Sample records for resilient african american

  1. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips


    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  2. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men


    Buttram, Mance E.


    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one’s social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among ...

  3. The Social Environmental Elements of Resilience among Vulnerable African American/Black Men Who Have Sex with Men. (United States)

    Buttram, Mance E

    Resilience theory has been suggested as a strong framework for research on HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among this population, literature indicates that African American/Black MSM are particularly vulnerable to health and social disparities associated with HIV transmission risk. Conceptualizing resilience as a part of one's social environment, this qualitative study investigates the specific elements of resilience, and the associated contexts and relationships, among a sample of 21 substance-using African American/Black MSM. Data indicate that: 1) elements contributing to resilience are multiple and co-occurring, including inner strengths, social relationships, diversity of experience, religion/spirituality, altruism, and creativity; 2) as an element of resilience, social support was experienced differently among men who did and did not have supportive relationships with other gay and bisexual men, which has implications for social service provision and intervention approaches; and 3) diversity of experiences and relationships is an important influencing factor on expressions of resilience. Social services or interventions that facilitate the development of these elements of resilience will likely be especially beneficial for vulnerable African American/Black MSM.

  4. Resilience among African American adolescent mothers: predictors of positive parenting in early infancy. (United States)

    Hess, Christine Reiner; Papas, Mia A; Black, Maureen M


    To use Nath et al.'s (1991) conceptual model of adolescent parenting to examine the relationship between resiliency factors measured shortly after delivery and maternal parenting behavior at 6 months. We recruited 181 first-time, adolescent African American mothers at delivery. Data on resiliency factors (maturity, self-esteem, and mother-grandmother relationships) were collected when infants were 1-4 weeks of age. Data on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction were examined through observations and self-report at 6 months. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the longitudinal impact of resiliency factors on parental nurturance and parenting satisfaction. Maternal maturity, positive self-esteem, and positive adolescent mother-grandmother relationships (characterized by autonomy and mutuality) were associated with better parenting outcomes. Maternal parenting satisfaction was lowest when infants were temperamentally difficult and mothers and grandmothers had a confrontational relationship. Longitudinal associations between mother-grandmother relationships at delivery and parental behavior and satisfaction 6 months later may suggest an intergenerational transmission of parenting style. Recommendations are provided for intervention programs to enhance mother-grandmother relationships in contexts where adolescents are required to live with a guardian to receive government assistance.

  5. African American women in STEM: Uncovering stories of persistence and resilience through an examination of social and cultural capital (United States)

    Ferguson, Danielle Stevens

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the key factors that successful African American women said influenced their persistence and resilience in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) field at two key time periods; before beginning post-secondary education and during post-secondary education. Many researchers have expressed concern about missing out on the creativity and innovation of African American women that could be used to enhance or lead to scientific discoveries (Hanson, 2004; Ong et al., 2011; Perna et al., 2008). While there has been a fair amount of research on the lack of representation of African American women in the STEM field, it is very limited in its breathe and depth. Very few of these studies include the "voice" of African American women and most of the studies rely heavily on quantitative data. Therefore in this study, I used a qualitative, case study approach to interpret the stories of eight African American women currently working in a variety of STEM fields to understand how each of the factors that they said aided in their persistence and resilience related to the concepts of social and cultural capital. Furthermore, this study investigated the role cultural brokers played in their lives and the strategies these women used to create resilience. Narratives for each woman were created to provide insight into their experiences. Before beginning post-secondary education four themes emerged from this study; 1. Two parent households were important, 2. Science experiences outside of school sparked their interest, 3. All of the women participated in extracurricular activities, and 4. Religion was important. Cultural brokers were beneficial for some but not all of the women. During post-secondary education five themes emerged; 1. The majority of the women had a desire to help others, 2. Scholarships played an important role, 3. Parents were supportive, 4. Sexism/racism became evident, and 5. Religion was still

  6. Social Justice and Resilience for African American Male Counselor Educators: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Mayes, Renae D.; Dogan, Sabri; Aras, Yahyahan; Edwards, Kaden; Oehrtman, J. P.; Clevenger, Adam


    In this phenomenological study, the authors interviewed 4 African American male counselor educators about their social justice efforts. Resulting themes were lifelong commitment to social justice, reaction to resistance, professional and personal support, and the meaning of social justice work. Findings suggest that social justice work can…

  7. "No One Ever Asked Me": Urban African American Students' Perceptions of Educational Resilience (United States)

    Williams, Joseph M.; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe


    This qualitative study examined high-achieving urban African American high school graduates' (N = 5) retrospective appraisal of what K-12 students from high-risk urban areas need to succeed academically despite seemingly insurmountable social, financial, and educational barriers. Findings revealed 6 themes: shared responsibility for…

  8. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in African American children and adolescents: Risks, resiliency, and barriers to treatment. (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E


    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Immunizations and African Americans (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  10. Racism, Racial Resilience, and African American Youth Development: Person-Centered Analysis as a Tool to Promote Equity and Justice. (United States)

    Neblett, Enrique W; Sosoo, Effua E; Willis, Henry A; Bernard, Donte L; Bae, Jiwoon; Billingsley, Janelle T

    Racism constitutes a significant risk to the healthy development of African American youth. Fortunately, however, not all youth who experience racism evidence negative developmental outcomes. In this chapter, we examine person-centered analysis (PCA)-a quantitative technique that investigates how variables combine across individuals-as a useful tool for elucidating racial and ethnic protective processes that mitigate the negative impact of racism. We review recent studies employing PCA in examinations of racial identity, racial socialization, and other race-related experiences, as well as how these constructs correlate with and impact African American youth development. We also consider challenges and limitations of PCA and conclude with a discussion of future research and how PCA might be used to promote equity and justice for African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth who experience racism. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting Educational Resilience among African American Students at Risk of School Failure: The Role of School Counselors (United States)

    Williams, Joesph M.; Greenleaf, Arie T.; Albert, Tracey; Barnes, Erin F.


    While the educational difficulties of African American students from low-income households are well documented and widely discussed in the literature, far less attention has been paid to students who succeed in school despite significant challenges such as poverty, housing instability, and food insecurity. A review of the literature identifies the…

  12. Depression and African Americans (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  13. African Americans and Glaucoma (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  14. African American Suicide (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  15. Infant Mortality and African Americans (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  16. African Anglo American

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.


    The South-African based Anglo-American Corp. dominates the mining industries of South Africa and Botswana and is very important in Namibia, Zimbabwe and Zambia. Most recently it has started prospecting in Tanzania once again. This article discusses the corporation's interests in Africa, gold, copper, diamonds, platinum, nickel and coal, and its interest in South American copper and various African metal industries. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. African-Americans and Alzheimer's (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  18. Mental Health and African Americans (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  19. Livelihood strategies, resilience and transformability in African agroecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tittonell, P.A.


    Aiming to translate resilience thinking theory into farming systems design practice, this paper examines fundamental properties of complex systems dynamics and their relation with the mechanisms that govern resilience and transformability in African smallholder agriculture. Agroecosystems dynamics

  20. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis (United States)

    ... Council: AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  1. African-American wildland memories (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker


    Collective memory can be used conceptually to examine African-American perceptions of wildlands and black interaction with such places. The middle--American view of wildlands frames these terrains as refuges--pure and simple, sanctified places distinct from the profanity of human modification. However, wild, primitive areas do not exist in the minds of all Americans as...

  2. The East African Resilience Innovation Hub | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The East African Resilience Innovation Hub. By 2025, poverty will primarily be centred in low-income, conflict and violence-affected African states. This project will invest in an East Africa research hub that will help resolve priority policy challenges related to violence, disaster, and conflict. Poverty, conflict, and development ...

