WorldWideScience

Sample records for resilient expansion connector

  1. Metallurgical failure investigation of a pipe connector fracture of an expansion vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A pipe connector of an expansion vessel of a safety heat exchanger was torn off in a test facility's natural gas compressor. From a material point of view, the cause of the damage is a fatigue fracture induced by pulsating bending stress. The fatigue fracture originated from both, the pipe's outer surface as well as from its inner surface, which is consistent with the given stress situation (pulsating bending stress). Material defects or welding-induced flaws were not observed. Corrosion, wear, or thermal overload which may have promoted the damage, were not observed either. The primary cause was a major design error. Cases of dynamic load were obviously not duly taken into account during designing, so that the free-swinging mass of the expansion vessel which was mounted to a pipe of a diameter of only half an inch and, furthermore, installed in an angle of 45 (additional static preload.), could cause the fatigue failure induced by pulsating bending stress in the zone of highest stresses at the transition of the expansion vessel and the the pipe connector due to dynamic operating loads which always occur in plants like these.

  2. Metallurgical failure investigation of a pipe connector fracture of an expansion vessel; Werkstofftechnische Schadensuntersuchung des Abrisses einer Rohrverschraubung eines Ausgleichsbehaelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidel, Andreas [Siemens AG, Power and Gas, Gas Turbines and Generators, Gasturbinenwerk Berlin (Germany). Werkstoffprueflabor

    2016-08-15

    A pipe connector of an expansion vessel of a safety heat exchanger was torn off in a test facility's natural gas compressor. From a material point of view, the cause of the damage is a fatigue fracture induced by pulsating bending stress. The fatigue fracture originated from both, the pipe's outer surface as well as from its inner surface, which is consistent with the given stress situation (pulsating bending stress). Material defects or welding-induced flaws were not observed. Corrosion, wear, or thermal overload which may have promoted the damage, were not observed either. The primary cause was a major design error. Cases of dynamic load were obviously not duly taken into account during designing, so that the free-swinging mass of the expansion vessel which was mounted to a pipe of a diameter of only half an inch and, furthermore, installed in an angle of 45 (additional static preload.), could cause the fatigue failure induced by pulsating bending stress in the zone of highest stresses at the transition of the expansion vessel and the the pipe connector due to dynamic operating loads which always occur in plants like these.

  3. Flexible connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mark E.; Simpson, Walter W.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical connector accommodates high current, is not labor intensive to assemble and disassemble, and allows a wide range of motion to accommodate mechanical variations and movement of connected components. The connector comprises several parts with joints therebetween, wherein each joint provides electrical connection between and allows relative motion of the joined parts. The combination of parts and joints maintains electrical connection between two electrical components even if the components are misaligned or move after connection.

  4. High current capacity electrical connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettis, E.S.; Watts, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    An electrical connector is provided for coupling high current capacity electrical conductors such as copper busses or the like. The connector is arranged in a ''sandwiched'' configuration in which a conductor plate contacts the busses along major surfaces clamped between two stainless steel backing plates. The conductor plate is provided with contact buttons in a spaced array such that the caps of the buttons extend above the conductor plate surface to contact the busses. When clamping bolts provided through openings in the sandwiched arrangement are tightened, Belleville springs provided under the rim of each button cap are compressed and resiliently force the caps into contact with the busses' contacting surfaces to maintain a predetermined electrical contact area provided by the button cap tops. The contact area does not change with changing thermal or mechanical stresses applied to the coupled conductors

  5. CareerConnector

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CareerConnector is USAID's premiere recruiting tool. It is powered by Monster and integrated with www.usajobs.gov. CareerConnector tracks the progression of a...

  6. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  7. Remote connector development study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    Plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) connectors, the most common connectors used at the Hanford site, offer a certain level of flexibility in pipe routing, process system configuration, and remote equipment/instrument replacement. However, these desirable features have inherent shortcomings like leakage, high pressure drop through the right angle bends, and a limited range of available pipe diameters that can be connect by them. Costs for construction, maintenance, and operation of PUREX connectors seem to be very high. The PUREX connector designs include a 90 degree bend in each connector. This increases the pressure drop and erosion effects. Thus, each jumper requires at least two 90 degree bends. PUREX connectors have not been practically used beyond 100 (4 in.) inner diameter. This study represents the results of a survey on the use of remote pipe-connection systems in US and foreign plants. This study also describes the interdependence between connectors, remote handling equipment, and the necessary skills of the operators

  8. Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  9. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  10. Ethiopia Pastoralist Areas Resilience Improvement and Market Expansion (PRIME) Project IE

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This baseline survey serves as the first stage of an impact evaluation designed to determine the impact of the project's interventions on households? resilience to...

  11. Jumper connector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjilal, S. K.; Lindquist, M. R.; Ulbricht, L. E.

    1994-02-01

    Jumper connectors are used for remotely connecting pipe lines containing transfer fluids ranging from hazardous chemicals to other nonhazardous liquids. The jumper connector assembly comprises hooks, hookpins, a block, a nozzle, an operating screw, and a nut. The hooks are tightened against the nozzle flanges by the operating screw that is tightened with a remotely connected torque wrench. Stress analysis for the jumper connector assembly (used extensively on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington) is performed by using hand calculation and finite-element techniques to determine the stress levels resulting from operating and seismic loads on components of the assembly. The analysis addresses loading conditions such as prestress, seismic, operating, thermal, and leakage. The preload torque-generated forces at which each component reaches its stress limits are presented in a tabulated format. Allowable operating loads for the jumper assembly are provided to prevent leakage of the assembly during operating cycles.

  12. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-05-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  13. Fiber optic connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Muhs, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    A fiber optic connector and method for connecting composite materials within which optical fibers are imbedded. The fiber optic connector includes a capillary tube for receiving optical fibers at opposing ends. The method involves inserting a first optical fiber into the capillary tube and imbedding the unit in the end of a softened composite material. The capillary tube is injected with a coupling medium which subsequently solidifies. The composite material is machined to a desired configuration. An external optical fiber is then inserted into the capillary tube after fluidizing the coupling medium, whereby the optical fibers are coupled.

  14. Consolidated challenge to social demand for resilient platforms- lessons from Uber's global expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, C.; Naveed, K.; Neittaanmäki, P.; Fox, B.

    2017-01-01

    Many in the industry see the ride-sharing company Uber as the crown jewel of information and communication technology (ICT) particularly of the digital service platform and sharing economy. Uber has been exploring the new frontier of the ICT-driven disruptive business model (IDBM) and succeeded in its global expansion to over 479 cities in more than 75 countries worldwide in June of 2016. Such rapid expansion provides constructive insights regarding the significance of IDBM, not only in t...

  15. Consolidated challenge to social demand for resilient platforms : Lessons from Uber's global expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Chihiro; Naveed, Kashif; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Fox, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Many in the industry see the ride-sharing company Uber as the significant advancement through information and communication technology (ICT) particularly of the digital service platform and sharing economy. Uber has been exploring the new frontier of the ICT-driven disruptive business model (IDBM) and succeeded in its global expansion to over 479 cities in more than 75 countries worldwide in June of 2016. Such rapid expansion provides constructive insights regarding the significance of ID...

  16. Double-plug seismic connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annoot, I.R.

    1984-01-01

    The double-plug seismic electric connector comprises an elongated insulating body. A male connector plug is at one end of the body and a female connector plug is at the opposite end of the body. Each plug has a pair of male and female contacts. A pair of spaced axial conductors is embedded within the insulating body for interconnecting the opposite male and female contacts. The inner end of a double-wire cable is embedded within the insulating body and each wire inner end is connected to one of the conductors

  17. Structural health monitoring of compression connectors for overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John; Swindeman, Joseph P.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2017-04-01

    Two-stage aluminum conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR) compression connectors are extensively used in US overhead transmission lines. The connectors are made by crimping a steel sleeve onto a steel core and an aluminum sleeve over electrical conducting aluminum strands. The connectors are designed to operate at temperatures up to 125°C, but their performance is increasingly degrading because of overloading of lines. Currently, electric utilities conduct routine line inspections using thermal and electrical measurements, but these methods do not provide information about the structural integrity of connectors. In this work, structural health monitoring (SHM) of compression connectors was studied using electromechanical impedance (EMI) analysis. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-5A was identified as a smart material for SHM. A flexible high-temperature bonding layer was used to address challenges in PZT integration due to a significant difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of PZT and the aluminum substrate. The steel joint on the steel core was investigated because it is responsible for the ultimate tensile strength of the connector. Tensile testing was used to induce structural damage to the joint, or steel core pullout, and thermal cycling introduced additional structural perturbations. EMI measurements were conducted between the tests. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) of EMI was identified as a damage index. The use of steel joints has been shown to enable SHM under simulated conditions. The EMI signature is sensitive to variations in structural conditions. RMSD can be correlated to the structural health of a connector and has potential for use in the SHM and structural integrity evaluation.

  18. Data Base On Cables And Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Arlen R.; Oliver, John D.

    1995-01-01

    Report describes Connector Adapter Cable Information Data Base (CONNAID) computer program, managing data base containing necessary information concerning electrical connectors, breakout boxes, adapter cables, backshells, and pertinent torque specifications for engineering project.

  19. Evaluation of fiber-optic connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    Two fiber optic connectors for field use in high efficiency, long distance systems are described and evaluated in this report. The transmission testing arrangement and other considerations are included with the test results. Techniques for optimizing the transmission through these connectors are also described and the results are reported. Many desirable characteristics of connectors for field use are considered and compared to the ITT and Amphenol connectors tested here

  20. Proposed superscreened cables and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.P.

    1975-11-01

    The paper summarises the present availability of superscreened cables and proposes the specification of a family of cables to meet the foreseeable needs of the nuclear power industry. The cable numbering system is described, special tests outlined and important details given for the chosen cables. Appropriate connectors are also discussed and listed with an outline of their required screening performance. (author)

  1. Jumper connector analysis: 2-inch by 2-inch connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, S.K.; Ulbricht, L.E.; Lindquist, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Jumper connectors are used for remotely connecting pipe lines containing transfer fluids ranging from hazardous chemicals to other nonhazardous liquids. The jumper connector assembly comprises hooks, hookpins, a block, a nozzle, an operating screw, and a nut. The hooks are tightened against the nozzle flanges by the operating screw, and a nut. The hooks are tightened against the nozzle flanges by the operating screw that is tightened with a remotely connected torque wrench. Stress analysis for the jumper connector assembly (used extensively on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington) is performed by using hand calculation and finite-element techniques to determine the stress levels resulting from operating and seismic loads on components of the assembly. The analysis addresses loading conditions such as prestress, seismic, operating, thermal, and leakage. The preload torque-generated forces at which each component reaches its stress limits are presented in a tabulated format. Allowable operating loads for the jumper assembly are provided to prevent leakage of the assembly during operating cycles

  2. Lightning Arrestor Connectors Production Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Steve; Linder, Kim; Emmons, Jim; Gomez, Antonio; Hasam, Dawud; Maurer, Michelle

    2008-10-20

    The Lightning Arrestor Connector (LAC), part “M”, presented opportunities to improve the processes used to fabricate LACs. The A## LACs were the first production LACs produced at the KCP, after the product was transferred from Pinnellas. The new LAC relied on the lessons learned from the A## LACs; however, additional improvements were needed to meet the required budget, yield, and schedule requirements. Improvement projects completed since 2001 include Hermetic Connector Sealing Improvement, Contact Assembly molding Improvement, development of a second vendor for LAC shells, general process improvement, tooling improvement, reduction of the LAC production cycle time, and documention of the LAC granule fabrication process. This report summarizes the accomplishments achieved in improving the LAC Production Readiness.

  3. Loop connectors in dentogenic diastema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a missing tooth along with diastema have limited treatment options to restore the edentulous space. The use of a conventional fixed partial denture (FPD to replace the missing tooth may result in too wide anterior teeth leading to poor esthetics. Loss of anterior teeth with existing diastema may result in excess space available for pontic. This condition presents great esthetic challenge for prosthodontist. If implant supported prosthesis is not possible because of inadequate bone support, FPD along with loop connector may be a treatment option to maintain the diastema and provide optimal esthetic restoration. Here, we report a clinical case where FPD along with loop connector was used to achieve esthetic rehabilitation in maxillary anterior region in which midline diastema has been maintained.

  4. Inline Electrical Connector Mate/Demate Pliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutko, Brian; Dininny, Michael; Moscoso, Gerand; Dokos, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Military and aerospace industries use Mil-Spec type electrical connections on bulkhead panels that require inline access for mate and demate operations. These connectors are usually in tight proximity to other connectors, or recessed within panels. The pliers described here have been designed to work in such tight spaces, and consist of a mirrored set of parallel handles, two cross links, two return springs, and replaceable polyurethane-coated end effectors. The polyurethane eliminates metal-to-metal contact and provides a high-friction surface between the jaw and the connector. Operationally, the user would slide the pliers over the connector shell until the molded polyurethane lip makes contact with the connector shell edge. Then, by squeezing the handles, the end effector jaws grip the connector shell, allowing the connector to be easily disconnected by rotating the pliers. Mating the connector occurs by reversing the prescribed procedure, except the connector shell is placed into the jaws by hand. The molded lip within the jaw allows the user to apply additional force for difficult-to-mate connectors. Handle design has been carefully examined to maximize comfort, limit weight, incorporate tether locations, and improve ergonomics. They have been designed with an off-axis offset for wiring harness clearance, while placing the connector axis of rotation close to the user s axis of wrist rotation. This was done to eliminate fatigue during multiple connector panel servicing. To limit handle opening width, with user ergonomics in mind, the pliers were designed using a parallel jaw mechanism. A cross-link mechanism was used to complete this task, while ensuring smooth operation.

  5. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.

    2015-01-01

    According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type. PMID:26642193

  6. Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Khorramian

    Full Text Available According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimens are tested to investigate the effects of different angle parameters on the ultimate load capacity of connectors. Two different tilted angles of 112.5 and 135 degrees between the angle leg and steel beam are considered. In addition, angle sizes and lengths are varied. Two different failure modes were observed consisting of concrete crushing-splitting and connector fracture. By increasing the size of connector, the maximum load increased for most cases. In general, the 135 degrees tilted angle shear connectors have a higher strength and stiffness than the 112.5 degrees type.

  7. Remote process connectors for the NWCF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.T.; Carter, J.A.; Hohback, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    The remote process connectors developed, used, and tested at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility are described. These connectors, including the 3-bolt kinematic-graphite flange and watertight-electrical connectors, are assembled on master jigs (holding-welding fixture) to form interchangeable pump and valve loop assemblies. These assemblies, with their guide-in platforms make possible a method of performing remote maintenance at the New Waste Calcining Facility that is a departure from methods which until now have been the standard of the industry

  8. Evaluation of remote piping connectors for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welland, H.J.

    1985-08-01

    Four types of remotely actuated piping connectors were evaluated for their application to the fusion energy program. The evaluations are part of a study being performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., for the fusion program at Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, GmbH. Results of the connector evaluation will be used to develop preliminary concepts for connector improvements and new connector configurations

  9. Waste Feed Delivery Purex Process Connector Design Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRACKENBURY, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    The pressure retaining capability of the PUREX process connector is documented. A context is provided for the connector's current use within existing Projects. Previous testing and structural analyses campaigns are outlined. The deficient condition of the current inventory of connectors and assembly wrenches is highlighted. A brief history of the connector is provided. A bibliography of pertinent references is included

  10. On-line intermittent connector anomaly detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper investigates a non-traditional use of differential current sensor and current sensor to detect intermittent disconnection problems in connectors. An...

  11. Inflatable Air Beam Standard Interface Connector

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop a system of 3D-printed connectors that can be used as a kit of parts to connect inflatable air beams to form a variety of spacecraft...

  12. Aesthetic rehabilitation with multiple loop connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a missing tooth along with diastema have limited treatment options to restore the edentulous space. The use of a conventional fixed partial denture (FPD to replace the missing tooth may result in too wide anterior teeth leading to poor esthetics. The diastema resulting from the missing central incisors can be managed with implant-supported prosthesis or FPD with loop connectors. An old lady reported with chief complaints of missing upper anterior teeth due to trauma. Her past dental history revealed that she was having generalized spacing between her upper anterior teeth. Considering her esthetic requirement of maintaining the diastema between 12, 11, 22, and 21, the treatment option of 06 units porcelain fused to metal FPD from canine to canine with intermittent loop connectors between 21, 22, 11, 12 was planned. Connectors basically link different parts of FPDs. The modified FPD with loop connectors enhanced the natural appearance of the restoration, maintained the diastemas and the proper emergence profile, and preserve the remaining tooth structure of abutment teeth. This clinical report discussed a method for fabrication of a modified FPD with loop connectors to restore the wide span created by missing central incisors.

  13. Development of an electrical connector for liquid sodium environment. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Hajime; Noguchi, Koichi; Takatsudo, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Shun-ichi

    1998-07-01

    The INstrumented irradiation Test Assembly (INTA) has been used to conduct precision on-line instrumented irradiation tests in the experimental fast reactor JOYO. In INTA, direct instrumentation wiring between the irradiation test section in the core and the upper structure section in the rotating plug makes INTA structurally complex and expensive. Instead of direct wiring, if an electrical connector capable of withstanding a heated liquid sodium environment could be used between the irradiation test section and the upper structure section, the upper mechanism of INTA could be reused and testing costs would be drastically reduced. Moreover, the reactor load factor would be improved because of reduced handling time for INTA. In an attempt to gain this advantage, research and development of an electric connector in a sodium environment was carried out from 1988 to 1996 at PNC. As no previous R and D had been conducted in this area, this development activity was conducted in a boot strap manner. The first test was carried out for a small model fabrication, the second was for a water partial model, and the third was for a sodium partial model. Based on those tests, a prototype design specification of the connector was determined. In the sodium partial model test, the resilience of the electrical connector insulation to the sodium environment was investigated. However, severe cracking in the ceramic insulator caused by the high temperature sodium environment was discovered at the junction of ceramic insulator and metallic electrode. Although additional sodium partial tests were performed for various material combinations of ceramic insulators, metallic electrodes, brazing materials and metallization materials, the results of the tests were unsatisfactory. Therefore, it was decided that the development of the connector in sodium should cease at PNC in 1997. (J.P.N.)

  14. 'Daisy petal' connectors for the ATLAS detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1997-01-01

    These daisy-petal structures are conducting connectors embedded in kapton film. This was an innovative solution to the demands of the ATLAS detector. Straws are pushed through the petals and held in contact using plugs. The flexible kapton film allows as many petals to be built in any configuration, while acting as a printed circuit carrying the high voltage between circles.

  15. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  16. Annual report 1999. Energy and connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the industrial activities and the financial results of Framatome in 1999. Framatome's activities are divided into 2 sectors: energy and connectors, which represents respectively 54% and 46% of the turnover and 40% and 60% of the staff (26000 people). In 1999 the turnover reached 4.2 milliard euros. Framatome and Siemens have decided to merge their nuclear activities in a common company (66% for Framatome, 34% for Siemens). (A.C.)

  17. In vitro incorporation of the phage Phi29 connector complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chiyu; Prevelige, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of the DNA packaging connector complex during lambdoid phage assembly in vivo is strictly controlled-one and only one of the twelve identical icosahedral vertices is differentiated by the inclusion of a portal or connector dodecamer. Proposed control mechanisms include obligate nucleation from a connector containing complex, addition of the connector as the final step during assembly, and a connector-mediated increase in the growth rate. The inability to recapitulate connector incorporation in vitro has made it difficult to obtain direct biochemical evidence in support of one model over another. Here we report the development an in vitro assembly system for the well characterized dsDNA phage Phi29 which results in the co-assembly of connector with capsid and scaffolding proteins to form procapsid-like particles (PLPs). Immuno-electron microscopy demonstrates the specific incorporation of connector vertex in PLPs. The connector protein increases both the yield and the rate of capsid assembly suggesting that the incorporation of the connector in Phi29 likely promotes nucleation of assembly.

  18. ITP Hanford Type 40 pin electrical connector failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imrich, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion products observed on the ITP Hanford Type 40 pin electrical connectors would be expected to adversely affect the power and control signals supplied to process equipment in the filter cell by the connectors. Corrosion products were consistent with those found on similar pins in DWPF. The recommendations based on the findings in this investigation are as follows: (1) Replace male and female rhodium plated pins with gold plated pins. (2) Replace the galvanized carbon steel spring on the male connector with a stainless steel spring. (3) Install protective caps over Hanford connectors when jumpers are removed

  19. Low resistance, low-inductance power connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coteus, Paul W.; Ferencz, Andrew; Hall, Shawn Anthony; Takken, Todd Edward

    2018-01-16

    An electrical connector includes an anode assembly for conducting an electrical supply current from a source to a destination, the anode assembly includes an anode formed into a first shape from sheet metal or other sheet-like conducting material. A cathode assembly conducts an electrical return current from the destination to the source, the cathode assembly includes a cathode formed into a second shape from sheet metal or other sheet-like conducting material. An insulator prevents electrical conduction between the anode and the cathode. The first and second shapes are such as to provide a conformity of one to the other, with the insulator therebetween having a predetermined relatively thin thickness. A predetermined low-resistance path for the supply current is provided by the anode, a predetermined low-resistance path for the return current is provided by the cathode, and the proximity of the anode to the cathode along these paths provides a predetermined low self-inductance of the connector, where the proximity is afforded by the conformity of the first and second shapes.

  20. Critical element development of standard pipe connector for remote handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Kou; Kakudate, Satoshi; Kanamori, Naokazu; Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Obara, Kenjiro; Tada, Eisuke; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Seki, Masahiro

    1994-08-01

    In fusion experimental reactors such as ITER, the in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are actively cooled and a large number of cooling pipes are located around the core of reactor, where personnel access is prohibited. Mechanical pipe connectors are highly required as standard components for easy and reliable connection/disconnection of cooling pipe by remote handling. For this purpose, a clamping chain type connector has been developed with special mechanisms such as plate springs and guide structures so as to enable concentric and axial movement of clamping chain for easy mounting and dismounting. The basic performance test of a prototypical connector for a 80-A pipe shows sufficient leak tightness and proof pressure capability as well as simple connection/disconnection operation. In addition to the clamp chain type connector, design efforts have been made to develop a quick coupling type connector and a preliminary model of air-actuated quick connector has been fabricated for further investigations. This paper gives the design concept of mechanical pipe connectors such as clamping chain type and quick coupler type, and the basic performance tests results of clamping chain type connector. (author)

  1. Caregiver Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Al

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that school counselors cannot teach and preach resilient behavior if they are not models of resiliency themselves. Examines why some people come through challenging times more emotionally intact than others and suggests some tips for increasing one's resilience potential. (GCP)

  2. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  3. A Compositional Semantics for Stochastic Reo Connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Moon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a compositional semantics for the channel-based coordination language Reo which enables the analysis of quality of service (QoS properties of service compositions. For this purpose, we annotate Reo channels with stochastic delay rates and explicitly model data-arrival rates at the boundary of a connector, to capture its interaction with the services that comprise its environment. We propose Stochastic Reo automata as an extension of Reo automata, in order to compositionally derive a QoS-aware semantics for Reo. We further present a translation of Stochastic Reo automata to Continuous-Time Markov Chains (CTMCs. This translation enables us to use third-party CTMC verification tools to do an end-to-end performance analysis of service compositions.

  4. A decking for erecting an insulating connector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuprikov, A Ye; Lagutin, V I; Sklyarov, A A; Sukhanov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The decking includes a parachute like dome, made of a material impenetrable to air, an air penetrable hood, attachment elements and a branch pipe for supplying the filler. To improve the sealing of the insulating connector upon contact with the walls and the roof of the drift being isolated and to reduce the labor intensity of operations, it is equipped with a housing made in the form of a cylinder from a material impenetrable to water, an advancible vertical upright and a spring loaded panel. The housing is installed between the parachute like dome and the air penetrable hood. The extendible vertical upright is installed on the side of the air penetrable hood and by means of a movable rack mechanism is kinematically linked with the spring loaded panel, installed with the capability of interacting with the air penetrable hood. The spring loaded plate is made in the form of perforated plates which have a telescopic disengagement in the horizontal plane.

  5. Remote process connectors for the new waste calcining facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.T.; Carter, J.A.; Hohback, A.C.

    1978-01-01

    The remote process connectors developed, used, and tested at the Remote Maintenance Development Facility are described. These connectors, including the three-bolt kinematic-graphite flange and watertight electrical connectors, are assembled on master jigs (holding-welding fixture) to form interchangeable pump and valve loop assemblies. These assemblies, with their guide-in platforms, make possible a method of performing remote maintenance at the New Waste Calcining Facility which is a departure from methods that until now have been the standard of the industry

  6. Small form factor optical fiber connector evaluation for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, W. Joe, Jr.; Chuska, Richard F.; Switzer, Robert; Blair, Diana E.

    2011-09-01

    For the past decade NASA programs have utilized the Diamond AVIM connector for optical fiber assemblies on space flight instrumentation. These connectors have been used in communications, sensing and LIDAR systems where repeatability and high performance are required. Recently Diamond has released a smaller form factor optical fiber connector called the "Mini-AVIM" which although more compact still includes the tight tolerances and the ratcheting feature of the heritage AVIM. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photonics Group in the Parts, Packaging and Assembly Technologies Office has been performing evaluations of this connector to determine how it compares to the performance of the AVIM connector and to assess its feasibility for harsh environmental applications. Vibration and thermal testing were performed on the Mini-AVIM with both multi-mode and single-mode optical fiber using insitu optical transmission monitoring. Random vibration testing was performed using typical launch condition profiles for most NASA missions but extended to 35 Grms, which is much higher than most requirements. Thermal testing was performed incrementally up to a range of -55°C to +125°C. The test results include both unjacketed fiber and cabled assembly evaluations. The data presented here indicate that the Mini-AVIM provides a viable option for small form factor applications that require a high performance optical fiber connector.

  7. Conceptualizing Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Birkland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary provides an overview of the idea of resilience, and acknowledges the challenges of defining and applying the idea in practice. The article summarizes a way of looking at resilience called a “resilience delta”, that takes into account both the shock done to a community by a disaster and the capacity of that community to rebound from that shock to return to its prior functionality. I show how different features of the community can create resilience, and consider how the developed and developing world addresses resilience. I also consider the role of focusing events in gaining attention to events and promoting change. I note that, while focusing events are considered by many in the disaster studies field to be major drivers of policy change in the United States disaster policy, most disasters have little effect on the overall doctrine of shared responsibilities between the national and subnational governments.

  8. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  9. Homogeneous and single-side-operational connector mechanism for self-reconfigurable, self-assembly and self-healing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Min (Inventor); Kovac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Designs of single-end-operative reconfigurable genderless connectors that include a base, a plurality of movable jaws that are formed on the base and can engage to the jaws of another connector, and an actuator that is mounted on the base and can engage and move the jaws of the reconfigurable connector to connect the reconfigurable connector with another connector.

  10. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...

  11. Catheter Occlusion in Home Infusion: The Influence of Needleless Connector Design on Central Catheter Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann

    Thrombotic catheter occlusion is a common complication associated with central venous catheters (CVCs). A wide variety of needleless connectors that differ greatly in design and function are available for use with CVCs; however, there are a limited number of studies comparing the catheter occlusion rate associated with differently designed needleless connectors. This retrospective observational study compared occlusion rates associated with a split-septum neutral-displacement needleless connector versus those of a solid-surface neutral-reflux needleless connector in patients undergoing home infusion therapy. The neutral-reflux needleless connector was associated with a significant reduction in occlusion rate and thrombolytic use versus the neutral-displacement needleless connector.

  12. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  13. Electrical connectors for blanket modules in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poddubnyi, I., E-mail: poddubnyyii@nikiet.ru [Open Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya Street 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khomiakov, S.; Kolganov, V. [Open Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya Street 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sadakov, S.; Calcagno, B.; Chappuis, Ph.; Roccella, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Danilov, I.; Leshukov, A.; Strebkov, Y. [Open Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhal Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya Street 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ulrickson, M. [Sandia National Laboratories MS-1129, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of static and cyclic strength for L-shaped and Z-shaped ES has been performed. • Analysis results do show that for L-shaped ES static and cyclic strength criteria are not satisfied. • Static and cyclic strength criteria are met well by ES with Z-shaped elastic elements. • ES with Z-shaped elastic elements has been adopted as a new baseline design for ITER. - Abstract: Blanket electrical connectors (E-straps, ES) are low-impedance electrical bridges crossing gaps between blanket modules (BMs) and vacuum vessel (VV). Similar ES are used between two parts on each BM: the first wall panel (FW) and shield block (SB). The main functions of E-straps are to: (a) conduct halo currents intercepting some rows of BM, (b) provide grounding paths for all BMs, and (c) operate as electrical shunts which protect water cooling pipes (branch pipes) from excessive halo and eddy currents. E-straps should be elastic enough to absorb 3-D imposed displacements of BM relative VV in a scale of ±2 mm and at the same time strong enough to not be damaged by EM loads. Each electrical strap is a package of flexible conductive sheets made of CuCrZr bronze. Halo current up to 137 kA and some components of eddy currents do pass through one E-strap for a few tens or hundreds milliseconds during the plasma vertical displacement events (VDE) and disruptions. These currents deposit Joule heat and cause rather high electromagnetic loads in a strong external magnetic field, reaching 9 T. A gradual failure of ES to conduct Halo and Eddy currents with low enough impedance gradually redistributes these currents into branch pipes and cause excessive EM loads. When branch pipes will be bent so much that will touch surrounding structures, the Joule heating in accidental electrical contact spots will cause local melting and may lead to a water leak. The paper presents and compares two design options of E-straps: with L-shaped and Z-shaped elastic elements. The latter option was

  14. Fibre optic connectors with high-return-loss performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Michael P.; Johnson, R.; Cooke, K.; Longhurst, P. C.

    1990-09-01

    This paper describes the development of a single mode fibre optic connector with high return loss performance without the use of index matching. Partial reflection of incident light at a fibre optic connector interface is a recognised problem where the result can be increased noise and waveform distortion. This is particularly important for video transmission in subscriber networks which requires a high signal to noise ratio. A number of methods can be used to improve the return loss. The method described here uses a process which angles the connector endfaces. Measurements show typical return losses of -55dB can be achieved for an end angle of 6 degrees. Insertion loss results are also presented.

  15. Safety grade pressurizer heater power supply connector assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.M.; Daftari, R.M.; Reyns, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a pressurizer heater power supply connector assembly for attaching a power cable to an electric heater within a pressurizer of a pressurized water nuclear reactor system, the electric heater having pin contacts. The assembly comprises: a pin-socket type connector including a tubular body having a first open end carrying a pin-socket contact member and an insert intermediate a shell and the pin-socket contact member, the contact member having socket means for electrically receiving and contacting the pin contacts, and a second open end; a flexible sealed conduit including a flexible corrugated tube having one end connected to the second open end of the pin-socket type connector, and another end; and a shop splice assembly including a header adapter and a hose clamp interconnected between the header adapter and another end of the flexible corrugated tube

  16. Friction mediated by redox-active supramolecular connector molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozna, B L; Blass, J; Albrecht, M; Hausen, F; Wenz, G; Bennewitz, R

    2015-10-06

    We report on a friction study at the nanometer scale using atomic force microscopy under electrochemical control. Friction arises from the interaction between two surfaces functionalized with cyclodextrin molecules. The interaction is mediated by connector molecules with (ferrocenylmethyl)ammonium end groups forming supramolecular complexes with the cyclodextrin molecules. With ferrocene connector molecules in solution, the friction increases by a factor of up to 12 compared to control experiments without connector molecules. The electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene to ferrocenium causes a decrease in friction owing to the lower stability of ferrocenium-cyclodextrin complex. Upon switching between oxidative and reduction potentials, a change in friction by a factor of 1.2-1.8 is observed. Isothermal titration calorimetry reveals fast dissociation and rebinding kinetics and thus an equilibrium regime for the friction experiments.

  17. MPO-type single-mode multi-fiber connector: Low-loss and high-return-loss intermateability of APC-MPO connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Toshiaki; Nagasawa, Shinji; Hughes, Mike; Lutz, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The electrical communication laboratory of NTT started the research of MT (Mechanically Transferable) connector in early 1980s. The initial goal was to realize a multi-fiber connector which can repeat low loss, stable, reliable and low-cost connections of subscriber optical fiber cable networks for more than 20 years period in the field. We review the multi-fiber alignment design with two guide pins, and following several technical improvements toward the final MT connector used in the commercial telecommunication networks. And then, we review development histories to reach to the low-loss, high-return-loss and reliable APC-MPO (Angled Physical Contact Multi-fiber Push On) connectors introduced in NTT COs and in Verizon's FTTH (Fiber To The Home) networks. In the latter half, we propose the low-loss intermateability design for connectors made by different suppliers in order to enable mass introductions into large scale systems. In addition we also describe an accurate connector loss presumption method for different lots' ferrules based on the MT ferrule dimension data before assembling the connectors. We believe with a wide intermateability of APC-MPO connector will increase its use in the fields. The APC-MPO connector manufactured based on the proposed design had low insertion losses of less than 0.25 dB at the same level of simplex connectors and the higher level of return losses higher than 65 dB.

  18. Resilience | Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widely accepted (Gunderson 2000, cited under Original Definition). Currently, the concept is commonplace in academics, management, and policy. Although the idea has quantitative roots in the ecological sciences and was proposed as a measurable quality of ecosystems, the broad use of resilience led to an expansion of definitions and applications. Holling’s original definition, presented in 1973 (Holling 1973, cited under Original Definition), was simply the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stability domain. Ecological resilience, therefore, emphasizes that the dynamics of complex systems are nonlinear, meaning that these systems can transition, often abruptly, between dynamic states with substantially different structures, functions, and processes. The transition of ecological systems from one state to another frequently has important repercussions for humans. Recent definitions are more normative and qualitative, especially in the social sciences, and a competing definition, that of engineering resilience, is still often used. Resilience is an emergent phenomenon of complex systems, which means it cannot be deduced from the behavior of t

  19. Design and experimental analysis of a new shear connector for steel and concrete composite structures

    OpenAIRE

    Veríssimo, G. S.; Paes, J. L. R.; Valente, Isabel; Cruz, Paulo J. S.; Fakury, R. H.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents the design of a new shear connector and the corresponding results obtained on push-out tests. This new shear connector consists on a steel rib with indented cut shape that provides resistance to longitudinal shear and prevents transversal separation between the concrete slab and the steel profile (uplift). Adding to this, the connector openings cut makes easier the arrangement of transversal reinforcement bars. The installation of the connectors is simple and requires only ...

