bee that is thought to be socially polymorphic, with important potential as an experimental model species. We first determined the social phenotype of L. calceatum at three sites located at different latitudes within the UK. We then investigated sociality in detail across two years at the southernmost site. We found that L. calceatum exhibits latitudinal social polymorphism within the UK; bees were solitary at our two northern sites but the majority of nests were social at our southern site. Sociality in the south was characterised by a relatively small mean of two and 3.5 workers per nest in each year, respectively, and a small to medium mean caste-size dimorphism of 6.6 %. Foundresses were smaller in our more northern and high altitude populations. Sociality is clearly less specialised than in some closely related obligately social species but probably more specialied than other polymorphic sweat bees. Our research provides a starting point for future experimental work to investigate mechanisms underlying social polymorphism in L . calceatum .

  14. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047

  15. Advances and limitations of visual conditioning protocols in harnessed bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avarguès-Weber, Aurore; Mota, Theo

    2016-10-01

    Bees are excellent invertebrate models for studying visual learning and memory mechanisms, because of their sophisticated visual system and impressive cognitive capacities associated with a relatively simple brain. Visual learning in free-flying bees has been traditionally studied using an operant conditioning paradigm. This well-established protocol, however, can hardly be combined with invasive procedures for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. Different efforts have been made to develop protocols in which harnessed honey bees could associate visual cues with reinforcement, though learning performances remain poorer than those obtained with free-flying animals. Especially in the last decade, the intention of improving visual learning performances of harnessed bees led many authors to adopt distinct visual conditioning protocols, altering parameters like harnessing method, nature and duration of visual stimulation, number of trials, inter-trial intervals, among others. As a result, the literature provides data hardly comparable and sometimes contradictory. In the present review, we provide an extensive analysis of the literature available on visual conditioning of harnessed bees, with special emphasis on the comparison of diverse conditioning parameters adopted by different authors. Together with this comparative overview, we discuss how these diverse conditioning parameters could modulate visual learning performances of harnessed bees. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bee products prevent agrichemical-induced oxidative damage in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Ferreira

    Full Text Available In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™ and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L(-1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50. We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ, honey (H, bee pollen (BP and propolis (P, reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST are increased.

  17. Bee Products Prevent Agrichemical-Induced Oxidative Damage in Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Daiane; Rocha, Helio Carlos; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Loro, Vania Lucia; Marqueze, Alessandra; Koakoski, Gessi; Santos da Rosa, João Gabriel; Gusso, Darlan; Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil

    2013-01-01

    In southern South America and other parts of the world, aquaculture is an activity that complements agriculture. Small amounts of agrichemicals can reach aquaculture ponds, which results in numerous problems caused by oxidative stress in non-target organisms. Substances that can prevent or reverse agrichemical-induced oxidative damage may be used to combat these effects. This study includes four experiments. In each experiment, 96 mixed-sex, 6-month-old Rhamdia quelen (118±15 g) were distributed into eight experimental groups: a control group that was not exposed to contaminated water, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products, three groups that were exposed to various concentrations of bee products plus tebuconazole (TEB; Folicur 200 CE™) and a group that was exposed to 0.88 mg L−1 of TEB alone (corresponding to 16.6% of the 96-h LC50). We show that waterborne bee products, including royal jelly (RJ), honey (H), bee pollen (BP) and propolis (P), reversed the oxidative damage caused by exposure to TEB. These effects were likely caused by the high polyphenol contents of these bee-derived compounds. The most likely mechanism of action for the protective effects of bee products against tissue oxidation and the resultant damage is that the enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) are increased. PMID:24098336

  18. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R

    2015-01-01

    Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  19. The Colombian wild bees: Why and how to preserve them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Nates Parra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian wild bees, as well as those in the rest of the whole world are undergoing the rigor of human activities and so are considered to be under threat of extinction. The current knowledge about Colombian bees, like other insects, is still in its beginnings, is fragmentated and a synthesis is desirable. Only 5% of the Colombian bees are well known, especially the corbiculates bees of the Apidae family. A small bitin taxonomic work has been done by Colombian researchers and nothing else has been contributed by foreign ones. Not having enough resources, plus the difficulties to send material overseas and the lack of specialist on the subject, have made the work more difficult. However, the great variety of species that is thought to be found in our country represent a reason to do research for a better understanding of this group biodiversity. An analisis of the main causes of risk (deforestation, grazing, africanized honeybees and bad explotation of native bees for the wild apifauna ispresented. Some propossals are provided to protect these species, that will be more fruitfull by joint cooperation with academic centers, farmers, countryman, indianpopulation and the whole society. We must have in mind that throug pollination bees become important pieces into the ecosistem, allowing the conservation of many vegetal species and other comunities.

  20. Honey Bee Colonies Remote Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Gil-Lebrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bees are very important for terrestrial ecosystems and, above all, for the subsistence of many crops, due to their ability to pollinate flowers. Currently, the honey bee populations are decreasing due to colony collapse disorder (CCD. The reasons for CCD are not fully known, and as a result, it is essential to obtain all possible information on the environmental conditions surrounding the beehives. On the other hand, it is important to carry out such information gathering as non-intrusively as possible to avoid modifying the bees’ work conditions and to obtain more reliable data. We designed a wireless-sensor networks meet these requirements. We designed a remote monitoring system (called WBee based on a hierarchical three-level model formed by the wireless node, a local data server, and a cloud data server. WBee is a low-cost, fully scalable, easily deployable system with regard to the number and types of sensors and the number of hives and their geographical distribution. WBee saves the data in each of the levels if there are failures in communication. In addition, the nodes include a backup battery, which allows for further data acquisition and storage in the event of a power outage. Unlike other systems that monitor a single point of a hive, the system we present monitors and stores the temperature and relative humidity of the beehive in three different spots. Additionally, the hive is continuously weighed on a weighing scale. Real-time weight measurement is an innovation in wireless beehive—monitoring systems. We designed an adaptation board to facilitate the connection of the sensors to the node. Through the Internet, researchers and beekeepers can access the cloud data server to find out the condition of their hives in real time.

  1. Properties of a nanodielectric cryogenic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Georgios [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Physical properties of a nanodielectric composed of in situ synthesized titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles ({le} 5 nm in diameter) and a cryogenic resin are reported. The dielectric losses were reduced by a factor of 2 in the nanocomposite, indicating that the presence of small TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles restricted the mobility of the polymer chains. Dielectric breakdown data of the nanodielectric was distributed over a narrower range than that of the unfilled resin. The nanodielectric had 1.56 times higher 1% breakdown probability than the resin, yielding 0.64 times thinner insulation thickness for the same voltage level, which is beneficial in high voltage engineering.

  2. SEM and elemental analysis of composite resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoda, H.; Yamada, T.; Inokoshi, S.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four chemically cured, 21 light-cured anterior, three light-cured anterior/posterior, and 18 light-cured posterior composite resins were examined using scanning electron microscopy, and the elemental composition of their filler particles was analyzed with an energy dispersive electron probe microanalyzer. According to the results obtained, the composite resins were divided into five groups (traditional, microfilled type, submicrofilled type, hybrid type, and semihybrid), with two additional hypothetical categories (microfilled and hybrid). Characteristics of each type were described with clinical indications for selective guidance of respective composite resins for clinical use

  3. In-depth disinfection of acrylic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, V B; Saunders, T R; Pimsler, M; Elfring, D R

    1995-09-01

    This study demonstrated that bacteria penetrate three kinds of dental acrylic resin after a short time period. Samples of acrylic resin were contaminated with a variety of bacteria and were then placed in three different disinfecting solutions as directed by the manufacturers. After the specific dilution and immersion time, cultures were made from the resin samples. The only effective disinfectant was a 0.525% solution of sodium hypochlorite at a 10-minute immersion. It disinfected not only the surfaces but also the bacteria that penetrated the surfaces to a depth of 3 mm.