  3. African American Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brown


    Full Text Available The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united.  The population of blacks past downs a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape from poverty of enslavement and to establish a way of life through tradition. A way of personal freedoms was through getting a good education that lead to a better foundation and a better way of life. With regard to all historic migrations (forced and voluntary, the African Union defined the African diaspora as "[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union." Its constitutive act declares that it shall "invite and encourage the full participation of the African diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union."

  4. African American Health PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  5. African Americans and High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) ...

  6. Classic African American Children's Literature (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    The purpose of this article is to assert that there are classic African American children's books and to identify a sampling of them. The author presents multiple definitions of the term classic based on the responses of children's literature experts and relevant scholarship. Next, the manner in which data were collected and analyzed in regard to…

  7. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano


    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  8. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans (United States)

    ... Stay Connected OMH Home > Policy and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a leading cause of death. While the cause is not always known, some ...

  9. South African, urban youth narratives: Resilience within community. (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ahmed, Rashid; Ports, Katie A; Simon, Christian


    South African youth in low-income, urbanized communities are exposed to high levels of daily stressors, which increase their risk to negative outcomes. Resiliency can provide avenues for youth to transcend adversity and may contribute to their positive development. To provide a deeper understanding of the pathways that adolescents use to overcome adversity, this paper examined future aspirations of South African youth, and how these aspirations were connected to resiliency factors framed by their lived context. A phenomenological approach was used to explore the perceptions of high school students. Fourteen focus groups with girls and boys (N=112) were conducted. Data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Discussions of the harsh conditions undermining the community's future highlighted opportunities for improvement. Community connectedness, hope and altruism were prevalent in youth's responses and could be used to facilitate community and individual resiliency. Our overall findings have important implications for positive youth development efforts.

  10. Parsing the Gulf between Africans and African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashly Nsangou


    Full Text Available The rise in African immigrants to the US provides an opportunity to assess relations between Africans and African Americans in college. An online survey of 322 current and recently-graduated college students (including 45 Africans, 160 African Americans, and 117 whites assessed respondents’ experiences of racism in US high schools and colleges. Semi-structured interviews of 30 students (10 African, 10 African American and 10 white students supplemented these data. Even within a sociopolitical context of more visible racial intolerance, Black intra-racial cohesion was absent. Although more first- and second-generation Africans (73% felt that they had been judged while living in the US compared to African Americans (34% or whites (20%, for 70–80% of respondents, this had occurred only in high school. Despite experiencing these judgments, Africans’ identity related more to their focus on education than their race, reflected in a higher proportion who felt intense family pressure to attend college (65% compared to African Americans (37% and whites (39%. Interview data confirmed previous reports in the literature that African Americans lack a sense of connection to Africans, attributed to Africans’ purported sense of superiority and disregard for African Americans’ ongoing struggle to end oppression. These mixed-methods data suggest that intermingling in the college environment has not resulted in first- and second-generation Africans and African Americans sharing a common in-group, race-based identity. We discuss the implications of overlooking ethnic distinctions due to presumptions of racial homogeneity that deprive Black individuals of their uniqueness.

  11. Resilience among first responders | Pietrantoni | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  12. African American Therapists Working with African American Families: An Exploration of the Strengths Perspective in Treatment (United States)

    Bell-Tolliver, Laverne; Burgess, Ruby; Brock, Linda J.


    With the exception of Hill's (1971, 1999) work, historically much of the literature on African American families has focused more on pathology than strengths. This study used interviews with 30 African American psychotherapists, self-identified as employing a strengths perspective with African American families, to investigate which strengths they…

  13. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek


    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  14. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster


    Purpose: This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Method: Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n =…

  15. A Mirror Image African American Student Reflections (United States)

    Cannon Dawson, Candice


    This dissertation is a narrative inquiry research project that focuses on the collegiate experiences of African American students at both historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly white institutions (PWIs). I look at how African American college students who engage in race or culturally specific activities, the degree…

  16. African Americans and the Industrial Revolution. (United States)

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.


    Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)

  17. African American Males: Leaving the Nightmare. (United States)

    Gill, Wali

    The plight of African American males has become a problem of alarming proportions in the United States. This paper reports serious disadvantage and risk for this group in terms of education, employment, poverty levels, family disintegration, criminal status, health, and death rates. The paper contends that the crisis for African American males…

  18. Educating African American Males: A Dream Deferred. (United States)

    Milwaukee Public Schools, WI.

    This document presents recommendations of the Milwaukee (Wisconsin) African American Male Task Force (MAAMTF), which reviewed from January through April of 1990 current educational efforts and recommended strategies by which schools could better address African American males' needs. The MAAMTF recommendations are to be implemented in two phases.…

  19. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon


    Full Text Available The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are proclaiming their identity. Moreover, the paper presents the translation problems that emerge when attempting to transfer such a specific, even exotic, source culture into a target culture, like Slovene. The goal is to show to what extent contemporary African American poetry can successfully be translated into the Slovene language and to highlight the parts that inevitably remain lost in the translation process.

  20. African-Americans and comprehensive service use. (United States)

    Theriot, Matthew T; Segal, Steven P; Cowsert, Max J


    This study examined African-Americans' use of comprehensive mental health services. 248 long-term users of self-help agencies (SHAs) were interviewed about their use of 37 different mental health services from various providers in a six-month period. Multiple regression analysis showed that the homeless and African-Americans were the high users in our sample. A subsequent MANOVA procedure suggested that this may be the result of African-Americans' increased use of SHAs. While African-Americans are low service users in traditional studies focusing on a narrow list of services and providers, this research argues for including SHAs in future studies of African-American service use.

  1. Intimate partner violence in African American women. (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M


    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  2. Africans and African-Americans: An Enduring Relationship | Amin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By working together, Africans and African-Americans have challenged slavery, oppression, colonialism, racism, and exploitation. But the challenges facing both groups remain significant in contemporary times, and they need to continue their collaboration. Africa Insight Vol.35(1) 2005: 58-64 ...

  3. African-American Prostate Cancer Disparities. (United States)

    Smith, Zachary L; Eggener, Scott E; Murphy, Adam B


    The purpose of this review is to examine prostate cancer racial disparities specific to the African-American population. African-American men are more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer, present at an earlier age; are more likely to have locally advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis; and have suboptimal outcomes to standard treatments. Prostate cancer treatment requires a nuanced approach, particularly when applying screening, counseling, and management of African-American men. Oncological as well as functional outcomes may differ and are potentially due to a combination of genetic, molecular, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors.