  20. Influence of Cable Vibrations on Connectors Used in Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMEL Bouzera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the influence of cable vibrations on the contact resistance of connectors, the cable resonant frequency and the resulting movement of both parts of the connector have been studied. The increase of contact voltage, followed by rapidfluctuations generated by wear particles, has been analysed. A test bench designed to monitor wire vibrations was used while the transferred amplitude was measured by a high sensitivity displacement sensor. The contact interface was made of copper alloy and tin coated. The connector was connected to a resistive power supplytransmitting different currents and voltage values. Two investigations were performed on the contact voltage measured with a fast sampling oscilloscope which enabled histograms and a Fast FourierTransform analysis to be obtained. The appearance of contact fluctuations observed during the fretting generated by cable vibrations, and depending upon the wear effect, is attributed toelectromechanical phenomena. Some slow fluctuations are well correlated to the vibration period while the rapid ones are linked to an electrical conduction perturbation in the granular interface caused by the connector movement.

  1. Endotracheal tube connector defect causing airway obstruction in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detected during routine visual inspection before their use, while some go unnoticed during such inspection and can lead to partial or complete airway obstruction in intubated patients. We report one case of partial airway obstruction resulting from manufacturing defect in the ET connector. A 3-month-old infant girl weighing 5 ...

  2. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  3. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  4. Novel Fiber Optic Sensor Probe with a Pair of Highly Reflected Connectors and a Vessel of Water Absorption Material for Water Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sik Cho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases.

  5. Novel fiber optic sensor probe with a pair of highly reflected connectors and a vessel of water absorption material for water leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Tae-Sik; Choi, Ki-Sun; Seo, Dae-Cheol; Kwon, Il-Bum; Lee, Jung-Ryul

    2012-01-01

    The use of a fiber optic quasi-distributed sensing technique for detecting the location and severity of water leakage is suggested. A novel fiber optic sensor probe is devised with a vessel of water absorption material called as water combination soil (WCS) located between two highly reflected connectors: one is a reference connector and the other is a sensing connector. In this study, the sensing output is calculated from the reflected light signals of the two connectors. The first reflected light signal is a reference and the second is a sensing signal which is attenuated by the optical fiber bending loss due to the WCS expansion absorbing water. Also, the bending loss of each sensor probe is determined by referring to the total number of sensor probes and the total power budget of an entire system. We have investigated several probe characteristics to show the design feasibility of the novel fiber sensor probe. The effects of vessel sizes of the probes on the water detection sensitivity are studied. The largest vessel probe provides the highest sensitivity of 0.267 dB/mL, while the smallest shows relatively low sensitivity of 0.067 dB/mL, and unstable response. The sensor probe with a high output value provides a high sensitivity with various detection levels while the number of total installable sensor probes decreases.

  6. Development Of Remote Hanford Connector Gasket Replacement Tooling For DWPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and

  7. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  8. A Dissipative Connector for CLT Buildings: Concept, Design and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotta, Roberto; Marchi, Luca; Trutalli, Davide; Pozza, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the conception and characterization of an innovative connection for cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels. The connection is designed to provide an adequate level of dissipative capacity to CLT structures also when realized with large horizontal panels and therefore prone to fragile shear sliding failure. The connector, named X-bracket, has been theorized and designed by means of numerical parametric analyses. Furthermore, its cyclic behavior has been verified with experimental tests and compared to that of traditional connectors. Numerical simulations of cyclic tests of different CLT walls anchored to the foundation with X-brackets were also performed to assess their improved seismic performances. Finally, the analysis of the response of a 6 m × 3 m squat wall demonstrates that the developed connection provides good ductility and dissipation capacities also to shear walls realized with a single CLT panel. PMID:28773265

  9. A Dissipative Connector for CLT Buildings: Concept, Design and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotta, Roberto; Marchi, Luca; Trutalli, Davide; Pozza, Luca

    2016-02-26

    This paper deals with the conception and characterization of an innovative connection for cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels. The connection is designed to provide an adequate level of dissipative capacity to CLT structures also when realized with large horizontal panels and therefore prone to fragile shear sliding failure. The connector, named X-bracket, has been theorized and designed by means of numerical parametric analyses. Furthermore, its cyclic behavior has been verified with experimental tests and compared to that of traditional connectors. Numerical simulations of cyclic tests of different CLT walls anchored to the foundation with X-brackets were also performed to assess their improved seismic performances. Finally, the analysis of the response of a 6 m × 3 m squat wall demonstrates that the developed connection provides good ductility and dissipation capacities also to shear walls realized with a single CLT panel.

  10. The Integrity of ACSR Full Tension Single-Stage Splice Connector at Higher Operation Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2008-10-01

    Due to increases in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those used for the original design criteria. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. It is manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increases in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reductions in the connector clamping strength, which could ultimately result in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector appears to be the weakest link in electric power transmission lines. This report presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of full tension single-stage splice connector assemblies and the associated effective lifetime at high operating temperature.

  11. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  12. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  13. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of... health , holistic , Resiliency Tier, Resiliency Tier Matrix, State of Resiliency 295Defense ARJ, July 2015, Vol. 22 No. 3 : 294–324 296 Defense ARJ, July...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just

  14. Thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  15. MWTF jumper connector integral seal block development and leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, E.S.; Jordan, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In fiscal year 1993, tests of an o-ring/tetraseal retainer designed to replace a gasket-type seal used in PUREX-type process jumper connectors encouraged the design of an improved seal block. This new seal block combines several parts into one unitized component called an integral seal block. This report summarizes development and leak testing of the new integral seal block. The integral seal block uses a standard o-ring nested in a groove to accomplish leak tightness. This seal block eliminates the need to machine acme threads into the lower skirt casting and seal retainers, eliminates tolerance stack-up, reduces parts inventory, and eliminates an unnecessary leak path in the jumper connector assembly. This report also includes test data on various types of o-ring materials subjected to heat and pressure. Materials tested included Viton, Kalrez, and fluorosilicone, with some incidental data on teflon coated silicone o-rings. Test experience clearly demonstrates the need to test each seal material for temperature and pressure in its intended application. Some materials advertised as being open-quotes betterclose quotes at higher temperatures did not perform up to expectations. Inspection of the fluorosilicone and Kalrez seals after thermal testing indicates that they are much more susceptible to heat softening than Viton

  16. Gamma irradiation effects in optical fibres, splitters, and connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećković Milesa Ž.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief overview of contemporary ELION techniques with stress on their use for material modification and dosimetry. In the attempt to avoid some common misjudges of irradiation effects, special attention is paid to exact definition of irradiation geometry and careful adjustment of dose rates, which enable a proper elaboration of experimental results. In particular, effects of g-rays irradiation on properties of commercial optical fibres, splitters, connectors, and fibre joints are examined, which enables monitoring of irradiation effects in complex configurations made of materials with different radiation hardness (resistance. It has been established that g-rays irradiation of the investigated elements influences, in different ways, the transmission of laser beam signals of various wavelengths, under different modulation regimes. After irradiation, the signal attenuation is noticeably larger, both in optical connectors and optical splitter, than before it, and the effect increases in time. The effects are more pronounced at the 99 % than at the 1 % Y-splitter output at both measured wavelengths, and are more pronounced at 1310 nm than at 1550 nm. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III43009 and Grant no. III45012

  17. Fluid moderator control system fuel assembly seal connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Tower, S.N.; Klassen, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fuel assemblies having one or more flow channels therethrough, a core support plate having one or more flow channels therethrough, and seal connectors for sealingly connecting the one or more flow channels in the core support plate with the one or more flow channels in the fuel assemblies. The seal connectors each comprises a first portion and second portion each comprising an elongated member having a flow channel therethrough and being in substantial axial alignment with each other and being separated by a space therebetween, means for sealingly connecting the first portion o one or the one or more flow channels in the fuel assemblies, means for sealingly connecting the second portion to the first portion and for allowing relative motion between the portions, means for limiting the relative motion of the first and second portion in directions toward and away from each other, means for reconnectingly connecting and resealingly sealing the second portion to one of the one or more flow channels in the core support plate. It comprises a slip fit connection whereby the remote end of the second portion fits within whereby the remote end of the second portion fits within an opening in the core support plate which is in flow communication with the one or more flow channels in the core support plate and further comprises a ball and cones seal in series with axially spaced ring seals

  18. Engineered high expansion glass-ceramics having near linear thermal strain and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Lyon, Nathanael L.

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to glass-ceramic compositions, as well as methods for forming such composition. In particular, the compositions include various polymorphs of silica that provide beneficial thermal expansion characteristics (e.g., a near linear thermal strain). Also described are methods of forming such compositions, as well as connectors including hermetic seals containing such compositions.

  19. Evolution of low-profile and lightweight electrical connectors for soldier-worn applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Eric; Lee, Kang; Jannson, Tomasz; Walter, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    In addition to military radios, modern warfighters carry cell phones, GPS devices, computers, and night-vision aids, all of which require electrical cables and connectors for data and power transmission. Currently each electrical device operates via independent cables using conventional cable and connector technology. Conventional cables are stiff and difficult to integrate into a soldier-worn garment. Conventional connectors are tall and heavy, as they were designed to ensure secure connections to bulkhead-type panels, and being tall, represent significant snag-hazards in soldier-worn applications. Physical Optics Corporation has designed a new, lightweight and low-profile electrical connector that is more suitable for body-worn applications and operates much like a standard garment snap. When these connectors are mated, the combined height is <0.3 in. - a significant reduction from the 2.5 in. average height of conventional connectors. Electrical connections can be made with one hand (gloved or bare) and blindly (without looking). Furthermore, POC's connectors are integrated into systems that distribute data or power from a central location on the soldier's vest, reducing the length and weight of the cables necessary to interconnect various mission-critical electronic systems. The result is a lightweight power/data distribution system offering significant advantages over conventional electrical connectors in soldier-worn applications.

  20. Non-rigid connector: The wand to allay the stresses on abutment

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Saurav; Khongshei, Arlingstone; Gupta, Tapas; Banerjee, Ardhendu

    2011-01-01

    The use of rigid connectors in 5-unit fixed dental prosthesis with a pier abutment can result in failure of weaker retainer in the long run as the pier abutment acts as a fulcrum. Non-rigid connector placed on the distal aspect of pier seems to reduce potentially excess stress concentration on the pier abutment.

  1. Comparison of Adaptation between the Major Connectors Fabricated from Intraoral Digital Impressions and Extraoral Digital Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Ning; Ruan, Yaye; Sun, Jian; Xiong, Yaoyang; Jiao, Ting

    2018-01-11

    The objective was to compare the adaptation between the major connectors of removable partial dentures derived from intraoral digital impressions and extraoral digital impressions. Twenty-four volunteers were enrolled. Each volunteer received an intraoral digital impression and one extraoral digital impression digitized from conventional gypsum impression. A software was used to create the major connectors on digital impression datasets. After all the virtual major connectors designed from Group intraoral digital impressions (Group I) and Group extraoral digital impressions (Group E) were directly fabricated by 3D printing technique, the adaptation of the final major connectors in volunteers' mouths were measured. The adaptation ranged from 159.87 to 577.99 μm in Group I while from 120.83 to 536.17 μm in Group E. The adaptation of major connectors in Group I were found better at the midline palatine suture while the adaptation of major connectors in Group E were found better at the two sides of the palatal vault. In both groups, the highest accuracy in adaptation was revealed at the anterior margin of the major connectors. It is feasible to manufacture the major connectors by digital impression and 3D printing technique. Both the adaptation of the two kinds of digital impressions were clinical acceptable.

  2. MEMS and EFF technology based micro connector for future miniature devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, M M I; Alamgir, T; Bhuiyan, M; Kajihara, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of a miniature; size, light and high performance electronic devices; has been accelerated for further development. In commercial stamping method, connector pitch size (radius) is more than 300μm due to its size limitation. Therefore, the stamped contact hertz stress becomes lower and less suitable for fine pitch connector. To overcome this pitch size problem a narrow pitch Board-to-Board (BtoB) interface connectors are in demand for the current commercial design. Therefore, this paper describes a fork type micro connector design with high Hertz-Stress using MEMS and Electro Fine Forming (EFF) fabrication techniques. The connector is designed high aspect ratio and high-density packaging using UV thick resist and electroforming. In this study a newly fabricated micro connector's maximum aspect ratio is 50μm and pitch is 80μm is designed successfully which is most compact fork-type connector in the world. When these connectors are connected, a contact resistance of less than 50mΩ has been attained by using four-point probe technique

  3. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  4. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  5. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  6. Open Source GIS Connectors to NASA GES DISC Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Pham, Long; Yang, Wenli

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) houses a suite of high spatiotemporal resolution GIS data including satellite-derived and modeled precipitation, air quality, and land surface parameter data. The data are valuable to various GIS research and applications at regional, continental, and global scales. On the other hand, many GIS users, especially those from the ArcGIS community, have difficulties in obtaining, importing, and using our data due to factors such as the variety of data products, the complexity of satellite remote sensing data, and the data encoding formats. We introduce a simple open source ArcGIS data connector that significantly simplifies the access and use of GES DISC data in ArcGIS.

  7. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  8. Time domain calculation of connector loads of a very large floating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiayang; Wu, Jie; Qi, Enrong; Guan, Yifeng; Yuan, Yubo

    2015-06-01

    Loads generated after an air crash, ship collision, and other accidents may destroy very large floating structures (VLFSs) and create additional connector loads. In this study, the combined effects of ship collision and wave loads are considered to establish motion differential equations for a multi-body VLFS. A time domain calculation method is proposed to calculate the connector load of the VLFS in waves. The Longuet-Higgins model is employed to simulate the stochastic wave load. Fluid force and hydrodynamic coefficient are obtained with DNV Sesam software. The motion differential equation is calculated by applying the time domain method when the frequency domain hydrodynamic coefficient is converted into the memory function of the motion differential equation of the time domain. As a result of the combined action of wave and impact loads, high-frequency oscillation is observed in the time history curve of the connector load. At wave directions of 0° and 75°, the regularities of the time history curves of the connector loads in different directions are similar and the connector loads of C1 and C2 in the X direction are the largest. The oscillation load is observed in the connector in the Y direction at a wave direction of 75° and not at 0°. This paper presents a time domain calculation method of connector load to provide a certain reference function for the future development of Chinese VLFS

  9. Shear Capacity of C-Shaped and L-Shaped Angle Shear Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi, Farzad; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Tahir, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the behaviour of C-shaped and L-shaped angle shear connectors embedded in solid concrete slabs. An effective finite element model is proposed to simulate the push out tests of these shear connectors that encompass nonlinear material behaviour, large displacement and damage plasticity. The finite element models are validated against test results. Parametric studies using this nonlinear model are performed to investigate the variations in concrete strength and connector dimensions. The finite element analyses also confirm the test results that increasing the length of shear connector increases their shear strength proportionately. It is observed that the maximum stress in L-shaped angle connectors takes place in the weld attachment to the beam, whereas in the C-shaped angle connectors, it is in the attached leg. The location of maximum concrete compressive damage is rendered in each case. Finally, a new equation for prediction of the shear capacity of C-shaped angle connectors is proposed. PMID:27478894

  10. Study of light transmission through optical fiber-to-fiber connector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.; Gutowski, M.; Adams, M.; Solomon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Optical fiber-to-fiber connectors are now being used widely in particle tracking detectors. We describe the properties of the connectors, their production, and measurements of the light transmission through the gap of the connector assembly. We studied light transmission for various types of connectors illuminated by several different light sources. The light transmission was found to be dependent on the angular distribution of the light rays passing through a connector assembly. Two arrangements were studied, a point source and a diffuse source. A green LED with a diffuser is believed to best reproduce the angular distributions of light in the real detector applications. We also studied the transmission as a function of the index of refraction of the optical couplants. The light transmission depends on the index of refraction of an optical couplant placed in the gap, and improves as it approaches the index of refraction of the fiber core. Light transmissions of 80%∼88% were obtained without any optical couplant in the connector gap and transmissions of 89%∼99% with various optical couplants. A Monte Carlo study using measured light distributions from a fiber end produced a reasonable agreement with the transmission measurements made on a connector assembly

  11. Shear Capacity of C-Shaped and L-Shaped Angle Shear Connectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Tahmasbi

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behaviour of C-shaped and L-shaped angle shear connectors embedded in solid concrete slabs. An effective finite element model is proposed to simulate the push out tests of these shear connectors that encompass nonlinear material behaviour, large displacement and damage plasticity. The finite element models are validated against test results. Parametric studies using this nonlinear model are performed to investigate the variations in concrete strength and connector dimensions. The finite element analyses also confirm the test results that increasing the length of shear connector increases their shear strength proportionately. It is observed that the maximum stress in L-shaped angle connectors takes place in the weld attachment to the beam, whereas in the C-shaped angle connectors, it is in the attached leg. The location of maximum concrete compressive damage is rendered in each case. Finally, a new equation for prediction of the shear capacity of C-shaped angle connectors is proposed.

  12. Study of light transmission through optical fiber-to-fiber connector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, M.; Gutowski, M.; Adams, M.; Solomon, J.

    1998-01-01

    Optical fiber-to-fiber connectors are now being used widely in particle tracking detectors. We describe the properties of the connectors, their production, and measurements of the light transmission through the gap of the connector assembly. We studied light transmission for various types of connectors illuminated by several different light sources. The light transmission was found to be dependent on the angular distribution of the light rays passing through a connector assembly. Two arrangements were studied, a point source and a diffuse source. A green LED with a diffuser is believed to best reproduce the angular distributions of light in the real detector applications. We also studied the transmission as a function of the index of refraction of the optical couplants. The light transmission depends on the index of refraction of an optical couplant placed in the gap, and improves as it approaches the index of refraction of the fiber core. Light transmissions of 80%∼88% were obtained without any optical couplant in the connector gap and transmissions of 89%∼99% with various optical couplants. A Monte Carlo study using measured light distributions from a fiber end produced a reasonable agreement with the transmission measurements made on a connector assembly. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  13. Influence of Connector Width on the Stress Distribution of Posterior Bridges under Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azary

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In all ceramic fixed partial dentures the connector area is a common fracture location. The survival time of three-unit fixed partial dentures may be improved by altering the connector design in regions of maximum tension. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of buccolingual increase of the connector width on the stress distribution in posterior fixed partial dentures made of IPS Empress 2. To simulate the anatomical condition, we used three-dimensional finite element analysis to generate.Materials and Methods: Three models of three-unit bridges replacing the first molar were prepared. The buccolingual connector width varied from 3.0 to 5.0 mm. Bridges were vertically loaded with 600 N at one point on the central fossa of the pontic, at 12 points along the cusp-fossa contact (50 N each, or at eight points along the cusp-marginal ridge contact (75 N each. Alternatively, a load of 225 N was applied at a 45º angle from the lingual side.Results: Stress concentrations were observed within or near the connectors. The von Mises stress decreased by increasing connector width, regardless of whether the loading was applied vertically or at an angle.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that increasing the connector width decreases the failure probability when a vertical or angled load is applied.

  14. Analysis of the Shear Behavior of Stubby Y-Type Perfobond Rib Shear Connectors for a Composite Frame Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Kim, Kun-Soo; Lee, Do-Hoon; Park, Jun-Seung; Han, Oneil

    2017-11-22

    Shear connectors are used in steel beam-concrete slabs of composite frame and bridge structures to transfer shear force according to design loads. The existing Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are designed for girder slabs of composite bridges. Therefore, the rib and transverse rebars of the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors are extremely large for the composite frames of building structures. Thus, this paper proposes stubby Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors, redefining the existing connectors, for composite frames of building structures; these were used to perform push-out tests. These shear connectors have relatively small ribs compared to the conventional Y-type perfobond rib shear connectors. To confirm the shear resistance of these stubby shear connectors, we performed an experiment by using transverse rebars D13 and D16. The results indicate that these shear connectors have suitable shear strength and ductility for application in composite frame structures. The shear strengths obtained using D13 and D16 were not significantly different. However, the ductility of the shear connectors with D16 was 45.1% higher than that of the shear connectors with D13.

  15. Expansion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, J.

    1985-10-01

    A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)

  16. expansion method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.

  17. Combined effects of fretting and pollutant particles on the contact resistance of the electrical connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Kong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually, when electrical connectors operate in vibration environments, fretting will be produced at the contact interfaces. In addition, serious environmental pollution particles will affect contact resistance of the connectors. The fretting will worsen the reliability of connectors with the pollutant particles. The combined effects of fretting and quartz particles on the contact resistance of the gold plating connectors are studied with a fretting test system. The results show that the frequencies have obvious effect on the contact resistance. The higher the frequency, the higher the contact resistance is. The quartz particles cause serious wear of gold plating, which make the nickel and copper layer exposed quickly to increase the contact resistance. Especially in high humidity environments, water supply certain adhesion function and make quartz particles easy to insert or cover the contact surfaces, and even cause opening resistance.

  18. A conceptual framework for designing micro electrical connectors for hearing aid instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Doagou Rad, Saeed; Islam, Aminul; Fuglsang-Philip, M.

    2016-01-01

    Electrical connectors play vital roles in modern electronic instruments. Hearing aid devices as advanced combinations of micro mechanics and electronics comprise various electrical connectors for different purposes. However, the current trend in the miniaturization along with the sharp technological advancements have urged them to incorporate increased number of electrical contacts. The current paper presents a conceptual framework for designing and manufacturing novel plug and socket systems...

  19. Development of a Skewed Pipe Shear Connector for Precast Concrete Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hyo; Choi, Jae-Gu; Park, Sejun; Lee, Hyunmin; Heo, And Won-Ho

    2017-05-13

    Joint connection methods, such as shear key and loop bar, improve the structural performance of precast concrete structures; consequently, there is usually decreased workability or constructional efficiency. This paper proposes a high-efficiency skewed pipe shear connector. To resist shear and pull-out forces, the proposed connectors are placed diagonally between precast concrete segments and a cast-in-place concrete joint part on a girder. Design variables (such as the pipe diameter, length, and insertion angle) have been examined to investigate the connection performance of the proposed connector. The results of our testing indicate that the skewed pipe shear connectors have 50% higher ductility and a 15% higher ratio of maximum load to yield strength as compared to the corresponding parameters of the loop bar. Finite element analysis was used for validation. The resulting validation indicates that, compared to the loop bar, the skewed pipe shear connector has a higher ultimate shear and pull-out resistance. These results indicate that the skewed pipe shear connector demonstrates more idealized behavior than the loop bar in precast concrete structures.

  20. Modular glovebox connector and associated good practices for control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Mewhinney, C.J.; Newton, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Design and associated good practices are described for a modular glovebox connector to improve control of radioactive and chemically toxic materials. The connector consists of an anodized aluminum circular port with a mating spacer, gaskets, and retaining rings for joining two parallel ends of commercially available or custom-manufactured glovebox enclosures. Use of the connector allows multiple gloveboxes to be quickly assembled or reconfigured in functional units. Connector dimensions can be scaled to meet operational requirements for access between gloveboxes. Options for construction materials are discussed, along with recommendations for installation of the connector in new or retrofitted systems. Associated good practices include application of surface coatings and caulking, use of disposable glovebags, and proper selection and protection of gasket and glove materials. Use of the connector at an inhalation toxicology research facility has reduced the time and expense required to reconfigure equipment for changing operational requirements, the dispersion of contamination during reconfigurations, and the need for decommissioning and disposal of contaminated enclosures

  1. NRC Information No. 89-23: Environmental qualification of Litton-Veam CIR series electrical connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Litton-Veam CIR series multi-pin electrical connectors are used in core exit thermocouple (CET) and reactor vessel level monitoring (RVLM) systems supplied to numerous plants by Combustion Engineering, Inc., and are used in other applications in at least three additional plants. A proprietary qualification test report has been used to document environmental qualification of the connectors for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in the CE-supplied systems. During LOCA testing, the connector face seal gasket was completely degraded and elastomeric inserts interacted with simulated containment spray solution which leaked into the connector. Insulation resistances near 1,000 ohms were measured. CE has performed analyses to show that resultant errors are acceptable in CE-supplied CET and RVLM system thermocouple circuits. However, the moisture ingress and resultant low insulation resistances are not acceptable for heater circuits in the RVLM. For that application, CE developed two remedies; one is a clamp, and the other is a new connector design. CE has advised that one of these remedies has been used for all of the RVLM heater circuits. Unmodified CIR connectors are believed to be still in use in other applications

  2. Behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N.H.; Suhatril, Meldi; Shariati, Ali; Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M.; Sinaei, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► C-shaped angle connectors show 8.8–33.1% strength degradation under cyclic loading. ► Connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle shear connectors. ► In push-out samples, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. ► C-shaped angle connectors show good behaviour in terms of the ultimate shear capacity. ► C-shaped angle connectors did not fulfil the requirements for ductility criteria. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the structural behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors in composite beams, suitable for transferring shear force in composite structures. The results of the experimental programme, including eight push-out tests, are presented and discussed. The results include resistance, strength degradation, ductility, and failure modes of C-shaped angle shear connectors, under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading. The results show that connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle connectors and after the failure, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. On top of that, by comparing the shear resistance of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and cyclic loading, these connectors showed 8.8–33.1% strength degradation, under fully reversed cyclic loading. Furthermore, it was concluded that the mentioned shear connector shows a proper behaviour, in terms of the ultimate shear capacity, but it does not satisfy the ductility criteria, imposed by the Eurocode 4, to perform a plastic distribution of the shear force between different connectors along the beam length.

  3. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  4. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  5. The Resilient Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Longhurst, James E.

    2005-01-01

    Brain research opens new frontiers in working with children and youth experiencing conflict in school and community. Blending this knowledge with resilience science offers a roadmap for reclaiming those identified as "at risk." This article applies findings from resilience research and recent brain research to identify strategies for reaching…

  6. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  7. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  8. Building Inner Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantieri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The capacity to be in control of one's thoughts, emotions, and physiology can form an internal safety net preparing children to face the challenges and opportunities of life. This is the goal of the Inner Resilience Program in the New York City Schools. Teachers in the Inner Resilience Program's intervention are exposed to calming and focusing…

  9. Building Resilience through Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Debra Vande; Van Brockern, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Research on resilience suggests that a sense of humor helps to stress-proof children in conflict. Reports on a workshop for educators and youth workers convened to explore ways humor is being used to foster positive development and resilience with troubled youth. Describes applications of humor front-line professionals report as useful in their…

  10. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  11. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  12. An elastic elements calculation in the construction of electrical connectors based on flexible printed cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefimenko A. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we consider the method of constructive parameters calculation of the elastic elements, which are used in electrical connectors of flexible printed cables. Electrical connectors characterized by the fact that the contact pair is needed to provide pressure. It is also important to know the optimum ratio between stability of the contact connection and the necessary value of the transition resistance. These ratios are studied sufficiently for discrete electrical connectors, however for connectors of flexible printed cables this theme is not explored enough. The purpose of this work is to develop methods that will allow to carry out calculations for elastic elements, which provide communication, and to determine the size of case elements for electrical connectors. We consider two types of connectors. First are removable electrical connections where it is necessary to find a compromise between the resistance value and the separating (engaging force. Second are permanent connections, where counts only the value of the transition resistance. For the first type of connectors were considered a simple form of the liner, in the shape of a rubber block, as in this case, the pressure should be created only by the compression of the liner and fixing it. It is important to get accurate results of the pressure calculation for removable electrical connections, because in this case we consider especial shape of elastomeric liner, which allows to create the pressure not only by compression of the liner, but by deformation it as a spring. For this task, the engaging force was specified on the basis of already known facts. It was important to set the amount of deformation that defines the shape and size of the liner and the case. We solved the problem of transition from the units of measuring hardness, specified in the technical specifications of rubber, to the value of the Young's modulus used in the calculations of constructive parameters of

  13. Using Three-Dimensional Printing to Fabricate a Tubing Connector for Dilation and Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitely, Michael L; Paterson, Helen

    2016-02-01

    This is a proof-of-concept study to show that simple instrumentation problems encountered in surgery can be solved by fabricating devices using a three-dimensional printer. The device used in the study is a simple tubing connector fashioned to connect two segments of suction tubing used in a surgical procedure where no commercially available product for this use is available through our usual suppliers in New Zealand. A cylindrical tubing connector was designed using three-dimensional printing design software. The tubing connector was fabricated using the Makerbot Replicator 2X three-dimensional printer. The connector was used in 15 second-trimester dilation and evacuation procedures. Data forms were completed by the primary operating surgeon. Descriptive statistics were used with the expectation that the device would function as intended in all cases. The three-dimensional printed tubing connector functioned as intended in all 15 instances. Commercially available three-dimensional printing technology can be used to overcome simple instrumentation problems encountered during gynecologic surgical procedures.

  14. MIL-L-87177 and CLT:X-10 Lubricants Improve Electrical Connector Fretting Corrosion Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AUKLAND, NEIL R.; HANLON, JAMES T.

    1999-01-01

    We have conducted a fretting research project using MIL-L-87177 and CLT: X-10 lubricants on Nano-miniature connectors. When they were fretted without lubricant, individual connectors first exceeded our 0.5 ohm failure criteria from 2,341 to 45,238 fretting cycles. With additional fretting, their contact resistance increased to more than 100,000 ohms. Unmodified MIL-L-87177 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to between 430,000 and over 20,000,000 fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 modified by addition of Teflon powder delayed first failure to beyond 5 million fretting cycles. Best results were obtained when Teflon was used and also when both the straight and modified lubricants were poured into and then out of the connector. CLT: X-10 lubricant delayed the onset of first failure to beyond 55 million cycles in one test where a failure was actually observed and to beyond 20 million cycles in another that was terminated without failure. CLT: X-10 recovered an unlubricated connector driven deeply into failure, with six failed pins recovering immediately and four more recovering during an additional 420 thousand fretting cycles. MIL-L-87177 was not able to recover a connector under similar conditions

  15. Effect of shear connectors on local buckling and composite action in steel concrete composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Varma, Amit H.; Malushte, Sanjeev R.; Gallocher, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Steel concrete composite (SC) walls are being used for the third generation nuclear power plants, and also being considered for small modular reactors. SC walls consist of thick concrete walls with exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement. These steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete infill using shear connectors, for example, headed steel studs. The steel faceplate thickness (t p ) and yield stress (F y ), and the shear connector spacing (s), stiffness (k s ), and strength (Q n ) determine: (a) the level of composite action between the steel plates and the concrete infill, (b) the development length of steel faceplates, and (c) the local buckling of the steel faceplates. Thus, the shear connectors have a significant influence on the behavior of composite SC walls, and should be designed accordingly. This paper presents the effects of shear connector design on the level of composite action and development length of steel faceplates in SC walls. The maximum steel plate slenderness, i.e., ratio of shear connector spacing-to-plate thickness (s/t p ) ratio to prevent local buckling before yielding is also developed based on the existing experimental database and additional numerical analysis

  16. Effect of shear connectors on local buckling and composite action in steel concrete composite walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai, E-mail: kai-zh@purdue.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Varma, Amit H., E-mail: ahvarma@purdue.edu [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Malushte, Sanjeev R., E-mail: smalusht@bechtel.com [Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, MD (United States); Gallocher, Stewart, E-mail: stewart.gallocher@steelbricks.com [Modular Walling Systems Ltd., Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    Steel concrete composite (SC) walls are being used for the third generation nuclear power plants, and also being considered for small modular reactors. SC walls consist of thick concrete walls with exterior steel faceplates serving as reinforcement. These steel faceplates are anchored to the concrete infill using shear connectors, for example, headed steel studs. The steel faceplate thickness (t{sub p}) and yield stress (F{sub y}), and the shear connector spacing (s), stiffness (k{sub s}), and strength (Q{sub n}) determine: (a) the level of composite action between the steel plates and the concrete infill, (b) the development length of steel faceplates, and (c) the local buckling of the steel faceplates. Thus, the shear connectors have a significant influence on the behavior of composite SC walls, and should be designed accordingly. This paper presents the effects of shear connector design on the level of composite action and development length of steel faceplates in SC walls. The maximum steel plate slenderness, i.e., ratio of shear connector spacing-to-plate thickness (s/t{sub p}) ratio to prevent local buckling before yielding is also developed based on the existing experimental database and additional numerical analysis.

  17. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, R.M.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are

  18. Life cycle assessment and the resilience of product systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity of systems to withstand and recover from disturbance, depends on the structure and architecture of a system, and plays a key role for the sustainability of complex systems. Despite its importance, resilience is not explicitly taken into account by studies of life cycle...... assessment (LCA), which main objective is determining the eco-efficiency of a product system with limited focus on its structure. The question is whether a product system which structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will result in being not only inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when...... assessed by means of LCA. This study proposes a theoretical modelling approach to compare vulnerable and resilient product systems within the framework of LCA, consisting of assessment of disturbance and system expansion. Examples are provided where the theory is made operational. The structure...

  19. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  20. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  2. Effect of Temperature and Vibration on Electrical Connectors with Different Number of Contact Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we presented the results from three related analysis performed by adopting the failure models, which provided an explanation of performance influencing factors caused by different number of contact cores, for the purpose of measuring the temperature change and deformation value, which were the factors causing contact failure. The failures were localized in contact parts of the connectors. Performed investigations included thermal analysis, modal analysis, harmonic response analysis and contact failure analysis. From the results of these simulations, related temperature and vibration analysis nephograms were got respectively. And the correctness of results of thermal analysis was verified by Fourier law. The research results of this paper provide a reference for thermal analysis and vibration analysis of electrical connectors, which is important for ensuring the reliability and safety of electrical connectors.