  4. Immobilisation of ion exchange resins in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.G.; Jolliffe, C.B.; Lee, D.J.

    1990-09-01

    The removal of activity from spent decontaminating solutions eg LOMI can be achieved using organic ion exchange resins. These resins can be successfully immobilised in cement based matrices. The optimum cement system contained 10% ordinary Portland cement 84% gg blast furnace slag, 6% microsilica with a water cement ratio of 0.5 and a dry resin loading of 36% with respect to total weight. This formulation was successfully scaled up to 200 litres giving a product with acceptable compressive strength, dimensional stability and elastic modulus. Storage of samples under water appears to have no detrimental effects on the product's properties. (author)

  5. Cobalt Ions Improve the Strength of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St. Clair, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Technique developed for improving mechanical strength of epoxy resins by adding cobalt ions in form of tris(acetylacetonato)cobalt (III) complex. Solid cast disks prepared from cobalt ion-containing epoxy resins tested for flexural strength and stiffness. Incorporation of cobalt ions into epoxies increased flexural strength of resins by 10 to 95 percent. Suitable resins for this technique include any liquid or solid TGMDA resins. Improved epoxy formulation proves useful as composite matrix resin, adhesive, or casting resin for applications on commercial and advanced aircraft.

  6. Insecticide Susceptibility in Asian Honey Bees (Apis cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)) and Implications for Wild Honey Bees in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mika; Sakamoto, Yoshiko; Goka, Koichi; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo

    2017-04-01

    To conserve local biodiversity and ensure the provision of pollination services, it is essential to understand the impact of pesticides on wild honey bees. Most studies that have investigated the effects of pesticides on honey bees have focused on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)), which is commonly domesticated worldwide. However, the Asian honey bee (Apis cerana) is widely distributed throughout Asia, and toxicity data are lacking for this species. This study aimed to fill this important knowledge gap. In this study, we determined the acute contact toxicity in A. cerana to various pesticides, including neonicotinoids, fipronil, organophosphorus, synthetic pyrethroids, carbamate, and anthranilic diamide. Based on the test duration of 48 h of contact LD50 tests, A. cerana was most sensitive to dinotefuran (0.0014 μg/bee), followed by thiamethoxam (0.0024 μg/bee) and fipronil (0.0025 μg/bee). Dinotefuran is used extensively in Asia, thereby potentially creating a substantial hazard. More generally, A. cerana was approximately one order of magnitude more sensitive than was A. mellifera to most of the pesticides evaluated. The results of our study suggest that neonicotinoid pesticides should not be considered as a single group that acts uniformly on all honey bees, and that more careful management strategies are required to conserve A. cerana populations than A. mellifera. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Experimental Study on the comparison of antibacterial and antioxidant effects between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Joong chul An; Ki Rok Kwon; Eun Hee Lee; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to compare antibacterial activities and free radical scavenging activity between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom in which the allergy-causing enzyme is removed. Methods : To evaluate antibacterial activities of the test samples, gram negative E. coli and gram positive St. aureus were compared using the paper disc method. For comparison of the antioxidant effects, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and Thiobarbituric Ac...

  8. Shear bond strength of an autopolymerizing repair resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Ippei; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the shear bond strength of an autopolymerizing repair resin to injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Four injection-molded thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, a polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and a polycarbonate) were used in this study. The specimens were divided into eight groups according to the type of surface treatment given: (1) no treatment, (2) air abrasion with alumina, (3) dichloromethane, (4) ethyl acetate, (5) 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (6) alumina and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, (7) tribochemical silica coating or (8) tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Half of the specimens in groups 1, 5, 6 and 8 were thermocycled for 10,000 cycles in water between 5-55°C with a dwell time of 1 min at each temperature. The shear bond strengths were determined. The shear bond strengths to the two polyamides treated with alumina, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate and no treatment were very low. The greatest post-thermocycling bond strengths to polyamides were recorded for the specimens treated with tribochemical silica coating and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (PA12: 16.4 MPa, PACM12: 17.5 MPa). The greatest post-thermocycling bond strengths to polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycarbonate were recorded for the treatment with alumina and 4-META/MMA-TBB resin (22.7 MPa, 20.8 MPa). Polyamide was exceedingly difficult to bond to an autopolymerizing repair resin; the shear bond strength improved using tribochemical silica coating followed by the application of 4-META/MMA-TBB resin. Both polyethylene terephthalate copolymer and polycarbonate were originally easy to bond to an autopolymerizing repair resin. However, with 4-META/MMA-TBB resin, the bond was more secure.

  9. Magnetic ion-exchange resin treatment: Impact of water type and resin use

    OpenAIRE

    Mergen, Maxime Rodolphe Denis; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A.; Jarvis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Three raw waters of fundamentally different natural organic matter (NOM) character were treated by magnetic resin using a bench-scale method designed to mimic how the resin is used in continuous operation. Increasing water hydrophobicity resulted in reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal with removal of 56%, 33% and 25% for waters containing 21%, 50% and 75% hydrophobic NOM, respectively. Study of consecutive resin uses showed that the NOM in the hydrophobic water ha...

  10. Vegetation Management and Host Density Influence Bee-Parasite Interactions in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Hamutahl; Quistberg, Robyn D; Philpott, Stacy M

    2017-12-08

    Apocephalus borealis phorid flies, a parasitoid of bumble bees and yellow jacket wasps in North America, was recently reported as a novel parasitoid of the honey bee Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Little is known about the ecology of this interaction, including phorid fecundity on bee hosts, whether phorid-bee parasitism is density dependent, and which local habitat and landscape features may correlate with changes in parasitism rates for either bumble or honey bees. We examined the impact of local and landscape drivers and host abundance on phorid parasitism of A. mellifera and the bumble bee Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski (Hymenoptera: Apidae). We worked in 19 urban gardens along the North-Central Coast of California, where phorid parasitism of honey bees was first reported in 2012. We collected and incubated bees for phorid emergence, and surveyed local vegetation, ground cover, and floral characteristics as well as land cover types surrounding gardens. We found that phorid parasitism was higher on bumble bees than on honey bees, and phorids produced nearly twice as many pupae on individual bumble bee hosts than on honey bee hosts. Parasitism of both bumble and honey bees increased with abundance of honey bees in a site. Differences in landscape surroundings did not correlate with parasitism, but local factors related to bee resource provisioning (e.g., tree and shrub abundance) positively correlated with increased parasitism. This research thus helps to document and describe conditions that may have facilitated phorid fly host shift to honey bees and further elucidate how resource provisioning in urban gardens influences bee-parasite interactions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. 5-year clinical performance of resin composite versus resin modified glass ionomer restorative system in non-carious cervical lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions.......To comparatively assess the 5-year clinical performance of a 1-bottle adhesive and resin composite system with a resin-modified glass ionomer restorative in non-carious cervical lesions....

  12. 21 CFR 175.380 - Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. 175.380 Section 175.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins. The...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin epoxy resins, to which may have been added certain optional adjuvant substances...