  4. African American Girls' Descriptions of Life in High-Risk Neighborhoods (United States)

    Kruger, Ann Cale; Zabek, Faith; Collins, Staeshe; Harper, Erin A.; Hamilton, Chela; McGee, Miriam Chitescu; Perkins, Catherine; Meyers, Joel


    In disadvantaged neighborhoods African American girls are at elevated risk for exposure to violence and sexualization (Miller, 2008; Salazar, Wingood, DiClemente, Lan, & Harrington, 2004). Preventive interventions can promote resilience by supporting capacities such as social decision making and self-understanding (Masten, 2001). We report on…

  5. The African Student in the American University. (United States)

    Riley, Doris

    This paper gathers information on the values, cognition, and educational background of African students studying at universities in the United States. The section on values notes that Americans are task-oriented individualists, while Africans are primarily relationship-oriented collectivists. These values of sharing and relationship orientation…

  6. The African-American History of Martha's Vineyard. (United States)

    Weintraub, Elaine


    Reports on research into African American history and experiences in Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts). Examines primary sources and oral traditions of African American cultural and social history from 1703 to the present. Discusses African American sailors, race relations, and contributions by African American individuals to the community. (CFR)

  7. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013. (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin


    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  8. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan


    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  9. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis


    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest within…

  10. Teaching African American Youth: Learning from the Lives of Three African American Social Studies Teachers (United States)

    McBride, Chantee Earl


    This study examines the life histories of three African American social studies teachers, focusing on the evolution and changes in their identities, perspectives, and attitudes related to their profession and instructional practice. In addition, the study addresses the significance of the teachers' racialized experiences as African Americans and…

  11. Spirituality and Resilience Among Mexican American IPV Survivors. (United States)

    de la Rosa, Iván A; Barnett-Queen, Timothy; Messick, Madeline; Gurrola, Maria


    Women with abusive partners use a variety of coping strategies. This study examined the correlation between spirituality, resilience, and intimate partner violence using a cross-sectional survey of 54 Mexican American women living along the U.S.-Mexico border. The meaning-making coping model provides the conceptual framework to explore how spirituality is used as a copying strategy. Multiple ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results indicate women who score higher on spirituality also report greater resilient characteristics. Poisson regression analyses revealed that an increase in level of spirituality is associated with lower number of types of abuse experienced. Clinical, programmatic, and research implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. School Counseling for African American Adolescents: The Alfred Adler Approach (United States)

    Sapp, Marty


    This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American…

  13. Shaping a Stories of Resilience Model from urban American Indian elders' narratives of historical trauma and resilience. (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Attakai, Agnes; Kahn, Carmella B; Whitewater, Shannon; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette


    American Indians (AIs) have experienced traumatizing events but practice remarkable resilience to large-scale and long-term adversities. Qualitative, community-based participatory research served to collect urban AI elders' life narratives on historical trauma and resilience strategies. A consensus group of 15 elders helped finalize open-ended questions that guided 13 elders in telling their stories. Elders shared multifaceted personal stories that revealed the interconnectedness between historical trauma and resilience, and between traditional perceptions connecting past and present, and individuals, families, and communities. Based on the elders' narratives, and supported by the literature, an explanatory Stories of Resilience Model was developed.

  14. Understanding Tobacco Use Onset Among African Americans. (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Colby, Suzanne M; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K


    Compared to the majority of non-Hispanic white ("white") cigarette smokers, many African American smokers demonstrate a later age of initiation. The goal of the present study was to examine African American late-onset smoking (ie, regular smoking beginning at age 18 or later) and determine whether late-onset (vs. early-onset) smoking is protective in terms of quit rates and health outcomes. We used data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) because the wide age range of participants (20-75 at baseline) allowed the examination of smoking cessation and mortality incidence across the lifespan. Consistent with previous research, results indicated a later average age of smoking onset among African Americans, compared to whites. Disentangling effects of race from age-of-onset, we found that the cessation rate among late-onset African American smokers was 33%, whereas rates for early-onset African American smokers and early- and late-onset white smokers ranged from 52% to 57%. Finally, results showed that among white, low-socioeconomic status (SES) smokers, the hazard rate for mortality was greater among early- versus late-onset smokers; in contrast, among African American smokers (both low- and high-SES) hazard rates for mortality did not significantly differ among early- versus late-onset smokers. Although late (vs. early) smoking onset may be protective for whites, the present results suggest that late-onset may not be similarly protective for African Americans. Tobacco programs and regulatory policies focused on prevention should expand their perspective to include later ages of initiation, in order to avoid widening tobacco-related health disparities. This study indicates that late-onset smoking is not only the norm among African American adult smokers, but that late- versus early-onset smoking (ie, delaying onset) does not appear to afford any benefits for African Americans in terms of cessation or mortality. These results

  15. Cytomegalovirus Infections among African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Al M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since African-Americans have twice the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections as age-matched Caucasians we sought to determine the ages and possible sources of infection of African-American children. Methods Subjects were 157 African-American healthy children and adolescents and their 113 household adults in Richmond VA. Families completed a questionnaire, provided saliva for antibody testing, and adolescents were interviewed regarding sexual activity. Results Regardless of age CMV seropositivity was not associated with gender, breast feeding, health insurance, sexual activity, or household income, education, or size. In the final regression model, prior CMV infection in adults was over two-fold higher than in children (chi-square = 18.8, p Conclusion We observed that African-American children had CMV seroprevalence rates by age 20 years at less than one-half of that of their adult mothers and caregivers. Sibling-to-sibling transmission was a likely source of CMV infections for the children. The next generation of African-American women may be highly susceptible to a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and may benefit from a CMV vaccine.

  16. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.


    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  17. The management of hypertension in African Americans. (United States)

    Ferdinand, Keith C; Armani, Annemarie M


    The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United States is among the highest in the world. Compared with whites, blacks develop hypertension at an earlier age, their average blood pressures are much higher and they experience worse disease severity. Consequently, blacks have a 1.3 times greater rate of nonfatal stroke, 1.8 times greater rate of fatal stroke, 1.5 times greater rate of heart disease death, 4.2 times greater rate of end-stage kidney disease, and a 50% higher frequency of heart failure; overall, mortality due to hypertension and its consequences is 4 to 5 times more likely in African Americans than in whites. The increased prevalence of hypertension and excessive target organ damage is due to a combination of genetic and, most likely, environmental factors. There are no clinical trial data at present to suggest that lower-than-usual BP targets should be set for high-risk demographic groups such as African Americans. The primary means of prevention and early treatment of hypertension in African Americans will be the appropriate use of lifestyle modification. The International Society of Hypertension in Blacks guidelines realize that most patients will require combination therapy, many of them first-line, to reach appropriate BP goals. Although certain classes and combinations of antihypertensive agents have been well-established to be effective, the choice of drugs for combination therapy in African American patients may be different. Within the African American group, the responsiveness to monotherapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and beta blockers may be less than the responsiveness to diuretics and calcium channel blockers, but these differences are corrected when diuretics are added to the neurohormonal antagonists. Of note, African American patients with systolic BP >15 mm Hg or a diastolic BP >10 mm Hg above goal should be treated with first-line combination therapy.

  18. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew


    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  19. African American School Psychology Program Leavers (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie Lynn


    This phenomenology used 21 in-depth interviews to explore seven African Americans' experiences at the school psychology programs they left. The purpose was to investigate what experiences contributed to participants' decisions to leave programs; if programs used retention strategies and if so, participants' view of the strategies; and what…

  20. African American Women Counselors, Wellness, and Spirituality (United States)

    Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.


    Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…

  1. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 22,2017 Heart disease is the ... a marathon.” Learn more: Family History and Heart Disease, Stroke Make the Effort to Prevent Heart Disease with ...

  2. African-American Axioms and Maxims. (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.


    Examines and describes 30 African-American centered quotation and motivational books, all but one of which were published between 1993 and 1997. The books articulate a diversity of genres and themes. Annotations are divided into: (1) general quotation; (2) daily words and meditation/motivation sources; (3) religion and theology; and (4)…

  3. The American Colonization Society's West African Enterprise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back to Africa enterprises surfaced periodically in American history in response to societal and governmental unwillingness to absorb equitably that portion or the population with African roots. By late 18th Century, the slave population and free blacks were or increasing concern to slave holders, social moderates and ...