  3. Push-out tests and evaluation of FRP perfobond rib shear connectors performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpasky, Ludvik; Ryjacek, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    The behavioural characteristics of FRP (fibre-reinforced polymer) perfobond rib shear connector was examined through push-out tests in order to verify the applicability for pedestrian bridge structure. The aim of this study is to determine interaction between high performance concrete slab and handmade FRP plate which represent web of the composite beam. Combination of these modern materials leads to structural system with both great load bearing capacity and also sufficient flexural stiffness of the composite element. Openings cut into the GFRP plate at a variable spacing allow GFRP reinforcement bars to be inserted to act as shear studs. Hand lay-up process can increase suitable properties of FRP for connection by perfobond rib shear connectors. In this study, three push-out tests on fiber-reinforced polymer were performed to investigate their shear behaviour. The results of the push-out tests on FRP perfobond rib shear connector indicates great promise for application in full scale structures.

  4. Impedance Discontinuity Reduction Between High-Speed Differential Connectors and PCB Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Sal; Agdinaoay, Rodell; Walter, Keith

    2013-01-01

    High-speed serial communication (i.e., Gigabit Ethernet) requires differential transmission and controlled impedances. Impedance control is essential throughout cabling, connector, and circuit board construction. An impedance discontinuity arises at the interface of a high-speed quadrax and twinax connectors and the attached printed circuit board (PCB). This discontinuity usually is lower impedance since the relative dielectric constant of the board is higher (i.e., polyimide approx. = 4) than the connector (Teflon approx. = 2.25). The discontinuity can be observed in transmit or receive eye diagrams, and can reduce the effective link margin of serial data networks. High-speed serial data network transmission improvements can be made at the connector-to-board interfaces as well as improving differential via hole impedances. The impedance discontinuity was improved by 10 percent by drilling a 20-mil (approx. = 0.5-mm) hole in between the pin of a differential connector spaced 55 mils (approx. = 1.4 mm) apart as it is attached to the PCB. The effective dielectric constant of the board can be lowered by drilling holes into the board material between the differential lines in a quadrax or twinax connector attachment points. The differential impedance is inversely proportional to the square root of the relative dielectric constant. This increases the differential impedance and thus reduces the above described impedance discontinuity. The differential via hole impedance can also be increased in the same manner. This technique can be extended to multiple smaller drilled holes as well as tapered holes (i.e., big in the middle followed by smaller ones diagonally).

  5. Resilience in Utility Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Roger

    The following sections are included: * Scope of paper * Preamble * Background to the case-study projects * Source projects * Resilience * Case study 1: Electricity generation * Context * Model * Case study 2: Water recycling * Context * Model * Case study 3: Ecotechnology and water treatment * Context * The problem of classification: Finding a classificatory solution * Application of the new taxonomy to water treatment * Concluding comments and questions * Conclusions * Questions and issues * Purposive or Purposeful? * Resilience: Flexibility and adaptivity? * Resilience: With respect of what? * Risk, uncertainty, surprise, emergence - What sort of shock, and who says so? * Co-evolutionary friction * References

  6. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  7. Facilitating the Easy Use of Earth Observation Data in Earth System Models through CyberConnector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, L.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are an important tool used to understand the Earth system and predict its future states. On other hand, Earth observations (EO) provides the current state of the system. EO data are very useful in ESM initialization, verification, validation, and inter-comparison. However, EO data often cannot directly be consumed by ESMs because of the syntactic and semantic mismatches between EO products and ESM requirements. In order to remove the mismatches, scientists normally spend long time to customize EO data for ESM consumption. CyberConnector, a NSF EarthCube building block, is intended to automate the data customization so that scientists can be relieved from the laborious EO data customization. CyberConnector uses web-service-based geospatial processing models (GPM) as the mechanism to automatically customize the EO data into the right products in the right form needed by ESMs. It can support many different ESMs through its standard interfaces. It consists of seven modules: GPM designer, GPM binder, GPM runner, GPM monitor, resource register, order manager, and result display. In CyberConnector, EO data instances and GPMs are independent and loosely coupled. A modeler only needs to create a GPM in the GMP designer for EO data customization. Once the modeler specifies a study area, the designed GPM will be activated and take the temporal and spatial extents as constraints to search the data sources and customize the available EO data into the ESM-acceptable form. The execution of GMP is completely automatic. Currently CyberConnector has been fully developed. In order to validate the feasibility, flexibility, and ESM independence of CyberConnector, three ESMs from different geoscience disciplines, including the Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM), the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), and the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), have been experimented with CyberConnector through closely collaborating with modelers. In the experiment

  8. The Effective Lifetime of ACSR Full Tension Splice Connector Operated at Higher Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; King Jr, Thomas J.; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John; Goodwin, Tip

    2009-01-01

    This paper is to address the issues related to integrity of ACSR full tension splice connectors operated at high temperatures. A protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature was developed. Based on the developed protocol the effective lifetime evaluation was demonstrated with ACSR Drake conductor SSC systems. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime

  9. USING PARAMETERIZATION OF OBJECTS IN AUTODESK INVENTOR IN DESIGNING STRUCTURAL CONNECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the parameterization of objects used for designing the type of elements as structural connectors and making modifications of their characteristics. The design process was carried out using Autodesk Inventor 2015. We show the latest software tools, which were used for parameterization and modeling selected types of structural connectors. We also show examples of the use of parameterization facilities in the process of constructing some details and making changes to geometry with holding of the shape the element. The presented method of Inventor usage has enabled fast and efficient creation of new objects based on sketches created.

  10. Distinguishability and identifiability of products with small bore connectors according to ISO DIS 80369 series: risk analysis and summative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibenthal Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ISO 80369-series replace Luer-connectors in five application areas to fight misconnections. Although the standard avoids the mechanical problem of misconnections, the design of products and packages remains arbitrary. So, packages and products with same functions but different connectors could have similar designs and hence could be mixed-up.

  11. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  12. Chronic, percutaneous connector for electrical recording and stimulation with microelectrode arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kedar G; Lee, Kye Young; Tolosa, Vanessa; Tooker, Angela; Felix, Sarah; Benett, William; Pannu, Satinderpall

    2014-01-01

    The translation of advances in neural stimulation and recording research into clinical practice hinges on the ability to perform chronic experiments in awake and behaving animal models. Advances in microelectrode array technology, most notably flexible polymer arrays, have significantly improved reliability of the neural interface. However, electrical connector technology has lagged and is prone to failure from non-biocompatibility, large size, contamination, corrosion, and difficulty of use. We present a novel chronic, percutaneous electrical connector system that is suitable for neural stimulation and recording. This system features biocompatible materials, low connect and disconnect forces, passive alignment, and a protective cap during non-use. We have successfully designed, assembled, and tested in vitro both a 16-channel system and a high density 64-channel system. Custom, polyimide, 16-channel, microelectrode arrays were electrically assembled with the connector system and tested using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This connector system is versatile and can be used with a variety of microelectrode array technologies for chronic studies.

  13. Exploring the impact of the care sport connector in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, Karlijn E.F.; Smit, Eva; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Molleman, Gerard R.M.; Koelen, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) is deemed to contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and osteoporosis. In 2012, Care Sport Connectors (CSC), to whom a broker has been ascribed, were introduced

  14. Exploring the impact of the care sport connector in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, K.E.; Smit, E.; Wagemakers, A.; Molleman, G.R.M.; Koelen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is deemed to contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and osteoporosis. In 2012, Care Sport Connectors (CSC), to whom a broker has been ascribed, were introduced

  15. Discourse Connector Usage in Argumentative Essays by American and Thai University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangarun, Kamolphan; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in the use of discourse connectors (DCs) in argumentative essays of American undergraduate students (AMs), Thai with high-English exposure (THHs) and Thai with low-English exposure (THLs). The data of these three groups were collected from 60 essays; 20 essays were from the corpus of…

  16. Innovative, wearable snap connector technology for improved device networking in electronic garments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Lee, Kang S.; Gans, Eric; Winterhalter, Carole A.; Jannson, Tomasz P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper discusses Physical Optics Corporation's (POC) wearable snap connector technology that provides for the transfer of data and power throughout an electronic garment (e-garment). These connectors resemble a standard garment button and can be mated blindly with only one hand. Fully compatible with military clothing, their application allows for the networking of multiple electronic devices and an intuitive method for adding/removing existing components from the system. The attached flexible cabling also permits the rugged snap connectors to be fed throughout the standard webbing found in military garments permitting placement in any location within the uniform. Variations of the snap electronics/geometry allow for integration with USB 2.0 devices, RF antennas, and are capable of transferring high bandwidth data streams such as the 221 Mbps required for VGA video. With the trend towards providing military officers with numerous electronic devices (i.e., heads up displays (HMD), GPS receiver, PDA, etc), POC's snap connector technology will greatly improve cable management resulting in a less cumbersome uniform. In addition, with electronic garments gaining widespread adoption in the commercial marketplace, POC's technology is finding applications in such areas as sporting good manufacturers and video game technology.

  17. Magnetic Actuation Connector Between Extension Shaft and Armature for Bottom Mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The electromagnet and armature inside the guide tube interact and produce magnetism, thus making the armature, connecting extension shaft and control rod move up and down to control the power of reactor. During the overhaul, the control absorber rod (CAR), extension shaft, and armature of BMCRDM are lifted together for closing a seal valve. But total length of CAR assembly is so long that it cannot be lifted due to exposure above the water level of pool which is strictly controlled. In addition to this, it is difficult to calibrate a position indicator and lifting force of electromagnet without armature assembly as a seal valve is closed. For this reason, it is necessary to install a disconnecting system between armature and extension shaft. Therefore, KAERI has developed magnetic actuation connector using plunger between armature and extension shaft for the bottom mounted control rod drive mechanism in research reactor. The results of a FEM and the experiments in this work lead to the following conclusions: The FEM result for the design of the magnetic actuation connector is compared with the measured lifting force of prototype production. As a result, it is shown that the lifting force of the prototype connector has a good agreement with the result of the FEM. A newly developed technique of prototype magnetic actuation connector which is designed by FEM analysis result is proposed.

  18. Irradiation test on connector part for nuclear instrumentation of nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takahiro; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Tsunoda, Tsunemi; Nakazawa, Toshio

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear instrumetnation facility of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is composed of neutron detectors, signal cables and the circuits for measurement, and ocntinuously monitors neutron flux. Since this facility treats very faint signals, for the signal cables, coaxial cables and triple coaxial cables are used. The coaxial cables for the nuclear instrumentation are equipped with connectors at both ends, and those are called prefabricated cable. The prefabricated cables are connected to neutron detectors, and installed in the detection holes of the primary shielding tank in the containment vessel. Therefore, at the time of reactor operation, they are exposed to high radiation, and the deterioration of the characteristics of the prefabricated cables is feared. For the purpose of confirming that the part of deteriorating the insulation of the prefabricated cables is connectors, and clarifying the cause of the deterioration of insulation in connector part, the irradiation test of this time was carried out. The environment in which the prefabricated cables are laid, the specifications of the cables and connectors, the materials, gamma ray irradiation and the test results are reported. (K.I.)

  19. ESCC standards, evaluation and qualification of optical fiber connectors for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taugwalder, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    Optical fiber connectors have been used for the past fifteen years in space application. Reviewing the heritage left from past and current mission, the status of ESCC standards for these components and assemblies will help future use of fiber in space applications. In the frame of the ESA ECI program, Diamond has evaluated and is currently qualifying according to ESCC standards the AVIM and Mini-AVIM connectors. The configuration retained to qualify the connector sets is using a polarization maintaining fiber at 1550nm with a loose tube in PEEK as cable structure. The evaluation has been used to step-stress specific characteristics of the optical fiber connectors with a particular aim at possible failure modes to establish a safety factor for the qualification. The evaluation results presented can be used on a case by case to evaluate special applications that would require to extend the specification. The qualification components can be extended further and a structure for assemblies is proposed in order to simplify fiber optics implementation in space projects.

  20. 24-ch microlens-integrated no-polish connector for optical interconnection with polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Yagisawa, Takatoshi; Ikeuchi, Tadashi; Daikuhara, Osamu; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2013-02-01

    We successfully developed a new 24-ch optical connector for polymer waveguides. The connector consists of a transparent thermoplastic resin that has two rectangular slits on one side for alignment of the waveguide films and integrated microlens arrays on the other side for coupling to the MT connector. Two 12-ch waveguide films were cut to a 3-mm width. The thickness of each waveguide film was controlled at 100 μm. The waveguide films were inserted into the slits until they touched the bottom face of the slit. Ultraviolet curing adhesive was used to achieve a short hardening process. The expanded beam in the transparent material is focused by the microlens arrays formed on the connector surface. This lens structure enables assembly without the need for a polishing process. We designed the lens for coupling between a step-index 40-μm rectangular waveguide and a graded-index 50-μm fiber. We achieved low-loss optical coupling by designing a method of providing asymmetric magnification between the horizontal and vertical directions in order to compensate for the asymmetric numerical aperture of the waveguide. The typical measured coupling losses from/to the waveguide to/from the fiber were 1.2 dB and 0.6 dB, respectively. The total coupling loss was as small as that of a physical contact connection.

  1. Magnetic Actuation Connector Between Extension Shaft and Armature for Bottom Mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In

    2013-01-01

    The electromagnet and armature inside the guide tube interact and produce magnetism, thus making the armature, connecting extension shaft and control rod move up and down to control the power of reactor. During the overhaul, the control absorber rod (CAR), extension shaft, and armature of BMCRDM are lifted together for closing a seal valve. But total length of CAR assembly is so long that it cannot be lifted due to exposure above the water level of pool which is strictly controlled. In addition to this, it is difficult to calibrate a position indicator and lifting force of electromagnet without armature assembly as a seal valve is closed. For this reason, it is necessary to install a disconnecting system between armature and extension shaft. Therefore, KAERI has developed magnetic actuation connector using plunger between armature and extension shaft for the bottom mounted control rod drive mechanism in research reactor. The results of a FEM and the experiments in this work lead to the following conclusions: The FEM result for the design of the magnetic actuation connector is compared with the measured lifting force of prototype production. As a result, it is shown that the lifting force of the prototype connector has a good agreement with the result of the FEM. A newly developed technique of prototype magnetic actuation connector which is designed by FEM analysis result is proposed

  2. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  3. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  4. Semantic integration of gene expression analysis tools and data sources using software connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study and analysis of gene expression measurements is the primary focus of functional genomics. Once expression data is available, biologists are faced with the task of extracting (new) knowledge associated to the underlying biological phenomenon. Most often, in order to perform this task, biologists execute a number of analysis activities on the available gene expression dataset rather than a single analysis activity. The integration of heteregeneous tools and data sources to create an integrated analysis environment represents a challenging and error-prone task. Semantic integration enables the assignment of unambiguous meanings to data shared among different applications in an integrated environment, allowing the exchange of data in a semantically consistent and meaningful way. This work aims at developing an ontology-based methodology for the semantic integration of gene expression analysis tools and data sources. The proposed methodology relies on software connectors to support not only the access to heterogeneous data sources but also the definition of transformation rules on exchanged data. Results We have studied the different challenges involved in the integration of computer systems and the role software connectors play in this task. We have also studied a number of gene expression technologies, analysis tools and related ontologies in order to devise basic integration scenarios and propose a reference ontology for the gene expression domain. Then, we have defined a number of activities and associated guidelines to prescribe how the development of connectors should be carried out. Finally, we have applied the proposed methodology in the construction of three different integration scenarios involving the use of different tools for the analysis of different types of gene expression data. Conclusions The proposed methodology facilitates the development of connectors capable of semantically integrating different gene expression analysis tools

  5. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  6. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    ) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  7. The biomechanical effect of transverse connectors use in a pre- and postlaminectomy model of the posterior cervical spine: an in vitro cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Kamran; Gudipally, Manasa; Hussain, Mir; Moldavsky, Mark; Khalil, Saif

    2011-12-15

    An in vitro biomechanical study investigating the effect of transverse connectors on posterior cervical stabilization system in a laminectomy model. To evaluate the optimal design, number, and location of the transverse connectors in stabilizing long segment posterior instrumentation in the cervical spine. In the cervical spine, lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation is used for providing stability after decompression. Transverse connectors have been used to augment segmental posterior instrumentation. However, in the cervical region the optimal design, number, and the location of transverse connectors is not known. Seven fresh human cervicothoracic cadaveric spines (C2-T1) were tested by applying ±1.5 Nm moments in flexion (F), extension (E), lateral bending (LB), and axial rotation (AR). After testing the intact condition, LMS/rods were placed and then were tested with two different transverse connectors (top-loading connector [TL] and the head-to-head [HH] connector) in multiple levels, pre- and postlaminectomy (PL). LMS significantly reduced segmental motion by 77.2% in F, 75.6% in E, 86.6% in LB, and 86.1% in AR prelaminectomy and by 75.4% in F, 76% in E, 80.6% in LB, and 76.4% in AR postlaminectomy compared to intact (P transverse connectors is significant in AR, when using two connectors at the proximal and distal ends, compared to one connector. In a clinical setting, this data may guide surgeons on transverse connector configurations to consider during posterior cervical instrumentation.

  8. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  9. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  10. Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dunn cavelty, myriam; Kaufmann, Mareile; Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    2015-01-01

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  11. New Orleans' Resilience Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J.

    2017-12-01

    New Orleans has had unique experience in dealing with and recovering from major urban emergencies. From Hurricanes Katrina and Isaac to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill to the city's frequent boil water advisories, New Orleans has learned important lessons about what it takes to become a vibrant, resilient city that serves all its residents — particularly its most vulnerable. The city of New Orleans released its Resilience Strategy on August 28, 2015. On September 12, 2016, the city released its One-Year Progress Update, sharing its key milestones.

  12. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  13. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  14. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark, 1963......-2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...... in new resources to the cluster but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  15. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  16. Qualified measurement setup of polarization extinction ratio for Panda PMF with LC/UPC connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongdaeng, Rutsuda; Worasucheep, Duang-rudee; Ngiwprom, Adisak

    2018-03-01

    Polarization Extinction Ratio (PER) is one of the key parameters for Polarization Maintaining Fiber (PMF) connector. Based on our previous studies, the bending radius of fiber greater than 1.5 cm will not affect the insertion loss of PMF [1]. Moreover, the measured PER of Panda PMF with LC/UPC connectors is more stable when that PMF is coiled around a hot rod with a minimum of 3-cm in diameter at 75°C temperature [2]. Hence, the hot rod with less constrained 6-cm in diameter at constant 75°C was selected for this PER measurement. Two PER setups were verified and compared for measuring LC/UPC PMF connectors. The Polarized Laser Source (PLS) at 1550 nm wavelength and PER meter from OZ Optics were used in both setups, in which the measured connector was connected to PLS at 0° angle while the other end was connected to PER meter. In order to qualify our setups, the percentage of Repeatability and Reproducibility (%R&R) were tested and calculated. In each setup, the PER measurement was repeated 3 trials by 3 appraisers using 10 LC/UPC PMF connectors (5 LC/UPC PMF patchcords with 3.5+/-0.5 meters in length) in random order. The 1st setup, PMF was coiled at a larger 20-cm diameter for 3 to 5 loops and left in room temperature during the test. The 2nd setup, PMF was coiled around a hot rod at constant 75°C with 6-cm diameter for 8 to 10 loops for at least 5 minutes before testing. There are 3 ranges of %R&R acceptation guide line: <10% is acceptable, between 10% - 30% is marginal, and <30% is unacceptable. According to our results, the %R&R of the 1st PER test setup was 16.2% as marginality, and the 2nd PER test setup was 8.9% as acceptance. Thus, providing the better repeatability and reproducibility, this 2nd PER test setup having PMF coiled around a hot rod at constant 75°C with 6-cm diameter was selected for our next study of the impact of hot temperature on PER in LC/UPC PMF connector.

  17. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  18. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  19. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  20. Resilient modulus of black cotton soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Mamatha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Resilient modulus (MR values of pavement layers are the basic input parameters for the design of pavements with multiple layers in the current mechanistic empirical pavement design guidelines. As the laboratory determination of resilient modulus is costly, time consuming and cumbersome, several empirical models are developed for the prediction of resilient modulus for different regions of the world based on the database of resilient modulus values of local soils. For use of these relationships there is a need to verify the suitability of these models for local conditions. Expansive clay called black cotton soil (BC soil is found in several parts of India and is characterized by low strength and high compressibility. This soil shows swell – shrink behaviour upon wetting and drying and are problematic. The BC soil shows collapse behaviour on soaking and therefore the strength of the soil needs to be improved. Additive stabilization is found to be very effective in stabilizing black cotton soils and generally lime is used to improve the strength and durability of the black cotton soil. In this paper, the results of repeated load tests on black cotton soil samples for the determination of MR under soaked and unsoaked conditions at a relative compaction levels of 100% and 95% of both standard and modified proctor conditions are reported. The results indicate that the black cotton soil fails to meet the density requirement of the subgrade soil and shows collapse behaviour under soaked condition. To overcome this, lime is added as an additive to improve the strength of black cotton soil and repeated load tests were performed as per AASHTO T 307 - 99 for MR determination. The results have shown that the samples are stable under modified proctor condition with MR values ranging from 36 MPa to 388 MPa for a lime content of 2.5% and curing period ranging from 7 to 28 days. Also, it is observed that, the CBR based resilient modulus is not in agreement

  1. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social ...... through balancing a strategic and anticipatory strategy with experimental setups inspired by civil society organizing initiatives....

  2. State Energy Resilience Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pillon, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Petit, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The energy sector infrastructure’s high degree of interconnectedness with other critical infrastructure systems can lead to cascading and escalating failures that can strongly affect both economic and social activities.The operational goal is to maintain energy availability for customers and consumers. For this body of work, a State Energy Resilience Framework in five steps is proposed.

  3. Wellbeing And Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Susanne; Davidsen, Kirstine Agnete; MacBeth, Angus

    2015-01-01

    , 16 and 52 weeks in terms of evolution of very early indicators of developmental risk and resilience focusing on three possible environmental transmission mechanisms: stress, maternal caregiver representation, and caregiver-infant interaction. DISCUSSION: The study will provide data on very early risk...

  4. Resilience through adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guus A Ten Broeke

    Full Text Available Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS. Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  5. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Resilience through adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten Guus; Voorn, van George A.K.; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations

  7. Resilience through adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Broeke, Guus A; van Voorn, George A K; Ligtenberg, Arend; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation of agents through learning or evolution is an important component of the resilience of Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). Without adaptation, the flexibility of such systems to cope with outside pressures would be much lower. To study the capabilities of CAS to adapt, social simulations with agent-based models (ABMs) provide a helpful tool. However, the value of ABMs for studying adaptation depends on the availability of methodologies for sensitivity analysis that can quantify resilience and adaptation in ABMs. In this paper we propose a sensitivity analysis methodology that is based on comparing time-dependent probability density functions of output of ABMs with and without agent adaptation. The differences between the probability density functions are quantified by the so-called earth-mover's distance. We use this sensitivity analysis methodology to quantify the probability of occurrence of critical transitions and other long-term effects of agent adaptation. To test the potential of this new approach, it is used to analyse the resilience of an ABM of adaptive agents competing for a common-pool resource. Adaptation is shown to contribute positively to the resilience of this ABM. If adaptation proceeds sufficiently fast, it may delay or avert the collapse of this system.

  8. Stress analysis of single port (ISB) jumper connectors for 2-, 3-, and 4-in. sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.; Julyk, J.L.; Weiner, E.O.

    1995-01-01

    Jumper connectors are used in the Hanford site for remotely connecting jumper pipe lines in the radioactive zones. The jumper pipes are used for transporting radioactive fluids and hazardous chemicals. This report evaluates the adequacy and the integrity of the 2-, 3-, and 4-in. single-port integral seal block (ISB) jumper connector assemblies, as well as the three-way 2-in. configuration. The evaluation considers limiting forces from the piping to the nozzle. A stress evaluation of the jumper components (hook, hook pin, operating screw, nozzle and nozzle flange, and block) under operational (pressure, thermal, dead weight, and axial torquing of the jumper) and seismic loading is addressed in the report

  9. Structural insights into the backbone-circularized granulocyte colony-stimulating factor containing a short connector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyafusa, Takamitsu; Shibuya, Risa; Honda, Shinya

    2018-06-02

    Backbone circularization is a powerful approach for enhancing the structural stability of polypeptides. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the circularized variant of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in which the terminal helical region was circularized using a short, two-amino acid connector. The structure revealed that the N- and C-termini were indeed connected by a peptide bond. The local structure of the C-terminal region transited from an α helix to 3 10 helix with a bend close to the N-terminal region, indicating that the structural change offset the insufficient length of the connector. This is the first-ever report of a crystal structure of the backbone of a circularized protein. It will facilitate the development of backbone circularization methodology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress analysis of single port (ISB) jumper connectors for 2-, 3-, and 4-in. sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M A; Julyk, J L; Weiner, E O [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-26

    Jumper connectors are used in the Hanford site for remotely connecting jumper pipe lines in the radioactive zones. The jumper pipes are used for transporting radioactive fluids and hazardous chemicals. This report evaluates the adequacy and the integrity of the 2-, 3-, and 4-in. single-port integral seal block (ISB) jumper connector assemblies, as well as the three-way 2-in. configuration. The evaluation considers limiting forces from the piping to the nozzle. A stress evaluation of the jumper components (hook, hook pin, operating screw, nozzle and nozzle flange, and block) under operational (pressure, thermal, dead weight, and axial torquing of the jumper) and seismic loading is addressed in the report.

  11. Use of monolingual and comparable corpora in the classroom to translate adverbial connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Cárdenas

    2016-04-01

    This research explored the reasons why certain adverbial discourse connectors, apparently easy to translate, are a source of translation problems that cannot be easily resolved with a bilingual dictionary. Moreover, this study analyzed the use of parallel corpora in the translation classroom and how it can increase the quality of text production. For this purpose, we compared student translations before and after receiving training on the use of corpus analysis tools.

  12. Experimental study on AR fiberglass connectors for bridges made of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolosana, N.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One highly relevant aspect in composite material bridgedesing is the study of the shear connectors to be used.Composite material bridges most commonly comprise acomposite deck resting on steel or reinforced concrete girders.This article analyzes the connectors most frequentlyused in such bridges.It also reviews the connectors used in the King StormwaterChannel Bridge, whose fibreglass deck is supported bygirders made of concrete-filled carbon fibre girders.The paper advances proposals for several types of connectorsand discusses the results of push-out test run ona number of prototypes with different geometries.The results are analyzed to identify the optimum model forthe “Autovia del Cantabrico” Overpass, with its 46-m span,carbon fibre girders and AR glass shear connectors.Un aspecto relevante dentro del proyecto de un puenterealizado en materiales compuestos es el estudio de losconectores. El caso mas frecuente de puente en materialescompuestos es aquel que presenta un tablero de materialescompuestos soportado por vigas metalicas o de hormigonarmado. En este trabajo se analizaran los tipos deconectores mas utilizados en este tipo de puentesSe analizaran tambien los conectores utilizados en elKing Stormwater Channel Bridge, donde ademas deltablero en fibra de vidrio, se fabricaron las vigas en fibrasde carbono rellenas de hormigon.En este articulo se propondran varios tipos de conectoresy se presentaran los resultados experimentales correspondientesal ensayo de “push-out” de varios prototipos condiferentes geometrias.Tras evaluar los resultados, se determinara el mas idoneopara su implantacion en el Paso Superior de la Autovia delCantabrico, de 46 metros de luz y que presenta las vigasen fibra de carbono y los conectores de vidrio AR.

  13. Annual report 1999. Energy and connectors; Rapport annuel 1999. Energie connectique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the industrial activities and the financial results of Framatome in 1999. Framatome's activities are divided into 2 sectors: energy and connectors, which represents respectively 54% and 46% of the turnover and 40% and 60% of the staff (26000 people). In 1999 the turnover reached 4.2 milliard euros. Framatome and Siemens have decided to merge their nuclear activities in a common company (66% for Framatome, 34% for Siemens). (A.C.)

  14. Compact and Robust Refilling and Connectorization of Hollow Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Gas Reference Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick; Chang, Daniel H.; Spiers, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a method for refilling and connectorization of hollow core photonic crystal fiber gas reference cells. Thees hollow-core photonic crystal fiber allow optical propagation in air or vacuum and are for use as gas reference cell is proposed and demonstrated. It relies on torch-sealing a quartz filling tube connected to a mechanical splice between regular and hollow-core fibers.

  15. Annual report 1999. Energy and connectors; Rapport annuel 1999. Energie connectique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the industrial activities and the financial results of Framatome in 1999. Framatome's activities are divided into 2 sectors: energy and connectors, which represents respectively 54% and 46% of the turnover and 40% and 60% of the staff (26000 people). In 1999 the turnover reached 4.2 milliard euros. Framatome and Siemens have decided to merge their nuclear activities in a common company (66% for Framatome, 34% for Siemens). (A.C.)

  16. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  17. Nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connectors and method of connecting electrical conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. G.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear qualified in-containment electrical connection comprises an insulated, sheathed instrument lead having electrical conductors extending from one end thereof to provide two exposed lead wires, a watertight cable having electrical conducting wires therein and extending from one end of the cable to provide two lead wires therefrom, two butt splice connectors each connecting the ends of respective ones of the lead wires from the instrument lead and cable, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing positioned over each butt splice connector and an adjacent portion of a respective lead wire from the cable and heat shrunk into position, a length of heat shrinkable plastic tubing on the end portion of the instrument lead adjacent the lead wires therefrom and heat shrunk thereon and a length of outer heat shrinkable plastic tubing extending over the end portion of the instrument lead and the heat shrinkable tubing thereon and over the butt splice connectors and a portion of the cable adjacent the cable lead lines, the outer heat shrinkable tubing being heat shrunk into sealing position on the instrument lead and cable.

  18. Behaviour of steel-concrete composite beams using bolts as shear connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Minh-Tung; Nguyen Van Do, Vuong; Nguyen, Tuan-Anh

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents an experimental program on the application of bolts as shear connectors for steel-composite beams. Four steel- concrete composite beams and a reference steel beam were made and tested. The aim of the testing program is to examine which forms of the steel bolts can be used effectively for steel-composite beams. The four types of the bolts include: Type 1 the bolt with the nut at the end; Type 2 the bolt bending at 900 hook; Type 3 the bolt without the nut at the end and Type 4 the bolt with the nut at the end but connected with the steel beam by hand welding in other to be connected with the steel beam by bolt connection as in the first three types. The test results showed that beside the traditional shear connectors like shear studs, angle type, channel type, bolts can be used effectively as the shear connectors in steel-composite beams and the application of bolts in Types 1 and 2 in the composite beams gave the better performance for the tested beam.

  19. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with self-compacting concrete and connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Nascimento

    Full Text Available There are many problems involving cases of destruction of buildings and other structures. The columns can deteriorate for several reasons such as the evolution and changing habits of the loads. The experimental phase of this work was based on a test involving nine reinforced concrete columns under combined bending and axial compression, at an initial eccentricity of 60 mm. Two columns were used as reference, one having the original dimensions of the column and the other, monolithic, had been cast along the thickness of the strengthened piece. The remaining columns received a 35 mm thick layer of self-compacting concrete on their compressed face. For the preparation of the interface between the two materials, this surface was scarified and furrowed and connectors were inserted onto the columns' shear reinforcement in various positions and amounts.As connectors, 5 mm diameter steel bars were used (the same as for stirrups, bent in the shape of a "C" with 25 mm coatings. >As a conclusion, not only the quantity, but mainly, the location of the connectors used in the link between substrate and reinforcement is crucial to increase strength and to change failure mode.

  20. Plasma treatment of fiber facets for increased (de)mating endurance in physical contact fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Voss, Kevin; De Witte, Martijn; Radulescu, Radu; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    It is known that cleaving an optical fiber introduces a number of irregularities and defects to the fiber's end-face, such as hackles and shockwaves. These defects can act as failure initiators when stress is applied to the end-face. Given the fiber's small diameter of 125 ffm, a large amount of mechanical stress can be expected to be applied on its end-face during the mating-demating cycle. In addition, a connector in a fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network can be expected to be mated and demated more than 30 times during its lifetime for purposes such as testing, churning, or provisioning. For this reason, the performance of a connector that displays low optical loss when first installed can dramatically degrade after few mating-demating cycles and catastrophic connector failure due to end-face breakage is likely. We present plasma discharge shaping of cleaved fiber tips to strongly improve the endurance of the fibers to repeated mating-demating cycles. We quantify the dependency of the plasma-induced surface curvature of the fiber tip on the plasma duration and on the position of the fiber tip within the plasma cloud. Finally we present data showing the improved endurance of fibers that are exposed to plasma compared to conventional as-cleaved fibers.

  1. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs Using a Hybrid FRP-UHPC System Including Shear Connector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Moon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric hybrid composite system made of UHPC and CFRP was proposed as a retrofit system to enhance flexural strength and ductility of RC slabs. While the effectiveness of the proposed system was confirmed previously through testing three full-scale one-way slabs having two continuous spans, the slabs retrofitted with the hybrid system failed in shear. This sudden shear failure would stem from the excessive enhancement of the flexural strength over the shear strength. In this study, shear connectors were installed between the hybrid system and a RC slab. Using simple beam, only positive moment section was examined. Two full-scale RC slabs were cast and tested to failure: the first as a control and the second using this new strengthening technique. The proposed strengthening system increased the ultimate load carrying capacity of the slab by 70%, the stiffness by 60%, and toughness by 128%. The efficiency of shear connectors on ductile behavior of the retrofitted slab was also confirmed. After the UHPC top is separated from the slab, the shear connector transfer shear load and the slab system were in force equilibrium by compression in UHPC and tension in CFRP.