  13. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  14. The strengthening of resin cemented dental ceramic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to advance the understanding of the mechanism of resin-strengthening conferred to dental ceramic materials by resin-based composite materials. The investigation is presented as a series of manuscripts. In the first study (Manuscript 3.1), dental porcelain disc-shaped specimens were resin-coated with three resin-based composite materials with different flexural moduli at discrete resin thicknesses. The discs were loaded to failure in a biaxial flexure t...

  15. Pengaruh Sifat-Sifat Fisik Resin Akrilik Terhadap Basis Protesa

    OpenAIRE

    Amriani Syahfitri

    2008-01-01

    Saat ini resin akrilik banyak digunakan secara umum untuk konstruksi gigi tiruan. Sebagai bahan basis prothesa, penggunaan resin akrilik terutama resin heat cured adalah yang paling sering digunakan selain bernilai estetis, juga lebih ekonomis. Pada prothesa yang ideal memerlukan suatu basis yang kuat, Syarat- syarat basis protesa tidak semuanya dapat dipenuhi oleh basis resin akrilik. Sifat-sifat fisik resin akrilik mempunyai pengaruh terhadap basis protesa. Untuk menghindari k...

  16. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  17. Dental repair material: a resin-modified glass-ionomer bioactive ionic resin-based composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H; Donly, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This report documents treatment and repair of three carious teeth that were restored with a new dental repair material that features the characteristics of both resin-modified glass-ionomer restorative cement (RMGI) and resin-based composite (RBC). The restorative products presented are reported by the manufacturer to be the first bioactive dental materials with an ionic resin matrix, a shock-absorbing resin component, and bioactive fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. The restorative material and base/liner, which feature three hardening mechanisms, could prove to be a notable advancement in the adhesive dentistry restorative materials continuum.

  18. Nanosilica Modification of Elastomer-Modified VARTM Epoxy Resins for Improved Resin and Composite Toughness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinette, Jason; Bujanda, Andres; DeSchepper, Daniel; Dibelka, Jessica; Costanzo, Philip; Jensen, Robert; McKnight, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications have reported a synergy between rubber and silica in modified epoxy resins that results in significantly improved fracture toughness without reductions in other material properties...

  19. Synthesis of improved phenolic and polyester resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-seven cured phenolic resin compositions were prepared and tested for their ability to provide improved char residues and moisture resistance over state of the art epoxy resin composite matrices. Cyanate, epoxy novolac and vinyl ester resins were investigated. Char promoter additives were found to increase the anaerobic char yield at 800 C of epoxy novolacs and vinyl esters. Moisture resistant cyanate and vinyl ester compositions were investigated as composite matrices with Thornel 300 graphite fiber. A cyanate composite matrix provided state of the art composite mechanical properties before and after humidity exposure and an anaerobic char yield of 46 percent at 800 C. The outstanding moisture resistance of the matrix was not completely realized in the composite. Vinyl ester resins showed promise as candidates for improved composite matrix systems.

  20. Posterior bulk-filled resin composite restorations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan WV; Pallesen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/aim: To evaluate in a randomized controlled study the 5-year clinical durability of a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in Class I and Class II restorations. Materials and methods: 38 pairs Class I and 62 pairs Class II restorations were placed in 44 male and 42 female (mean age...... 52.4 years). Each patient received at least two, as similar as possible, extended Class I or Class II restorations. In all cavities, a 1-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V+) was applied. Randomized, one of the cavities of each pair received the flowable bulk-filled resin composite (SDR), in increments...... up to 4mm as needed to fill the cavity 2mm short of the occlusal cavosurface. The occlusal part was completed with the nano-hybrid resin composite (Ceram X mono+). In the other cavity, the resin composite-only (Ceram X mono+) was placed in 2mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using...

  1. 21 CFR 177.1380 - Fluorocarbon resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Chlorotrifluoroethylene-1,1-difluoroethylene-tetrafluoroethylene co-polymer resins produced by copolymerization of..., Extrusion, and Coating Materials,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and...

  2. Liquid Resins With Low VOC Emissions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LaScala, John J; Sands, James M; Palmese, Guiseppe R

    2004-01-01

    .... The polymer properties were similar to that of commercial resins, including Tg greater than 120 C, flex strength greater than 100 MPa, modulus of approximately 3 GPa, and fracture toughness greater than 200 J/m2...

  3. 21 CFR 177.1655 - Polysulfone resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by osmotic pressure in monochlorobenzene; or (2) 1,1′-Sulfonylbis[4-chlorobenzene] polymer with 4,4... determined by osmotic pressure in dimethylformamide. (b) The basic polysulfone resins identified in paragraph...

  4. Volumetric polymerization shrinkage of contemporary composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Nagem Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization shrinkage of composite resins may affect negatively the clinical outcome of the restoration. Extensive research has been carried out to develop new formulations of composite resins in order to provide good handling characteristics and some dimensional stability during polymerization. The purpose of this study was to analyze, in vitro, the magnitude of the volumetric polymerization shrinkage of 7 contemporary composite resins (Definite, Suprafill, SureFil, Filtek Z250, Fill Magic, Alert, and Solitaire to determine whether there are differences among these materials. The tests were conducted with precision of 0.1 mg. The volumetric shrinkage was measured by hydrostatic weighing before and after polymerization and calculated by known mathematical equations. One-way ANOVA (a or = 0.05 was used to determine statistically significant differences in volumetric shrinkage among the tested composite resins. Suprafill (1.87±0.01 and Definite (1.89±0.01 shrank significantly less than the other composite resins. SureFil (2.01±0.06, Filtek Z250 (1.99±0.03, and Fill Magic (2.02±0.02 presented intermediate levels of polymerization shrinkage. Alert and Solitaire presented the highest degree of polymerization shrinkage. Knowing the polymerization shrinkage rates of the commercially available composite resins, the dentist would be able to choose between using composite resins with lower polymerization shrinkage rates or adopting technical or operational procedures to minimize the adverse effects deriving from resin contraction during light-activation.

  5. Cycloaliphatic epoxide resins for cationic UV - cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschueren, K.; Balwant Kaur

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the cyclo - aliphatic epoxide resins used for the various applications of radiation curing and their comparison with acrylate chemistry. Radiation curable coatings and inks are pre - dominantly based on acrylate chemistry but over the last few years, cationic chemistry has emerged successfully with the unique properties inherent with cyclo - aliphatic epoxide ring structures. Wide variety of cationic resins and diluents, the formulation techniques to achieve the desired properties greatly contributes to the advancement of UV - curing technology

  6. Damage evolution in a filled epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoorter, Nicolas; Coutellier, Daniel; Muzic, Markus; Berg-Pollack, Antje; Cai Ye; Zimmermann, Andre

    2006-01-01

    A method is proposed for studying damage evolution in a filled epoxy resin submitted to low-cycle fatigue loading. Transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed, which indicates a damage mechanism that corresponds well to the decreasing slope of the stress-strain hysteresis observed in strain-controlled fatigue experiments. Also, the suggested damage model appears to be suitable for the simulation of strain-controlled cyclic tests and fits the damage evolution of the filled epoxy resin fairly well [de

  7. Bumble Bees (Bombus terrestris use mechanosensory hairs to detect electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees and flowers have an intricate relationship which benefits both organisms. Plants provide nectar bees, in turn, distribute pollen to fertilize plants. To make pollination work, flowers need a mechanism to incentivize individual bees to visit only a single species of flower. Flowers, like modern advertising agencies, use multiple senses to create a floral ‘brand’ that is easily recognized. Size, smell, colour, touch, and even temperature are used to allow bees to differentiate between flower species. Recently, a new sense has been found that is usable by bees to differentiate flowers, an ‘electric sense’: they can identify flowers based only on the flower’s electric field. This new sense provides a novel example of how flowers differentiate themselves to bees and has obvious implications for how bees and flowers interact with the electrical world around us. Bumble bees detect this electric field by using their body hairs, which bend in the presence of electric charge.