  4. 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon (United States)


    Mack McKinney (left), chief, Programs Resources Management, and Delores Abraham (right), with the Astronaut office, flank one of the posters decorating the Early Space Exploration Conference Center at the KSC Visitor Complex for the 2000 African American History Month Celebration Luncheon. McKinney is chairperson for the event.

  5. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence (United States)

    Mazama, Ama


    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  6. Voices of African American Families: Perspectives on Residential Treatment. (United States)

    Kruzich, Jean M.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Williams-Murphy, Tracy; Longley, M. J.


    Examines families' perceptions about involvement in residential treatment from the viewpoints of African American and non-African American family members. Focus group interviews found that all family members shared some common positive and negative experiences. However, unique issues remained for African American caregivers. Implications for…

  7. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: A Dialogue with African American Women (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.


    Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…

  8. Black Lives Matter: Teaching African American Literature and the Struggle (United States)

    Gross, Jeffrey


    In theorizing how we should pedagogically approach African American literature, especially in courses for undergraduates, I argue that we have to move away from questions of what was or even what is African American literature and, instead, find ways to teach African American literature in both its historical contexts--artistic and political--and…

  9. From Crisis to Empowerment: African American Women in Community Colleges (United States)

    Bates, Marcie Ann


    Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…

  10. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.


    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  11. 77 FR 5375 - National African American History Month, 2012 (United States)


    ... History Month, we celebrate the rich legacy of African Americans and honor the remarkable contributions... History,'' invites us to pay special tribute to the role African American women have played in shaping the... National African American History Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...

  12. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.


    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  13. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea


    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  14. Representing African American Women in U.S. History Textbooks (United States)

    Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine


    This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…

  15. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males. (United States)

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.


    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  16. Examining cultural socialization within African American and European American households. (United States)

    Tyler, Kenneth M; Dillihunt, Monica L; Boykin, A Wade; Coleman, Sean T; Scott, Darla M; Tyler, Christina M B; Hurley, Eric A


    This preliminary study explored the cultural socialization processes of 227 African American and European American parents of elementary schoolchildren. The Cultural Value Socialization Scales (K. M. Tyler, A. W. Boykin, C. M. Boelter, & M. L. Dillihunt, 2005) were used to garner parents' reports of their cultural value socialization activities at home. The scales contained written vignettes depicting persons involved in activity that reflected a specific cultural value. Ethnocultural values examined were communalism, verve, movement, and affect, and mainstream cultural values included individualism, competition, bureaucracy, and materialism. Regression analyses reveal that being an African American parent was predictive of competition and materialism scores. Race was not a significant predictor of the remaining cultural value socialization scores. Limitations to the study are discussed. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English. (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster


    This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.

  18. The myth of meritocracy and African American health. (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H


    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans.

  19. Predicting Non-African American Lesbian and Heterosexual Preadoptive Couples' Openness to Adopting an African American Child (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Smith, JuliAnna Z.


    Despite increases in transracial adoption, African American children remain the least likely to be adopted. No research has examined the factors that predict prospective adopters' willingness to adopt an African American child. This study used multilevel modeling to examine predictors of willingness to adopt an African American child in a sample…

  20. Postpartum depression among African-American women. (United States)

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark


    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  1. The Development of African American Literature


    DEROUICHE, aicha


    In America, racism spread around the country especially in the South. Black people were treated badly. They did not have full rights as the white citizens. Due to these facts, many black writers responded with a set of literary works and used their skill in writing to reflect on their life. Thus, they have reached an artistic level and produced creative works. This research work deals with African American Literature which has appeared due to some historical circumstances. I...



    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.


    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  3. African American teen mothers' perceptions of parenting. (United States)

    Wayland, J; Rawlins, R


    The purpose of this study was to describe the childbearing African American teens' perceptions of parenting based on their own experiences. Focus group discussions were held with 17 teens in their school setting for 50 minutes each week. Group discussions were audiotaped, tapes were transcribed, and then analyzed for common themes. The unmarried teens ranged in age from 15 to 18 years. Findings indicated that the teens depended on grandmothers to provide child care and for information about parenting. The teens identified parenting problems including crying, discipline, and conflicts dealing with grandmothers and the child's father. Teens wanted more information about breastfeeding and minor childhood diseases. The researchers identified that teens lacked information about their children's growth and development and safety issues. Findings have implications for nurses who care for childbearing teens and their children; and those involved in planning and implementing parent education programs for African American teen mothers and their families. Further research is indicated with larger samples of African American teens; and to explore the context of family relationships in which teen mothers and grandmothers share parenting for the teens' children.

  4. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature


    Peter Schneck


    Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  5. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck


    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  6. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans


    Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A


    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...

  7. Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies: WMS-R norms for African American elders. (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E; Ferman, Tanis J; Willis, Floyd B; Petersen, Ronald C; Graff-Radford, Neill R


    Norms for African American elders on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) were derived from a sample of 309 community-dwelling individuals participating in Mayo's Older African Americans Normative Studies (MOAANS). Normative estimates are provided for traditional WMS-R subtest scores and for supplemental procedures to evaluate forgetting rates and recognition memory. Tables are provided to convert raw WMS-R subtest and supplemental scores to age-corrected scaled scores. These may be further adjusted for years of education, if desired, by applying regression-based corrections. We anticipate that these data will enhance the diagnostic utility and clinical interpretation of WMS-R performance in older African Americans.

  8. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans (United States)

    Birru, Mehret S


    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. Optimal health Web sites should include text written at low reading levels and appropriate cultural references. More research is needed to determine how African Americans with low literacy skills access, evaluate, prioritize, and value health information on the Internet. PMID:15471752

  9. African-American Academic Nurse Leader's Role in Persistence of African-American Baccalaureate Nursing Students (United States)

    Nelson, Kesha Marie


    African-American baccalaureate nursing students have a limited persistence to graduation. This constructivist grounded theory study was designed to generate a substantive theory, emerged from these data, that explained and provided insight the African-American academic nurse leader's role in the persistence to graduation of African-American…

  10. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework. (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R


    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  11. The landscape of recombination in African Americans (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G.; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D.; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; Isaacs, Williams; John, Esther M.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H.; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J.; Press, Michael F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Henderson, Brian E.; Taylor, Herman A.; Price, Alkes L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R.


    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P<10−245). We identify a 17 base pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of African-enriched alleles of PRDM9. PMID:21775986

  12. Storytelling, Values and Perceived Resilience among Chinese, Vietnamese, American and German Prospective Teachers (United States)

    Stanley, Nile; Nguyen, Kate; Wilson, Hope; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui


    Numerous qualitative studies, mostly with English speaking Westerners, have shown the important role of storytelling and values in promoting resilience. However, this quantitative study helps fill the gaps in the research, by investigating the mediator effects of storytelling on values and resilience of American, German, Chinese, and Vietnamese…

  13. The relationship between Mexican American cultural values and resilience among Mexican American college students: a mixed methods study. (United States)

    Morgan Consoli, Melissa L; Llamas, Jasmin D


    The current study investigated the role of cultural values in the resilience of Mexican American college students. Utilizing mixed methodology, 124 self-identified Mexican American college students were asked to complete an online survey, including a demographic questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, Mexican American Cultural Values Scale, and 2 open-ended questions concerning overcoming adversity and cultural values. As hypothesized, Mexican American traditional cultural values (Familismo, Respeto, Religiosidad, and Traditional Gender Roles) predicted resilience, with Familismo accounting for the majority of the variance. Consensual qualitative research (Hill, Thompson, & Nutt Williams, 1997) was used to identify emergent domains and themes within the open-ended question responses. Traditional Mexican American Value themes included Familismo, Ethnic Identity, Religiosidad, Perseverance, and Respeto. Results highlight the important role that certain Mexican American cultural values play in providing strength for overcoming adversities.