  2. Salt Spray Test to Determine Galvanic Corrosion Levels of Electroless Nickel Connectors Mounted on an Aluminum Bracket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, T. D.; Hodge, R. E.; Torres, P. D.; Jones, D. D.; Laird, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    During preliminary vehicle design reviews, requests were made to change flight termination systems from an electroless nickel (EN) connector coating to a zinc-nickel (ZN) plating. The reason for these changes was due to a new NASA-STD-6012 corrosion requirement where connectors must meet the performance requirement of 168 hr of exposure to salt spray. The specification for class F connectors, MIL-DTL-38999, certifies the EN coating will meet a 48-hr salt spray test, whereas the ZN is certified to meet a 168-hr salt spray test. The ZN finish is a concern because Marshall Space Flight Center has no flight experience with ZN-finished connectors, and MSFC-STD-3012 indicates that zinc and zinc alloys should not be used. The purpose of this test was to run a 168-hr salt spray test to verify the electrical and mechanical integrity of the EN connectors and officially document the results. The salt spray test was conducted per ASTM B117 on several MIL-DTL-38999 flight-like connectors mounted to an aluminum 6061-T6 bracket that was alodined. The configuration, mounting techniques, electrical checks, and materials used were typical of flight and ground support equipment.

  3. Quantifying resilience for resilience engineering of socio technical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Häring, Ivo; Ebenhöch, Stefan; Stolz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Resilience engineering can be defined to comprise originally technical, engineering and natural science approaches to improve the resilience and sustainability of socio technical cyber-physical systems of various complexities with respect to disruptive events. It is argued how this emerging interdisciplinary technical and societal science approach may contribute to civil and societal security research. In this context, the article lists expected benefits of quantifying resilience. Along the r...

  4. From resilience thinking to Resilience Planning: Lessons from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellberg, M M; Ryan, P; Borgström, S T; Norström, A V; Peterson, G D

    2018-07-01

    Resilience thinking has frequently been proposed as an alternative to conventional natural resource management, but there are few studies of its applications in real-world settings. To address this gap, we synthesized experiences from practitioners that have applied a resilience thinking approach to strategic planning, called Resilience Planning, in regional natural resource management organizations in Australia. This case represents one of the most extensive and long-term applications of resilience thinking in the world today. We conducted semi-structured interviews with Resilience Planning practitioners from nine organizations and reviewed strategic planning documents to investigate: 1) the key contributions of the approach to their existing strategic planning, and 2) what enabled and hindered the practitioners in applying and embedding the new approach in their organizations. Our results reveal that Resilience Planning contributed to developing a social-ecological systems perspective, more adaptive and collaborative approaches to planning, and that it clarified management goals of desirable resource conditions. Applying Resilience Planning required translating resilience thinking to practice in each unique circumstance, while simultaneously creating support among staff, and engaging external actors. Embedding Resilience Planning within organizations implied starting and maintaining longer-term change processes that required sustained multi-level organizational support. We conclude by identifying four lessons for successfully applying and embedding resilience practice in an organization: 1) to connect internal "entrepreneurs" to "interpreters" and "networkers" who work across organizations, 2) to assess the opportunity context for resilience practice, 3) to ensure that resilience practice is a learning process that engages internal and external actors, and 4) to develop reflective strategies for managing complexity and uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 The Authors

  5. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what resilience-building contributes to, what the problems, causes and solutions are, and what trade-offs, side-effects and other normative choices are acceptable. These different ways of ‘framing’ climate res...

  6. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  7. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  8. Communal resilience: the Lebanese case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric BOUTIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a turbulent and aggressive environment, organizations are subject to external events. They are sometimes destabilized and can disappear. This context explains the multiplication of works studying resilience of human organizations. Resilience is then defined as the ability of the organization studied to face an external shock.This paper proposes a state of the art of resilience concept and considers the interests of the transposition of the concept to the field of a territorial community. A case study will lead us to apply the concept of resilience to the Lebanese nation.

  9. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  10. A quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative approaches to measure and assess resilience are needed to bridge gaps between science, policy, and management. In this paper, we suggest a quantitative framework for assessing ecological resilience. Ecological resilience as an emergent ecosystem phenomenon can be de...

  11. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  12. Framing resilience: social uncertainty in designing urban climate resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what

  13. Midwives׳ experiences of workplace resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Billie; Warren, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    many UK midwives experience workplace adversity resulting from a national shortage of midwives, rise in birth rate and increased numbers of women entering pregnancy with complex care needs. Research evidence suggests that workplace pressures, and the emotional demands of the job, may increase midwives׳ experience of stress and contribute to low morale, sickness and attrition. Much less is known about midwives who demonstrate resilience in the face of adversity. Resilience has been investigated in studies of other health and social care workers, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding midwives׳ experiences. to explore clinical midwives׳ understanding and experience of professional resilience and to identify the personal, professional and contextual factors considered to contribute to or act as barriers to resilience. an exploratory qualitative descriptive study. In Stage One, a closed online professional discussion group was conducted over a one month period. Midwives discussed workplace adversity and their resilient responses to this. In Stage Two, the data were discussed with an Expert Panel with representatives from midwifery workforce and resilience research, in order to enhance data interpretation and refine the concept modelling. the online discussion group was hosted by the Royal College of Midwives, UK online professional networking hub: 'Communities'. 11 practising midwives with 15 or more years of 'hands on clinical experience', and who self-identified as being resilient, took part in the online discussion group. thematic analysis of the data identified four themes: challenges to resilience, managing and coping, self-awareness and building resilience. The participants identified 'critical moments' in their careers when midwives were especially vulnerable to workplace adversity. Resilience was seen as a learned process which was facilitated by a range of coping strategies, including accessing support and developing self-awareness and protection of self

  14. Literature Review of Concepts: Psychological Resiliency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wald, Jaye; Taylor, Steven; Asmundson, Gordon J; Jang, Kerry L; Stapleton, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    ...; and resiliency measures, their development and validation. Existing definitions implicate resiliency with the ability to adapt and successfully cope with adversity, life stressors, and traumatic events...

  15. TJC: plan and prepare for the transition to new tubing connectors to minimize the risk of dangerous misconnections, clinician frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To reduce the risk of dangerous tubing misconnections, the ISO is rolling out new tubing connector standards that will eventually make it nearly impossible for tubing associated with one delivery system to be connected to a delivery system that serves a different purpose. Experts welcome the change, noting that tubing misconnections that cause injury and even death have been happening for years. However, TJC has issued a Sentinel Event Alert, warning that health care organizations need to be vigilant in managing the risk posed by these misconnections during the phased-in transition to the new connectors. Experts explain that tubing misconnections occur because many different types of tubing utilize the same Leur connector, making it possible for a clinician to mistakenly connect a tube to the wrong delivery system. The most common type of tubing misconnection reported to the ISMP is when a clinician wants to administer something to a patient through a feeding tube, but accidently administers the substance through an IV tube instead. The first new connector, called the ENFit, is going to be for enteral feeding tubes. It will not connect to IV tubing, making that type of misconnection unlikely. The new connector should be available early next year. Since hospitals will continue to use older tubing until their supplies are exhausted, manufacturers will temporarily provide adapters capable of making new administration sets compatible with older tubing.

  16. Arranging ISO 13606 archetypes into a knowledge base using UML connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopanitsa, Georgy

    2014-01-01

    To enable the efficient reuse of standard based medical data we propose to develop a higher-level information model that will complement the archetype model of ISO 13606. This model will make use of the relationships that are specified in UML to connect medical archetypes into a knowledge base within a repository. UML connectors were analysed for their ability to be applied in the implementation of a higher-level model that will establish relationships between archetypes. An information model was developed using XML Schema notation. The model allows linking different archetypes of one repository into a knowledge base. Presently it supports several relationships and will be advanced in future.

  17. Microorganisms present on peripheral intravenous needleless connectors in the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Karen; Cooke, Marie; Whitby, Michael; Fullerton, Fiona; Douglas, Joel; Hay, Jennine; Rickard, Claire

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify culturable microorganisms on needleless connectors (NCs) attached to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized adult medical patients. Half (50%) of 40 NCs were contaminated with microorganisms commonly found on the skin or mouth. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were most commonly isolated. Emergency department insertion and higher patient dependency were statistically associated with positive NC microorganism growth. These results reaffirm the need for NC decontamination prior to access. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Open Source GIS Connectors to the NASA GES DISC Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, L.; Kempler, S. J.; Yang, W.

    2014-12-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) houses a suite of satellite-derived GIS data including high spatiotemporal resolution precipitation, air quality, and modeled land surface parameter data. The data are extremely useful to various GIS research and applications at regional, continental, and global scales, as evidenced by the growing GIS user requests to the data. On the other hand, we also found that some GIS users, especially those from the ArcGIS community, having difficulties in obtaining, importing, and using our data, primarily due to the unfamiliarity of the users with our products and GIS software's lack of capabilities in dealing with the predominately raster form data in various sometimes very complicated formats. In this presentation, we introduce a set of open source ArcGIS data connectors that significantly simplify the access and use of our data in ArcGIS. With the connectors, users do not need to know the data access URLs, the access protocols or syntaxes, and data formats. Nor do they need to browse through a long list of variables that are often embedded into one single science data file and whose names may sometimes be confusing to those not familiar with the file (such as variable CH4_VMR_D for "CH4 Volume mixing ratio from the descending orbit" and variable EVPsfc for "Total Evapotranspiration"). The connectors will expose most GIS-related variables to the users with easy to understand names. User can simply define the spatiotemporal range of their study, select interested parameter(s), and have the needed data be downloaded, imported, and displayed in ArcGIS. The connectors are python text files and there is no installation process. They can be placed at any user directory and be started by simply clicking on it. In the presentation, we'll also demonstrate how to use the tools to load GES DISC time series air quality data with a few clicks and how such data depict the spatial and temporal patterns of

  19. The Lifetime Estimate for ACSR Single-Stage Splice Connector Operating at Higher Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An John; Graziano, Joe; Chan, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the continuation of Part I effort to develop a protocol of integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector (SSC) assembly during service at high operating temperature.1The Part II efforts are mainly focused on the thermal mechanical testing, thermal-cycling simulation and its impact on the effective lifetime of the SSC system. The investigation indicates that thermal cycling temperature and frequency, conductor cable tension loading, and the compressive residual stress field within a SSC system have significant impact on the SSC integrity and the associated effective lifetime.

  20. The quest for resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Gary; Välikangas, Liisa

    2003-09-01

    In less turbulent times, executives had the luxury of assuming that business models were more or less immortal. Companies always had to work to get better, but they seldom had to get different--not at their core, not in their essence. Today, getting different is the imperative. It's the challenge facing Coca-Cola as it struggles to raise its "share of throat" in noncarbonated beverages. It's the task that bedevils McDonald's as it tries to restart its growth in a burger-weary world. It's the hurdle for Sun Microsystems as it searches for ways to protect its high-margin server business from the Linux onslaught. Continued success no longer hinges on momentum. Rather, it rides on resilience-on the ability to dynamically reinvent business models and strategies as circumstances change. Strategic resilience is not about responding to a onetime crisis or rebounding from a setback. It's about continually anticipating and adjusting to deep, secular trends that can permanently impair the earning power of a core business. It's about having the capacity to change even before the case for change becomes obvious. To thrive in turbulent times, companies must become as efficient at renewal as they are at producing today's products and services. To achieve strategic resilience, companies will have to overcome the cognitive challenge of eliminating denial, nostalgia, and arrogance; the strategic challenge of learning how to create a wealth of small tactical experiments; the political challenge of reallocating financial and human resources to where they can earn the best returns; and the ideological challenge of learning that strategic renewal is as important as optimization.

  1. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... the labor market. The empirical part of the article draws on interviews with local and migrant first-generation workers in two settlements located next to an industrial zone in Can Tho Province in the Mekong River Delta Region of Vietnam. It is suggested that the alternating practices of reworking...

  2. Stiffness, resilience, compressibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.

  3. Leakage resilient password systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yingjiu; Deng, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates tradeoff between security and usability in designing leakage resilient password systems (LRP) and introduces two practical LRP systems named Cover Pad and ShadowKey. It demonstrates that existing LRP systems are subject to both brute force attacks and statistical attacks and that these attacks cannot be effectively mitigated without sacrificing the usability of LRP systems. Quantitative analysis proves that a secure LRP system in practical settings imposes a considerable amount of cognitive workload unless certain secure channels are involved. The book introduces a secur

  4. Resilient mounting systems in buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.; Tukker, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The basic elements of resilient mounting systems are described and various measures for quantifying the effect of such systems defined. Using electrical analogue circuits, the calculation of these measures is illustrated. With special reference to resilient mounting systems in buildings, under

  5. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  7. Resilia cyber resilience best practices

    CERN Document Server

    , AXELOS

    2015-01-01

    RESILIA™ Cyber Resilience Best Practices offers a practical approach to cyber resilience, reflecting the need to detect and recover from incidents, and not rely on prevention alone. It uses the ITIL® framework, which provides a proven approach to the provision of services that align to business outcomes.

  8. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  9. The International Resilience Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Resilience is defined as "the human capacity to face, overcome, and be strengthened by experiences of adversity." This study used an Eriksonian developmental model to examine parents', caregivers', and children's resilience-promotion in children up to 12 years of age. Age and gender differences and cultural/ethnic similarities and…

  10. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1979-10-15

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.

  11. Estimation of vegetation cover resilience from satellite time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Simoniello

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a fundamental concept for understanding vegetation as a dynamic component of the climate system. It expresses the ability of ecosystems to tolerate disturbances and to recover their initial state. Recovery times are basic parameters of the vegetation's response to forcing and, therefore, are essential for describing realistic vegetation within dynamical models. Healthy vegetation tends to rapidly recover from shock and to persist in growth and expansion. On the contrary, climatic and anthropic stress can reduce resilience thus favouring persistent decrease in vegetation activity.

    In order to characterize resilience, we analyzed the time series 1982–2003 of 8 km GIMMS AVHRR-NDVI maps of the Italian territory. Persistence probability of negative and positive trends was estimated according to the vegetation cover class, altitude, and climate. Generally, mean recovery times from negative trends were shorter than those estimated for positive trends, as expected for vegetation of healthy status. Some signatures of inefficient resilience were found in high-level mountainous areas and in the Mediterranean sub-tropical ones. This analysis was refined by aggregating pixels according to phenology. This multitemporal clustering synthesized information on vegetation cover, climate, and orography rather well. The consequent persistence estimations confirmed and detailed hints obtained from the previous analyses. Under the same climatic regime, different vegetation resilience levels were found. In particular, within the Mediterranean sub-tropical climate, clustering was able to identify features with different persistence levels in areas that are liable to different levels of anthropic pressure. Moreover, it was capable of enhancing reduced vegetation resilience also in the southern areas under Warm Temperate sub-continental climate. The general consistency of the obtained results showed that, with the help of suited analysis

  12. Resilient Grid Operational Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Extreme weather-related disturbances, such as hurricanes, are a leading cause of grid outages historically. Although physical asset hardening is perhaps the most common way to mitigate the impacts of severe weather, operational strategies may be deployed to limit the extent of societal and economic losses associated with weather-related physical damage.1 The purpose of this study is to examine bulk power-system operational strategies that can be deployed to mitigate the impact of severe weather disruptions caused by hurricanes, thereby increasing grid resilience to maintain continuity of critical infrastructure during extreme weather. To estimate the impacts of resilient grid operational strategies, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed a framework for hurricane probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). The probabilistic nature of this framework allows us to estimate the probability distribution of likely impacts, as opposed to the worst-case impacts. The project scope does not include strategies that are not operations related, such as transmission system hardening (e.g., undergrounding, transmission tower reinforcement and substation flood protection) and solutions in the distribution network.

  13. Resilient leadership and the organizational culture of resilience: construct validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, George S; Smith, Kenneth J; Lobo, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Political, economic, and social unrest and uncertainty seem replete throughout the world. Within the United States, political vitriol and economic volatility have led to severe economic restrictions. Both government and private sector organizations are being asked to do more with less. The specter of dramatic changes in healthcare creates a condition of uncertainty affecting budget allocations and hiring practices. If ever there was a time when a "resilient culture" was needed, it is now. In this paper we shall discuss the application of "tipping point" theory (Gladwell, 2000) operationalized through a special form of leadership: "resilient leadership" (Everly, Strouse, Everly, 2010). Resilient leadership is consistent with Gladwells "Law of the Few" and strives to create an organizational culture of resilience by implementing an initial change within no more than 20% of an organization's workforce. It is expected that such a minority, if chosen correctly, will "tip" the rest of the organization toward enhanced resilience, ideally creating a self-sustaining culture of resilience. This paper reports on the empirical foundations and construct validation of "resilient leadership".

  14. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  15. Experiment on Behavior of a New Connector Used in Bamboo (Timber Frame Structure under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwen Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Connection is an important part of the bamboo and timber structure, and it directly influences the overall structural performance and safety. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mechanical performance of several wood connections, a new connector for the bamboo (timber frame joint was proposed in this paper. Three full-scale T-type joint specimens were designed to study the mechanical performance under cyclic loading. The thickness of the hollow steel column was different among three specimens. The specimens were loaded under displacement control with a rate of 10 mm per minute until the specimens reach failure. It was observed that the failures of three specimens were caused by the buckling of flanges in the compression and that the steel of connections does not yield. The load-displacement hysteretic curve for three specimens is relatively plump, and the stiffness of connection degenerates with the increasing of cyclic load. The maximum rotation is 0.049 rad, and the energy dissipation coefficient is 1.77. The thickness of the hollow steel column of the connector has significant impact on the energy dissipation capacity and the strength of the connection. A simplified moment-rotation hysteresis model for the joint was proposed.

  16. A Social-Ecological Resilience Assessment and Governance Guide for Urbanization Processes in East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a social-ecological resilience assessment and attempts to explicitly examine the impacts of urbanization on resilience, with a view to explore how to strengthen social-ecological governance of the resilience of urban ecosystems. We use a combined Grey-Fuzzy evaluation model to discuss a case study of the Su-Xi-Chang city cluster, a metropolitan area in East China, in which total social-ecological resilience scores generally exhibited an upward trend, from 0.548 in 2001 to 0.760 in 2013. In the same period, resilience increased in relation to deterioration of environmental quality, pollution discharge, and landscape and ecological governance change, but decreased in relation to social-economic development. Besides, different contributions of indicators to their related resilience values reveal the heterogeneity of the resilience in terms of various disturbances. In addition, several scenarios are posited in an attempt to detect the relationship between social-ecological resilience and urbanization with the goal of improving urban governance. The results suggested that rapid urbanization under rigid and vertically organized forms of governance would cause the social-ecological system to lose resilience, or even to bring it near collapse. When the growth rate of urban land expansion reaches 16%, disturbances caused by urbanization would push the social-ecological system over a particular threshold, where the way it functions changes. However, it is found that adaptive and collaborative governance, incorporating increases in both public participation and the efficiency of environment administration, would strengthen social-ecological governance of resilience to provide the urban system with a wide operating space, and even with accelerated urbanization ratios.

  17. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase agreement, without competitive tendering, for the supply of Burndy connectors

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase agreement, without competitive tendering, for the supply of Burndy connectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase agreement, without competitive tendering, with SOURIAU (CH), for the supply of Burndy connectors over a period of three years, for a total amount not exceeding 600 000 euros (932 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1st January 2006. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  18. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  19. Convergence of mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained

  20. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  1. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    Health care is everywhere under tremendous pressure with regard to efficiency, safety, and economic viability - to say nothing of having to meet various political agendas - and has responded by eagerly adopting techniques that have been useful in other industries, such as quality management, lean...... production, and high reliability. This has on the whole been met with limited success because health care as a non-trivial and multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. In order to allow health care systems to perform as expected and required, it is necessary to have...... engineering's unique approach emphasises the usefulness of performance variability, and that successes and failures have the same aetiology. This book contains contributions from acknowledged international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering...

  2. Resilient computer system design

    CERN Document Server

    Castano, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a paradigm for designing new generation resilient and evolving computer systems, including their key concepts, elements of supportive theory, methods of analysis and synthesis of ICT with new properties of evolving functioning, as well as implementation schemes and their prototyping. The book explains why new ICT applications require a complete redesign of computer systems to address challenges of extreme reliability, high performance, and power efficiency. The authors present a comprehensive treatment for designing the next generation of computers, especially addressing safety-critical, autonomous, real time, military, banking, and wearable health care systems.   §  Describes design solutions for new computer system - evolving reconfigurable architecture (ERA) that is free from drawbacks inherent in current ICT and related engineering models §  Pursues simplicity, reliability, scalability principles of design implemented through redundancy and re-configurability; targeted for energy-,...

  3. Remarkable resilience of teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Herzl; Lee, James J-W; Constantino, Paul J; Lucas, Peter W; Lawn, Brian R

    2009-05-05

    Tooth enamel is inherently weak, with fracture toughness comparable with glass, yet it is remarkably resilient, surviving millions of functional contacts over a lifetime. We propose a microstructural mechanism of damage resistance, based on observations from ex situ loading of human and sea otter molars (teeth with strikingly similar structural features). Section views of the enamel implicate tufts, hypomineralized crack-like defects at the enamel-dentin junction, as primary fracture sources. We report a stabilization in the evolution of these defects, by "stress shielding" from neighbors, by inhibition of ensuing crack extension from prism interweaving (decussation), and by self-healing. These factors, coupled with the capacity of the tooth configuration to limit the generation of tensile stresses in largely compressive biting, explain how teeth may absorb considerable damage over time without catastrophic failure, an outcome with strong implications concerning the adaptation of animal species to diet.

  4. Sociotechnical Resilience: A Preliminary Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Sulfikar; Kant, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the concept of sociotechnical resilience by employing an interdisciplinary perspective derived from the fields of science and technology studies, human factors, safety science, organizational studies, and systems engineering. Highlighting the hybrid nature of sociotechnical systems, we identify three main constituents that characterize sociotechnical resilience: informational relations, sociomaterial structures, and anticipatory practices. Further, we frame sociotechnical resilience as undergirded by the notion of transformability with an emphasis on intentional activities, focusing on the ability of sociotechnical systems to shift from one form to another in the aftermath of shock and disturbance. We propose that the triad of relations, structures, and practices are fundamental aspects required to comprehend the resilience of sociotechnical systems during times of crisis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Assessment instruments of urban resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Saporiti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to highlight the aspects related to the resilient capacity of a neoecosistema. Clarifying what does it means to speak about a resilient neoecosistema and which are the specific characters that make him capable of change and adaptation when facing an environmental, social or economic threat, it will be possible to understand the efficacy related to the model of urban development. From the individuation of perturbing factors of this capacity, it will be possible to generate a panel of the resilient capacity linked to three different ambits that represent the three characteristic elements of natural ecosystems: its physic structure, the persons and the interaction processes between them so we would be able to make explicit the specific characters of resilience distinguished from those of sustainability and urban quality.  

  6. Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Akira; Obara, Kenjiro; Tada, Eisuke; Morita, Yousuke; Yagi, Toshiaki; Iida, Kazuhisa; Sato, Masaru.

    1997-12-01

    Development of radiation-hard electric connector with ball bearing for in-vessel remote maintenance equipment of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has been conducted. Since the in-vessel remote maintenance equipment is operated under the condition of 10 6 R/h gamma ray dose rate, the electric connector has to be radiation hard for an accumulation dose of 10 10 R. In addition, the simple attachment/removal mechanism is essential for remote operation. For this, the alumina (Al203) ceramics and a ball bearing were adopted to electric insulator and plug (male) of connector, respectively. The handling tests on attachment/removal of the connector were conducted by using master slave manipulator and general purpose robot with handling tool, and as a result, the validity of the attachment/removal mechanism was verified. In the gamma ray irradiation tests, which are under way, no degradation in break down voltage (1000V 1min.) up to 10 10 R was confirmed. However insulation resistance and contact resistance between contact pin and contact socket were deteriorated in proportion to the accumulation dose. Increase of contact resistance is considered due to an erosion of contact pin. (author)

  7. The influence of charge injection from intermediate connectors on the performance of tandem organic light-emitting devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Siboni, Hossein Zamani; Wang, Qi; Aziz, Hany, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: h2aziz@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Liao, Liang-Sheng, E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: h2aziz@uwaterloo.ca [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2014-12-14

    Charge generation in a typical intermediate connector, composed of “n-type doped layer/transition metal oxide (TMO)/hole transporting layer (HTL),” of a tandem organic light-emitting device (OLED) has recently been found to arise from charge transfer at the TMO/HTL interfaces. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hole injection barriers from intermediate connectors on the performance of tandem OLEDs. The hole injection barriers are caused by the offset of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels between HTLs contained in the intermediate connector and the top electroluminescence (EL) unit. We also find that although charge generation can occur at the interfaces between the TMO and a wide variety of HTLs of different HOMO values, an increase in the hole injection barrier however limits the electroluminescence efficiency of the top EL units. In the case of large hole injection barriers, significant charge accumulation in the HTLs makes the intermediate connector lose its functionality gradually over operating time, and limits device stability.

  8. Constructing Resilience: The Wellington Studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Allan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of a design studio on climate change at Victoria University of Wellington (VUW, New Zealand, in 2007. It discusses the processes and outcomes of the studio and the subsequent testing of student work against a resilience model developed by Canadian ecologist CS Holling (1973, 1998; Walker et al, 2004 to create a framework for the design of resilient cities.

  9. Resilient retfærdighed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan Gaarsmand

    2016-01-01

    This article uses the idea of resilience as a point of departure for analysing some contemporary challenges to the climate justice movement posed by social-ecological sciences. Climate justice activists are increasingly rallying for a system-change, demanding fundamental changes to political bure...... is that the scientific framework behind resilience is not politically neutral and that this framework tends to weaken the activist’s demands for a just transition and place more emphasis on technical and bureaucratic processes....

  10. Resilience among old Sami women

    OpenAIRE

    Aléx, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Artikkel som utforsker hvordan eldre kvinner forteller om sine erfaringer med helse og mangel på helse. There is lack of research on old indigenous women’s experiences. The aim of this study was to explore how old women narrate their experiences of wellbeing and lack of wellbeing using the salutogenetic concept of resilience. Interviews from nine old Sami women were analysed according to grounded theory with the following themes identified: contributing to resilience and wellbeing built up...

  11. Measuring resilience to energy shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Brown, Colin; Foster, John; Wagner, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Measuring energy security or resilience in energy is, in the main, confined to indicators which are used for comparative purposes or to show trends rather than provide empirical evidence of resilience to unpredicted crises. In this paper, the electricity systems of the individual states within the United States of America are analysed for their response to the 1973-1982 and the 2003-2012 oil price shocks. Empirical evidence is sought for elements which are present in systems that experience r...

  12. Optimizing power system investments and resilience against attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yiping; Sansavini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the combination of capacity expansion and switch installation in electric systems that ensures optimum performance under nominal operations and attacks. The planner–attacker–defender model is adopted to develop decisions that minimize investment and operating costs, and functionality loss after attacks. The model bridges long-term system planning for transmission expansion and short-term switching operations in reaction to attacks. The mixed-integer optimization is solved by decomposition via two-layer cutting plane algorithm. Numerical results on an IEEE system shows that small investments in transmission line switching enhance resilience by responding to disruptions via system reconfiguration. Sensitivity analyses show that transmission planning under the assumption of small-scale attacks provides the most robust strategy, i.e. the minimum-regret planning, if many constraints and limited investment budget affect the planning. On the other hand, the assumption of large-scale attacks provides the most robust strategy if the planning process involves large flexibility and budget. - Highlights: • Investment optimization in power systems under attacks is presented. • Capacity expansion and switch installation for system reconfiguration are combined. • The problem is solved by decomposition via two-layer cutting plane algorithm. • Small investments in switch installation enhance resilience by response to attacks. • Sensitivity analyses identify robust planning against different attack scenarios.

  13. Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications.  These alloys help...

  14. Running CMS remote analysis builder jobs on advanced resource connector middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, E; Happonen, K; Koivumäki, J; Lindén, T; Välimaa, J

    2011-01-01

    CMS user analysis jobs are distributed over the grid with the CMS Remote Analysis Builder application (CRAB). According to the CMS computing model the applications should run transparently on the different grid flavours in use. In CRAB this is handled with different plugins that are able to submit to different grids. Recently a CRAB plugin for submitting to the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware has been developed. The CRAB ARC plugin enables simple and fast job submission with full job status information available. CRAB can be used with a server which manages and monitors the grid jobs on behalf of the user. In the presentation we will report on the CRAB ARC plugin and on the status of integrating it with the CRAB server and compare this with using the gLite ARC interoperability method for job submission.

  15. Low background materials and fabrication techniques for cables and connectors in the Majorana Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, M.; Abgrall, N.; Alvis, S. I.; Arnquist, I. J.; Avignone, F. T.; Barabash, A. S.; Barton, C. J.; Bertrand, F. E.; Bode, T.; Bradley, A. W.; Brudanin, V.; Buuck, M.; Caldwell, T. S.; Chan, Y.-D.; Christofferson, C. D.; Chu, P.-H.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J. A.; Dunagan, C.; Efremenko, Yu.; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M. P.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I. S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Haufe, C. R.; Hehn, L.; Henning, R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Howe, M. A.; Keeter, K. J.; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kouzes, R. T.; Lopez, A. M.; Martin, R. D.; Massarczyk, R.; Meijer, S. J.; Mertens, S.; Myslik, J.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Othman, G.; Poon, A. W. P.; Radford, D. C.; Rager, J.; Reine, A. L.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rouf, N. W.; Shanks, B.; Shirchenko, M.; Suriano, A. M.; Tedeschi, D.; Trimble, J. E.; Varner, R. L.; Vasilyev, S.; Vetter, K.; Vorren, K.; White, B. R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wiseman, C.; Xu, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yu, C.-H.; Yumatov, V.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhu, B. X.

    2018-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is searching for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of the nucleus 76Ge. The Majorana Demonstrator is an array of germanium detectors deployed with the aim of implementing background reduction techniques suitable for a tonne scale 76Ge-based search (the LEGEND collaboration). In the Demonstrator, germanium detectors operate in an ultra-pure vacuum cryostat at 80 K. One special challenge of an ultra-pure environment is to develop reliable cables, connectors, and electronics that do not significantly contribute to the radioactive background of the experiment. This paper highlights the experimental requirements and how these requirements were met for the Majorana Demonstrator, including plans to upgrade the wiring for higher reliability in the summer of 2018. Also described are requirements for LEGEND R&D efforts underway to meet these additional requirements

  16. Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymann, G.A.

    1978-07-01

    A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten

  17. 3D Architecture of the Trypanosoma brucei Flagella Connector, a Mobile Transmembrane Junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna L Höög

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular junctions are crucial for the formation of multicellular organisms, where they anchor cells to each other and/or supportive tissue and enable cell-to-cell communication. Some unicellular organisms, such as the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei, also have complex cellular junctions. The flagella connector (FC is a three-layered transmembrane junction that moves with the growing tip of a new flagellum and attaches it to the side of the old flagellum. The FC moves via an unknown molecular mechanism, independent of new flagellum growth. Here we describe the detailed 3D architecture of the FC suggesting explanations for how it functions and its mechanism of motility.We have used a combination of electron tomography and cryo-electron tomography to reveal the 3D architecture of the FC. Cryo-electron tomography revealed layers of repetitive filamentous electron densities between the two flagella in the interstitial zone. Though the FC does not change in length and width during the growth of the new flagellum, the interstitial zone thickness decreases as the FC matures. This investigation also shows interactions between the FC layers and the axonemes of the new and old flagellum, sufficiently strong to displace the axoneme in the old flagellum. We describe a novel filament, the flagella connector fibre, found between the FC and the axoneme in the old flagellum.The FC is similar to other cellular junctions in that filamentous proteins bridge the extracellular space and are anchored to underlying cytoskeletal structures; however, it is built between different portions of the same cell and is unique because of its intrinsic motility. The detailed description of its structure will be an important tool to use in attributing structure / function relationships as its molecular components are discovered in the future. The FC is involved in the inheritance of cell shape, which is important for the life cycle of this human parasite.

  18. Design and fabrication of advanced fiber alignment structures for field-installable fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Sánchez Martínez, Alberto; Beri, Stefano; Debaes, Christof; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2012-06-01

    Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a potential replacement of traditional electrical connections for the 'last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field-installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. Novel low-cost structures for bare fiber alignment with outstanding positioning accuracies are strongly desired as they would allow reducing loss beyond the level achievable with ferrule-bore systems. However, the realization of such alignment system is challenging as it should provide sufficient force to position the fiber with sub-micron accuracy required in positioning the fiber. In this contribution we propose, design and prototype a bare-fiber alignment system which makes use of deflectable/compressible micro-cantilevers. Such cantilevers behave as springs and provide self-centering functionality to the structure. Simulations of the mechanical properties of the cantilevers are carried out in order to get an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant and stress in the structure. Elastic constants of the order of 104 to 105N/m are found out to be compatible with a proof stress of 70 MPa. Finally a first self-centering structure is prototyped in PMMA using our Deep Proton Writing technology. The spring constants of the fabricated cantilevers are in the range of 4 to 6 × 104N/m and the stress is in the range 10 to 20 MPa. These self-centering structures have the potential to become the basic building blocks for a new generation of field-installable connectors.

  19. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  20. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  1. Resilience and precarious success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, Mary D; Wears, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical case study to illustrate, corroborate, and perhaps extend some key generalizations about resilient performance in complex adaptive systems. The setting is a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy, a complex system embedded in the larger complex of the hospital, which provides chemotherapy and other high risk medications to children with cancer, sickle cell disease and autoimmune disorders. Recently the demands placed on this system have dramatically intensified while the resources allocated to the system have remained static. We describe the adaptations of this system in response to this additional stress. In addition, we discuss the risks associated with miscalibration about the system's adaptive capacity, and the tradeoff between the need to invest in adaptive capacity (to sustain performance when the system is stressed) versus the need to invest in efficient production (to sustain performance under normal circumstances and economic pressures). - Highlights: • We describe a complex adaptive system: a pediatric hematology/oncology pharmacy. • Work in this system has changed and intensified, but resources have remained static. • Staff's adaptive behaviors demonstrate graceful extensibility and fluency. • The HO staff has demonstrated extraordinary adaptive behaviors. • Leadership miscalibrates the efforts required to perform the pharmacy's work

  2. Resonant state expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, P.

    1993-02-01

    The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)

  3. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  4. Expansion joints for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.