  8. Bee communities along a prairie restoration chronosequence: similar abundance and diversity, distinct composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonietto, Rebecca K; Ascher, John S; Larkin, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the midwestern United States, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to provide ancillary benefits to bees through increased foraging and nesting resources. We investigated community assembly of bees across a chronosequence of restored eastern tallgrass prairies and compared patterns to those in control and reference habitats (old fields and prairie remnants, respectively). We collected bees for 3 yr and measured diversity and abundance of in-bloom flowering plants, vegetation structure, ground cover, and surrounding land use as predictors of bee abundance and bee taxonomic and functional diversity. We found that site-level variables, but not site type or restoration age, were significant predictors of bee abundance (bloom diversity, P = 0.004; bare ground cover, P = 0.02) and bee diversity (bloom diversity, P = 0.01). There were significant correlations between overall composition of bee and blooming plant communities (Mantel test, P = 0.002), and both plant and bee assemblages in restorations were intermediate between those of old fields and remnant prairies. Restorations exhibited high bee beta diversity, i.e., restored sites' bee assemblages were taxonomically and functionally differentiated from each other. This pattern was strong in younger restorations (20 yr), suggesting restored prairie bee communities become more similar to one another and more similar to remnant prairie bee communities over time with the arrival of more species and functional groups of bees. Our results indicate that old fields

  9. STUDIES ON THE RESISTANCE TO WINTERING OF THE ITALIAN BEES APIS MELLIFERA LIGUSTICA REARED IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MONICA PÂRVU; CORINA AURELIA ZUGRAVU; IOANA CRISTINA ANDRONIE; CARMEN BERGHEŞ; IUDITH IPATE

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted on bee families of Apis mellifera carpatica and Apis mellifera ligustica breeds. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The experimental period was of 6 months. The resistance to wintering was evaluated on the basis of several apicultural indicators: mortality, feed intake during the winter, general state of the family. Mortality was 35% during wintering for the Carpathian bee and 52% for the Italian bee. The differences were very significant (p≤0.001). When winte...

  10. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  11. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC and safety of Sweet Bee Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Ki Rok Kwon; Ching Seng Chu; Hee Soo Park; Min Ki Kim; Bae Chun Cha; Eun Lee

    2007-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation and safety of Sweet Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis was done using HPLC, measurement of LD50 was conducted intravenous, subcutaneous, and intra-muscular injection to the ICR mice. Results : 1. According to HPLC analysis, removal of the enzymes containing phospholipase A2 was successfully rendered on Sweet Bee Venom. And analyzing melittin content, Sweet Bee Venom contained 12% more melittin than Bee Venom. ...

  12. The habitat disruption induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Komeda, Yayoi; Yoshiyama, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of many commercial crops worldwide. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can disrupt the habitat, the effects on their physiology have never been determined. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when introduced in greenhouses for pollination in Japan. Thus, suppressing colony collapses and maintaining the number of worker bees in the colonies is essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycli...

  13. Mitigating the anthropogenic spread of bee parasites to protect wild pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O H

    2015-01-01

    Bees naturally suffer from a broad range of parasites, including mites, protozoans, bacteria, fungi and viruses. Some appear to be host-specific, but most appear able to infect multiple bee species, and some are found in insects outside of the Hymenoptera. The host range, natural geographic range and virulence in different hosts are poorly understood for most bee parasites. It is of considerable concern that the anthropogenic movement of bees species for crop pollination purposes has led to t...

  14. Imide modified epoxy matrix resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a program designed to develop tough imide modified epoxy resins cured by bisimide amine (BIA) hardeners are described. State-of-the-art epoxides MY720 and DER383 were used, and four bismide amines were evaluated. These were the BIA's derived from the 6F anhydride (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene) bis(phthalic anhydride) and the diamines 3,3'-diaminodiphynyl sulfone, 4,4'-oxygianiline, 4,4'-methylene dianiline, and 1,12-dodecane diamine. A key intermediate, designated 6F anhydride, is required for the synthesis of the bisimide amines. Reaction parameters to synthesize a precursor to the 6F anhydride (6FHC) in high yields were investigated. The catalyst trifluoromethane sulfonic acid was studied. Although small scale runs yielded the 6FHC in 50 percent yield, efforts to ranslate these results to a larger scale synthesis gave the 6FHC in only 9 percent yield. Results show that the concept of using bisimide amine as curing agents to improve the toughness properties of epoxies is valid.

  15. Resin elasticity and the strengthening of all-ceramic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, O; Marquis, P M; Fleming, G J P

    2007-06-01

    Resin luting of all-ceramic restorations results in increased performance; however, the strengthening mechanism and the role of the mechanical properties of the resin are not fully understood. The hypothesis tested is that ceramic strength enhancement is dependent on the elastic modulus of the resin. Three-point flexural moduli of a flowable, luting, and hybrid composite resin were characterized. Two hundred forty porcelain discs were air-abraded. One group acted as a control, and 3 additional groups were coated with 120 +/- 20 microm of each resin prior to bi-axial flexure testing. All resins significantly increased in mean strength, and the associated strength increase was related to the elastic modulus of the resin (R(2) = 0.9885), so the hypothesis was accepted. The combination of Poisson constraint and the creation of a resin-inter-penetrating layer sensitive to the elastic modulus of the resin may provide an explanation of the strengthening mechanism.

  16. Landscaping pebbles attract nesting by the native ground-nesting bee Halictus rubicundus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most species of bees nest underground. Recent interest in pollinator-friendly gardens and landscaping focuses on planting suitable flowering species for bees, but we know little about providing for the ground-nesting needs of bees other than leaving them bare dirt surfaces. In this study, a surfac...

  17. Diversity and human perceptions of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in Southeast Asian megacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wan, Tao; Lee, Ping-Shin; Li, Zong-Xu; Chen, Xing; Wang, Yun-Yu; Wilson, John-James

    2016-10-01

    Urbanization requires the conversion of natural land cover to cover with human-constructed elements and is considered a major threat to biodiversity. Bee populations, globally, are under threat; however, the effect of rapid urban expansion in Southeast Asia on bee diversity has not been investigated. Given the pressing issues of bee conservation and urbanization in Southeast Asia, coupled with complex factors surrounding human-bee coexistence, we investigated bee diversity and human perceptions of bees in four megacities. We sampled bees and conducted questionnaires at three different site types in each megacity: a botanical garden, central business district, and peripheral suburban areas. Overall, the mean species richness and abundance of bees were significantly higher in peripheral suburban areas than central business districts; however, there were no significant differences in the mean species richness and abundance between botanical gardens and peripheral suburban areas or botanical gardens and central business districts. Urban residents were unlikely to have seen bees but agreed that bees have a right to exist in their natural environment. Residents who did notice and interact with bees, even though being stung, were more likely to have positive opinions towards the presence of bees in cities.

  18. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core, Andrew; Runckel, Charles; Ivers, Jonathan; Quock, Christopher; Siapno, Travis; DeNault, Seraphina; Brown, Brian; DeRisi, Joseph; Smith, Christopher D.; Hafernik, John

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD. PMID:22235317

  19. Generalist bees pollinate red-flowered Penstemon eatonii: Duality in the hummingbird pollination syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Cane; Rick. Dunne

    2014-01-01

    The red tubular flowers of Penstemon eatonii (Plantaginaceae) typify the classic pollination syndrome for hummingbirds. Bees are thought to diminish its seed siring potential, but we found that foraging female generalist bees (Apis, Anthophora) deposited substantial amounts of conspecific pollen on P. eatonii stigmas. In the absence of hummingbirds, bee pollination of...