  14. Differences in Family-of-Origin Perceptions Among African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American College Students. (United States)

    Erdman, Phyllis; Kane, Connie M.


    Examines African American, Anglo-American, and Hispanic American college students' perceptions of their family of origin. African American students rated their families higher than the other two groups on autonomy and intimacy. There were no significant differences between males and females or between Anglo-American students and Hispanic American…

  15. Microevolution of African American dental morphology. (United States)

    Edgar, Heather J H


    The African American (AA) gene pool is primarily the result of gene flow between two biologically disparate groups: West Africans (WA) and Americans of western European descent (EA). This research utilizes characteristics of dental morphology to trace genetic relationships among WA, western Europeans (EU), AA, and European Americans. Dental morphological traits are useful for this purpose because they are heritable, do not remodel during life (although they can be lost to wear or pathology), and can be compared equally among samples from past and present populations. The results of this research provide new information about human microevolution through time and space in a biocultural setting. The mean measure of divergence is used to analyze dental morphological data from 1,265 individuals in 25 samples grouped by ancestry and time. Three hypotheses associated with admixture in AA are tested. When compared with known history, results from dental morphological data are equivocal in documenting admixture in AA. Dental morphological traits do appear to reflect admixture in AA. However, changes in trait frequencies do not closely correspond with important cultural events and trends such as the institutionalized racism of the Civil War and Jim Crow era. Results are mixed concerning whether AA with greater admixture were more likely to take part in the Great Migration to southern urban centers and to the North.

  16. The college life experiences of African American women athletes. (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A


    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.

  17. KSC kicks off African-American History Month (United States)


    Michelle Amos, mistress of ceremonies for the kick-off of African-American History Month, works with the audience to assist them in the pronunciation of a few token words in native Swahili. The theme for this year's observation is 'Heritage and Horizons: The African-American Legacy and the Challenges of the 21st Century.' February is designated each year as a time to celebrate the achievements and contributions of African Americans to Kennedy Space Center, NASA and the nation.

  18. The role of ethnic identity in symptoms of anxiety and depression in African Americans (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T.; Chapman, L. Kevin; Wong, Judy; Turkheimer, Eric


    Ethnic identity has been identified as a factor contributing to resilience and coping in African Americans. Ethnic identity includes positive feelings of ethnic affirmation and belonging, appreciation for one’s ethnic identity, and increased ethnic behaviors. This study examines the role of ethnic identity in symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participants were an adult student and community sample (N=572), administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D), State Trait Anxiety Inventory – state portion (STAI-S), and Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM). Compared to European Americans, African Americans reported significantly greater depression and more negative state anxiety, as well as higher levels of ethnic identity. For African Americans, higher ethnic identity was correlated to reduced anxiety and depression, whereas this was not true for European Americans. Findings support the proposition that a strong, positive ethnic identity may serve a protective role among African Americans by moderating the relationship between discriminatory experiences and psychological well-being. An Afrocentric perspective may also contribute to reduced anxiety due to a greater emphasis on a present versus future-oriented worldview. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22513043

  19. African American Visual Artists in France


    Sanconie, Maïca


    This paper presents a panorama of the presence of African-American artists in France over the last 30 years or so: from 1979, when I met Michel Fabre, under whose direction I wrote my doctoral dissertation – completed in 1984 – up to and including my participation in Michel and Geneviève Fabre’s activities with the Cercle d’études afro-américaines. I have divided this time into three periods, all predicated on the extraordinary advent of Basquiat’s art in France in the late 1980s. These perio...

  20. African American film sound: scoring blackness


    Doughty, Ruth


    The term ‘black music’ has long been a cause for contention. What do we mean by music being ‘black’, or more specifically in the case of this chapter, African American? The music industry has typically marketed products via the categorization of specific genres: for example, jazz, blues, soul, funk and rap. These generic types are often classified as ‘black music’. Philip Tagg vehemently debates the suitability of such an essentializing label, as he correctly argues that aesthetic practice is...

  1. Equipping African American Clergy to Recognize Depression. (United States)

    Anthony, Jean Spann; Morris, Edith; Collins, Charles W; Watson, Albert; Williams, Jennifer E; Ferguson, Bʼnai; Ruhlman, Deborah L


    Many African Americans (AAs) use clergy as their primary source of help for depression, with few being referred to mental health providers. This study used face-to-face workshops to train AA clergy to recognize the symptoms and levels of severity of depression. A pretest/posttest format was used to test knowledge (N = 42) about depression symptoms. Results showed that the participation improved the clergy's ability to recognize depression symptoms. Faith community nurses can develop workshops for clergy to improve recognition and treatment of depression.

  2. African American Literature, 1989-94: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)

    Miller, R. Baxter; Butts, Tracy; Jones, Sharon


    Contains an annotated bibliography of African American literature (published between 1989 and 1994), including anthologies, fiction, poetry, drama, criticism, cultural studies, biography, interviews, and letters. (TB)

  3. Bullying and victimization among African American adolescents: a literature review. (United States)

    Albdour, Maha; Krouse, Helene J


    Bullying among African American adolescents. This article reviews the current literature on bullying and victimization among African American adolescents. It highlights bullying and violence disparity among African American adolescents, associated risk and protective factors, and effects of bullying on adolescent health. Twenty-three English language peer-reviewed articles from CINAHL, Pubmed, and Psyc-INFO databases. African American adolescents have higher rates of bullying and victimization compared to other adolescent populations. This review found strong associations among bullying involvement, substance abuse, and family factors. Bullying also had a significant impact on adolescent health, particularly psychological symptoms and school performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. African American adolescent males living with obesity. (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F


    The objective was to explore, through the concepts of self-perception and meaning, the lived experience of obesity in African American males between the ages of 13-17 years. Hermeneutic phenomenological design was used to guide the study. Thirteen inner-city African American males were enrolled. All participants had a documented body mass index of >95th percentile and were actively receiving treatment at a medical obesity clinic. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Self-perception and meaning are interrelated and important factors in understanding obesity uniquely from the adolescents view. If individuals do not understand that they are obese then they are unable to assign meaning to obesity within their life. Four main themes were discovered. The main themes were as follows: (1) It Don't Mean Nuthin'; (2) It's Just Me, Who I Am; (3) Something Bad Might Happen; and (4) I'm Confused and I Feel Bad. Patterns emerged that will allow health care workers to engage adolescents on a personal level, thereby increasing the potential for treatment outcomes consistent with weight management clinic goals. To realize successful outcomes for these adolescents, health care providers must incorporate the adolescents' understanding, knowledge, and values related to obesity in treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W


    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian


    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  7. Stroke in Indigenous Africans, African Americans, and European Americans: Interplay of Racial and Geographic Factors. (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa; Sarfo, Fred; Howard, Virginia J; Irvin, Marguerite R; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Akinyemi, Rufus; Bennett, Aleena; Armstrong, Kevin; Tiwari, Hemant K; Akpalu, Albert; Wahab, Kolawole W; Owolabi, Lukman; Fawale, Bimbo; Komolafe, Morenikeji; Obiako, Reginald; Adebayo, Philip; Manly, Jennifer M; Ogbole, Godwin; Melikam, Ezinne; Laryea, Ruth; Saulson, Raelle; Jenkins, Carolyn; Arnett, Donna K; Lackland, Daniel T; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Howard, George