    1980-01-01

    This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property

  5. Resilience in nurses: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patricia L; Brannan, Jane D; De Chesnay, Mary

    2014-09-01

    To describe nursing research that has been conducted to understand the phenomenon of resilience in nurses. Resilience is the ability to bounce back or cope successfully despite adverse circumstances. Nurses deal with modern-day problems that affect their abilities to remain resilient. Nursing administrators/managers need to look for solutions not only to recruit nurses, but to become knowledgeable about how to support and retain nurses. A comprehensive search was undertaken for nursing research conducted between 1990 and 2011. Key search terms were nurse, resilience, resiliency and resilient. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative approach was used to conduct the methodological review. Challenging workplaces, psychological emptiness, diminishing inner balance and a sense of dissonance are contributing factors for resilience. Examples of intrapersonal characteristics include hope, self-efficacy and coping. Cognitive reframing, toughening up, grounding connections, work-life balance and reconciliation are resilience building strategies. This review provides information about the concept of resilience. Becoming aware of contributing factors to the need for resilience and successful strategies to build resilience can help in recruiting and retaining nurses. Understanding the concept of resilience can assist in providing support and developing programmes to help nurses become and stay resilient. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  7. Virial Expansion Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Stephen James

    2013-10-01

    In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.

  8. Conformal expansions and renormalons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathsman, J.

    2000-02-07

    The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.

  9. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011. Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many researches. Of all this recent and varied range of literature, our focus is on those texts that combine resilience with strategies, processes and models for resilient cities, communities and regions. Starting from the resilience strategies developed as response for risks mitigation, the paper thus explores other approaches and experiences on cities resilience that have been conducted: the aim is to compare and identify innovation in the planning process towards risks mitigation. In this paper we present a summary of the initial survey stage of our research, with three main aims: understanding the approaches to resilience developed so far and identifying which aspects these approaches share (or not;understanding which strategies are being proposed for resilient regions, cities or social-ecological systems;understanding whether proposed resilience strategies involve innovations in urban and regional development disciplines. The aim is to understand whether the proposed concept of resilience, or rather strategies, constitute progress and contribute to innovation in the areas of urban planning and design in relation to risk mitigation. Three main families of literature have been identified from the recent literature promoting resilience as a key strategy. The first aim of the research is to understand which particular concept and which aspects of resilience are used, which resilience strategies are proposed, how the term ‘city’ is defined and interpreted

  10. Resilience and Higher Order Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Fazey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.

  11. Thermal expansion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)

  12. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  13. Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center serves as a resource to communities to improve their wastewater, drinking water and stormwater systems, particularly through innovative financing and increased resiliency to climate change.

  14. Uniform gradient expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.

  15. Low-temperature thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed

  16. Codesigning a resilient food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari J. Himanen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global changes, especially the progression of climate change, create a plethora of adaptation needs for social-ecological systems. With increasing uncertainty, more resilient food systems that are able to adapt and shape their operations in response to emerging challenges are required. Most of the research on this subject has been focused on developing countries; however, developed countries also face increasing environmental, economic, and social pressures. Because food systems are complex and involve multiple actors, using codesign might be the most productive way to develop desirable system characteristics. For this study, we engaged food system actors in a scenario-planning exercise to identify means of building more resilient food systems. In particular, the actors focused on determinants of adaptive capacity in developed countries, with Finland as a case study. The brainstorming session followed by a two-round Delphi study raised three main characteristics for effective food system resilience, namely, energy and nutrient sovereignty, transparency and dialogue in the food chain, and continuous innovativeness and evidence-based learning. In addition, policy interventions were found instrumental for supporting such food system resilience. The main actor-specific determinants of adaptive capacity identified included the farmers' utilization of agri-technology and expertise; energy and logistic efficiency of the input and processing industry; and for retail, communication to build consumer trust and environmental awareness, and effective use of information and communication technology. Of the food system actors, farmers and the processing industry were perceived to be the closest to reaching the limits of their adaptive capacities. The use of adaptive capacity as a proxy seemed to concretize food system resilience effectively. Our study suggests that the resilience approach generates new perspectives that can guide actors in developing food

  17. Teaching Resiliency Theory to Substance Abuse Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Resiliency is the ability to cope in the face of adversity. One protective factor that promotes resiliency in substance-abusing dysfunctional families is family rituals and traditions. Social workers and substance abuse counselors can teach family members how to instill resiliency in their families and themselves through rituals and traditions. To…

  18. The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.

    2017-01-01

    The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…

  19. A comprehensive approach to assess operational resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, R.J.M.; Karydas, D.M.; Rouvroye, J.L.; Hollnagel, E.; Pieri, F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a first attempt to apply Multi-Attribute Utility Theory (MAUT) to the concept of resilience. The focus of this paper is measuring the management performance of operational resilience in an organization. Operational resilience refers to the ability of an organization to prevent

  20. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  1. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  2. Business resiliency and stakeholder management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Noel; Perry, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The authors facilitated separate round table discussions at the City and Financial Conference in London on 29th January, 2014. The theme of these discussions was business resiliency and stakeholder management. This topic attracted the largest group of all the breakout sessions, as the issue continues to generate much interest across the business resilience community. In this paper, the authors summarise the discussions held at the event and add their own insights into the subject of who are stakeholders, and the different means and messages to communicate to them.

  3. 机械设计中联接件的自动选用%Autoselection of the Connector in Mechanical Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静; 翁慧燕; 董雁

    2001-01-01

    介绍机械静联接在机械设计中的选用方法。建立了联接件的国标数据库及其查询、维护程序;编制了对所选联接件的计算校核程序;并开发了自动绘制联接件的软件,从而实现了机械CAD中联接件自动选用、校核、绘图的集成。%This paper deals with the selection of connector in mechanical design. Database of connector and its corresponding function for indexing, safekeeping and proof calculating are built up. Software for the drawing of connector on the environment of AutoCAD is also developed. So automatics selection, proof calculating and drawing of connector are achieved in mechanical computer aided design.

  4. The SiBI connector: a new medical device to facilitate preoxygenation and reduce waste anesthetic gases during inhaled induction with sevoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colas, M J; Tétrault, J P; Dumais, L; Truong, P; Claprood, Y; Martin, R

    2000-12-01

    The SiBI connector is a new medical device used for vital capacity inhaled induction with sevoflurane. It allows efficient preoxygenation of patients and reduces waste anesthetic gases in the operation room during induction.

  5. Development of 30-pin connectors for electronic modules of C and I systems for NPP's confirming to customized MIL STD-1344 requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, P.P.; Madala, Kalyan C.; Ramakrishna, P.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical connectors form an important constituent of C and I system where customized circuits and hardware is required to be configured meeting the Nuclear Power Plant regulatory requirements. C and I hardware has to handle multiple hundreds of I/O's and the system architectures are made in modular construction having C and I system hardware packaged in plug-in electronic modules in the required form factors. In addition if the system has to satisfy customized JSS 55555 requirements meeting stringent shock, vibration and environmental specifications, the connectors used for the electronic modules shall meet the customized MIL STD-1344 requirements and meet reliability target for the system. 30-pin type special connectors for electronic modules and 2x30 (60) pin field cabling connectors were developed meeting the required qualification specifications. (author)

  6. Lace expansion for dummies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady

    2018-01-01

    We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier

  7. OPEC future capacity expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrea, I.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs

  8. AUTO-EXPANSIVE FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...

  9. Fostering resilience through changing realities. Introduction to operational resilience capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, D.; Vorm, J. van der; Beek, F.A. van der; Veldhuis, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    The reality of operations does not always follow the book. Operational circumstances may develop into surprising situations that procedures have not accounted for. Still, we make things work. Resilient performance recognizes surprise early and acts upon it through adaptation, which is critical for

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, D

    2007-01-01

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested development of tooling for remote replacement of gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors. The facility has compressed air supply, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and a lightweight robotic arm for operation of the remote tools. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and tested multiple tools to perform the gasket replacement tasks. Separate pneumatic snap-ring removal tools that use the connector skirt as a reaction surface were developed for removal of the snap ring and spent gasket on both vertical and horizontal Hanford connectors. A pneumatic tool that clamps and centers on the jumper pipe ID was developed to simultaneously install the new gasket and snap ring. A pneumatic snap-ring-loading tool was developed that compresses the snap ring and places it in a groove in the installation tool. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and vents the tools as needed. The entire system has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Deployment of the entire system is expected during FY08. The Hanford connector gasket replacement tooling has been successfully tested using MSM's to manipulate the various tools. Nitric acid is used in many of the decontamination processes performed in the REDC, where the tooling will be deployed. Although most of the tool components were fabricated/purchased with nitric acid and radioactive service in mind, some of the prototype parts must be replaced with parts that are more compatible with nitric acid/radioactive service. Several modifications to the various tools are needed to facilitate maintenance and replacement of failed components. Development of installation tools for replacement of 1-inch, 2-inch and multi-hole gaskets is being considered. Deployment of the existing system in the DWPF REDC is expected during FY

  11. 1 GSPS digitizer based on the FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) standard with low-count pin connector.

    CERN Document Server

    Vasilyev, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Under the scope of a CERN summer student project, the schematic for ADC based on FMC mezzanine card with 1 GSPS sampling rate and 8 bit resolution was developed. The mezzanine is fully compatible with the standard: FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) [1]. A low-pin count connector was used to connect the mezzanine with the “carrier”. The carrier was an Open Hardware project: Simple PCIe FMC carrier (SPEC).

  12. Mould insert fabrication of a single-mode fibre connector alignment structure optimized by justified partial metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Markus; Barié, Nicole; Guttmann, Markus; Schneider, Marc; Kolew, Alexander; Besser, Heino; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Hofmann, Andreas; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2015-01-01

    For mass production of multiscale-optical components, microstructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents made of a thermoplastic polymer. Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as x-ray lithography or deep proton writing. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. An alternative manufacturing method of moulding tools has been developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This article describes a mould insert fabrication and a new replication process for self-centring fibre alignment structures for low loss field installable single-mode fibre connectors, developed and fabricated by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in collaboration with TE Connectivity. These components are to be used in fibre-to-the-home networks and support the deployment and maintenance of fibre optic links. The special feature of this particular fibre connector is a self-centring fibre alignment, achieved by means of a through hole with deflectable cantilevers acting as micro-springs. The particular challenge is the electroforming of through holes with a centre hole diameter smaller than 125 µm. The fibre connector structure is prototyped by deep proton writing in polymethylmethacrylate and used as a sacrificial part. Using joining, physical vapour deposition and electroforming technology, a negative copy of the prototyped connector is transferred into nickel to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are a rapid and economical fabrication of moulding tools with high-precision microstructures and a long tool life. With these moulding tools low-cost mass production is possible. We present the manufacturing chain we have established. Each individual manufacturing step of the mould insert fabrication will be shown in this report. The

  13. A prospective clinical trial to assess peripheral venous catheter-related phlebitis using needleless connectors in a surgery department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Ohad; Shlomo, Fanny; Ben-Adiva, Gila; Edri, Zehava; Shema-Didi, Lilach

    2017-10-01

    The use of intravascular catheters is often complicated by phlebitis, which is associated with increased morbidity and extended duration of hospitalization. We conducted a study to investigate the impact of needleless intravenous access devices on the rate of phlebitis in peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). We prospectively recruited patients in 2 phases. The first group was treated with a regular cap, and the second group was treated with a needleless connector. The incidence of catheter-related phlebitis (CRP) was recorded as the primary end point. A total of 620 PVCs using regular caps were inserted into 340 patients and CRP rates were recorded. In the second phase of the study, 169 PVCs using needleless connectors were inserted into 135 patients. In the group treated with the regular cap, the CRP rate was 60% compared with 7% in the group treated with the needleless cap (P phlebitis had a statistically significant longer mean hospitalization period (P <.001), as were patients in the regular cap group (P <.01). The use of needleless connectors was found to be associated with a significant reduction of CRP in peripheral veins in a surgery department setting. The decreased morbidity resulted in a lower number of catheter replacements and duration of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Failure Analysis of a Nickel-Plated Electronic Connector Due to Salt-Induced Corrosion (ENGE 2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Ri; Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-10-01

    When electronic connectors in mobile devices are miniaturized, the thickness of plating decreases. However, this thin plating is expected to decrease the life of the connector due to problems with corrosion. In this study, salt spray aging tests were performed on miniaturized nickel-plated stainless steel electronic connectors to observe failure mechanisms in realistic environments. The tests were performed three times using a 5% NaCl solution in an atmosphere of 45 °C; each test included several cycles where one cycle was one 24-h period consisting of 8 h of salt spray and 16 h without salt spray. The nickel-plating layers were periodically observed by electron probe X-ray micro-analyzer, wavelength dispersive spectroscopy, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy to analyze and identify the corrosion mechanism. We found that the primary failure mode of the nickel plating is blistering and delamination. The corrosion mechanism is typically a chain reaction of several corrosion mechanisms: pitting corrosion --> stress corrosion cracking --> hydrogen-induced cracking --> blistering and delamination. Finally, we discuss countermeasures to prevent corrosion of the nickel layer based on the corrosion mechanisms identified in this study.

  15. Carrier behavior in special multilayer device composed of different transition metal oxide-based intermediate connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yan-Hong; Chen, Xiang-Yu; Ou, Qing-Dong; Wang, Qian-Kun; Jiang, Xiao-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The impact of illumination on the connection part of the tandem organic light-emitting diodes was studied by using a special organic multilayer sample consisted of two organic active layers coupled with different transition metal oxide (TMO)-based intermediate connectors (ICs). Through measuring the current density-voltage characteristic, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristic, we observe an unsymmetrical phenomenon in current density-voltage and capacitance-voltage curves of Mg:Alq 3 /MoO 3 and MoO 3 composed devices, which was induced by the charge spouting zone near the ICs region and the recombination state in the MoO 3 layer. Moreover, Mg:Alq 3 /MoO 3 composed device displays a photovoltaic effect and the V oc shifts to forward bias under illumination. Our results demonstrate that the TMO-based IC structure coupled with photovoltaic effect can be a good approach for the study of photodetector, light sensor, and so on.

  16. Use of monolingual and comparable corpora in the classroom to translate adverbial connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez Cárdenas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in terminology has traditionally focused on nouns. Considerably less attention has been paid to other grammatical categories such as adverbs. However, these words can also be problematic for the novice translator, who tends to use the translation correspondences in bilingual dictionaries without realizing that formal equivalence is not necessarily the same as textual equivalence. However, semantic values, acquired in context, go far beyond dictionary meaning and are related to phenomena such as semantic prosody and preferences of lexical selection that can vary, depending on text type and specialized domain. This research explored the reasons why certain adverbial discourse connectors, apparently easy to translate, are a source of translation problems that cannot be easily resolved with a bilingual dictionary. Moreover, this study analyzed the use of parallel corpora in the translation classroom and how it can increase the quality of text production. For this purpose, we compared student translations before and after receiving training on the use of corpus analysis tools

  17. Optimization of traceable coaxial RF reflection standards with 7-mm-N-connector using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A new coaxial device with 7-mm-N-connector was developed providing calculable complex reflection coefficients for traceable calibration of vector network analyzers (VNA. It was specifically designed to fill the gap between 0 Hz (DC, direct current and 250MHz, though the device was tested up to 10GHz. The frequency dependent reflection coefficient of this device can be described by a model, which is characterized by traceable measurements. It is therefore regarded as a “traceable model". The new idea of using such models for traceability has been verified, found to be valid and was used for these investigations. The DC resistance value was extracted from RF measurements up to 10 GHz by means of Genetic Algorithms (GA. The GA was used to obtain the elements of the model describing the reflection coefficient Γ of a network of SMD resistors. The DC values determined with the GA from RF measurements match the traceable value at DC within 3·10-3, which is in good agreement with measurements using reference air lines at GHz frequencies.

  18. Expression of TGF-β in Fractures Fixed by Nitinol Swan-like Memory Compressive Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhang, C. C.; Xu, S. G.; Fu, Q. G.

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the effect of internal fixation of a Nitinol swan-like memory compressive connector (SMC) on the temporal expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) at fracture sites is evaluated. Specimens were collected from 35 New Zealand rabbits modeled for bilateral humeral fracture fixed with either SMC or stainless dynamic compression plate (DCP). Five rabbits each were killed at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56. The local positive staining potency, positive area ratio, and positive index of TGF-β were measured using an immunohistochemistry approach (EnVision) in combination with a computerized image analysis system. TGF-β staining was seen in mesenchymal cells, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and in the extracellular matrix of fractures fixed in both the SMC and the DCP samples without a significant difference in staining at both the early stages (days 1 and 3) and day 56. A higher TGF-β content was observed in the fractures fixed with SMC when compared to that of DCP from day 7 to 28. As a conclusion, TGF-β is highly expressed in fractures fixed with SMC during chondrogenesis stage and entochondrostosis stage. Finally, the mechanism of how SMC promoting synthesis and secretion of TGF-β in the process of fracture healing has been discussed.

  19. Experimental investigation on the electrical contact behavior of rolling contact connector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Junxing; Yang, Fei, E-mail: yfei2007@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Luo, Kaiyu; Zhu, Mingliang; Wu, Yi; Rong, Mingzhe [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Rolling contact connector (RCC) is a new technology utilized in high performance electric power transfer systems with one or more rotating interfaces, such as radars, satellites, wind generators, and medical computed tomography machines. Rolling contact components are used in the RCC instead of traditional sliding contacts to transfer electrical power and/or signal. Since the requirement of the power transmission is increasing in these years, the rolling electrical contact characteristics become more and more important for the long-life design of RCC. In this paper, a typical form of RCC is presented. A series of experimental work are carried out to investigate the rolling electrical contact characteristics during its lifetime. The influence of a variety of factors on the electrical contact degradation behavior of RCC is analyzed under both vacuum and air environment. Based on the surface morphology and elemental composition changes in the contact zone, which are assessed by field emission scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope, the mechanism of rolling electrical contact degradation is discussed.

  20. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  1. Seeding Stress Resilience through Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Ashokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a generalized set of physiological and psychological responses observed when an organism is placed under challenging circumstances. The stress response allows organisms to reattain the equilibrium in face of perturbations. Unfortunately, chronic and/or traumatic exposure to stress frequently overwhelms coping ability of an individual. This is manifested as symptoms affecting emotions and cognition in stress-related mental disorders. Thus environmental interventions that promote resilience in face of stress have much clinical relevance. Focus of the bulk of relevant neurobiological research at present remains on negative aspects of health and psychological outcomes of stress exposure. Yet exposure to the stress itself can promote resilience to subsequent stressful episodes later in the life. This is especially true if the prior stress occurs early in life, is mild in its magnitude, and is controllable by the individual. This articulation has been referred to as “stress inoculation,” reminiscent of resilience to the pathology generated through vaccination by attenuated pathogen itself. Using experimental evidence from animal models, this review explores relationship between nature of the “inoculum” stress and subsequent psychological resilience.

  2. MSY from catch and resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...

  3. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  4. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Cyber Resilience in de Boardroom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Zielstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Grand Conference - Building a Resilient Digital Society - took place in Amsterdam on October 16, 2012. The international conference aimed for top decision-makers of industry government and other organisations. Two hundred participants from twenty-two nations participated. Three Dutch

  6. Quantifying Biodiversity for Building Resilience for Food Security in Urban Landscapes: Getting Down to Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Jansson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A steady stream of ecosystem services is essential for human welfare and survival, and it has been convincingly shown that these flows are being eroded. Compelling theoretical knowledge about essential connections between ecosystem service generation, biodiversity, and resilience in social-ecological systems already exists; however, we still, to a great extent, lack spatially explicit quantitative assessments for translating this theoretical knowledge into practice. We propose an approach for measuring the change in flow and resilience of a regulating ecosystem service on a landscape scale over time when the landscape is exposed to both land use change due to urban expansion, and change in a large-scale economic driver. Our results quantitatively show that there can be a substantial decrease in resilience due to negative effects on response diversity without detecting any major decrease in ecosystem service generation over time, thus generating a sense of false security and sustainability.

  7. Effects Comparison of Different Resilience Enhancing Strategies for Municipal Water Distribution Network: A Multidimensional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution network (WDN is critical to the city service, economic rehabilitation, public health, and safety. Reconstructing the WDN to improve its resilience in seismic disaster is an important and ongoing issue. Although a considerable body of research has examined the effects of different reconstruction strategies on seismic resistance, it is still hard for decision-makers to choose optimal resilience enhancing strategy. Taking the pipeline ductile retrofitting and network meshed expansion as demonstration, we proposed a feasible framework to contrast the resilience enhancing effects of two reconstruction strategies—units retrofitting strategy and network optimization strategy—in technical and organizational dimension. We also developed a new performance response function (PRF which is based on network equilibrium theory to conduct the effects comparison in integrated technical and organizational dimension. Through the case study of municipal WDN in Lianyungang, China, the comparison results were thoroughly shown and the holistic decision-making support was provided.

  8. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  9. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M.; Bonanno, George A.; Masten, Ann S.; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture). PMID:25317257

  10. Resilience definitions, theory, and challenges: interdisciplinary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, Steven M; Bonanno, George A; Masten, Ann S; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inspired by the plenary panel at the 2013 meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, Dr. Steven Southwick (chair) and multidisciplinary panelists Drs. George Bonanno, Ann Masten, Catherine Panter-Brick, and Rachel Yehuda tackle some of the most pressing current questions in the field of resilience research including: (1) how do we define resilience, (2) what are the most important determinants of resilience, (3) how are new technologies informing the science of resilience, and (4) what are the most effective ways to enhance resilience? These multidisciplinary experts provide insight into these difficult questions, and although each of the panelists had a slightly different definition of resilience, most of the proposed definitions included a concept of healthy, adaptive, or integrated positive functioning over the passage of time in the aftermath of adversity. The panelists agreed that resilience is a complex construct and it may be defined differently in the context of individuals, families, organizations, societies, and cultures. With regard to the determinants of resilience, there was a consensus that the empirical study of this construct needs to be approached from a multiple level of analysis perspective that includes genetic, epigenetic, developmental, demographic, cultural, economic, and social variables. The empirical study of determinates of resilience will inform efforts made at fostering resilience, with the recognition that resilience may be enhanced on numerous levels (e.g., individual, family, community, culture).

  11. Multidimensional approach to complex system resilience analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama Dessavre, Dante; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.; Barker, Kash

    2016-01-01

    Recent works have attempted to formally define a general metric for quantifying resilience for complex systems as a relationship of performance of the systems against time. The technical content in the proposed work introduces a new model that allows, for the first time, to compare the system resilience among systems (or different modifications to a system), by introducing a new dimension to system resilience models, called stress, to mimic the definition of resilience in material science. The applicability and usefulness of the model is shown with a new heat map visualization proposed in this work, and it is applied to a simulated network resilience case to exemplify its potential benefits. - Highlights: • We analyzed two of the main current metrics of resilience. • We create a new model that relates events with the effects they have. • We develop a novel heat map visualization to compare system resilience. • We showed the model and visualization usefulness in a simulated case.

  12. Expansion at Olympic Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.

    1997-01-01

    The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date

  13. Financing electricity expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.S.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)

  14. Bigravity from gradient expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.

  15. Expansion of magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.

    1987-01-01

    Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun

  16. IKEA's International Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Harapiak, Clayton

    2013-01-01

    This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...

  17. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  18. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  19. Life stage influences the resistance and resilience of black mangrove forests to winter climate extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J.; Day, Richard H.; From, Andrew S.; McCoy, Megan L.; McLeod, Jennie L.; Kelleway, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    In subtropical coastal wetlands on multiple continents, climate change-induced reductions in the frequency and intensity of freezing temperatures are expected to lead to the expansion of woody plants (i.e., mangrove forests) at the expense of tidal grasslands (i.e., salt marshes). Since some ecosystem goods and services would be affected by mangrove range expansion, there is a need to better understand mangrove sensitivity to freezing temperatures as well as the implications of changing winter climate extremes for mangrove-salt marsh interactions. In this study, we investigated the following questions: (1) how does plant life stage (i.e., ontogeny) influence the resistance and resilience of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) forests to freezing temperatures; and (2) how might differential life stage responses to freeze events affect the rate of mangrove expansion and salt marsh displacement due to climate change? To address these questions, we quantified freeze damage and recovery for different life stages (seedling, short tree, and tall tree) following extreme winter air temperature events that occurred near the northern range limit of A. germinans in North America. We found that life stage affects black mangrove forest resistance and resilience to winter climate extremes in a nonlinear fashion. Resistance to winter climate extremes was high for tall A. germinans trees and seedlings, but lowest for short trees. Resilience was highest for tall A. germinans trees. These results suggest the presence of positive feedbacks and indicate that climate-change induced decreases in the frequency and intensity of extreme minimum air temperatures could lead to a nonlinear increase in mangrove forest resistance and resilience. This feedback could accelerate future mangrove expansion and salt marsh loss at rates beyond what would be predicted from climate change alone. In general terms, our study highlights the importance of accounting for differential life stage responses and

  20. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of using ferrofluid as an interface material for a field-reversible thermal connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ahmed S.

    The electrical functionality of an avionics chassis is limited due to heat dissipation limits. The limits arise due to the fact that components in an avionic computer boxes are packed very compactly, with the components mounted onto plug-in cards, and the harsh environment experienced by the chassis limits how heat can be dissipated from the cards. Convective and radiative heat transfer to the ambient are generally not possible. Therefore it is necessary to have heat transferred from the components conducted to the edge of the plug-in cards. The heat then needs to conduct from the card edge to a cold block that not only holds the card in place, but also removes the generated heat by some heat transfer fluid that is circulated through the cold block. The interface between the plug-in card and the cold block typically has a high thermal resistance since it is necessary for the card to have the capability to be re-workable, meaning that the card can be removed and then returned to the chassis. Reducing the thermal resistance of the interface is the objective of the current study and the topic of this thesis. The current design uses a pressure interface between the card and cold block. The contact pressure is increased through the addition of a wedgelock, which is a field-reversible mechanical connector. To use a wedgelock, the cold block has channels milled on the surface with widths that are larger than the thickness of the plug-in card and the un-expanded wedgelock. The card edge is placed in the channel and placed against one of the channel walls. A wedgelock is then placed between the card and the other channel wall. The wedgelock is then expanded by using either a screw or a lever. As the wedgelock expands it fills in the remaining channel gap and bears against the other face of the plug-in card. The majority of heat generated by the components on the plug-in card is forced to conduct from the card into the wall of the cold block, effectively a single sided, dry

  2. Expansions for Coulomb wave functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, J.

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are

  3. Automated Inspection of Defects in Optical Fiber Connector End Face Using Novel Morphology Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Shuang; Wang, Yudan; Wen, Guojun; Hu, Yang

    2018-05-03

    Increasing deployment of optical fiber networks and the need for reliable high bandwidth make the task of inspecting optical fiber connector end faces a crucial process that must not be neglected. Traditional end face inspections are usually performed by manual visual methods, which are low in efficiency and poor in precision for long-term industrial applications. More seriously, the inspection results cannot be quantified for subsequent analysis. Aiming at the characteristics of typical defects in the inspection process for optical fiber end faces, we propose a novel method, “difference of min-max ranking filtering” (DO2MR), for detection of region-based defects, e.g., dirt, oil, contamination, pits, and chips, and a special model, a “linear enhancement inspector” (LEI), for the detection of scratches. The DO2MR is a morphology method that intends to determine whether a pixel belongs to a defective region by comparing the difference of gray values of pixels in the neighborhood around the pixel. The LEI is also a morphology method that is designed to search for scratches at different orientations with a special linear detector. These two approaches can be easily integrated into optical inspection equipment for automatic quality verification. As far as we know, this is the first time that complete defect detection methods for optical fiber end faces are available in the literature. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DO2MR and LEI models yield good comprehensive performance with high precision and accepted recall rates, and the image-level detection accuracies reach 96.0 and 89.3%, respectively.

  4. Smart patch integration development of compression connector structural health monitoring in overhead transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An J.; Ren, Fei; Chan, John

    2016-04-01

    Integration of smart patches into full-tension splice connectors in overhead power transmission lines was investigated. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) -5A was used as a smart material and an aluminum beam was used as a host structure. Negative electrode termination was examined by using copper adhesive tape and direct bonding methods. Various commercial adhesives were studied for PZT integration onto the host structure. Aluminum beam specimens with integrated PZT smart patches were tested under thermal cycling at a temperature of 125°C, which is the higher-end temperature experienced by in-service aluminum conductor steel-reinforced cables. Electromechanical impedance (EMI) measurements were conducted at room temperature, and the root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the conductance signals was used to analyze the EMI data. It has been shown that the negative electrode method has an important effect on the performance of the integrated PZT. The PZT displayed more susceptibility to cracking when copper tape was used than when direct bonding was used. The reliability of PZT in direct bonding depended on the adhesives used in bonding layers. Although a hard alumina-based adhesive can lead to cracking of the PZT, a high-temperature epoxy with adequate flexibility, such as Duralco 4538D, can provide the desired performance under target thermal cycling conditions. The RMSD parameter can characterize conductance signatures effectively. It also was demonstrated that RMSD can be used to quantify the fatigue of the PZT integration system, although RMSD is used primarily as a damage index in monitoring structural health.

  5. The ontology-based answers (OBA) service: a connector for embedded usage of ontologies in applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Wingender, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    The semantic web depends on the use of ontologies to let electronic systems interpret contextual information. Optimally, the handling and access of ontologies should be completely transparent to the user. As a means to this end, we have developed a service that attempts to bridge the gap between experts in a certain knowledge domain, ontologists, and application developers. The ontology-based answers (OBA) service introduced here can be embedded into custom applications to grant access to the classes of ontologies and their relations as most important structural features as well as to information encoded in the relations between ontology classes. Thus computational biologists can benefit from ontologies without detailed knowledge about the respective ontology. The content of ontologies is mapped to a graph of connected objects which is compatible to the object-oriented programming style in Java. Semantic functions implement knowledge about the complex semantics of an ontology beyond the class hierarchy and "partOf" relations. By using these OBA functions an application can, for example, provide a semantic search function, or (in the examples outlined) map an anatomical structure to the organs it belongs to. The semantic functions relieve the application developer from the necessity of acquiring in-depth knowledge about the semantics and curation guidelines of the used ontologies by implementing the required knowledge. The architecture of the OBA service encapsulates the logic to process ontologies in order to achieve a separation from the application logic. A public server with the current plugins is available and can be used with the provided connector in a custom application in scenarios analogous to the presented use cases. The server and the client are freely available if a project requires the use of custom plugins or non-public ontologies. The OBA service and further documentation is available at http://www.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/projects/oba.

  6. Automated Inspection of Defects in Optical Fiber Connector End Face Using Novel Morphology Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Mei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing deployment of optical fiber networks and the need for reliable high bandwidth make the task of inspecting optical fiber connector end faces a crucial process that must not be neglected. Traditional end face inspections are usually performed by manual visual methods, which are low in efficiency and poor in precision for long-term industrial applications. More seriously, the inspection results cannot be quantified for subsequent analysis. Aiming at the characteristics of typical defects in the inspection process for optical fiber end faces, we propose a novel method, “difference of min-max ranking filtering” (DO2MR, for detection of region-based defects, e.g., dirt, oil, contamination, pits, and chips, and a special model, a “linear enhancement inspector” (LEI, for the detection of scratches. The DO2MR is a morphology method that intends to determine whether a pixel belongs to a defective region by comparing the difference of gray values of pixels in the neighborhood around the pixel. The LEI is also a morphology method that is designed to search for scratches at different orientations with a special linear detector. These two approaches can be easily integrated into optical inspection equipment for automatic quality verification. As far as we know, this is the first time that complete defect detection methods for optical fiber end faces are available in the literature. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DO2MR and LEI models yield good comprehensive performance with high precision and accepted recall rates, and the image-level detection accuracies reach 96.0 and 89.3%, respectively.

  7. Radial expansion and multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei

  8. Rethinking expansive learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...

  9. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  10. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  11. Focusing the Meaning(s of Resilience: Resilience as a Descriptive Concept and a Boundary Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fridolin Simon. Brand

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the variety of definitions proposed for "resilience" within sustainability science and suggests a typology according to the specific degree of normativity. There is a tension between the original descriptive concept of resilience first defined in ecological science and a more recent, vague, and malleable notion of resilience used as an approach or boundary object by different scientific disciplines. Even though increased conceptual vagueness can be valuable to foster communication across disciplines and between science and practice, both conceptual clarity and practical relevance of the concept of resilience are critically in danger. The fundamental question is what conceptual structure we want resilience to have. This article argues that a clearly specified, descriptive concept of resilience is critical in providing a counterbalance to the use of resilience as a vague boundary object. A clear descriptive concept provides the basis for operationalization and application of resilience within ecological science.

  12. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    rural households. From local government perspective, there is need for effective policies and interventions, for example, optimization the structure of financial resources, expansion the scale and channels of financial resources, and improvement the efficiency of fiscal expenditure, that can enhance investment in the agricultural infrastructure and disaster early warning system for improving livelihood resilience. From rural household perspective, livelihood strategies, increasing in education, productive expenditure are very effective in the long term when they are complemented by appropriate public policies such as subsidies of agricultural production material, compulsory education, professional training and innovation of rural residents' perception at different scales.

  13. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  14. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. An evaluation of the spring finger solder joints on SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 connector assemblies (MC3617,W87)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgo, Alice C.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Hlava, Paul Frank; Zender, Gary L.