  20. A new threat to honey bees, the parasitic phorid fly Apocephalus borealis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Core

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees show hive abandonment behavior, leaving their hives at night and dying shortly thereafter. On average, seven days later up to 13 phorid larvae emerge from each dead bee and pupate away from the bee. Using DNA barcoding, we confirmed that phorids that emerged from honey bees and bumble bees were the same species. Microarray analyses of honey bees from infected hives revealed that these bees are often infected with deformed wing virus and Nosema ceranae. Larvae and adult phorids also tested positive for these pathogens, implicating the fly as a potential vector or reservoir of these honey bee pathogens. Phorid parasitism may affect hive viability since 77% of sites sampled in the San Francisco Bay Area were infected by the fly and microarray analyses detected phorids in commercial hives in South Dakota and California's Central Valley. Understanding details of phorid infection may shed light on similar hive abandonment behaviors seen in CCD.

  1. Foraging behaviour of equatorial Afrotropical stingless bees: habitat selection and competition for resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kajobe, R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a result of fieldwork on foraging ecology of Afrotropical stingless bees in Uganda. This is because most studies on stingless bee ecology are largely based in South America and South-east Asia and have ignored the aspects of Afrotropical stingless bees. The central question is how the

  2. Conversion of high and low pollen protein diets into protein in worker honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, M; Barragán, S; Vanagas, L; García, C; Solana, H; Rodríguez, E; Bedascarrasbure, E

    2013-08-01

    Adequate protein levels are necessary to maintain strong honey bee [Apis mellifera (L.)] colonies. The aim of this study was to quantify how pollens with different crude protein contents influence protein stores within individual honey bees. Caged bees were fed one of three diets, consisting of high-protein-content pollen, low-protein-content pollen, or protein-free diet as control; measurements were made based on protein content in hemolymph and fat body, fat body weight, and body weight. Vitellogenin in hemolymph was also measured. Bees fed with high crude protein diet had significantly higher levels of protein in hemolymph and fat bodies. Caged bees did not increase pollen consumption to compensate for the lower protein in the diet, and ingesting approximately 4 mg of protein per bee could achieve levels of 20 microg/microl protein in hemolymph. Worker bees fed with low crude protein diet took more time in reaching similar protein content of the bees that were fed with high crude protein diet. The data showed that fat bodies and body weight were not efficient methods of measuring the protein status of bees. The determination of total protein or vitellogenin concentration in the hemolymph from 13-d-old bees and protein concentration of fat bodies from 9-d-old bees could be good indicators of nutritional status of honey bees.

  3. Gender-bias primes elicit queen-bee responses among senior Policewomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, B.; Laar, C. van; Ellemers, N.; Groot, K. de

    2011-01-01

    Queen bees are senior women in male-dominated organizations who have achieved success by emphasizing how they differ from other women. Although the behavior of queen bees tends to be seen as contributing to gender disparities in career outcomes, we argue that queen-bee behavior is actually a result

  4. Bee diversity effects on pollination depend on functional complementarity and niche shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fründ, Jochen; Dormann, Carsten F; Holzschuh, Andrea; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-09-01

    Biodiversity is important for many ecosystem processes. Global declines in pollinator diversity and abundance have been recognized, raising concerns about a pollination crisis of crops and wild plants. However, experimental evidence for effects of pollinator species diversity on plant reproduction is extremely scarce. We established communities with 1-5 bee species to test how seed production of a plant community is determined by bee diversity. Higher bee diversity resulted in higher seed production, but the strongest difference was observed for one compared to more than one bee species. Functional complementarity among bee species had a far higher explanatory power than bee diversity, suggesting that additional bee species only benefit pollination when they increase coverage of functional niches. In our experiment, complementarity was driven by differences in flower and temperature preferences. Interspecific interactions among bee species contributed to realized functional complementarity, as bees reduced interspecific overlap by shifting to alternative flowers in the presence of other species. This increased the number of plant species visited by a bee community and demonstrates a new mechanism for a biodiversity-function relationship ("interactive complementarity"). In conclusion, our results highlight both the importance of bee functional diversity for the reproduction of plant communities and the need to identify complementarity traits for accurately predicting pollination services by different bee communities.

  5. Critical PO2 of developing Megachile rotundata, the alfalfa leaf-cutting bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alfalfa leaf-cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is a solitary, cavity-nesting bee. Juvenile bees develop inside brood cells constructed out of leaf pieces. During development inside the brood cell, pre-pupae may experience hypoxic conditions from both the cavity nesting behavior and brood cell ...

  6. How honey bees of successive age classes are distributed over a one storey, ten frames hive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    In honey bee studies focusing on physiology, disease diagnosis or bio indication, bees are sampled from the colony. This raises the question of where in the colony samples must be taken from for specific study objectives. In this study we recorded where bees of known age are found in the hive. We

  7. Responses of Varroa-resistant honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) to Deformed Wing Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of Deformed wing virus (DWV) on Apis mellifera is magnified by Varroa destructor parasitism. This study compared the responses of two Varroa-resistant honey bee stocks [Russian honey bees (RHB) and an outcross of Varroa Sensitive Hygienic bees (POL)] to DWV infection to that of Italian ho...

  8. Status of breeding and use of Russian and VSH bees world-wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research at the USDA Honey Bee Breeding, Genetics and Physiology Laboratory produced two types of honey bees (Apis mellifera) with resistance to Varroa destructor. Colonies of these bees host mite populations that remain small enough to allow beekeepers to eliminate or reduce miticide treatments. S...

  9. Spore loads and immune responses of honey bees naturally infected by Nosema ceranae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosema ceranae, a microsporidia parasite originally found in Asian honey bees, Apis cerana, causes widespread infection in adult workers of European honey bees, Apis mellifera, and has often been linked to honey bee colony losses worldwide. Previous investigations of the host immune response to N. c...

  10. Ecology and economics of using native managed bees for almond pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidence of the efficacy of using managed native bees, rather than or concurrently with honey bees, in crop pollination is increasing. However, a broader ecological economic framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of using these bees has not been developed. We conducted a cost-benefit analy...

  11. Effect of resin coating on dentin bonding of resin cement in Class II cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Shamim; Nikaido, Toru; Matin, Khairul; Ogata, Miwako; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2007-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of resin coating on the regional microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of a resin cement to the dentin walls of Class II cavities. Twenty mesio-occlusal cavities were prepared in human molars. In 10 cavities, a resin coating consisting of a self-etching primer bonding system, Clearfil SE Bond, and a low-viscosity microfilled resin, Protect Liner F, was applied. The other 10 teeth served as a non-coating group. After impression taking and temporization, they were kept in water for one day. Composite inlays were then cemented with a dual-cure resin cement, Panavia F 2.0, and stored in water for one day. Thereafter, MTBSs were measured. Two-way ANOVA (p=0.05) revealed that the MTBS of resin cement to dentin was influenced by resin coating, but not by regional difference. In conclusion, application of a resin coating to the dentin surface significantly improved the MTBS in indirect restorations.