    The relative contributions of racial and geographic factors to higher risk of stroke in people of African ancestry have not been unraveled. We compared stroke type and contributions of vascular risk factors among indigenous Africans (IA), African Americans (AA), and European Americans (EA). SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a large multinational case-control study in West Africa-the ancestral home of 71% AA-whereas REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a cohort study including AA and EA in the United States. Using harmonized assessments and standard definitions, we compared data on stroke type and established risk factors for stroke in acute stroke cases aged ≥55 years in both studies. There were 811 IA, 452 AA, and 665 EA stroke subjects, with mean age of 68.0±9.3, 73.0±8.3, and 76.0±8.3 years, respectively ( P stroke was more frequent among IA (27%) compared with AA (8%) and EA (5.4%; P strokes were more prevalent in IA (47.1%), followed by AA (35.1%) and then EA (21.0%; P risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the higher proportion of ischemic stroke in AA compared with IA, whereas racial factors may contribute to the higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among stroke subjects of African ancestry. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Resilience in MSF and its Personnel | Filot | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract African Health Sciences Vol. 8 Special Edition 2008: pp. S44-S45. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  9. From trauma to resilience | Christensen | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No Abstract African Health Sciences Vol. 8 Special Edition 2008: pp. S39-S40. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  10. African-Americans in Community Colleges. UCLA Community College Bibliography (United States)

    McJunkin, Kyle Stewart


    Recent literature on African Americans students at the community college level represents an eclectic body of material. Broadly speaking, this literature has focused on questions concerning African American learning styles, cultural determinants to success, retention issues, and comparative achievement with other minority groups. While the…

  11. Promoting Achievement for African American Males through Group Work (United States)

    Bailey, Deryl F.; Bradbury-Bailey, Mary E.


    The authors describe how the effective use of groups can promote academic achievement for adolescent African American males. Literature regarding adolescents' and African Americans' experience with groups is reviewed. The authors provide information on academic disidentification and achievement gaps, both critical to understanding the problem of…

  12. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.


    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  13. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012 (United States)


    ..., symphony, and classical music by bringing energy and creativity to traditional genres. At its core, African... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our Union...

  14. Students' Comprehension of the representation of African American ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article was prompted by observations in tutorial lectures on African American Literature and reports on a subsequent pilot study. It explores students' responses to African American Vernacular (AAV) as used in the novel The Color Purple by Alice Walker. A questionnaire was used to explore students' comprehension of ...

  15. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet (United States)

    Bardeen, Tara


    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  16. Poverty, safety net programs, and African Americans' mental health. (United States)

    Snowden, Lonnie R


    African Americans' poverty and deep-poverty rates are higher than those of Whites, and African Americans' poverty spells last longer. Furthermore, nonpoor African Americans are especially likely to slip into poverty, and over the course of a lifetime, very many African Americans will experience poverty. Accordingly, African Americans are disproportionately likely to be assisted by safety net programs providing income support and health and social assistance. When mental health-related outcomes are assessed, U.S.-focused and international studies of safety net programs sometimes find that adults and children show a decline in symptoms of mental illness after participating. All things being equal, these improvements can disproportionately benefit African Americans' mental health. Safety net programs' mental health-related impact should be routinely assessed when evaluating the programs' economic and social outcomes and the impact they have on African Americans' mental health. Policy research of this kind can help us to understand whether these very large interventions show society-wide mental health-related improvement in the disproportionately large number of African Americans who participate in them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang


    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  18. Multiculturalism, Diversity, and African American College Students: Receptive, Yet Skeptical? (United States)

    Ervin, Kelly S.


    Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans. Students…

  19. Engaging African American landowners in sustainable forest management (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Rory Fraser; Viniece Jennings; Amadou Diop


    The Sustainable Forestry and African American Land Retention Program is a comprehensive effort to address the long-standing problem of underparticipation of African Americans in forest management. We conducted rapid appraisal baseline research for pilot projects in this program in three Southern states using a carefully selected purposive sample to enhance our...

  20. 78 FR 8347 - National African American History Month, 2013 (United States)


    ... unfulfilled. For African Americans, it was a dream denied until 150 years ago, when a great emancipator called... National African American History Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In America, we share a dream that lies at the heart of our founding: that no matter who you are...

  1. African-American College Students' Perceptions Of Sexual Coercion (United States)

    Mouzon, LaTonya D.; Battle, Alicia; Clark, Kevin P.; Coleman, Stephanie; Ogletree, Roberta J.


    While the phenomenon of sexual coercion has been studied extensively, little is known about African-American college students' perceptions about verbal sexual coercion. Using a phenomenological approach, the researchers conducted five focus group interviews with 39 African-American students (20 females, 19 males) at a large Midwestern university…

  2. The Relationship between African American Enculturation and Racial Identity (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Helm, Katherine


    This study investigated how predictive the Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; B. J. Vandiver, W. E. Cross, F. C. Worrell, & P. Fhagen-Smith, 2002), a measure of Black racial identity, was of African American cultural practices, beliefs, and attitudes (i.e., enculturation) as measured by the African American Acculturation Scale-33 (H. Landrine & E.…

  3. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin


    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  4. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality. (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn


    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  5. Race Consciousness. African-American Studies for the New Century. (United States)

    Fossett, Judith Jackson, Ed.; Tucker, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    This collection of essays represents new scholarship in African American studies, drawing lessons from the past and providing insights into current intellectual trends. Topics such as the culture of America as a culture of race, legacies of slavery and colonialism, crime and welfare politics, and African American cultural studies are addressed.…

  6. Parenting African American Children in the Context of Racism (United States)

    Keyes, Angela W.; Smyke, Anna T.; Middleton, Melissa; Black, Corey L.


    The legacy of slavery in the United States has impacted generations of African Americans, especially parents who must prepare their children to face the challenges associated with being a person of color in this country. The authors explore aspects of racism, White privilege, racial socialization, and African American parents' fears as they equip…

  7. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane


    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  8. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming


    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  9. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama (United States)

    Millward, Jessica


    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  10. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey


    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  11. Cooperative Learning: A Case for African-American Students. (United States)

    Haynes, Norris M.; Gebreyesus, Sara


    Suggests that African-American children benefit from cooperative-learning strategies because of their cultural heritage, family background, and socialization. Reviews cooperative-learning strategies, offers theoretical analysis of sociocultural basis for cooperative-learning orientations among African-American children, and examines empirical…

  12. Successful Teaching Strategies for Urban African American High School Males (United States)

    Blue, Adonis


    The continued dismal performance of African American students calls for the establishment of better strategies and techniques. The available studies reveal very little regarding the initiatives pursued by middle and elementary school teacher in addressing the academic needs of African American students, however, this literature has not yet defined…

  13. Training African-American residents in the 20th century. (United States)

    Green-McKenzie, Judith


    Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States and a lineal descendant of an infirmary for slaves, accepted its first African-American resident, Dr. Ubert Conrad Vincent, in 1918. This occurred at a time when many medical centers were not accepting African-American residents. At the end of WWII, one-third of the accredited medical schools still barred African Americans. However, Bellevue Hospital continued to train African-American residents. Between the 1920s and 1940s four African Americans matriculated at Bellevue Hospital. There were six in the 1950s, four in the 1960s, and 25 in the 1970s. By the 1980s, 40 African Americans matriculated, and between 1990 and 1995, 61 matriculated. Despite its historic first, Bellevue lagged slightly behind the national average. While the number of African-American residents occupying U.S. residency slots increased from 2.8% in 1978 to 6.5% in 1996, African Americans comprised 3.6% of residency slots at Bellevue between 1985-1995. Currently, only 7% of practicing physicians and 5% in faculty positions are latino, African-American, and Native American. Increasing the number of under-represented minority (URM) physicians is important to the United States, as URM physicians are more likely to serve the poor and uninsured, therefore improving the overall healthcare of the underprivileged. A study by the Association of American Medical Colleges indicated that minority medical school graduates were five times more likely to report that they planned to serve minority populations than other graduates. In their position paper, the American College of Physicians expressed the belief that increasing the number of URM physicians will help reduce healthcare disparities that can hurt minority populations and lead to poor health outcomes. The Supreme Court acknowledged the importance of racial diversity by upholding the University of Michigan affirmative action admissions policy in its June 2003 ruling. URM physicians are

  14. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know (United States)

    ... Info Health Information Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Are ... symptoms? Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? Yes, African American men are one of the ...