    2006-01-01

    The SA1358-10 and SA2052-4 circular JT Type plug connectors are used on a number of nuclear weapons and Joint Test Assembly (JTA) systems. Prototype units were evaluated for the following specific defects associated with the 95Sn-5Sb (Sn-Sb, wt.%) solder joint used to attach the beryllium-copper (BeCu) spring fingers to the aluminum (Al) connector shell: (1) extended cracking within the fillet; (2) remelting of the solder joint during the follow-on, soldering step that attached the EMR adapter ring to the connector shell (and/or soldering the EMR shell to the adapter ring) that used the lower melting temperature 63Sn-37Pb (Sn-Pb) alloy; and (3) spalling of the Cd (Cr) layer overplating layer from the fillet surface. Several pedigrees of connectors were evaluated, which represented older fielded units as well as those assemblies that were recently constructed at Kansas City Plant. The solder joints were evaluated that were in place on connectors made with the current soldering process as well as an alternative induction soldering process for attaching the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely the EMR adapter ring to the shell. Very similar observations were made, which crossed the different pedigrees of parts and processes. The extent of cracking in the top side fillets varied between the different connector samples and likely reflected the different extents to which the connector was mated to its counterpart assembly. In all cases, the spring finger solder joints on the SA1358-10 connectors were remelted as a result of the subsequent EMR adapter ring attachment process. Spalling of the Cd (Cr) overplating layer was also observed for these connectors, which was a consequence of the remelting activity. On the other hand, the SA2052-4 connector did not exhibit evidence of

  16. Incorporating Resilience into Dynamic Social Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    form contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top and bottom of this page. 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT. This block must be...resilience as a multi- level resilience and study their resilience at individual, family and society levels . However, having more than one level on a...4] U. Fischbacher, S. Gächter, and E. Fehr, “Are People Conditionally Cooperative ? Evidence from a Public Goods Experiment,” Econ . Lett., vol

  17. Evaluating multicast resilience in carrier ethernet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we show how multicast traffic, which is essential for IPTV can be protected. We detail the ackground for resilience mechanisms and their control and e present Carrier Ethernet...... resilience methods for linear nd ring networks. By simulation we show that the vailability of a multicast connection can be significantly increased by applying protection methods....

  18. Influence of the width and cross-sectional shape of major connectors of maxillary dentures on the accuracy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Junichiro; Hideshima, Masayuki; Inukai, Shusuke; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the width and cross-sectional shape of the major connectors of maxillary dentures located in the middle area of the palate on the accuracy of phonetic output of consonants using an originally developed speech recognition system. Nine adults (4 males and 5 females, aged 24-26 years) with sound dentition were recruited. The following six sounds were considered: [∫i], [t∫i], [ɾi], [ni], [çi], and [ki]. The experimental connectors were fabricated to simulate bars (narrow, 8-mm width) and plates (wide, 20-mm width). Two types of cross-sectional shapes in the sagittal plane were specified: flat and plump edge. The appearance ratio of phonetic segment labels was calculated with the speech recognition system to indicate the accuracy of phonetic output. Statistical analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. The mean appearance ratio of correct labels (MARC) significantly decreased for [ni] with the plump edge (narrow connector) and for [ki] with both the flat and plump edge (wide connectors). For [çi], the MARCs tended to be lower with flat plates. There were no significant differences for the other consonants. The width and cross-sectional shape of the connectors had limited effects on the articulation of consonants at the palate. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. An in vitro comparison of standard cleaning to a continuous passive disinfection cap for the decontamination of needle-free connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Anna L; Karpanen, Tarja J; Nightingale, Peter; Elliott, Tom S J

    2018-01-01

    The optimal decontamination method for needle-free connectors is still unresolved. The objective of this study was to determine if a continuous passive disinfection cap is as effective as standard cleaning for the microbial decontamination of injection ports of two types of needle-free connectors. The injection ports of needle-free connectors were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and allowed to dry. Disinfection caps containing 70% ( v / v ) isopropyl alcohol (IPA) were attached to the connectors for one, three or 7 days and were compared with needle-free connectors cleaned with 2% ( w / v ) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) in 70% ( v/v ) IPA. The number of S. aureus remaining on the injection ports was evaluated. Median log 10 reductions and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and data analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. The application of the disinfection cap resulted in a significantly higher reduction in S. aureus than the 2% ( w / v ) CHG in 70% ( v / v ) IPA wipe, achieving a > 5 Log 10 reduction in CFU at each time point. The disinfection caps resulted in a significantly higher reduction in S.aureus on the injection ports when compared to the use of a 2% ( w/v ) CHG in 70% ( v/v ) IPA wipe. This offers an explanation for the lower rates of central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) associated with the use of disinfection caps reported in clinical studies.

  20. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  1. Teaching Resilience: A Narrative Inquiry into the Importance of Teacher Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Angela; Pendergast, Donna; Garvis, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    This study set out to explore how high school teachers perceive their resilience as they teach a scripted social and emotional learning program to students with the goal of promoting the resilience skills of the students in their pastoral care classes. In this emerging field of research on teacher resilience, there is a paucity of research…

  2. Reframing Resilience: Pilot Evaluation of a Program to Promote Resilience in Marginalized Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Matthew C.; Gorby, Sean R.

    2016-01-01

    Resilience has been described as a paradigm for aging that is more inclusive than models that focus on physiological and functional abilities. We evaluated a novel program, Resilient Aging, designed to influence marginalized older adults' perceptions of their resilience, self-efficacy, and wellness. The multiweek group program incorporated an…

  3. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n...... queues storing only structural information in the uncorruptible registers between operations....

  4. Enhancing quantitative approaches for assessing community resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, W. C.; Garmestani, A.S.; Eason, T. N.; Spanbauer, T. L.; Fried-Peterson, H. B.; Roberts, C.P.; Sundstrom, Shana M.; Burnett, J.L.; Angeler, David G.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Gunderson, L.; Twidwell, Dirac; Allen, Craig R.

    2018-01-01

    Scholars from many different intellectual disciplines have attempted to measure, estimate, or quantify resilience. However, there is growing concern that lack of clarity on the operationalization of the concept will limit its application. In this paper, we discuss the theory, research development and quantitative approaches in ecological and community resilience. Upon noting the lack of methods that quantify the complexities of the linked human and natural aspects of community resilience, we identify several promising approaches within the ecological resilience tradition that may be useful in filling these gaps. Further, we discuss the challenges for consolidating these approaches into a more integrated perspective for managing social-ecological systems.

  5. Practical Leakage-Resilient Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Schipper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount of arbitr......Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount...

  6. Resilience to Surprises through Communicative Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Evan. Goldstein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinkers share an interest in collaborative deliberation with communicative planners, who aim to accommodate different forms of knowledge and styles of reasoning to promote social learning and yield creative and equitable agreements. Members of both fields attended a symposium at Virginia Tech in late 2008, where communicative planners considered how social-ecological resilience informed new possibilities for planning practice beyond disaster mitigation and response. In turn, communicative planners offered resilience scholars ideas about how collaboration could accomplish more than enhance rational decision making of the commons. Through these exchanges, the symposium fostered ideas about collaborative governance and the critical role of expertise in fostering communicative resilience.

  7. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  8. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  9. Exploring the impact of the care sport connector in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaars, Karlijn E F; Smit, Eva; Wagemakers, Annemarie; Molleman, Gerard R M; Koelen, Maria A

    2017-10-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) is deemed to contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and osteoporosis. In 2012, Care Sport Connectors (CSC), to whom a broker has been ascribed, were introduced in the Netherlands to stimulate PA and guide primary care patients towards local sport facilities. The aim of this study was to explore which structural embedding is the most promising for CSCs' work. In three rounds of interviews, 13 CSCs were followed for 2 years in their work. In these interviews, a network survey was used to identify organisations in the CSCs' network, whether they collaborated with these organisations, and the role of the organisations in the connection. Data from the network survey were analysed using the RE-AIM framework and disaggregated into how CSCs were structurally embedded (Type A: only PA sector; Type B: different sectors; Type C: partnership). A related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to study how the CSCs' network developed between 2014 and 2016. All CSCs established a connection between the primary care and the PA sector in which the average number of organisations with which CSCs collaborated increased significantly between 2014 (8.3) and 2016 (19.8) (p = 0.002). However, differences were identified in the way CSCs were structurally embedded and in the way they established the connection. Type A CSCs established the connection mostly around their own activities, supported PA organisations with their activities, and collaborated with primary care and welfare professionals around their own activities. Type B and Type C CSCs established the connection by organising, supporting, and implementing different kinds of activities targeting different kinds of audiences, and collaborated mostly with primary care professionals around the referral of professionals' patients. The results of this study suggest that adopting an integral approach

  10. Exploring the impact of the care sport connector in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlijn E. F. Leenaars

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity (PA is deemed to contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and osteoporosis. In 2012, Care Sport Connectors (CSC, to whom a broker has been ascribed, were introduced in the Netherlands to stimulate PA and guide primary care patients towards local sport facilities. The aim of this study was to explore which structural embedding is the most promising for CSCs’ work. Methods In three rounds of interviews, 13 CSCs were followed for 2 years in their work. In these interviews, a network survey was used to identify organisations in the CSCs’ network, whether they collaborated with these organisations, and the role of the organisations in the connection. Data from the network survey were analysed using the RE-AIM framework and disaggregated into how CSCs were structurally embedded (Type A: only PA sector; Type B: different sectors; Type C: partnership. A related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test was performed to study how the CSCs’ network developed between 2014 and 2016. Results All CSCs established a connection between the primary care and the PA sector in which the average number of organisations with which CSCs collaborated increased significantly between 2014 (8.3 and 2016 (19.8 (p = 0.002. However, differences were identified in the way CSCs were structurally embedded and in the way they established the connection. Type A CSCs established the connection mostly around their own activities, supported PA organisations with their activities, and collaborated with primary care and welfare professionals around their own activities. Type B and Type C CSCs established the connection by organising, supporting, and implementing different kinds of activities targeting different kinds of audiences, and collaborated mostly with primary care professionals around the referral of professionals’ patients

  11. Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resiliency Evaluation, Assessment and Contingency Tools (REACT) Achieving resiliency in any system requires capabilities that are beyond the boundaries of currently...

  12. Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.

    1987-01-01

    Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals

  13. Development of a framework for resilience measurement: Suggestion of fuzzy Resilience Grade (RG) and fuzzy Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammad Fam, Iraj; Nirumand, Fereshteh

    2017-01-01

    Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes. Considering the resilience potential measurement as a concern in complex working systems, the aim of this study was to quantify the resilience by the help of fuzzy sets and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. In this paper, we adopted the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method to measure resilience in a gas refinery plant. A resilience assessment framework containing six indicators, each with its own sub-indicators, was constructed. Then, the fuzzy weights of the indicators and the sub-indicators were derived from pair-wise comparisons conducted by experts. The fuzzy evaluating vectors of the indicators and the sub-indicators computed according to the initial assessment data. Finally, the Comprehensive Resilience Index (CoRI), Resilience Grade (RG), and Resilience Early Warning Grade (REWG) were established. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, an illustrative example in a gas refinery complex (an instance of socio-technical systems) was provided. CoRI of the refinery ranked as "III". In addition, for the six main indicators, RG and REWG ranked as "III" and "NEWZ", respectively, except for C3, in which RG ranked as "II", and REWG ranked as "OEWZ". The results revealed the engineering practicability and usefulness of the proposed method in resilience evaluation of socio-technical systems.

  14. An overdue alignment of risk and resilience? A conceptual contribution to community resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Junko; Keating, Adriana; Liu, Wei; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard

    2018-04-01

    A systematic review of literature on community resilience measurement published between 2005 and 2014 revealed that the profound lack of clarity on risk and resilience is one of the main reasons why confusion about terms such as adaptive capacity, resilience, and vulnerability persists, despite the effort spared to operationalise these concepts. Resilience is measured in isolation in some cases, where a shock is perceived to arise external to the system of interest. Problematically, this contradicts the way in which the climate change and disaster communities perceive risk as manifesting itself endogenously as a function of exposure, hazard, and vulnerability. The common conceptualisation of resilience as predominantly positive is problematic as well when, in reality, many undesirable properties of a system are resilient. Consequently, this paper presents an integrative framework that highlights the interactions between risk drivers and coping, adaptive, and transformative capacities, providing an improved conceptual basis for resilience measurement. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  15. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  16. Psychological Trait Resilience Within Ecological Systems Theory: The Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Flowe, Heather D; Vostanis, Panos; Chivers, Sally

    2017-07-14

    This project describes the development of the Resilient Systems Scales, created to address conceptual and methodological ambiguities in assessing the ecological systems model of resilience. Across a number of samples (total N = 986), our findings suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales show equivalence to a previously reported assessment (Maltby, Day, & Hall, 2015 ) in demonstrating the same factor structure, adequate intercorrelation between the 2 measures of resilience, and equivalent associations with personality and well-being. The findings also suggest that the Resilient Systems Scales demonstrate adequate test-retest reliability, compare well with other extant measures of resilience in predicting well-being, and map, to varying degrees, onto positive expression of several cognitive, social, and emotional traits. The findings suggest that the new measure can be used alongside existing measures of resilience, or singly, to assess positive life outcomes within psychology research.

  17. Lithium hydride doped intermediate connector for high-efficiency and long-term stable tandem organic light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Tang, Xun; Xu, Mei-Feng; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2014-10-22

    Lithium hydride (LiH) is employed as a novel n-dopant in the intermediate connector for tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) because of its easy coevaporation with other electron transporting materials. The tandem OLEDs with two and three electroluminescent (EL) units connected by a combination of LiH doped 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3) and 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) demonstrate approximately 2-fold and 3-fold enhancement in current efficiency, respectively. In addition, no extra voltage drop across the intermediate connector is observed. Particularly, the lifetime (T75%) in the tandem OLED with two and three EL units is substantially improved by 3.8 times and 7.4 times, respectively. The doping effect of LiH into Alq3, the charge injection, and transport characteristics of LiH-doped Alq3 are further investigated by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS).

  18. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  19. Adaptive, dynamic, and resilient systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suri, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    As the complexity of today's networked computer systems grows, they become increasingly difficult to understand, predict, and control. Addressing these challenges requires new approaches to building these systems. Adaptive, Dynamic, and Resilient Systems supplies readers with various perspectives of the critical infrastructure that systems of networked computers rely on. It introduces the key issues, describes their interrelationships, and presents new research in support of these areas.The book presents the insights of a different group of international experts in each chapter. Reporting on r

  20. Sustainable Resilient, Robust & Resplendent Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick

    to their impact. Resplendent enterprises are introduced with resplendence referring not to some sort of public or private façade, but instead refers to organizations marked by dual brilliance and nobility of strategy, governance and comportment that yields superior and sustainable triple bottom line performance....... Herein resilience, robustness, and resplendence (R3) are integrated with sustainable enterprise excellence (Edgeman and Eskildsen, 2013) or SEE and social-ecological innovation (Eskildsen and Edgeman, 2012) to aid progress of a firm toward producing continuously relevant performance that proceed from...

  1. Challenges to Teacher Resilience: Conditions Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Day, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon findings of a four-year national research project on variations in the work and lives of teachers in England, this paper provides empirical evidence which contributes to understandings about the importance of resilience in teachers' work. The experience of resilience as perceived by teachers in this research was that it was neither…

  2. Helping Children Develop Resiliency: Providing Supportive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Katharine C.; Malley, Catherine Robertson

    2005-01-01

    Helping children develop resiliency begins with positive, meaningful connections between teachers and students. This article defines the importance of encouraging children to develop characteristics related to resiliency including confidence in their ability to bounce back from setbacks, overcome challenges and frustrations. Furthermore, critical…

  3. Resiliency Programming for Adult Offenders in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, E. Frances

    2000-01-01

    Discusses resiliency programming as an alternative approach to program development for incarcerated adults, and describes a pilot project in a Georgia prison, Leadership Development, that uses the concept of resiliency to frame inmate education. Discusses implications of this model of correctional education. (SLD)

  4. Social Work, Pastoral Care and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Tom; Hollingdale, Paul; Neville, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the growing interest in developing resilience in the social work curricula as it is seen as a crucial quality necessary to cope with the increasing demands of the profession. The recent research into developing resilience is dominated by a psychological model which emphasises personal qualities. It runs the risk of…

  5. Enhancing Human Resilience : monitoring, sensing, and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsch, O.; Wabeke, T.R.; Koot, G.; Venrooij, W.; Valk, P.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The development of miniaturized monitoring technology represents the greatest opportunity for advancing Resilience and Mental Health in over a century. All experts of the Resilience- and Mental Health domain are contending with a significant mental health burden, e.g. almost half of all work

  6. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  7. A method to assess maritime resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rypkema, J.A.; Beek, F.A. van der; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Winkelman, J.W.; Wijngaarden, M. van

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a multi-level resilience analysis method (RAM) to assess risk and performance variability in current maritime socio-technical systems (STSs). The method integrates Hollnagel’s four resilience abilities to assess a system’s ability to effectively cope with

  8. Resilience to Maternal Depression in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargas, Rebecca Cristina Malvar; Brennan, Patricia A.; Hammen, Constance; Le Brocque, Robyne

    2010-01-01

    Using a prospective longitudinal design, this study investigated factors associated with resilience in 20-year-old offspring of depressed mothers (n = 648). Resilient youth were operationally defined as those whose mothers were depressed but who themselves had no history of recurrent depression and currently evidenced adequate academic or work and…

  9. Coping and resilience resources in early adolescents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karaffová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2012), s. 240-240 ISSN 0887-0446. [Conference of European Health Psychology Society: Resilience and Health /26./. 21.08.2012-25.08.2012, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2325 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : resilience * coping * adolescents Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  10. Providing resilience for carrier ethernet multicast traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik; Zhang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Carrier Ethernet technology with specific focus on resilience. In particular, we detail how multicast traffic, which is essential for e.g. IPTV can be protected. We present Carrier Ethernet resilience methods for linear and ring networks and show by simulation...

  11. the Pathways to Resilience Project Advisory Panel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its express focus is the exploration of how at-risk youths use formal services ... the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, .... included daily, meaningful interaction with the local youth; and (iii) willingness to be ..... the theory of resilience that Khazimula advocated (see Theron, in press, ...

  12. A Whole Community Approach toward Child and Youth Resilience Promotion: A Review of Resilience Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Nazilla; Wray, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A literature review of child and youth resilience with a focus on: definitions and factors of resilience; relationships between resilience, mental health and social outcomes; evidence for resilience promoting interventions; and implications for reducing health inequities. To conduct the review, the first two following steps were conducted iteratively and informed the third step: 1) Review of published peer-review literature since 2000; and 2) Review of grey literature; and 3) Quasi-realist synthesis of evidence. Evidence from three perspectives were examined: i) whether interventions can improve 'resilience' for vulnerable children and youth; ii) whether there is a differential effect among different populations; and, iii) whether there is evidence that resilience interventions 'close the gap' on health and social outcome measures. Definitions of resilience vary as do perspectives on it. We argue for a hybrid approach that recognizes the value of combining multiple theoretical perspectives, epistemologies (positivistic and constructivist/interpretive/critical) in studying resilience. Resilience is: a) a process (rather than a single event), b) a continuum (rather than a binary outcome), and c) likely a global concept with specific dimensions. Individual, family and social environmental factors influence resilience. A social determinants perspective on resilience and mental health is emphasized. Programs and interventions to promoting resilience should be complimentary to public health measures addressing the social determinants of health. A whole community approach to resilience is suggested as a step toward closing the public health policy gap. Local initiatives that stimulate a local transformation process are needed. Recognition of each child's or youth's intersections of gender, lifestage, family resources within the context of their identity markers fits with a localized approach to resilience promotion and, at the same time, requires recognition of the

  13. Enhancing resilience in registered aged care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Fiona; Brownie, Sonya

    2010-06-01

    To identify the factors that impact the resilience of registered aged care nurses, that is their capacity to adapt to the physical, mental and emotional demands of working in aged care facilities. This study explored the lived experience of nine registered nurses working in residential aged care facilities on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland, who were asked to reflect on the phenomenon of resilience in the workplace. This study found that clinical expertise, a sense of purpose in a holistic care environment, a positive attitude and work-life balance are important determinants of resilience in aged care nurses. Resilience in nurses in residential aged care facilities is enhanced when they are able to maintain long-term, meaningful relationships with residents. Collegial support that provides opportunities to debrief and validate experiences as well as the use of humour to defuse stress promotes well-being and builds resilience in the workplace.

  14. How Robust is Your System Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.

    2017-12-01

    Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.

  15. RESILIENCE AND ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE IN SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that SMEs need to embrace the drivers of resilience and that a well-defined and readily available Enterprise Architecture (EA supports enterprise integration by enabling the common view of business processes, data and systems across the enterprise and its partners, we can say that EA is one of the tracks making resilience predictable and it should support and collaborate with other resilience tracks. However, the EA frameworks do not give relevance to the activities that contribute most to business resilience, so this paper aims to clarify the dimensions and the activities related to the development of an EA and the touching points with other enterprise wide processes in order to guarantee that resilience requirements are met in SMEs. For this I propose an approach of ecological adaptation, and four architectures: business, organizational, information, and technological, although this paper only presents the Business and Organizational Architectures.

  16. Priority Queues Resilient to Memory Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Moruz, Gabriel; Mølhave, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In the faulty-memory RAM model, the content of memory cells can get corrupted at any time during the execution of an algorithm, and a constant number of uncorruptible registers are available. A resilient data structure in this model works correctly on the set of uncorrupted values. In this paper we...... introduce a resilient priority queue. The deletemin operation of a resilient priority queue returns either the minimum uncorrupted element or some corrupted element. Our resilient priority queue uses $O(n)$ space to store $n$ elements. Both insert and deletemin operations are performed in $O(\\log n......+\\delta)$ time amortized, where $\\delta$ is the maximum amount of corruptions tolerated. Our priority queue matches the performance of classical optimal priority queues in the RAM model when the number of corruptions tolerated is $O(\\log n)$. We prove matching worst case lower bounds for resilient priority...

  17. Distributed Energy Planning for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hotchkiss, Elizabeth L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Day, Megan H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lee, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-01

    At various levels of government across the United States and globally climate resilient solutions are being adopted and implemented. Solutions vary based on predicted hazards, community context, priorities, complexity, and available resources. Lessons are being learned through the implementation process, which can be replicated regardless of level or type of government entity carrying out the resiliency planning. Through a number of analyses and technical support across the world, NREL has learned key lessons related to resilience planning associated with power generation and water distribution. Distributed energy generation is a large factor in building resilience with clean energy technologies and solutions. The technical and policy solutions associated with distributed energy implementation for resilience fall into a few major categories, including spatial diversification, microgrids, water-energy nexus, policy, and redundancy.

  18. Report focuses on improving resilience to disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    “Disaster resilience is everyone's business,” states a new report that calls for a series of local and national measures to increase resilience in the face of an increasingly costly toll from natural disasters to human lives and the economy. In 2011 natural disasters were responsible for damages in the United States exceeding $55 billion, and costs could increase with more people and structures located in harm's way and with the effects of extreme events, according to the report, Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, issued by a committee of the U.S. National Academies on 1 August. Among the recommendations is for federal government agencies to incorporate national resilience as an organizing principle to guide federal government actions and programs. The report defines resilience as “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events.”

  19. Holocaust survivors: three waves of resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Roberta R; Hantman, Shira; Sharabi, Adi; Cohen, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Three waves of resilience research have resulted in resilience-enhancing educational and therapeutic interventions. In the first wave of inquiry, researchers explored the traits and environmental characteristics that enabled people to overcome adversity. In the second wave, researchers investigated the processes related to stress and coping. In the third wave, studies examined how people grow and are transformed following adverse events, often leading to self-actualize, client creativity and spirituality. In this article the authors examined data from a study, "Forgiveness, Resiliency, and Survivorship among Holocaust Survivors" funded by the John Templeton Foundation ( Greene, Armour, Hantman, Graham, & Sharabi, 2010 ). About 65% of the survivors scored on the high side for resilience traits. Of the survivors, 78% engaged in processes considered resilient and felt they were transcendent or had engaged in behaviors that help them grow and change over the years since the Holocaust, including leaving a legacy and contributing to the community.

  20. Resilience engineering and the built environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    important to understand the range of conditions about why and how the system functions in the desired' mode as well as unwanted' modes. Resilience is the capacity to sustain operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. The unexpected conditions are not only threats but also opportunities.......The possible relations between resilience engineering and built environments are explored. Resilience engineering has been concerned with the safe and efficient functioning of large and small industrial systems. These may be described as built systems or artefacts. The resilience engineering...... approach argues that if the performance of systems is to be resilient, then they must be able to respond, monitor, learn and anticipate. The last ability in particular means that they must be able to consider themselves vis-a-vis their environment, i.e. be sentient and reflective systems. In practice...

  1. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  2. Hydrologic resilience and Amazon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Anders; Canadell, Josep G; Schurgers, Guy; Wu, Minchao; Berry, Joseph A; Guan, Kaiyu; Jackson, Robert B

    2017-08-30

    The Amazon rainforest is disproportionately important for global carbon storage and biodiversity. The system couples the atmosphere and land, with moist forest that depends on convection to sustain gross primary productivity and growth. Earth system models that estimate future climate and vegetation show little agreement in Amazon simulations. Here we show that biases in internally generated climate, primarily precipitation, explain most of the uncertainty in Earth system model results; models, empirical data and theory converge when precipitation biases are accounted for. Gross primary productivity, above-ground biomass and tree cover align on a hydrological relationship with a breakpoint at ~2000 mm annual precipitation, where the system transitions between water and radiation limitation of evapotranspiration. The breakpoint appears to be fairly stable in the future, suggesting resilience of the Amazon to climate change. Changes in precipitation and land use are therefore more likely to govern biomass and vegetation structure in Amazonia.Earth system model simulations of future climate in the Amazon show little agreement. Here, the authors show that biases in internally generated climate explain most of this uncertainty and that the balance between water-saturated and water-limited evapotranspiration controls the Amazon resilience to climate change.

  3. Novelty, Adaptive Capacity, and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Allen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a conceptual framework that explores some of the forces creating innovation and novelty in complex systems. Understanding the sources of variability and novelty may help us better understand complex systems. Understanding complex phenomena such as invasions, migration, and nomadism may provide insight into the structure of ecosystems and other complex systems, and aid our attempts to cope with and mitigate these phenomena, in the case of invasions, and better understand and or predict them. Our model is broadly applicable to ecological theory, including community ecology, resilience, restoration, and policy. Characterizing the link between landscape change and the composition of species communities may help policymakers in their decision-making processes. Understanding how variability is related to system structure, and how that generates novelty, may help us understand how resilience is generated. We suggest that there are three primary opportunities for the generation of novelty into complex systems. These sources of novelty are inherent in the cross-scale structure of complex systems, and are critical for creating adaptive capacity. Novelty originates from the inherent variability present in cross scale structures, within scale reorganization associated with adaptive cycles, and whole-scale transformations resulting from regime shifts. Although speculative, our ideas are grounded in research and observation, and they may provide insight into the evolution of complex systems.

  4. RNEDE: Resilient Network Design Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkat Venkatasubramanian, Tanu Malik, Arun Giridh; Craig Rieger; Keith Daum; Miles McQueen

    2010-08-01

    Modern living is more and more dependent on the intricate web of critical infrastructure systems. The failure or damage of such systems can cause huge disruptions. Traditional design of this web of critical infrastructure systems was based on the principles of functionality and reliability. However, it is increasingly being realized that such design objectives are not sufficient. Threats, disruptions and faults often compromise the network, taking away the benefits of an efficient and reliable design. Thus, traditional network design parameters must be combined with self-healing mechanisms to obtain a resilient design of the network. In this paper, we present RNEDEa resilient network design environment that that not only optimizes the network for performance but tolerates fluctuations in its structure that result from external threats and disruptions. The environment evaluates a set of remedial actions to bring a compromised network to an optimal level of functionality. The environment includes a visualizer that enables the network administrator to be aware of the current state of the network and the suggested remedial actions at all times.

  5. Renormalization group and Mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-02-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory by Goepfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear sigma-model, and elsewhere. (orig.)

  6. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  7. Renormalization group and mayer expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1984-01-01

    Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U (1) lattice gauge theory by Gopfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear σ-model, and elsewhere

  8. On summation of perturbation expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horzela, A.

    1985-04-01

    The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)

  9. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    The recovery movement differentiated clinical, which is related to disorder's symptoms, from personal recovery, which is outlined by a subjectively defined wellness state, characterised by hope and self-management. Schizophrenia research has long focused on risk factors and symptoms. The recovery movement triggered a focus shift from psychopathology towards better adjustment and growth despite living with schizophrenia. The recovery movement flourished parallel with positive psychology, the scientific study of ordinary human strengths and virtues investigating human motives and potentials. Understanding of human strengths could contribute to prevention or lessening of psychiatric disorders' devastating consequences, since optimism, sense of personal control and many other positive processes promote psychological health. Lately, the concepts of positive psychology have been implemented in schizophrenia research. Positive self-appraisals moderated suicidal ideation, even when patients experienced high levels of hopelessness.1 Additionally, among other factors, better self-images, internal locus of control (i.e. the perception that events in one's life relate to one's actions) and emphasis on personal efforts predicted a more favourable outcome in functioning of unmedicated patients.2 The concept of "resilience" is closely related to positive psychology. The American Psychological Association defines resilience as ''the process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, threats or significant sources of stress''. The concept of resilience includes rebound from adversity.3 Determinants of resilience include biological, psychological, social and cultural factors that interact in a complex manner. The major manifestations of personal resilience are social competence, problem solving, autonomy and sense of purpose.5 Personality strengths that relate to resilience include high self-esteem, extroversion and optimism. Internal assets and personal competencies

  10. Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of system resilience is important and popular—in fact, hyper-popular over the last few years. Clarifying the technical meanings and foundations of the concept of resilience would appear to be necessary. Proposals for defining resilience are flourishing as well. This paper organizes the different technical approaches to the question of what is resilience and how to engineer it in complex adaptive systems. This paper groups the different uses of the label ‘resilience’ around four basic concepts: (1) resilience as rebound from trauma and return to equilibrium; (2) resilience as a synonym for robustness; (3) resilience as the opposite of brittleness, i.e., as graceful extensibility when surprise challenges boundaries; (4) resilience as network architectures that can sustain the ability to adapt to future surprises as conditions evolve. - Highlights: • There continues to be a wide diversity of definitions of the label resilience. • Research progress points to 4 basic concepts underneath diverse uses of. • Each of the four core concepts defines different research agendas. • The 4 concepts provide guides on how to engineer resilience for safety

  11. Physical disease and resilient outcomes: a systematic review of resilience definitions and study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Marjorie C; Porteous, Terry; Crilly, Michael A; Burton, Christopher D; Elliott, Alison; Iversen, Lisa; McArdle, Karen; Murray, Alison; Phillips, Louise H; Black, Corri

    2015-01-01

    Findings from physical disease resilience research may be used to develop approaches to reduce the burden of disease. However, there is no consensus on the definition and measurement of resilience in the context of physical disease. The aim was to summarize the range of definitions of physical disease resilience and the approaches taken to study it in studies examining physical disease and its relationship to resilient outcomes. Electronic databases were searched from inception to March 2013 for studies in which physical disease was assessed for its association with resilient outcomes. Article screening, data extraction, and quality assessment were carried out independently by 2 reviewers, with disagreements being resolved by a third reviewer. The results were combined using a narrative technique. Of 2280 articles, 12 met the inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 1 was of high quality, 9 were of moderate quality, and 2 were low quality. The common findings were that resilience involves maintaining healthy levels of functioning following adversity and that it is a dynamic process not a personality trait. Studies either assessed resilience based on observed outcomes or via resilience measurement scales. They either considered physical disease as an adversity leading to resilience or as a variable modifying the relationship between adversity and resilience. This work begins building consensus as to the approach to take when defining and measuring physical disease resilience. Resilience should be considered as a dynamic process that varies across the life-course and across different domains, therefore the choice of a resilience measure should reflect this. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Building Psychological Health: The Services’ Perspectives on Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    program; medical supported • Doctrine signed Dec 2010 • Training: > 200,000 trained to date • 8 courses on Navy eLearning • Formal curriculum delivered...Address future concerns and build psychological resiliency 10 Reserve Resilience Initiatives 2011 MHS Conference NSW Resilience Enterprise  Resilience

  13. Ulysses' Return: Resilient Male Leaders Still at the Helm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Rhonda; Christman, Dana; Fairbanks, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This study examined resilient men in higher education administration, educational leadership programs to determine how they identified components of their resiliency, how they described events that demonstrated their resiliency, and how they prescribed ways in which preparation programs can foster resiliency in students. Using masculinity…

  14. Resilience, Bullying, and Mental Health: Factors Associated with Improved Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian; Woodcock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is associated with bouncing back from adversity, and the term currently enjoys significant popular appeal. However, understanding of resilience is often superficial. The current paper examined 105 primary and high school students' experiences of resilience and bullying, and considered resilience as a hierarchical factorial model. The…

  15. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  16. [Perspectives on resilience : trait or aptitude ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, H; Fossion, P; Kotsou, I; Leys, C

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss various issues related to the concept of resilience, which is conventionally defined as a dynamic process allowing for a positive adaptation in a context of significant adversity. First, we try to draw the reader's attention to the importance of the concept of resilience in terms of public health. Second, we address the difficulty of measuring resilience in a relevant and operational manner. Third, we then address the question of whether resilience can be conceived only in the context of a confrontation with trauma, or whether its application can be relevant to the everyday nontraumatic adversity. In this regard, we introduce and define another coping strategy which is the Sense of Coherence (SOC). Fourth, we discuss the nature of resilience, that is to say, whether it should be considered as a personality trait or as an aptitude. We try to show that this problem arises from the difficulty to specify the emotional processes involved in resilience. Finally, we propose future research perspectives that should allow us to better understand the concept of resilience.