  12. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Yoshio Furuse

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different surface treatments on shear bond strength of saliva-contaminated resin-resin interfaces. Flat resin surfaces were fabricated. In the control group, no contamination or surface treatment was performed. The resin surfaces of the experimental groups were contaminated with saliva and air-dried, and then submitted to: (G1 rinsing with water and drying; (G2 application of an adhesive system; (G3 rinsing and drying, abrasion with finishing disks, etching and application of adhesive system; (G4 rinsing and drying, etching, application of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin-resin interfaces with saliva significantly reduced shear strength, especially after prolonged storage (p<0.05. Similar values to the original bond strength were obtained after abrasion and application of adhesive (G3 or etching and application of silane and adhesive (G4. If contamination occurs, a surface treatment is required to guarantee an adequate interaction between the resin increments.

  13. Bond strength of resin-resin interfaces contaminated with saliva and submitted to different surface treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Benetti, Ana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    of silane and adhesive system. Resin cylinders were placed over the treated surfaces. The specimens were stored in water or ethanol. Shear bond strength tests were performed and the mode of failure was evaluated. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 test. Contamination of resin...

  14. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Søvik, Eirik; Myerscough, Mary R; Barron, Andrew B

    2015-03-17

    Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience.

  15. Cytosine modifications in the honey bee (Apis mellifera worker genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Magne Koscielniak Rasmussen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes enable genomes to respond to changes in the environment, such as altered nutrition, activity, or social setting. Epigenetic modifications, thereby, provides a source of phenotypic plasticity in many species. The honey bee (Apis mellifera uses nutritionally sensitive epigenetic control mechanisms in the development of the royal caste (queens and the workers. The workers are functionally sterile females that can take on a range of distinct physiological and/or behavioral phenotypes in response to environmental changes. Honey bees have a wide repertoire of epigenetic mechanisms which, as in mammals, includes cytosine methylation, hydroxymethylated cytosines, together with the enzymatic machinery responsible for these cytosine modifications. Current data suggests that honey bees provide an excellent system for studying the social repertoire of the epigenome. In this review, we elucidate what is known so far about the honey bee epigenome and its mechanisms. Our discussion includes what may distinguish honey bees from other model animals, how the epigenome can influence worker behavioral task separation, and how future studies can answer central questions about the role of the epigenome in social behavior.

  16. Honey bee: a consumer’s point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavodna Lucie Sara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the way bee products are perceived by customers. It is mainly focused on honey, which is considered the main output product of beekeeping. Beekeeping is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic. Based on current data there are over 48 thousand people engaged in beekeeping in the Czech Republic. Hand in hand with the increasing number of beekeepers the popularity of bee products - especially honey - among Czech consumers is also growing. Recently, the consumption of honey in the Czech Republic has been slightly increasing. A big problem today is that honey sold in Czech supermarkets is frequently falsified. At the same time, it is increasingly popular to buy honey directly from beekeepers. The aim of this research was to describe the situation about the honey market in the Czech Republic, and also to examine the relationship between consumers on the one hand, and honey/beekeepers on the other. We have also considered customer's trust in organic honey and honey sold in supermarket chains. Results show that consumers view bee products as generally healthy and prefer to buy bee products from a beekeeper because of greater convenience as locally sourced honey is perceived to be of higher quality. The majority of consumers agree with paying a higher price for a product of higher quality. The article confirmed the hypothesis that most people think that bee products sold by a beekeeper are healthier than those bought at ordinary shops.

  17. Do sexist organizational cultures create the Queen Bee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Belle; Ellemers, Naomi; van Laar, Colette; de Groot, Kim

    2011-09-01

    'Queen Bees' are senior women in masculine organizational cultures who have fulfilled their career aspirations by dissociating themselves from their gender while simultaneously contributing to the gender stereotyping of other women. It is often assumed that this phenomenon contributes to gender discrimination in organizations, and is inherent to the personalities of successful career women. We argue for a social identity explanation and examine organizational conditions that foster the Queen Bee phenomenon. Participants were 94 women holding senior positions in diverse companies in The Netherlands who participated in an on-line survey. In line with predictions, indicators of the Queen Bee phenomenon (increased gender stereotyping and masculine self-descriptions) were found mostly among women who indicated they had started their career with low gender identification and who had subsequently experienced a high degree of gender discrimination on their way up. By contrast, the experience of gender discrimination was unrelated to signs of the Queen Bee phenomenon among women who indicated to be highly identified when they started their career. Results are discussed in light of social identity theory, interpreting the Queen Bee phenomenon as an individual mobility response of low gender identified women to the gender discrimination they encounter in their work. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Hydroxymethylfurfural: a possible emergent cause of honey bee mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbes, Lara; Nguyen, Bach Kim; de Graaf, Dirk C; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Reybroeck, Wim; Haubruge, Eric; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-12-11

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a common product of hexose degradation occurring during the Maillard reaction and caramelization, has been found toxic for rats and mice. It could cause a potential health risk for humans due to its presence in many foods, sometimes exceeding 1 g/kg (in certain dried fruits and caramel products), although the latter still is controversial. HMF can also be consumed by honey bees through bad production batches of sugar syrups that are offered as winter feeding. In Belgium, abnormal losses of honey bee colonies were observed in colonies that were fed with syrup of inverted beet sugar containing high concentrations of HMF (up to 475 mg/kg). These losses suggest that HMF could be implicated in bee mortality, a topic that so far has received only little attention. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the presence of HMF in honey bee environment and possible consequences on bee mortality. Some lines of inquiry for further toxicological analysis are likewise proposed.

  19. Bee assemblage in habitats associated with Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Halinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1 flowering canola crop, (2 forest remnant, and (3 grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50% and in the flowering canola field (47%. Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers.

  20. Bee genera, diversity and abundance in genetically modified canola fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Colton; Arathi, H S

    2018-03-12

    Intensive agricultural practices resulting in large scale habitat loss ranks as the top contributing factors in the global bee decline. Growing Genetically Modified Herbicide Tolerant (GMHT) crops as large monocultures has resulted extensive applications of herbicides leading to the degradation of natural habitats surrounding farmlands. Herbicide tolerance trait is beneficial for crops such as Canola (Brassica napus) that are extremely vulnerable to weed competition. While the trait in itself does not harm pollinators, growing genetically modified herbicide tolerant cultivars indirectly contributes towards pollinator declines through habitat loss. Canola, a mass-flowering crop is highly attractive to bee pollinators and the extensive adoption of the herbicide tolerant trait has led to depletion of non-crop floral resources. Extensive use of herbicide in and near fields with herbicide tolerant cultivars systematically eliminates semi-natural habitats around agricultural fields which consist of non-crop flowering plants. Planting pollinator strips provides floral resources for bees after crop flowering. We document the bee genera in canola and the adjoining pollinator strip. The overlap in bee genera reinforces the importance of pollinator habitats in agricultural landscape.

  1. Bulk-filled posterior resin restorations based on stress-decreasing resin technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, Jan W.V.; Pallesen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    This randomized study evaluated a flowable resin composite bulk-fill technique in posterior restorations and compared it intraindividually with a conventional 2-mm resin composite layering technique over a 6-yr follow-up period. Thirty-eight pairs of Class II restorations and 15 pairs of Class I...... restorations were placed in 38 adults. In all cavities a single-step self-etch adhesive (Xeno V) was applied. In the first cavity of each pair, the flowable resin composite (SDR) was placed, in bulk increments of up to 4 mm. The occlusal part was completed with a layer of nanohybrid resin composite (Ceram X...... mono). In the second cavity of each pair, the hybrid resin composite was placed in 2-mm increments. The restorations were evaluated using slightly modified US Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria at baseline and then annually for a time period of 6 yr. After 6 yr, 72 Class II restorations and 26...