  15. Marketing, recruiting and retaining African American baccalaureate nursing students. (United States)

    July, F M


    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the marketing, recruitment and retention policies and practices with reference to African American nursing students in baccalaureate nursing programs. The sample consisted of top-ranked and southern nursing schools accredited by the National League for Nursing (N = 49). Findings indicate that African American enrollment in nursing schools has not changed demonstrably over the past 10 years. High schools (78%) and community colleges (61%) were the main markets for recruiting African American students. Two approaches, rated as successful in retaining African American nursing students, were use of African American counselors and student housing. The college catalog was no longer the method used most frequently for marketing nursing programs.

  16. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared. (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G


    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  17. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women. (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A


    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.

  18. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South. (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher


    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  19. African American health disparities in lung cancer. (United States)

    Green, Pauline M; Guerrier-Adams, Suzy; Okunji, Priscilla O; Schiavone, Deborah; Smith, Joann E


    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States and globally. African Americans experience significant differences in lung cancer incidence and mortality. Smoking is the single greatest risk for lung cancer, making smoking cessation programs a potentially fruitful approach for reducing the risk of lung cancer. Despite clinical practice guidelines that prompt nurses to advise patients to quit smoking, only a small percentage of nurses do so. Minority patients are less likely than Whites to receive smoking cessation advice. This article discusses recent findings on the pathophysiology and risks for lung cancer. The literature on smoking cessation research is examined to determine the features of successful cessation interventions. Recommendations are offered for enhancing tobacco cessation efforts in nursing practice, education, and research.

  20. African American Male Achievement: Using a Tenet of Critical Theory to Explain the African American Male Achievement Disparity (United States)

    Palmer, Robert T.; Maramba, Dina C.


    Although African Americans continue to demonstrate a desire for education, Black male enrollment and completion rates in higher education are dismal when compared to other ethnic groups. Researchers and scholars have noted various theories and philosophies responsible for the academic disengagement of African American men in higher education. This…

  1. Resilience (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  2. Prevalence of stuttering in African American preschoolers. (United States)

    Proctor, Adele; Yairi, Ehud; Duff, Melissa C; Zhang, Jie


    In this study, the authors sought to determine the prevalence of stuttering in African American (AA) 2- to 5-year-olds as compared with same-age European Americans (EAs). A total of 3,164 children participated: 2,223 AAs and 941 EAs. Data were collected using a 3-pronged approach that included investigators' individual interactions with each child, teacher identification, and parent identification of stuttering. No statistically significant difference for stuttering was found between AA and EA children. Using the investigator and teacher method of identification, the prevalence of stuttering was 2.52% for the entire sample. For both racial groups, boys exhibited a higher prevalence of stuttering than girls. Of the 3 predictors (age, race, sex) of stuttering, only sex was a significant predictor. AA 2- to 5-year-olds are not overrepresented in the stuttering population for this age group. When data are combined for both racial groups, the prevalence of stuttering is 2.52%. More boys than girls stuttered in this sample of preschoolers.

  3. From trauma to resilience | Christensen | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  4. Firearm-Related Suicide Among Young African-American Males (United States)

    Joe, Sean; Kaplan, Mark S.


    National trends in firearm-related suicides among African-American and white males in the age groups 15 to 19 years and 20 to 24 years from 1979 to 1997 were examined. The rates and percentages of suicide by firearms increased significantly more among African-American males than among white males. During the 19-year period, firearms accounted for about 70 percent and 64 percent of all suicides among males aged 15 to 19 years and 20 to 24 years, respectively. The results support the Surgeon General’s 1999 call for greater awareness of the suicide risk among African-American males. PMID:11875228

  5. The African Impact in American Civilizations, 1500-1800 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of American history shows that Africans were involved in the development of the American continents.1 But the facts are not in an inclusive document. This article highlights their major contributions to the exploration of the Americas, American War of Independence, and the Civil War. Others are the development of ...

  6. African and Arab American Achievement Motivation: Effects of Minority Membership. (United States)

    Kovach, Bernadette S.; Hillman, Stephen B.

    The association between ethnic group identification, attributional style, and the use of self-protective attributions with respect to self-esteem, academic achievement and motivation among ethnically diverse adolescents was examined. Participants in the study included 422 African American, 90 Arab American, and 194 European American high school…

  7. Differences in the tumor microenvironment between African-American and European-American breast cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damali N Martin

    Full Text Available African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity.Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors.The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current markers. Notably, pathways

  8. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life (United States)

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.


    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  9. Barriers to using palliative care: insight into African American culture. (United States)

    Drisdom, Sheronda


    As the hospice care setting becomes more racially and ethnically diverse, attending to the different conditions and needs of various groups is essential to providing optimal care. African Americans make up only a small percentage of hospice users in the United States. This article highlights barriers associated with the underenrollment of African Americans into hospice and palliative care programs. A thorough analysis of the literature was conducted to define hospice and palliative care and assess circumstances that impact the use of hospice services by African Americans. Many African Americans are not choosing hospice care because of cultural issues or knowledge deficits, whether through lack of communication or low literacy. Healthcare providers can begin by familiarizing themselves with hospice organizations and developing and putting into practice strategies to communicate with and educate patients and families about hospice care in a culturally sensitive manner.

  10. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita


    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  11. Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook. (United States)

    Wilson, Linda

    This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

  12. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy


    Yerger, V; Malone, R


    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reason...

  13. Describing abortion attitudes among young, African American men. (United States)

    Woodhams, Elisabeth J; Hill, Brandon J; Fabiyi, Camille; Gilliam, Melissa


    This paper describes African American teenaged males' attitudes and perspectives on abortion. Data were derived from a larger cross-sectional survey of African American males aged 14-19, living in the south side of Chicago. Acceptability of abortion varied by partner type, such that 60% of teenagers felt abortion was acceptable with a casual partner while 37% found it acceptable with committed partners (pattitudes toward abortion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. African American Parents’ HPV Vaccination Intent and Concerns


    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L.; Arnold, Lauren D.; Notaro, Sheri R.


    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents’ intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vacc...

  15. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates


    Ezella McPherson


    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...

  16. Measuring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Knowledge and Perceptions of Risk in Middle-Class African Americans (United States)

    Spears, Erica C.; Guidry, Jeffrey J.; Harvey, Idethia S.


    There is a paucity in the literature examining the African American middle-class. Most studies of African Americans and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have concentrated on lower-SES individuals, or make no distinction between African Americans of varying socio-economic positions. Middle-class African Americans are vulnerable in ways often…

  17. Breast cancer in African-American women: differences in tumor biology from European-American women. (United States)

    Amend, Kandace; Hicks, David; Ambrosone, Christine B


    Disparities exist between African-American and European-American women in the incidence and nature of breast cancer. African-American women are more often diagnosed with breast cancer at an earlier age and with more aggressive disease, characterized by higher grade and negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Recent findings reveal specific gene expression patterns associated with the more aggressive breast cancers observed in African-American women. An overview of the current literature about racial differences in breast cancer prompts questions for future research to elucidate causes for the apparent disparities in tumor biology.