  17. A resilience markers framework for small teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furniss, Dominic, E-mail: d.furniss@ucl.ac.u [UCL Interaction Centre, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Back, Jonathan; Blandford, Ann [UCL Interaction Centre, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hildebrandt, Michael; Broberg, Helena [OECD Halden Reactor Project, PO Box 173, 1751 Halden (Norway)

    2011-01-15

    Processes that enable an effective response to unexpected events and vulnerabilities that lie outside the scope of formal procedures can be described as being resilient. There are many such descriptions of resilience within and across different domains. Comparison and generalisation is difficult because resilience is not a component of a system and should be understood as an emergent property. Here we provide a framework for reasoning about resilience that requires representation of the level of analysis (from the individual to operational), a traceable link from abstract theory to specific observations, resilience mechanisms, and contextual factors. This moves forward an agenda to systematically observe concrete manifestations of resilience within and across domains. We illustrate the application of the framework by considering a case study of the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in an experimental scenario. This paper focuses on the small team level of analysis. The framework presented here provides the basis for developing concrete measures for improving the resilience of organisations through training, system design, and organisational learning.

  18. A resilience markers framework for small teams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furniss, Dominic; Back, Jonathan; Blandford, Ann; Hildebrandt, Michael; Broberg, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Processes that enable an effective response to unexpected events and vulnerabilities that lie outside the scope of formal procedures can be described as being resilient. There are many such descriptions of resilience within and across different domains. Comparison and generalisation is difficult because resilience is not a component of a system and should be understood as an emergent property. Here we provide a framework for reasoning about resilience that requires representation of the level of analysis (from the individual to operational), a traceable link from abstract theory to specific observations, resilience mechanisms, and contextual factors. This moves forward an agenda to systematically observe concrete manifestations of resilience within and across domains. We illustrate the application of the framework by considering a case study of the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in an experimental scenario. This paper focuses on the small team level of analysis. The framework presented here provides the basis for developing concrete measures for improving the resilience of organisations through training, system design, and organisational learning.

  19. Resilience and Coping After Hospital Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cynthia; Calo, Oriana; Harrison, Georgia; Mahoney, Kathleen; Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between resilience and coping in frontline nurses working in a healthcare system that has recently undergone a merger. Hospital mergers are common in the current healthcare environment. Mergers can provide hospital nurses the opportunity to use and develop positive coping strategies to help remain resilient during times of change. An anonymous-survey, quantitative, exploratory, descriptive study design was used. Data were obtained from an electronic survey that was made available to all nurses working in a 3-hospital system located in the northeast. Overall, the results showed that, when nurses reported using positive coping strategies, they report higher levels of resilience. The levels of resilience also varied from campus to campus. The campus that has been through 2 recent mergers reported the highest levels of resilience. This study suggests that, during times of change in the workplace, if nurses are encouraged to use positive coping strategies, they may have higher levels of resilience. This changing environment provides the clinical nurse specialists/clinical nurse educators the opportunity to foster and support frontline nurses in the use of healthy coping strategies and to help improve and maintain a high level of resilience, which is critical in today's healthcare environment.

  20. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Angeler, David G; Herrmann, Dustin L; Stow, Craig A; Nyström, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R

    2016-12-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Regional employment growth, shocks and regional industrial resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2013-01-01

    The resilience of regional industries to economic shocks has gained a lot of attention in evolutionary economic geography recently. This paper uses a novel quantitative approach to investigate the regional industrial resilience of the Danish ICT sector to the shock following the burst of the dot......-com bubble. It is shown that regions characterised by small and young ICT service companies were more adaptable and grew more than others, while diversity and urbanisation increased the sensitivity to the business cycle after the shock. Different types of resilient regions are found: adaptively resilient......, rigidly resilient, entrepreneurially resilient and non-resilient regions....

  2. Regional Employment Growth, Shocks and Regional Industrial Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, J.R.; Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2015-01-01

    The resilience of regional industries to economic shocks has gained a lot of attention in evolutionary economic geography recently. This paper uses a novel quantitative approach to investigate the regional industrial resilience of the Danish information and communication technology (ICT) sector...... to the shock following the burst of the dot.com bubble. It is shown that regions characterized by small and young ICT service companies were more adaptable and grew more than others, while diversity and urbanization increased the sensitivity to the business cycle after the shock. Different types of resilient...... regions are found: adaptively resilient, rigidly resilient, entrepreneurially resilient and non-resilient regions....

  3. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Rojo, Carmen; Alvarez-Cobelas, Miguel; Rodrigo, Maria A.; Sanchez-Carrillo, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or “temporal scales” in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales) in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful for assessing

  4. Interrogating resilience in health systems development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Remco; Ashour, Majdi; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation. Three concerns regarding the application of resilience to health systems development are discussed: (1) the resilience narrative overrules certain democratic procedures and priority setting in public health agendas by 'claiming' an exceptional policy space; (2) resilience compels accepting and maintaining the status quo and excludes alternative imaginations of just and equitable health systems including the socio-political struggles required to attain those; and (3) an empirical case study from Gaza makes the case that resilience and vulnerability are symbiotic with each other rather than providing a solution for developing a strong health system. In conclusion, if the normative aim of health policies is to build sustainable, universally accessible, health systems then resilience is not the answer. The current threats that health systems face demand us to imagine beyond and explore possibilities for global solidarity and justice in health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  6. Evaluation of the role of Care Sport Connectors in connecting primary care, sport, and physical activity, and residents' participation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Leenaars, K.E.F.; Wagemakers, M.A.E.; Molleman, G.R.M.; Koelen, M.A.; Velden, Van Der J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of people with one or more chronic diseases is increasing, but this trend could be reduced by promoting physical activity. Therefore, in 2012, the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport introduced Care Sport Connectors (CSCs), to whom a broker role has been ascribed.

  7. Dr Marta Bajko in front of the Gold pated "half-moon" connector of an LHC dipole Diode in SM18.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Photo 1 : Cold Diode for the LHC superconducting dipoles protection. Prepared for cryogenic powering test OFF line in SM18. - Photo 2 : A gold plated bus bar of an LHC dipole diode ready for cryogenic powering test in Sm18. - Photo 3 : The gold pated “ half-moon” connector of an LHC dipole diode. Ready for a cryogenic powering test in SM18.

  8. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2018-03-01

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviors in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organizational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  9. Social-ecological resilience and law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, “resilience theory,” which embraces uncertainty and nonlinear dynamics in complex adaptive systems, has provided a robust, invaluable foundation for sound environmental management. Reforming American law to incorporate this knowledge is the key to sustainability. This volume features top legal and resilience scholars speaking on resilience theory and its legal applications to climate change, biodiversity, national parks, and water law.

  10. Resilience and Restoration of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Carpenter

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake water quality and ecosystem services are normally maintained by several feedbacks. Among these are nutrient retention and humic production by wetlands, nutrient retention and woody habitat production by riparian forests, food web structures that cha nnel phosphorus to consumers rather than phytoplankton, and biogeochemical mechanisms that inhibit phosphorus recycling from sediments. In degraded lakes, these resilience mechanisms are replaced by new ones that connect lakes to larger, regional economi c and social systems. New controls that maintain degraded lakes include runoff from agricultural and urban areas, absence of wetlands and riparian forests, and changes in lake food webs and biogeochemistry that channel phosphorus to blooms of nuisance al gae. Economic analyses show that degraded lakes are significantly less valuable than normal lakes. Because of this difference in value, the economic benefits of restoring lakes could be used to create incentives for lake restoration.

  11. Climate change and forest resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2006-10-15

    Significant global climate change is inevitable. Tree species have a limited capacity to tolerate climate change or migrate through natural or artificial means. We do not know enough about the comparative resilience of forest-based, agricultural, marine or fresh water ecosystems. But it is clear that biodiverse forest ecosystems are under threat. And the threat extends beyond forests themselves. An estimated 60 million indigenous people are heavily dependent on the world's rainforests. Some 350 million people live in or close to dense forests and rely on them for subsistence or income. A further 1.2 billion people in developing countries depend on trees on farm to generate food or cash.

  12. Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C

    2002-01-01

    The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures

  13. The concept of resilience- the scientific adaptation for society health

    OpenAIRE

    Svence, Guna

    2015-01-01

    The main idea of the paper to indicate the factors of resilience indicators. The task of the research - a theoretical analysis of the latest research resilience factors and resilience risk factors and to analyze the theory of the intervention of positive psychology and development programs. Based on quantitative methods (narrative content analysis) recognise the contents of resilience and create the resilience factor model. Author together with students form RTTEMA master study programme “Psy...

  14. Resilience Management System And Development Of Resilience Capability On Site Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsubara, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    When we consider the safety of socio-technical or safety critical systems, discussions from three layers are required; safety strategy, safety management and safety activity. In this study, development of resilience safety from the three layers is discussed. For the safety management layer, this study proposes resilience management system (RMS) as the style of safety management system (SMS) for resilience safety approach. Two cases at Japanese companies to enhance attitude and non-technical s...

  15. Self-centering fiber alignment structures for high-precision field installable single-mode fiber connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Ebraert, Evert; Gao, Fei; Vervaeke, Michael; Berghmans, Francis; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    There is a steady increase in the demand for internet bandwidth, primarily driven by cloud services and high-definition video streaming. Europe's Digital Agenda states the ambitious objective that by 2020 all Europeans should have access to internet at speeds of 30Mb/s or above, with 50% or more of households subscribing to connections of 100Mb/s. Today however, internet access in Europe is mainly based on the first generation of broadband, meaning internet accessed over legacy telephone copper and TV cable networks. In recent years, Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) networks have been adopted as a replacement of traditional electrical connections for the `last mile' transmission of information at bandwidths over 1Gb/s. However, FTTH penetration is still very low (economies. The main reason for this is the high deployment cost of FTTH networks. Indeed, the success and adoption of optical access networks critically depend on the quality and reliability of connections between optical fibers. In particular a further reduction of insertion loss of field- installable connectors must be achieved without a significant increase in component cost. This requires precise alignment of fibers that can differ in terms of ellipticity, eccentricity or diameter and seems hardly achievable using today's widespread ferrule-based alignment systems. In this paper, we present a field-installable connector based on deflectable/compressible spring structures, providing a self-centering functionality for the fiber. This way, it can accommodate for possible fiber cladding diameter variations (the tolerance on the cladding diameter of G.652 fiber is typically +/-0.7μm). The mechanical properties of the cantilever are derived through an analytical approximation and a mathematical model of the spring constant, and finite element-based simulations are carried out to find the maximum first principal stress as well as the stress distribution distribution in the fiber alignment structure. Elastic

  16. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  17. A novel approach to fabricate silk nanofibers containing hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using a three-way stopcock connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Ju, Hyung Woo; Moon, Bo Mi; Park, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jung Ho; Lee, Ok Joo; Park, Chan Hum

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning technique is commonly used to produce micro- and/or nanofibers, which utilizes electrical forces to produce polymeric fibers with diameters ranging from several micrometers down to few nanometers. Desirably, electrospun materials provide highly porous structure and appropriate pore size for initial cell attachment and proliferation and thereby enable the exchange of nutrients. Composite nanofibers consisting of silk and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp) (NPs) had been considered as an excellent choice due to their efficient biocompatibility and bone-mimicking properties. To prepare these nanofiber composites, it requires the use of acidic solutions which have serious consequences on the nature of both silk and HAp NPs. It is ideal to create these nanofibers using aqueous solutions in which the physicochemical nature of both materials can be retained. However, to create those nanofibers is often difficult to obtain because of the fact that aqueous solutions of silk and HAp NPs can precipitate before they can be ejected into fibers during the electrospinning process. In this work, we had successfully used a three-way stopcock connector to mix the two different solutions, and very shortly, this solution is ejected out to form nanofibers due to electric fields. Different blend ratios consisting HAp NPs had been electrospun into nanofibers. The physicochemical aspects of fabricated nanofiber had been characterized by different state of techniques like that of FE-SEM, EDS, TEM, TEM-EDS, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD. These characterization techniques revealed that HAp NPs can be easily introduced in silk nanofibers using a stopcock connector, and this method favorably preserves the intact nature of silk fibroin and HAp NPs. Moreover, nanofibers obtained by this strategy were tested for cell toxicity and cell attachment studies using NIH 3 T3 fibroblasts which indicated non-toxic behavior and good attachment of cells upon incubation in the presence of nanofibers.

  18. Remote erosion and corrosion monitoring of subsea pipelines using acoustic telemetry and wet-mate connector technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painter, Howard; Barlow, Stewart [Teledyne ODI, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Clarke, Daniel [Teledyne Cormon, Thousand Oaks, CA (United States); Green, Dale [Teledyne Benthos, North Falmouth, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper will present a novel approach for monitoring erosion and corrosion using proven sub sea technologies: intrusive erosion and corrosion monitoring, acoustic telemetry and wet-mateable connector technology. Intrusive metal loss based monitoring systems on sub sea pipelines are increasingly being used because of their ability to directly measure erosion and corrosion. These systems are integrated with the sub sea production control system or located close to the platform and hard-wired. However, locations remote from a sub sea control system or platform requires a dedicated communication system and long lengths of cable that can be cost prohibitive to procure and install. The system presented consists of an intrusive erosion or corrosion monitor with pressure and temperature transmitters, a retrievable electronics module with an acoustic modem, a data storage module, and a replaceable power module. Time-stamped erosion and corrosion data can be transmitted via an acoustic link to a surface platform, a vessel of opportunity or to a relaying modem. Acoustic signals can be transmitted up to 6 km from the monitoring location. The power module along with data module and acoustic modem are mounted on the erosion and corrosion module using wet-mateable connectors, allowing retrieval by remotely operated vehicles. The collected data can be used to assess the cumulative erosion and corrosion as well as use the real-time metal loss rate data to correlate with operational parameters. Benefits include optimization of corrosion inhibitor dosage rates, mitigation of damage caused by solids production, and increased flow assurance. (author)

  19. Warrior Resilience Training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.

  20. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    OpenAIRE

    K. Haines

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities whi...

  1. Adaptation and Livelihood Resilience | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... intervention strategies based on income diversification, environmental management and multi-purpose ... partnering on a new initiative, aimed at reducing the emerging risk that. ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.

  2. the Pathways to Resilience Project Advisory Panel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the South African Pathways to Resilience Project, between 2008 and the present, in order to ... vice versa, and divergent objectives (e.g. building community infrastructure versus ... inadequate time and resources and associated risks. A review ...

  3. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness.

  4. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  5. Proceedings "… Towards Resilient Honey Bees …"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.A.; Zweep, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Roadmap is a co-creation by Bees@wur and the Dutch government, and the (inter)national researchers participating in the workshop Resilient Honey bees 23-24 November 2015, Castle Hoekelum, Bennekom, The Netherlands

  6. Resilient Afforable Cubesat Processor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Materials Applications, LLC (AMA) proposes the Resilient Affordable Computing Platform (RACP), a power-efficient high-performance space computer design for...

  7. Climate Change Resilience in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Tristan

    2017-12-01

    Between 1930 and 2030, the world's population will have flipped from 70% rural to 70% urban. While much has been written about the impacts of climate change and mitigation of its effects on individual buildings or infrastructure, this book is one of the first to focus on the resilience of whole cities. It covers a broad range of area-wide disaster-level impacts, including drought, heatwaves, flooding, storms and air quality, which many of our cities are ill-adapted to cope with, and unless we can increase the resilience of our urban areas then much of our current building stock may become uninhabitable. Climate Resilience in Urban Environments provides a detailed overview of the risks for urban areas, including those risks to human health as well as to building integrity, the physical processes involved, and presents key information in which way the risks can be reduced and urban areas made more resilient.

  8. Does resilient mean eco-inefficient?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo

    as long-term perfomance. Resilience is not explicitly taken into account within life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA determines the eco-efficiency of product systems, i.e. the ratio between the function provided by the product and its impact on the environment. The question is whether a product system which...... structure is improved or designed to be more resilient will not only be more inefficient, but also eco-inefficient, when studied by means of LCA. In this work a two steps approach is proposed to study resilience of product systems: 1) assessment of disturbance conditions and their inclusion within the scope......, because the redundant connections between elements of a system make it less efficient but also more flexible and adaptable and allow to perform a function even if some connections are interrupted or missing. Balancing between resilience and efficiency seems to be the key for sustainability intended...

  9. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  10. Introduction: Social-Ecological Resilience and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental law envisions ecological systems as existing in an equilibrium state, reinforcing a rigid legal framework unable to absorb rapid environmental changes and innovations in sustainability. For the past four decades, "resilience theory," which embraces uncertainty and n...

  11. Drinking Water Earthquake Resilience Paper Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data for the 9 figures contained in the paper, A SOFTWARE FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE RESILIENCE OF DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS TO DISASTERS WITH AN EXAMPLE EARTHQUAKE...

  12. International co-operation in cyber resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielstra, A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Duijnhoven, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    All stakeholders in cyber security and resilience have obligations; it is time to end the period of loose, non-binding collaborations, say Annemarie Zielstra, Eric Luiijf and Hanneke Duijnhoven, in this call for nations to work more closely together

  13. Can Law Foster Social-Ecological Resilience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahjond S. Garmestani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Law plays an essential role in shaping natural resource and environmental policy, but unfortunately, many environmental laws were developed around the prevailing scientific understanding that there was a "balance of nature" that could be managed and sustained. This view assumes that natural resource managers have the capacity to predict the behavior of ecological systems, know what its important functional components are, and successfully predict the outcome of management interventions. This paper takes on this problem by summarizing and synthesizing the contributions to this Special Feature (Law and Social-Ecological Resilience, Part I: Contributions from Resilience 2011, focusing on the interaction of law and social-ecological resilience, and then offering recommendations for the integration of law and social-ecological resilience.

  14. Warp drive with zero expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)

    2002-03-21

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  15. Expansion lyre-shaped tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andro, Jean.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr

  16. Estimates of expansion time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure

  17. Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....

  18. Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin

    2014-04-11

    Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.

  19. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Miller, Richard F.; Board, David I.; Pyke, David A.; Roundy, Bruce A.; Grace, James B.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Tausch, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of piñon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species by reducing woody fuels and increasing native perennial herbaceous species. We used Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project data to test predictions on effects of fire vs. mechanical treatments on resilience and resistance for three site types exhibiting cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) invasion and/or piñon and juniper expansion: 1) warm and dry Wyoming big sagebrush (WY shrub); 2) warm and moist Wyoming big sagebrush (WY PJ); and 3) cool and moist mountain big sagebrush (Mtn PJ). Warm and dry (mesic/aridic) WY shrub sites had lower resilience to fire (less shrub recruitment and native perennial herbaceous response) than cooler and moister (frigid/xeric) WY PJ and Mtn PJ sites. Warm (mesic) WY Shrub and WY PJ sites had lower resistance to annual exotics than cool (frigid to cool frigid) Mtn PJ sites. In WY shrub, fire and sagebrush mowing had similar effects on shrub cover and, thus, on perennial native herbaceous and exotic cover. In WY PJ and Mtn PJ, effects were greater for fire than cut-and-leave treatments and with high tree cover in general because most woody vegetation was removed increasing resources for other functional groups. In WY shrub, about 20% pretreatment perennial native herb cover was necessary to prevent increases in exotics after treatment. Cooler and moister WY PJ and especially Mtn PJ were more resistant to annual exotics, but perennial native herb cover was still required for site recovery. We use our results to develop state and transition models that illustrate how resilience and resistance influence vegetation dynamics and management options.

  20. Mammalian herbivores confer resilience of Arctic shrub-dominated ecosystems to changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarlejärvi, Elina; Hoset, Katrine S; Olofsson, Johan

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is resulting in a rapid expansion of shrubs in the Arctic. This expansion has been shown to be reinforced by positive feedbacks, and it could thus set the ecosystem on a trajectory toward an alternate, more productive regime. Herbivores, on the other hand, are known to counteract the effects of simultaneous climate warming on shrub biomass. However, little is known about the impact of herbivores on resilience of these ecosystems, that is, the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and still remain in the same regime, retaining the same function, structure, and feedbacks. Here, we investigated how herbivores affect resilience of shrub-dominated systems to warming by studying the change of shrub biomass after a cessation of long-term experimental warming in a forest-tundra ecotone. As predicted, warming increased the biomass of shrubs, and in the absence of herbivores, shrub biomass in tundra continued to increase 4 years after cessation of the artificial warming, indicating that positive effects of warming on plant growth may persist even over a subsequent colder period. Herbivores contributed to the resilience of these systems by returning them back to the original low-biomass regime in both forest and tundra habitats. These results support the prediction that higher shrub biomass triggers positive feedbacks on soil processes and microclimate, which enable maintaining the rapid shrub growth even in colder climates. Furthermore, the results show that in our system, herbivores facilitate the resilience of shrub-dominated ecosystems to climate warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Assessment of the sustainability of a water resource system expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2001-01-01

    A sustainability assessment method involving risk criteria related to reliability, resilience and vulnerability, has been applied to quantify the relative sustainability of possible expansions of a water resources system in the KwaZulu-Natal province South Africa. A river basin model has been setup....... Based on initial experience the method was modified leading to more credible results. A problem with assessing sustainability using risk criteria is a favouring of supply-oriented solutions, in particular when aspects not directly related to demand and availability of water are excluded....... for the water resources system, comprising all important water users within the catchment. Measures to meet the growing water demand in the catchment are discussed. Six scenarios including both supply and demand oriented solutions are identified, modelled and compared in tenus of the sustainability criteria...

  2. Towards resilient cities. Comparing approaches/strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Colucci

    2012-01-01

    The term “resilience” is used in many disciplines with different meanings. We will adopt the ecological concept of resilience, which epitomises the capacity of a system to adapt itself in response to the action of a force, achieving a state of equilibrium different from the original (White, 2011). Since the end of the last century, with a significant increase over the last few years, resilience has featured as key concept in many technical, political papers and documents, and appears in many ...

  3. Proceedings of the third resilience engineering symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Pieri, Francois; Rigaud, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The proceeding from Third Resilience Engineering Symposium collects the papers presented on October 28-30, 2008, in Antibes-Juan-les-Pins, France. The Symposium provided a much appreciated forum for people working within the area of Resilience Engineering to become updated with the latest scientific achievements as well as more practical oriented applications, and exchange views and idea within the area. Resilience Engineering represents a new way of thinking about safety that has already given rise to several practical applications. In contrast to established risk management approaches that are based on hindsight and emphasise error tabulation and calculation of failure probabilities, Resilience Engineering looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to create processes that are robust yet flexible, to monitor and revise risk models, and to use resources pro-actively in the face of disruptions or ongoing production and economic pressures. In Resilience Engineering failures do not stand for a breakdown or malfunctioning of normal system functions, but rather represent the converse of the adaptations necessary to cope with the real world complexity. Individuals and organisations must always adjust their performance to the current conditions; and because resources and time are finite it is inevitable that such adjustments are approximate. Success has been ascribed to the ability of groups, individuals, and organisations to anticipate the changing shape of risk before damage occurs; failure is simply the temporary or permanent absence of that. Three papers were selected for INIS, these are: - Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity (Costa, W.S. et al.); - Resilience and the Training of Nuclear Operators - A View from the Shop Floor (Hildebrandt, M. et al.); and - Complexity of Resilient Power Distribution Networks (May, M.)

  4. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Frerks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster received considerable attention, in recent years we have seen increased attention to people's capacities and resilience. The currently popular "complexity" approach to risk moreover appears to offer ways of breaking through entrenched vulnerabilities. Resilience however is also a political project which, we argue, also has its dark, conservative overtones and overlooks structural sources of vulnerability that continue to affect hazard-prone actors. We may therefore need to conceive resilience as the potential for social transformation after disaster.Existe muita confusão conceitual em torno dos conceitos de vulnerabilidade e resiliência (social, reforçada pela diferença de paradigmas (este artigo identifica quarto e tradições disciplinares subjacentes à sua utilização. Enquanto desde os anos 80 a construção social de "vulnerabilidade" como condutor para desastres recebeu atenção considerável, nos últimos anos temos visto maior atenção às capacidades e resiliência das pessoas. Atualmente popular, a abordagem da "complexidade" do risco, além disso, parece oferecer maneiras transformadoras através das vulnerabilidades enraizadas. No entanto, defendemos que a resiliência é um projeto político que também tem seus sombrios sobretons conservadores e omite fontes estruturais de vulnerabilidade que continuam a afetar os atores propensos ao risco. Podemos, portanto, precisar conceber a resiliência como potencial para transformação social depois de desastres.

  5. Resilient Governance of Water Regimes in Variable Climates: Lessons from California’s Hydro-Ecological Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Romm

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly variable water regimes, such as California’s, contain distinctive problems in the pursuit of secure timing, quantities and distributions of highly variable flows. Their formal and informal systems of water control must adapt rapidly to forceful and unpredictable swings on which the survival of diversified ecosystems, expansive settlement patterns and market-driven economies depends. What constitutes resilient water governance in these high-variability regimes? Three bodies of theory—state resource government, resilience and social mediation—inform our pursuit of governance that adapts effectively to these challenges. Using evidence drawn primarily from California research and participation in the policy and practice of water governance, we identify two stark barriers to learning, adaptation and resilience in high-variability conditions: (1 the sharp divide between modes of governance for ecological (protective and for social (distributive resilience and (2 the separation between predominant paradigms of water governance in “basins” (shared streamflow and in “plains” (minimized social risk. These sources of structural segregation block adaptive processes and diminish systemic resilience, creating need for mediating spaces that increase permeability, learning and adaptation across structural barriers. We propose that the magnitude and diversity of need are related directly to the degree of hydro-climatic variability.

  6. Does Avicennia germinans expansion alter salt marsh nitrogen removal capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatariw, C.; Kleinhuizen, A.; Rajan, S.; Flournoy, N.; Sobecky, P.; Mortazavi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Plant species expansion poses risks to ecosystem services through alterations to plant-microbiome interactions associated with changes to key microbial drivers such as organic carbon (C) substrates, nitrogen (N) availability, and rhizosphere-associated microbial communities. In the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM), warming winter temperatures associated with climate change have promoted Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) expansion into salt marshes. To date, there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of mangrove expansion on vital ecosystem services such as N cycling in the northern GOM. We designed a field-based study to determine the potential effects of mangrove expansion on salt marsh N biogeochemical cycling in the Spartina alterniflora dominated Chandeleur Islands (LA, USA). We used a combination of process rate measurements and metadata to: 1) Determine the impact of mangrove expansion on salt marsh denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), with the goal of quantifying losses or gains in ecosystem services; and 2) identify the mechanisms driving changes in ecosystem services to improve predictions about the impacts of mangrove expansion on salt marsh functional resiliency. The pneumatophore root structure of A. germinans is efficient at delivering oxygen (O2) to sediment, which can promote coupled nitrification-denitrification and decrease sulfide inhibition. We hypothesized that increased sediment O2, when coupled with cooler soil temperatures caused by plant shading, will favor denitrification instead of the DNRA process. An increase in sediment O2, as well as higher N content of A. germinans litter, will also result in a shift in the microbial community. Initial findings indicated that the denitrification pathway dominates over DNRA regardless of vegetation type, with average denitrification rates of 30.1 µmol N kg-1 h-1 versus average DNRA rates of 8.5 µmol N kg-1 h-1. However, neither denitrification nor DNRA rates

  7. Defining resilience: A preliminary integrative literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Bonnie; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    The term “resilience” is ubiquitous in technical literature; it appears in numerous forms, such as resilience, resiliency, or resilient, and each use may have a different definition depending on the interpretation of the writer. This creates difficulties in understanding what is meant by ‘resilience’ in any given use case, especially in discussions of interdisciplinary research. To better understand this problem, this research constructs a preliminary integrative literature review to map different definitions, applications and calculation methods of resilience invoked within critical infrastructure applications. The preliminary review uses a State-of-the-Art Matrix (SAM) analysis to characterize differences in definition across disciplines and between regions. Qualifying the various usages of resilience will produce a greater precision in the literature and a deeper insight into types of data required for its evaluation, particularly with respect to critical infrastructure calculations and how such data may be analyzed. Results from this SAM analysis will create a framework of key concepts as part of the most common applications for “resilient critical infrastructure” modeling.

  8. Developing Mathematical Resilience of Prospective Math Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, L.; Herman, T.; Sumarmo, U.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Prospective math teachers need to develop positive adaptive attitudes toward mathematics that will enable them to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties. This research focuses on the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers after being treated using problem-based learning based on their basic knowledge on mathematic and their overall knowledge on math. This research used only one group for pre-test and post-test. The result of this research shows that there is improvement on prospective teachers’ resilience after they were given treatment using problem-based learning. One of the factors causing the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers is the instructions on students’ work sheet. In the instructions, stud ents were asked to write difficulties in solving math problems as well as write down the solution they take to overcome them. This research can be used as a reference for other researchers who want to do the same research related on students’ resiliency o n math and or math lecturers to improve the resilience of prospective teachers to be resilient teachers on math in the future.

  9. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  10. Resilient children of injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Zybert, Patricia A; Vlahov, David

    2004-11-01

    To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Injection drug-using parents (n=91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n=117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest quartile of the Child Behavior Checklist total psychopathology score. Coping strategies used by resilient and nonresilient children, the extent and types of social support that they received, and the level of parenting stress reported by their parents were compared and contrasted. Rates of depressive, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders were 15.4%, 22.2%, and 21.4%, respectively, for the entire sample. Compared with the nonresilient, resilient children were less likely to use two avoidance coping strategies (internalizing [p=.002] and externalizing [p=.017]). The level of actual support received by resilient and nonresilient children did not differ significantly (p=.202). Perceived support was greater among resilient children (as reported by their parents; p parents reported lower parenting stress (p=.042). A significant proportion of children of injection drug users are in need of clinical care. Interventions to help children of substance-abusing parents modify their coping style merit exploration.

  11. Urban flooding and Resilience: concepts and needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbesville, Ph.

    2012-04-01

    During the recent years, a growing interest for resilience has been expressed in the natural disaster mitigation area and especially in the flood related events. The European Union, under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), has initiated several research initiatives in order to explore this concept especially for the urban environments. Under urban resilience is underlined the ability of system potentially exposed to hazard to resist, respond, recover and reflect up to stage which is enough to preserve level of functioning and structure. Urban system can be resilient to lot of different hazards. Urban resilience is defined as the degree to which cities are able to tolerate some disturbance before reorganizing around a new set of structures and processes (Holling 1973, De Bruijn 2005). The United Nation's International strategy for Disaster Reductions has defined resilience as "the capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt, by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. This is determined by the degree to which the social system is capable of organizing itself to increase this capacity for learning from past disasters for better future protection and to improve risk reduction measures."(UN/ISDR 2004). According to that, system should be able to accept the hazard and be able to recover up to condition that provides acceptable operational level of city structure and population during and after hazard event. Main elements of urban system are built environment and population. Physical characteristic of built environment and social characteristic of population have to be examined in order to evaluate resilience. Therefore presenting methodology for assessing flood resilience in urban areas has to be one of the focal points for the exposed cities. Strategies under flood management planning related to resilience of urban systems are usually regarding controlling runoff

  12. Restoring Diversity after Cattail Expansion: Disturbance, Resilience, and Seasonality in a Tropical Dry Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the human footprint expands, ecologists and resource managers are increasingly challenged to explain and/or manage abrupt ecosystem transformations (i.e., regime shifts) that have produced novel ecosystems. In this study, we investigate the role of a mechanical disturbance tha...

  13. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  14. Toward quantifying metrics for rail-system resilience : Identification and analysis of performance weak resilience signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, A. de; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance tangibility of the resilience engineering concept by facilitating understanding and operationalization of weak resilience signals (WRSs) in the rail sector. Within complex socio-technical systems, accidents can be seen as unwanted outcomes emerging from uncontrolled

  15. Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Cusack, Lynette; Hegney, Desley

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as "resilient." A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g., neuroticism) as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g., coping style), enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesized to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping, and psychological adjustment.

  16. Access and Resilience: Analyzing the Construction of Social Resilience to the Threat of Water Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Langridge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a vital attribute that characterizes a system's capacity to cope with stress. Researchers have examined the measurement of resilience in ecosystems and in social-ecological systems, and the comparative vulnerability of social groups. Our paper refocuses attention on the processes and relations that create social resilience. Our central proposition is that the creation of social resilience is linked to a community's ability to access critical resources. We explore this proposition through an analysis of how community resilience to the stress of water scarcity is influenced by historically contingent mechanisms to gain, control, and maintain access to water. Access is defined broadly as the ability of a community to actually benefit from a resource, and includes a wider range of relations than those derived from property rights alone. We provide a framework for assessing the construction of social resilience and use it to examine, first, the different processes and relations that enabled four communities in northern California to acquire access to water, and second, how access contributed to their differential levels of resilience to potential water scarcity. Legal water rights are extremely difficult to alter, and given the variety of mechanisms that can generate access, our study suggests that strengthening and diversifying a range of structural and relational mechanisms to access water can enhance a community's resilience to water scarcity.

  17. Rights for resilience: food sovereignty, power, and resilience in development practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marygold Walsh-Dilley

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Even as resilience thinking becomes evermore popular as part of strategic programming among development and humanitarian organizations, uncertainty about how to define, operationalize, measure, and evaluate resilience for development goals prevails. As a result, many organizations and institutions have undertaken individual, collective, and simultaneous efforts toward clarification and definition. This has opened up a unique opportunity for a rethinking of development practices. The emergent consensus about what resilience means within development practice will have important consequences both for development practitioners and the communities in which they work. Incorporating resilience thinking into development practice has the potential to radically transform this arena in favor of social and environmental justice, but it could also flounder as a way to dress old ideas in new clothes or, at worst, to further exploit, disempower, and marginalize the world's most vulnerable populations. We seek to make an intervention into the definitional debates surrounding resilience that supports the former and helps prevent the latter. We argue that resilience thinking as it has been developed in social-ecological systems and allied literatures has a lot in common with the concept of food sovereignty and that paying attention to some of the lessons and claims of food sovereignty movements could contribute toward building a consensus around resilience that supports social and environmental justice. In particular, the food sovereignty movement relies on a strategy that elevates rights. We suggest that a rights-based approach to resilience-oriented development practice could contribute to its application in just and equitable ways.