  2. Native bees buffer the negative impact of climate warming on honey bee pollination of watermelon crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Reilly, James; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Winfree, Rachael

    2013-10-01

    If climate change affects pollinator-dependent crop production, this will have important implications for global food security because insect pollinators contribute to production for 75% of the leading global food crops. We investigate whether climate warming could result in indirect impacts upon crop pollination services via an overlooked mechanism, namely temperature-induced shifts in the diurnal activity patterns of pollinators. Using a large data set on bee pollination of watermelon crops, we predict how pollination services might change under various climate change scenarios. Our results show that under the most extreme IPCC scenario (A1F1), pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline by 14.5%, whereas pollination services provided by most native, wild taxa are predicted to increase, resulting in an estimated aggregate change in pollination services of +4.5% by 2099. We demonstrate the importance of native biodiversity in buffering the impacts of climate change, because crop pollination services would decline more steeply without the native, wild pollinators. More generally, our study provides an important example of how biodiversity can stabilize ecosystem services against environmental change. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  4. ZigBee-Based Telemetry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khriji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a significant improvement in technology regarding healthcare. Real-time monitoring systems improve the quality of life of patients as well as the performance of hospitals and healthcare centers. In this paper, we present an implementation of a designed framework of a telemetry system using ZigBee technology for automatic and real-time monitoring of Biomedical signals. These signals are collected and processed using 2-tiered subsystems. The first subsystem is the mobile device which is carried on the body and runs a number of biosensors. The second subsystem performs further processing by a local base station using the raw data which is transmitted on-request by the mobile device. The processed data as well as its analysis are then continuously monitored and diagnosed through a human-machine interface. The system should possess low power consumption, low cost and advanced configuration possibilities. This paper accelerates the digital convergence age through continual research and development of technologies related to healthcare.

  5. Artificial bee colony in neuro - Symbolic integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd; Sathasivam, Saratha; Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf

    2017-08-01

    Swarm intelligence is a research area that models the population of the swarm based on natural computation. Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is a swarm based metaheuristic algorithm introduced by Karaboga to optimize numerical problem. Pattern-SAT is a pattern reconstruction paradigm that utilized 2SAT logical rule in representing the behavior of the desired pattern. The information of the desired pattern in terms of 2SAT logic is embedded to Hopfield neural network (HNN-P2SAT) and the desired pattern is reconstructed during the retrieval phase. Since the performance of HNN-P2SAT in Pattern-SAT deteriorates when the number of 2SAT clause increased, newly improved ABC is used to reduce the computation burden during the learning phase of HNN-P2SAT (HNN-P2SATABC). The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Pattern-SAT produced by ABC incorporated with HNN-P2SAT and compare it with conventional standalone HNN. The comparison is examined by using Microsoft Visual Basic C++ 2013 software. The detailed comparison in doing Pattern-SAT is discussed based on global Pattern-SAT, ratio of activated clauses and computation time. The result obtained from computer simulation indicates the beneficial features of HNN-P2SATABC in doing Pattern-SAT. This finding is expected to result in a significant implication on the choice of searching method used to do Pattern-SAT.

  6. Simulation of Fermentation Pathway Using Bees Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ying LEONG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} In this paper, we propose Bees Algorithm (BA to enhance the performance in estimating the parameters for metabolic pathway data to simulate fermentation pathway for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the parameter estimation of biological processes has always been a challenging task due to the complexity and nonlinear equations. Therefore, we present this algorithm as a new approach for parameter estimation for biological interactions to obtain more accurate parameter values. The result shows that BA outperforms other estimation algorithms as it produces the most accurate kinetic parameters, which contributes to the precision of simulated kinetic model.

  7. Thermal rearrangement of novolak resins used in microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Ricky; Zampini, Anthony; Monaghan, Michael J.; O'Leary, Michael J.; Cardin, William J.; Eugster, Timothy J.

    1995-06-01

    Changes in phenolic-formaldehyde resin properties are described in terms of thermal exposure. At high temperature, resin molecular weight, dissolution properties and chemical composition change depending on the presence or absence of monomers. Without monomer in the resin melt at 220 degree(s)C, resin molecular weight increases with a corresponding decrease in dissolution rate. In the presence of monomer, molecular weight generally decreases. Dissolution rate may fluctuate depending on the monomer mixture. Three,five- Xylenol and 2,3,5-trimethylphenol co-monomers induced the most extreme changes in resin properties with thermal treatment. Resin degradation-recombination processes suggest a classical Friedel-Craft rearrangement mechanism.

  8. New bismaleimide matrix resins for graphite fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.; Chen, T. S.; Parker, J. A.; Heimbuch, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Two new bismaleimide resins based on the N,N'-m-phenylene-bis(m-amino-benzamide) structure have been synthesized and characterized. The mixtures of the two resins gave better handling, processing, mechanical, and thermal properties in graphite composites than did the individual resins. The mechanical strength of the cured graphite composites prepared from the 1:1 copolymer of the two bismaleimide resins was excellent at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites from the new bismaleimide matrix resin systems are compared with conventional composites based on epoxy and other bismaleimide systems. The copolymer system provides another method for improving bismaleimide resins.

  9. Thermal cycling effects on adhesion of resin-bovine enamel junction among different composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ko, Chia-Ling; Wu, Hui-Yu; Lai, Pei-Ling; Shih, Chi-Jen

    2014-10-01

    Thermal cycling is used to mimic the changes in oral cavity temperature experienced by composite resins when used clinically. The purpose of this study is to assess the thermal cycling effects of in-house produced composite resin on bonding strength. The dicalcium phosphate anhydrous filler surfaces are modified using nanocrystals and silanization (w/NP/Si). The resin is compared with commercially available composite resins Filtek Z250, Z350, and glass ionomer restorative material GIC Fuji-II LC (control). Different composite resins were filled into the dental enamel of bovine teeth. The bond force and resin-enamel junction graphical structures of the samples were determined after thermal cycling between 5 and 55°C in deionized water for 600 cycles. After thermal cycling, the w/NP/Si 30wt%, 50wt% and Filtek Z250, Z350 groups showed higher shear forces than glass ionomer GIC, and w/NP/Si 50wt% had the highest shear force. Through SEM observations, more of the fillings with w/NP/Si 30wt% and w/NP/Si 50wt% groups flowed into the enamel tubule, forming closed tubules with the composite resins. The push-out force is proportional to the resin flow depth and uniformity. The push-out tubule pore and resin shear pattern is the most uniform and consistent in the w/NP/Si 50wt% group. Accordingly, this developed composite resin maintains great mechanical properties after thermal cycling. Thus, it has the potential to be used in a clinical setting when restoring non-carious cervical lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying honey bee mating range and isolation in semi-isolated valleys by DNA microsatellite paternity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Palmer, Kellie A.; Chaline, Nicolas

    2005-01-01

    Apis mellifera mellifera, gene flow, honey bee conservation, mating distance, National Park, European black bee, Peak District, polyandry, social insects Udgivelsesdato: JUL......Apis mellifera mellifera, gene flow, honey bee conservation, mating distance, National Park, European black bee, Peak District, polyandry, social insects Udgivelsesdato: JUL...