  18. The Resilience-Enabling Value of African Folktales: The Read-Me-To-Resilience Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Linda; Cockcroft, Kate; Wood, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    Resilience, or the process of adjusting well to adversity, draws on personal and social ecological resources (i.e., caregiving and community supports). Previous research--conducted mostly in the Global North--has shown that bibliotherapy offers a way to support children in identifying and utilizing resilience-enabling resources. In so doing,…

  19. Children's resilience and trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy: Comparing resilience as an outcome, a trait, and a process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happer, Kaitlin; Brown, Elissa J; Sharma-Patel, Komal

    2017-11-01

    Resilience, which is associated with relatively positive outcomes following negative life experiences, is an important research target in the field of child maltreatment (Luthar et al., 2000). The extant literature contains multiple conceptualizations of resilience, which hinders development in research and clinical utility. Three models emerge from the literature: resilience as an immediate outcome (i.e., behavioral or symptom response), resilience as a trait, and resilience as a dynamic process. The current study compared these models in youth undergoing trauma-specific cognitive behavioral therapy. Results provide the most support for resilience as a process, in which increase in resilience preceded associated decrease in posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. There was partial support for resilience conceptualized as an outcome, and minimal support for resilience as a trait. Results of the models are compared and discussed in the context of existing literature and in light of potential clinical implications for maltreated youth seeking treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trichoderma for climate resilient agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Pallavi; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Moreover, they can be used to produce bio-energy, facilitate plants for adaptation and mitigate adverse effect of climate change. The technological advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing and biotechnology provided deep insight into the complex and diverse biotic interactions established in nature by Trichoderma spp. and efforts are being made to translate this knowledge to enhance crop growth, resistance to disease and tolerance to abiotic stresses under field conditions. The discovery of several traits and genes that are involved in the beneficial effects of Trichoderma spp. has resulted in better understanding of the performance of bioinoculants in the field, and will lead to more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. The present mini-review is an effort to elucidate the molecular basis of plant growth promotion and defence activation by Trichoderma spp. to garner broad perspectives regarding their functioning and applicability for climate resilient agriculture.

  1. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  2. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action.

  3. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  4. Imaging resilience and recovery in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Katrin; Rosenthal, Annika; Lohoff, Falk W; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2018-05-09

    Resilience and recovery are of increasing importance in the field of alcohol dependence (AD). This paper describes how imaging studies in man can be used to assess the neurobiological correlates of resilience and, if longitudinal, of disease trajectories, progression rates and markers for recovery to inform treatment and prevention options. Original articles on recovery and resilience in alcohol addiction and its neurobiological correlates were identified from 'PubMed' and have been analyzed and condensed within a systematic literature review. Findings deriving from (f)MRI and PET studies have identified links between increased resilience and less task-elicited neural activation within the basal ganglia, and benefits of heightened neural prefrontal cortex (PFC) engagement regarding resilience in a broader sense, namely resilience against relapse in early abstinence of AD. Furthermore, findings consistently propose at least partial recovery of brain glucose metabolism and executive and general cognitive functioning, as well as structural plasticity effects throughout the brain of alcohol-dependent patients during the course of short, medium and long-term abstinence, even when patients only lowered their alcohol consumption to a moderate level. Additionally, specific factors were found that appear to influence these observed brain recovery processes in AD, e.g. genotype-dependent neuronal (re)growth, gender-specific neural recovery effects, critical interfering effects of psychiatric comorbidities, additional smoking or marijuana influences, or adolescent alcohol abuse. Neuroimaging research has uncovered neurobiological markers that appear to be linked to resilience and improved recovery capacities that are furthermore influenced by various factors such as gender or genetics. Consequently, future system-oriented approaches may help to establish a broad neuroscience-based research framework for alcohol dependence. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  5. Gender, violence and resilience among Ugandan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Faris, Devin; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen; Naker, Dipak

    2017-08-01

    Resilience, commonly understood as the ability to maintain adaptive functioning in the face of adversity, has emerged as a salient entry point in the field of positive youth development. This study makes a unique contribution by exploring dimensions of resilience among adolescents in Uganda, examining associations between violence from different perpetrators and resilience, and testing whether sex moderates these relationships. Analyses are based on data from 3706 primary school students. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified five factors underlying the construct of resilience: Emotional Support; Family Connectedness; School Connectedness; Social Assets; and Psychological Assets. We used regression analysis to investigate associations between these dependent variables, background characteristics, and experiences of violence (including exposure to intimate partner violence against female caregivers). Results reflect a complex relationship between violence and resilience, with patterns varying by perpetrator (e.g., teacher, peers, caregivers) and some evidence that the sex of the student moderates these dynamics. Overall, there is a consistently negative relationship between all violence measures and Psychological Assets. In addition, teacher violence is associated with lower resilience across factors and both caregiver violence and exposure to IPV are consistently associated with decreased Family Connectedness. These findings suggest that adolescents experiencing (and exposed to) violence from adults may be particularly vulnerable to internalizing and/or externalizing behaviors and withdrawal from the family. Findings point to preventing violence from teachers complemented with enhancing family relationships as promising avenues for resilience-strengthening interventions, and also emphasize the need to consider gendered strategies to ensure girls and boys benefit equally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  7. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  8. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  9. Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.

  10. Economic resilience lessons from the ShakeOut earthquake scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A.; Rose, A.

    2011-01-01

    Following a damaging earthquake, “business interruption” (BI)—reduced production of goods and services—begins and continues long after the ground shaking stops. Economic resilience reduces BI losses by making the best use of the resources available at a given point in time (static resilience) or by speeding recovery through repair and reconstruction (dynamic resilience), in contrast to mitigation that prevents damage in the first place. Economic resilience is an important concept to incorporate into economic loss modeling and in recovery and contingency planning. Economic resilience framework includes the applicability of resilience strategies to production inputs and output, demand- and supply-side effects, inherent and adaptive abilities, and levels of the economy. We use our resilience framework to organize and share strategies that enhance economic resilience, identify overlooked resilience strategies, and present evidence and structure of resilience strategies for economic loss modelers. Numerous resilience strategies are compiled from stakeholder discussions about the ShakeOut Scenario (Jones et. al. 2008). Modeled results of ShakeOut BI sector losses reveal variable effectiveness of resilience strategies for lengthy disruptions caused by fire-damaged buildings and water service outages. Resilience is a complement to mitigation and may, in fact, have cost and all-hazards advantages.

  11. What we know and do not know about organizational resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ruiz-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a literature review about organizational resilience, with the goal of identifying how organizational resilience is conceptualized and assessed. The two research questions that drive the review are: (1 how is organizational resilience conceptualized? and (2 how is organizational resilience assessed? We answer the first question by analysing organizational resilience definitions and the attributes or characteristics that contribute to develop resilient organizations. We answer the second question by reviewing articles that focus on tools or methods to measure organizational resilience. Although there are three different ways to define organizational resilience, we found common ideas in the definitions. We also found that organizational resilience is considered a property, ability or capability that can be improved over time. However, we did not find consensus about the elements that contribute to improving the level of organizational resilience and how to assess it. Based on the results of the review, we propose a conceptualization of organizational resilience that integrates the three views found in the literature. We also propose a four-level Maturity Model for Organizational Resilience – MMOR. Using this model, the organization can be in one of the following levels based on its ability and capacity to handle disruptive events: fragile, robust, resilient or antifragile.

  12. The loop expansion as a divergent-power-series expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, N.

    1981-01-01

    The loop expansion should be divergent, possibly an asymptotic one, in the Euclidean path integral formulation. This consideration is important in applications of the symmetric and mass-independent renormalization. The [1,1] Pade approximant is calculated in a PHI 4 model. Its classical vacua may be not truely stable for nonzero coupling constant. (author)

  13. Cosmological expansion and local physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey

    2007-01-01

    The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed

  14. Temperature expansions for magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangemi, D.; Dunne, G.

    1996-01-01

    We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the T=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  15. A methodology for urban flood resilience assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Serge; Serre, Damien; Diab, Youssef; Laganier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In Europe, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity [Szöllösi-Nagy and Zevenbergen, 2005]. Moreover, climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency and intensity of hydro meteorological disaster [IPCC, 2007]. Despite efforts made to maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe levee failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although benefiting continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties arising all along data calculation processes. In the same time, the year 2007 marks a turning point in history: half of the world population now lives in cities (UN-Habitat, 2007). Moreover, the total urban population is expected to double from two to four billion over the next 30 to 35 years (United Nations, 2006). This growing rate is equivalent to the creation of a new city of one million inhabitants every week, and this during the next four decades [Flood resilience Group]. So, this quick urban development coupled with technical failures and climate change have increased flood risk and corresponding challenges to urban flood risk management [Ashley et al., 2007], [Nie et al., 2009]. These circumstances oblige to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like urban resilience. In recent years, resilience has become a central concept for risk management. This concept has emerged because a more resilient system is less vulnerable to risk and, therefore, more sustainable [Serre et al., 2010]. But urban flood resilience is a concept that has not yet been directly assessed. Therefore, when decision makers decide to use the resilience concept to manage urban flood, they have no tool to help them. That is why this paper proposes a methodology to assess urban flood resilience in order to make this concept operational. Networks affect the well-being of the people and the smooth functioning of services and, more generally, of economical activities. Yet

  16. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  17. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of extreme events due to natural hazards is difficult to predict. Extreme events are stochastic in nature, there is a lack of long term data on their occurrence, and there are still gaps in our understanding of their physical processes. This difficulty in prediction will be exacerbated by climate change and human activities. Yet traditional risk assessments measure risk as the probability of occurrence of a hazard, multiplied by the consequences of the hazard occurring, which ignores the recovery process. In light of the increasing concerns on disaster risks and the related system recovery, resilience assessments are being used as an approach which complements and builds on traditional risk assessments and management. In mechanical terms, resilience refers to the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb while maintaining its ability to return to its original shape. Resilience was first applied in the fields of psychology and ecology, and more recently has been used in areas such as social sciences, economics, and engineering. A common metaphor for understanding resilience is the stability landscape. The landscape consists of a surface of interconnected basins, where each basin represents different states of a system, which is a point on the stability landscape. The resilience of the system is its capacity and tendency to remain within a particular basin. This depends on the topology of the landscape, on the system's current position, and on its reaction to different shocks and stresses. In practical terms, resilience assessments have been conducted for various purposes in different sectors. These assessments vary in their required inputs, the methodologies applied, and the output they produce. Some measures used for resilience assessments are hazard independent. These focus on the intrinsic capabilities of a system, for example the insurance coverage of a community, or the buffer capacity of a water storage reservoir. Other

  18. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton

    2016-01-01

    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  19. View of the inner part of the VO prototype box. The WLS fibers wrapped up in teflon strips are coupled to connectors which ensure the passage of the light outside the box and its transfer in optical fibers.

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    View of the inner part of the VO prototype box. The WLS fibers wrapped up in teflon strips are coupled to connectors which ensure the passage of the light outside the box and its transfer in optical fibers.

  20. Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies

  1. Operational resilience: concepts, design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, Alexander A.; Massaro, Emanuele; Gutfraind, Alexander; Steen, Nicolas; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Kott, Alexander; Mangoubi, Rami; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Building resilience into today’s complex infrastructures is critical to the daily functioning of society and its ability to withstand and recover from natural disasters, epidemics, and cyber-threats. This study proposes quantitative measures that capture and implement the definition of engineering resilience advanced by the National Academy of Sciences. The approach is applicable across physical, information, and social domains. It evaluates the critical functionality, defined as a performance function of time set by the stakeholders. Critical functionality is a source of valuable information, such as the integrated system resilience over a time interval, and its robustness. The paper demonstrates the formulation on two classes of models: 1) multi-level directed acyclic graphs, and 2) interdependent coupled networks. For both models synthetic case studies are used to explore trends. For the first class, the approach is also applied to the Linux operating system. Results indicate that desired resilience and robustness levels are achievable by trading off different design parameters, such as redundancy, node recovery time, and backup supply available. The nonlinear relationship between network parameters and resilience levels confirms the utility of the proposed approach, which is of benefit to analysts and designers of complex systems and networks.

  2. Organizational resilience: Nonprofit organizations' response to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Hope; Mellinger, Marcela Sarmiento

    2016-05-24

    Organizational resilience refers to the ability to respond productively to significant disruptive change and transform challenges into opportunities. There is a gap in the literature about resilient nonprofit organizations and its application for identifying organizational conditions for successful adaption to external variables that threaten their existence. The aim of this study was to identify organizational characteristics that point to the resilience of nonprofit behavioral healthcare organizations as they successfully adapt to funding changes. A multiple case study of two behavioral health nonprofit organizations was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and focus groups, and analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Using the framework of resilience, six themes that equipped these organizations to successfully adapt to funding changes were identified. They included: commitment to the mission, improvisation, community reciprocity, servant and transformational leadership, hope and optimism, and fiscal transparency. The findings suggest that incorporating these qualities into an organizational system equips it to systematically adapt to funding changes and other disruptive challenges. Using resilience as a process and not simply an outcome after recovery, nonprofit organizations can have the capacity to continuously respond to challenges and provide uninterrupted and valuable services to society.

  3. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable, and the ......Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  4. Conceptualizing Holistic Community Resilience to Climate ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of resilience has been evolving over the past decade as a way to address the current and future challenges nations, states, and cities face from a changing climate. Understanding how the environment (natural and built), climate event risk, societal interactions, and governance reflect community resilience for adaptive management is critical for envisioning urban and natural environments that can persist through extreme weather events and longer-term shifts in climate. To be successful, this interaction of these five domains must result in maintaining quality of life and ensuring equal access to the benefits or the protection from harm for all segments of the population. An exhaustive literature review of climate resilience approaches was conducted examining the two primary elements of resilience—vulnerability and recoverability. The results of this review were examined to determine if any existing frameworks addressed the above five major areas in an integrated manner. While some aspects of a resilience model were available for existing sources, no comprehensive approach was available. A new conceptual model for resilience to climate events is proposed that incorporates some available structures and addresses these five domains at a national, regional, state, and county spatial scale for a variety of climate-induced events ranging from superstorms to droughts and their concomitant events such as wildfires, floods, and pest invasions. This conceptua

  5. Cyber physical system based on resilient ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    While development of science and technology has built up the sophisticated civilized society, it has also resulted in quite a few disadvantages in global environment and human society. The common recognition has been increasingly shared worldwide on sustainable development society attaching greater importance to the symbiotic relationship with nature and social ethics. After the East Japan Great Earthquake, it is indispensable for sustainable social development to enhance capacity of resistance and restoration of society against natural disaster, so called "resilient society". Our society consists of various Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) that make up the physical systems by fusing with an Information Communication Technology (ICT). We describe the proposed structure of CPS in order to realize resilient society. The configuration of resilient CPS consisting of ICT and physical system is discussed to introduce "autonomous, distributed, and cooperative" structure, where subsystems of ICT and physical system are simultaneously coordinated and cooperated with Business Continuity Planning (BCP) engine, respectively. We show the disaster response information system and energy network as examples of BCP engine and resilient CPS, respectively. We also propose the structure and key technology of resilient ICT.

  6. Career anchors and career resilience: Supplementary constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.

  7. Surveillance and Resilience in Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D. Raab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance is often used as a tool in resilience strategies towards the threat posed by terrorist attacks and other serious crime. “Resilience” is a contested term with varying and ambiguous meaning in governmental, business and social discourses, and it is not clear how it relates to other terms that characterise processes or states of being. Resilience is often assumed to have positive connotations, but critics view it with great suspicion, regarding it as a neo-liberal governmental strategy. However, we argue that surveillance, introduced in the name of greater security, may itself erode social freedoms and public goods such as privacy, paradoxically requiring societal resilience, whether precautionary or in mitigation of the harms it causes to the public goods of free societies. This article develops new models and extends existing ones to describe resilience processes unfolding over time and in anticipation of, or in reaction to, adversities of different kinds and severity, and explores resilience both on the plane of abstract analysis and in the context of societal responses to mass surveillance. The article thus focuses upon surveillance as a special field for conceptual analysis and modelling of situations, and for evaluating contemporary developments in “surveillance societies”.

  8. The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.

    2009-12-01

    Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in

  9. Proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate an amendment to an existing blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of an amendment to the blanket purchase contract for the supply of Burndy connectors for the LHC project and LHC experiments with the company SOURIAU (CH), for the next three years for up to 600 000 euros (954 600 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from January 2007, bringing the total amount of the blanket purchase contract to a maximum amount of 1 200 000 euros (1 909 200 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from January 2007. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. 2006/60/5/e

  10. Hierarchical resilience with lightweight threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, Kyle Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes methodology for providing robustness and resilience for a highly threaded distributed- and shared-memory environment based on well-defined inputs and outputs to lightweight tasks. These inputs and outputs form a failure 'barrier', allowing tasks to be restarted or duplicated as necessary. These barriers must be expanded based on task behavior, such as communication between tasks, but do not prohibit any given behavior. One of the trends in high-performance computing codes seems to be a trend toward self-contained functions that mimic functional programming. Software designers are trending toward a model of software design where their core functions are specified in side-effect free or low-side-effect ways, wherein the inputs and outputs of the functions are well-defined. This provides the ability to copy the inputs to wherever they need to be - whether that's the other side of the PCI bus or the other side of the network - do work on that input using local memory, and then copy the outputs back (as needed). This design pattern is popular among new distributed threading environment designs. Such designs include the Barcelona STARS system, distributed OpenMP systems, the Habanero-C and Habanero-Java systems from Vivek Sarkar at Rice University, the HPX/ParalleX model from LSU, as well as our own Scalable Parallel Runtime effort (SPR) and the Trilinos stateless kernels. This design pattern is also shared by CUDA and several OpenMP extensions for GPU-type accelerators (e.g. the PGI OpenMP extensions).

  11. Diversity, Adaptability and Ecosystem Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keribin, Rozenn; Friend, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Our ability to predict climate change and anticipate its impacts depends on Earth System Models (ESMs) and their ability to account for the high number of interacting components of the Earth System and to gauge both their influence on the climate and the feedbacks they induce. The land carbon cycle is a component of ESMs that is still poorly constrained. Since the 1990s dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) have become the main tool through which we understand the interactions between plant ecosystems and the climate. While DGVMs have made it clear the impacts of climate change on vegetation could be dramatic, predicting the dieback of rainforests and massive carbon losses from various ecosystems, they are highly variable both in their composition and their predictions. Their treatment of plant diversity and competition in particular vary widely and are based on highly-simplified relationships that do not account for the multiple levels of diversity and adaptability found in real plant ecosystems. The aim of this GREENCYCLES II project is to extend an individual-based DGVM to treat the diversity of physiologies found in plant communities and evaluate their effect if any on the ecosystem's transient dynamics and resilience. In the context of the InterSectoral Impacts Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), an initiative coordinated by a team at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) that aims to provide fast-track global impact assessments for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report, we compare 6 vegetation models including 4 DGVMs under different climate change scenarios and analyse how the very different treatments of plant diversity and interactions from one model to the next affect the models' results. We then investigate a new, more mechanistic method of incorporating plant diversity into the DGVM "Hybrid" based on ecological tradeoffs mediated by plant traits and individual-based competition for light.

  12. Promoting resilience among nursing students in clinical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Jean; Asselin, Marilyn

    2018-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to overcome adversity and grow stronger from the experience. Increased resilience has been shown to positively impact nurses in practice. With this knowledge, recommendations to incorporate resilience training into nursing education have been made. Research, integrative reviews and a theoretical model of resilience in nursing students are explored in this paper. The authors posit that facilitating resilience is important in the setting of clinical education. Through incorporating resilience training in the clinical setting, educators can better prepare students for challenges in their educational environment and ultimately for nursing practice. Specific strategies for clinical educators to incorporate resilience training are suggested. Strategies are organized into three categories, support, education and reflection. The position of facilitating resilience in clinical education may open a discussion for future educational practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Organizational resilience in national security bureaucracies: Realistic and practicable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is increasingly highlighted as a necessary organizational property in national security bureaucracies. This article explores the resulting management dilemmas via interviews with Danish executives, who attempt to balance resilience, fiscal austerity and democratic accountability...

  14. Livelihood strategies, resilience and transformability in African agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to translate resilience thinking theory into farming systems design practice, this paper examines fundamental properties of complex systems dynamics and their relation with the mechanisms that govern resilience and transformability in African smallholder agriculture. Agroecosystems dynamics

  15. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  16. Caregivers' resilience is independent from the clinical symptoms of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Rachel; Simões-Neto, José Pedro; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Baptista, Maria Alice Tourinho; Lacerda, Isabel Barbeito; Kimura, Nathalia Ramos Santos; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2016-12-01

    Resilience is the capacity for successful adaptation when faced with the stress of adversity. We aimed to investigate the relationship between caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical factors of people with dementia. Cross-sectional assessment of 58 people with dementia and their caregiver dyads showed that most caregivers were female adult children. The caregivers reported moderate to higher levels of resilience, lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and moderate levels of burden. Resilience was not related to the caregiver's gender (p = 0.883), nor clinical (p = 0.807) or emotional problems (p = 0.420). The regression showed that resilience was related to the caregiver's quality of life (p caregivers' resilience and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of people with dementia. We can assume that resilience is an individual characteristic. Support groups should also focus on the factors that may increase resilience among caregivers.

  17. Front-Line Resilience Perspectives: The Electric Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report seeks to summarize how states and local utility companies are approaching all-hazards resilience in planning, construction, operations, and maintenance of the electric system, as well as challenges faced when addressing all-hazards resilience.

  18. Understanding Individual Resilience in the Workplace: The International Collaboration of Workforce Resilience (ICWR Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Samantha Rees

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as ‘resilient’. A number of studies have found relationships between levels of individual resilience and specific negative outcomes such as burnout and compassion fatigue. However, because psychological resilience is a multi-dimensional construct it is necessary to more clearly delineate it from other related and overlapping constructs. The creation of a testable theoretical model of individual workforce resilience, which includes both stable traits (e.g. neuroticism as well as more malleable intrapersonal factors (e.g. coping style, enables information to be derived that can eventually inform interventions aimed at enhancing individual resilience in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new theoretical model of individual workforce resilience that includes several intrapersonal constructs known to be central in the appraisal of and response to stressors and that also overlap with the construct of psychological resilience. We propose a model in which psychological resilience is hypothesised to mediate the relationship between neuroticism, mindfulness, self-efficacy, coping and psychological adjustment.

  19. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  20. Asymptotic Expansions - Methods and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlander, R.

    1999-01-01

    Different viewpoints on the asymptotic expansion of Feynman diagrams are reviewed. The relations between the field theoretic and diagrammatic approaches are sketched. The focus is on problems with large masses or large external momenta. Several recent applications also for other limiting cases are touched upon. Finally, the pros and cons of the different approaches are briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Model of clinker capacity expansion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stylianides, T

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...

  2. The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...

  3. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  4. On persistently positively expansive maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Arbieto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.

  5. Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystem Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Heard, Matthew S; Isaac, Nick J B; Roy, David B; Procter, Deborah; Eigenbrod, Felix; Freckleton, Rob; Hector, Andy; Orme, C David L; Petchey, Owen L; Proença, Vânia; Raffaelli, David; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M; Martín-López, Berta; Woodcock, Ben A; Bullock, James M

    2015-11-01

    Accelerating rates of environmental change and the continued loss of global biodiversity threaten functions and services delivered by ecosystems. Much ecosystem monitoring and management is focused on the provision of ecosystem functions and services under current environmental conditions, yet this could lead to inappropriate management guidance and undervaluation of the importance of biodiversity. The maintenance of ecosystem functions and services under substantial predicted future environmental change (i.e., their 'resilience') is crucial. Here we identify a range of mechanisms underpinning the resilience of ecosystem functions across three ecological scales. Although potentially less important in the short term, biodiversity, encompassing variation from within species to across landscapes, may be crucial for the longer-term resilience of ecosystem functions and the services that they underpin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Methodology to Define Flood Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourbier, J.

    2012-04-01

    Flood resilience has become an internationally used term with an ever-increasing number of entries on the Internet. The SMARTeST Project is looking at approaches to flood resilience through case studies at cities in various countries, including Washington D.C. in the United States. In light of U.S. experiences a methodology is being proposed by the author that is intended to meet ecologic, spatial, structural, social, disaster relief and flood risk aspects. It concludes that: "Flood resilience combines (1) spatial, (2) structural, (3) social, and (4) risk management levels of flood preparedness." Flood resilience should incorporate all four levels, but not necessarily with equal emphasis. Stakeholders can assign priorities within different flood resilience levels and the considerations they contain, dividing 100% emphasis into four levels. This evaluation would be applied to planned and completed projects, considering existing conditions, goals and concepts. We have long known that the "road to market" for the implementation of flood resilience is linked to capacity building of stakeholders. It is a multidisciplinary enterprise, involving the integration of all the above aspects into the decision-making process. Traditional flood management has largely been influenced by what in the UK has been called "Silo Thinking", involving constituent organizations that are responsible for different elements, and are interested only in their defined part of the system. This barrier to innovation also has been called the "entrapment effect". Flood resilience is being defined as (1) SPATIAL FLOOD RESILIENCE implying the management of land by floodplain zoning, urban greening and management to reduce storm runoff through depression storage and by practicing Sustainable Urban Drainage (SUD's), Best Management Practices (BMP's, or Low Impact Development (LID). Ecologic processes and cultural elements are included. (2) STRUCTURAL FLOOD RESILIENCE referring to permanent flood defense

  7. Experimental Studies of Sealing Mechanism of a Dismountable Microsystem-to-Macropart Fluidic Connector for High Pressure and a Wide Range of Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As fluidic microelectromechanical devices are developing and often attached to, or embedded in, large, complex, and expensive systems, the issues of modularity, maintenance, and subsystem replacement arise. In this work, a robust silicon connector suitable for high-pressure applications—likely with harsh fluids—in the temperature range of +100 to −100° C is demonstrated and tested together with a stainless steel nipple representing a simple and typical macropart. With a micromachined circular membrane equipped with a 5 μm high ridge, this connector is able to maintain a leak rate below 2.0×10−8 scc/s of gaseous helium with a pressure of up to 9.7 bar. Degradation of the sealing performance on reassembly is associated with the indentation of the ridge. However, the ridge makes the sealing interface less sensitive to particles in comparison with a flat reference. Most evaluation is made through the so-called heat-until-leak tests conducted to determine the maximum working temperature and the sealing mechanism of the connector. A couple of these are followed by cryogenic testing. The effect of thermal mismatch of the components is discussed and utilized as an early warning mechanism.

  8. Redox control of ferrocene-based complexes with systematically extended π-conjugated connectors: switchable and tailorable second order nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Ma, Na-Na; Sun, Shi-Ling; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2014-03-14

    The studies of geometrical structures, thermal stabilities, redox properties, nonlinear responses and optoelectronic properties have been carried out on a series of novel ferrocenyl (Fc) chromophores with the view of assessing their switchable and tailorable second order nonlinear optics (NLO). The use of a constant Fc donor and a 4,4'-bipyridinium acceptor and varied conjugated bridges makes it possible to systematically determine the contribution of organic connectors to chromophore nonlinear optical activities. The structures reveal that both the reduction reactions and organic connectors have a significant influence on 4,4'-bipyridinium. The potential energy surface maps along with plots of reduced density gradient mirror the thermal stabilities of the Fc-based chromophores. The first and second reductions take place preferentially at the 4,4'-bipyridinium moieties. Significantly, the reduction processes result in the molecular switches with large NLO contrast varying from zero or very small to a large value. Moreover, time-dependent density functional theory results indicate that the absorption peaks are mainly attributed to Fc to 4,4'-bipyridinium charge transfer and the mixture of intramolecular charge transfer within the two respective 4,4'-bipyridinium moieties coupled with interlayer charge transfer between the two 4,4'-bipyridinium moieties. This provides us with comprehensive information on the effect of organic connectors on the NLO properties.

  9. The relationship between time perspective and resilience in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Ikumi; Okamoto, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between time perspective and resilience in adolescence. 116 university students completed two kinds of questionnaires which measured their experiential time perspective and resilience. Resilience was considered as an index of stable mental health in this study. The results were as follows, (1) there were positive correlations between positive time perspective and resilience. Especially, there was a strong, positive correlation between ...

  10. Clarifying Resilience in the Context of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Resilience Is a Complex Adaptive System of Systems ( CASoS ) ....60 4. Resilience Is Experienced and Demonstrated in Different Ways ..60 5. Resilience Is...The inclusion of a resilience module into existing homeland security training programs broadens the practitioner’s knowledge base from a basic level...psychology offer several considerations for the homeland security practitioner. The first consideration maintains that a de -emphasis on the

  11. Methods, Tools, and Data for Coastal System Resilience Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-06

    Baseline Resilience Indicators for Communities ( BRIC ) BUILDING STRONG® Innovative solutions for a safer, better world ► T: SoVI® – Social...address policy  Objective, although data may be arbitrarily weighted in an index Examples: Top-Down (T) and Bottom-Up (B) Bottom-UpTop-Down BRIC ...Coastal Resilience Index USACE’s Resilience Matrix ASCE’s Infrastructure Report Card T: Baseline Resilience Index for Communities ( BRIC

  12. Resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer

    OpenAIRE

    Carlene Souza Silva Manzini; Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is the capacity that people have to cope positively with adversities. A cross-sectional, quantitative study, that aimed to assess factors associated with the resilience of family caregivers of elderly with Alzheimer’s disease. Sixty-six caregivers composed the sample, who were accompanied in a neurology ambulatory. Most caregivers presented moderate resilience. Linear regression showed that some factors interfered with caregivers’ resilience, being those: overload, the increment of...

  13. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  14. Resilience concepts in psychiatry demonstrated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Persson, Maj-Liz

    2018-02-09

    The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. We argue that both resilience definitions and uses are appropriate in psychology and psychiatry, but although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We borrow from the field of ecology to discuss resilience concepts in the mental health sciences. In psychology and psychiatry, the prevailing view of resilience is adaptation to, coping with, and recovery (engineering resilience) from adverse social and environmental conditions. Ecological resilience may be useful for describing vulnerability, onset, and the irreversibility patterns of mental disorders. We discuss this in the context of bipolar disorder. Rebound, adaptation, and coping are processes that are subsumed within the broader systemic organization of humans, from which ecological resilience emanates. Discerning resilience concepts in psychology and psychiatry has potential for a mechanistically appropriate contextualization of mental disorders at large. This might contribute to a refinement of theory and contextualize clinical practice within the broader systemic functioning of mental illnesses.

  15. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  16. Special issue on Resilience and (in)security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian Søby

    , and redefine relations of security and insecurity. We show the increased attention – scholarly as well as political – given to resilience in recent times and provide a review of the state of critical security studies literature on resilience. We argue that to advance this discussion, resilience needs...

  17. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Burton, Christopher; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter; Porteous, Terry; Matheson, Catriona

    2016-06-01

    Modern demands and challenges among healthcare professionals can be particularly stressful and resilience is increasingly necessary to maintain an effective, adaptable, and sustainable workforce. However, definitions of, and associations with, resilience have not been examined within the primary care context. To examine definitions and measures of resilience, identify characteristics and components, and synthesise current evidence about resilience in primary healthcare professionals. A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies relating to the primary care setting. Ovid(®), Embase(®), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched in December 2014. Text selections and data extraction were conducted by paired reviewers working independently. Data were extracted on health professional resilience definitions and associated factors. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: eight were quantitative, four qualitative, and one was an intervention study. Resilience, although multifaceted, was commonly defined as involving positive adaptation to adversity. Interactions were identified between personal growth and accomplishment in resilient physicians. Resilience, high persistence, high self-directedness, and low avoidance of challenges were strongly correlated; resilience had significant associations with traits supporting high function levels associated with demanding health professional roles. Current resilience measures do not allow for these different aspects in the primary care context. Health professional resilience is multifaceted, combining discrete personal traits alongside personal, social, and workplace features. A measure for health professional resilience should be developed and validated that may be used in future quantitative research to measure the effect of an intervention to promote it. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  18. A model of psychological resilience for the Netherlands Armed Forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, W.; Venrooij, W.; Berg, C. van den

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, a model of psychological resilience was developed for the Netherlands Armed Forces and a number of important relations were tested using a longitudinal design. The model of resilience was based on a systematic literature review of resilience in high-risk professions and

  19. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  20. Resilience of primary healthcare professionals: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Helen D; Elliott, Alison M; Burton, Christopher; Iversen, Lisa; Murchie, Peter; Porteous, Terry; Matheson, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Background Modern demands and challenges among healthcare professionals can be particularly stressful and resilience is increasingly necessary to maintain an effective, adaptable, and sustainable workforce. However, definitions of, and associations with, resilience have not been examined within the primary care context. Aim To examine definitions and measures of resilience, identify characteristics and components, and synthesise current evidence about resilience in primary healthcare professionals. Design and setting A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies relating to the primary care setting. Method Ovid®, Embase®, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched in December 2014. Text selections and data extraction were conducted by paired reviewers working independently. Data were extracted on health professional resilience definitions and associated factors. Results Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria: eight were quantitative, four qualitative, and one was an intervention study. Resilience, although multifaceted, was commonly defined as involving positive adaptation to adversity. Interactions were identified between personal growth and accomplishment in resilient physicians. Resilience, high persistence, high self-directedness, and low avoidance of challenges were strongly correlated; resilience had significant associations with traits supporting high function levels associated with demanding health professional roles. Current resilience measures do not allow for these different aspects in the primary care context. Conclusion Health professional resilience is multifaceted, combining discrete personal traits alongside personal, social, and workplace features. A measure for health professional resilience should be developed and validated that may be used in future quantitative research to measure the effect of an intervention to promote it. PMID:27162208