  11. Landscape and Local Correlates of Bee Abundance and Species Richness in Urban Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistberg, Robyn D; Bichier, Peter; Philpott, Stacy M

    2016-03-31

    Urban gardens may preserve biodiversity as urban population densities increase, but this strongly depends on the characteristics of the gardens and the landscapes in which they are embedded. We investigated whether local and landscape characteristics are important correlates of bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) abundance and species richness in urban community gardens. We worked in 19 gardens in the California central coast and sampled bees with aerial nets and pan traps. We measured local characteristics (i.e., vegetation and ground cover) and used the USGS National Land Cover Database to classify the landscape surrounding our garden study sites at 2 km scales. We classified bees according to nesting type (i.e., cavity, ground) and body size and determined which local and landscape characteristics correlate with bee community characteristics. We found 55 bee species. One landscape and several local factors correlated with differences in bee abundance and richness for all bees, cavity-nesting bees, ground-nesting bees, and different sized bees. Generally, bees were more abundant and species rich in bigger gardens, in gardens with higher floral abundance, less mulch cover, more bare ground, and with more grass. Medium bees were less abundant in sites surrounded by more medium intensity developed land within 2 km. The fact that local factors were generally more important drivers of bee abundance and richness indicates a potential for gardeners to promote bee conservation by altering local management practices. In particular, increasing floral abundance, decreasing use of mulch, and providing bare ground may promote bees in urban gardens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W.H. Holland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789 mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops.

  13. A Simple and Efficient Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC is a new population-based stochastic algorithm which has shown good search abilities on many optimization problems. However, the original ABC shows slow convergence speed during the search process. In order to enhance the performance of ABC, this paper proposes a new artificial bee colony (NABC algorithm, which modifies the search pattern of both employed and onlooker bees. A solution pool is constructed by storing some best solutions of the current swarm. New candidate solutions are generated by searching the neighborhood of solutions randomly chosen from the solution pool. Experiments are conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Simulation results show that our approach is significantly better or at least comparable to the original ABC and seven other stochastic algorithms.

  14. Environmental consultancy: dancing bee bioindicators to evaluate landscape health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Jane Couvillon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore how waggle dance decoding may be applied as a tool for ecology by evaluating the benefits and limitations of the methodology compared to other existing ways to evaluate the honey bees’ use of the landscape. The honey bee foragers sample and report back on large areas (c. 100km2. Because honey bees perform dances only for the most profitable resources, these data provide spatial information about the availability of good quality forage for any given time. We argue that dance decoding provides information for a wide range of ecological, conservation, and land management issues. In this way, one species and methodology gives us a novel measure of a landscape’s profitability and health that may be widely relevant, not just for honey bees, but for other flower-visiting insects as well.

  15. ZigBee wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Shun-qi; Ji, Lei; Wu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    ZigBee is a new close-up, low-complexity, low-power, low data rate, low-cost wireless networking technology, mainly used for short distance wireless transmission. It is based on IEEE802.15.4 standards, thousands of tiny sensors form a network through mutual coordination to communications. This paper introduces the ZigBee wireless sensor networks in environmental monitoring applications. The hardware design, including microprocessor, data acquisition, antenna and peripheral circuits of the chips, and through software design composed ZigBee mesh network that can make data acquisition and communication. This network has low power consumption, low cost, the effective area is big, and information transfers reliable merits. And have confirmed the network's communication applicability by the Serial Com Assistant, also testified the network have very good pragmatism by the NS2 emulation the network's operation.

  16. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Orchid Bees Males: Interspecific and Chemotaxonomy Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Aline Borba; do Nascimento, Fábio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated the composition of compounds that cover the cuticle in social insects, but few studies have focused on solitary bees. Cuticular hydrocarbons may provide a tool for chemotaxonomy, and perhaps they can be used as a complement to morphology and genetic characters in phylogenetic studies. Orchid bees (Tribe Euglossini) are a highly diverse group of Neotropical bees with more than 200 species. Here, the cuticular hydrocarbons of 17 species were identified and statistical analysis revealed 108 compounds, which allowed for the taxonomic classification according to the genera. The most significant compounds discriminating the four genera were (Z)-9-pentacosene, (Z,Z)-pentatriacontene-3, (Z)-9-tricosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene. The analyses demonstrated the potential use of CHCs to identify different species.

  17. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Orchid Bees Males: Interspecific and Chemotaxonomy Variation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Borba Dos Santos

    Full Text Available Recent studies have investigated the composition of compounds that cover the cuticle in social insects, but few studies have focused on solitary bees. Cuticular hydrocarbons may provide a tool for chemotaxonomy, and perhaps they can be used as a complement to morphology and genetic characters in phylogenetic studies. Orchid bees (Tribe Euglossini are a highly diverse group of Neotropical bees with more than 200 species. Here, the cuticular hydrocarbons of 17 species were identified and statistical analysis revealed 108 compounds, which allowed for the taxonomic classification according to the genera. The most significant compounds discriminating the four genera were (Z-9-pentacosene, (Z,Z-pentatriacontene-3, (Z-9-tricosene, and (Z-9-heptacosene. The analyses demonstrated the potential use of CHCs to identify different species.

  18. Durability of resin-dentin bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Y; Terashita, M; Shimada, J; Kozono, Y; Carvalho, R M; Russell, C M; Pashley, D H

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the durability of resin-dentin bonds could be evaluated more quickly if the bond specimen was divided into 1 x 1 x 8 mm beams incubated at 37 degrees C for a 90-day period. Extracted human third molars were prepared for bonding by removing the occlusal surface near the dento-enamel junction (superficial dentin group) or near the pulp (deep dentin group). The teeth were bonded either with MacBond, One Step or Clearfil Liner Bond 2, and then builtup to form a flat resin composite crown. After 24 hours in water, each buildup was vertically divided into slabs 1 mm thick, the top half of which was resin, with the bottom half as dentin. Each slab was then vertically sectioned at 1-mm increments to create 1 x 1 x 8-mm beams of resin-bonded dentin. They were incubated for 1 day or 90 days at 37 degrees C, followed by measurement of the tensile bond strengths. The results were analyzed by the Least-Squares Means method at the 95% confidence level. MacBond gave the highest (p durability of resin-dentin bonds.

  19. Processing of exhausted resins for Trino NPP,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuto, F.; Bitetti, G.; Maggini, F.; Scarsi, G.

    2009-01-01

    Decomposition of organic compounds contained in the spent ion exchange resins is considered effective in reducing the waste volume. A system using the wet-oxidation process has been studied for the treatment of the spent resins stored at Trino Nuclear Power Plant owned by SOGIN. Compared with various processes for treating sludge and resin, the wet-oxidation system is rather simple and the process conditions are mild. Not contaminated ion exchange resin samples similar to those ones used in Trino NPP were processed by wet-oxidation and appropriate decomposition of the organic compounds was verified. After decomposition the residue can be solidified with cement for final disposal. When compared with direct solidification without decomposition, the number of waste packages can be significantly reduced. Additional measures for conditioning secondary waste products have also been studied, and their applicability to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant was verified. Some of conditions studied were specific to the Trino Nuclear Power Plant, but it is expected that the system will provide an effective solution for resin treatment at other Italian NPPs. (authors)

  20. Nosema ceranae induced mortality in honey bees (Apis mellifera) depends on infection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbrath, Meghan O; Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y

    2013-09-01

    Nosema ceranae infection can reduce survival of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, but experiments examining its virulence have highly variable results. This variation may arise from differences in experimental techniques. We examined survival effects of two techniques: Nosema infection at day 1 without anesthesia and infection at day 5 using CO2 anesthesia. All bees infected with the latter method had poorer survival. Interestingly, these bees also had significantly fewer spores than bees infected without anesthesia. These results indicate that differences in Nosema ceranae-induced mortality in honey bees may be partially due to differences in experimental techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.