  18. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven


    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  19. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and West Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven


    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  20. Racial Identity Development and Psychological Coping Strategies of Undergraduate and Graduate African American Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bridges


    Full Text Available African American men face many socio-cultural, academic, and negative stressors that generate stress experiences and identity conflicts. These stressors, in turn, may lead to psychological pressures that negatively affect relationships that African American men have with African American women, children, other African American men, and the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that racial identity has on the development of psychological healthy coping strategies among African American males at a predominantly White university in the southeastern United States. The goal of the study was to see what factors helped young African American men at this institution succeed academically.

  1. Resiliency in American Library Association Award Winning Juvenile Fiction: A Correlational Content Analysis (United States)

    Foreman, Michelle T.


    The purpose of this quantitative content analysis was to determine whether there was a relationship between the age, gender, or race of protagonists in contemporary American Library Association award-winning juvenile literature and the representation of resilience by those characters. Award-winning juvenile fiction and biography books were…

  2. Resilience against Discrimination: Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation as Protective Factors for Korean Americans (United States)

    Lee, Richard M.


    This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…

  3. Huitzilopochtli: The Will and Resiliency of Tucson Youth to Keep Mexican American Studies Alive (United States)

    Acosta, Curtis


    In response to the banning of Mexican American Studies in Tucson, students in the newly formed Chican@ Literature, Art, and Social Studies program displayed their resiliency in the face of the oppressive actions of the Tucson Unified School District and the state of Arizona. This article serves as a platform for the voices of these dedicated youth…

  4. Engaging African American women in research: an approach to eliminate health disparities in the African American community. (United States)

    Brown Speights, Joedrecka S; Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; De Leon, Jessica; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Simpson, Ivana


    To explore the success of community-based participatory research [CBPR] in engaging African American women to achieve health equity by elucidating community, trust, communication and impact. Recommendations helpful for researchers interested in engaging communities to achieve health equity in the USA are included. African American women experience health disparities of multifactorial etiology and are underrepresented in research. CBPR is a collaborative approach that incorporates perspectives, which address the intricate determinants of health and has been reported as an effective means to address health disparities. Yet, the science of CBPR seems elusive to researchers in the medical field. The opportunity exists to better understand and expand the use of the principles of engagement, replication, and sustainability in engaging African American women in health research. A variety of literature regarding engaging African American women in community-based participatory research was reviewed. CBPR focused on robust engagement of marginalized groups continues to be validated as a vital approach to the elimination of disparities and improved health for all, especially ethnic and racial minority populations. However, limited evidence of focused engagement of African American women was found. Making specific outreach to African American women must be a community and patient engagement priority to achieve health equity. Continued research is needed which specifically focuses on building and sustaining engagement with African American women and their communities. This research can transform healthcare access, experiences and outcomes by yielding actionable information about what African American women need and want to promote wellness for themselves and their communities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  5. The Status of African American Physicists within the DOE Laboratories (United States)

    Jackson, Keith


    In May 2002 there was a backpage article published in American Physical Society Newsletter by the President of the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP). This article showed that of the 3372 professional physicists employed at the DOE national labs, only 11 are African American, which on a percentage basis is 4 times less than the total availability of Ph.D. African American physicists in the labor force. NSBP want to provide an update of the interaction between National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP) and the department of Energy in particular the Office of Science on the issue of employment of African American Physicists in scientific and technical. You might ask the following question: Why should the current generation of African American Physicists be concerned about their underepresentation on the scientific staffs of the DOE National Laboratories? The answer to this question may vary from person to person, but I would like to propose the following: The National Laboratories are the largest providers of career opportunities in Physics in the United States. There is a general view in the community; African Americans are not getting a return on their national investment in the DOE National Labs. Failure to engage with HBCU’s through their user facilities causes a training or skills deficit when it comes to preparing students to participate at the forefront of physics research. By rebuffing interactions with HBCU¹s, as many the laboratories have done, the national laboratories are in effect refusing to transfer scientific knowledge to the stakeholders in the African American community. The update will contain some additional information about NSBP proposals to solve the problem of underepresentation of African American and Hispanic physicists within the National Laboratories and how the Office of Science has response these proposals.

  6. How Community College African American Students with or without a Father or Male Surrogate Presence at Home Develop Their Personal Identity, Academic Self-Concept, Race Theory, Social Sensitivity, Resiliency, and Vision of Their Own Success and the Influence on Their Academic Achievement (United States)

    Holliday, A'lon Michael


    Despite the growing body of research on African American students' academic achievement and the role mothers play in their child's academic development, few studies (Carter, 2008; Fordham, 1988) examined the role fathers play in the development of their child's academic achievement. The primary aim of this study was to examine how the father or…

  7. Enhancing Breastfeeding Rates Among African American Women: A Systematic Review of Current Psychosocial Interventions (United States)

    Johnson, Angela; Kirk, Rosalind; Rosenblum, Katherine Lisa


    Abstract The goals of this article are to provide a review of key interventions and strategies that impact initiation and duration of breastfeeding with particular focus on low-income African American mothers' maternal psychological vulnerabilities during the early postpartum period using a social ecological perspective as a guiding framework. Although modest gains have been achieved in breastfeeding initiation rates in the United States, a projected gap remains between infant feeding practices and national Healthy People breastfeeding goals set for 2020, particularly among African Americans. These disparities raise concerns that socially disadvantaged mothers and babies may be at increased risk for poor postnatal outcomes because of poorer mental health and increased vulnerability to chronic health conditions. Breastfeeding can be a protective factor, strengthening the relationship between mother and baby and increasing infant health and resilience. Evidence suggests that no single intervention can sufficiently address the multiple breastfeeding barriers faced by mothers. Effective intervention strategies require a multilevel approach. A social ecological perspective highlights that individual knowledge, behavior, and attitudes are shaped by interactions between the individual woman, her friends and family, and her wider historical, social, political, economic, institutional, and community contexts, and therefore effective breastfeeding interventions must reflect all these aspects. Current breastfeeding interventions are disjointed and inadequately meet all African American women's social and psychological breastfeeding needs. Poor outcomes indicate a need for an integrative approach to address the complexity of interrelated breastfeeding barriers mothers' experience across layers of the social ecological system. PMID:25423601

  8. Stress, Marital Satisfaction, and Psychological Distress among African Americans (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Chae, David H.


    This study examines relationships among financial strain, unfair treatment, and martial satisfaction among African Americans. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, findings indicated that social stressors that occur inside of the home (i.e., financial strain) as well as those experienced outside of the home (i.e., unfair treatment)…

  9. Domestic Transracial Adoption: In the Words of African American Adoptees (United States)

    Smith, Ellen M.


    Domestic transracial adoption has sparked more controversy than any other type of adoption. For the purposes of this study domestic transracial adoption is defined as European American parents adopting African American children. Many of the studies completed are contradictory and fail to control for variables that affect the outcome such as age of…

  10. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans? (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence


    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  11. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima


    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  12. Discrimination and psychiatric disorders among older African Americans. (United States)

    Mouzon, Dawne M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Keith, Verna M; Nicklett, Emily J; Chatters, Linda M


    This study examined the impact of everyday discrimination (both racial and non-racial) on the mental health of older African Americans. This analysis is based on the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) (n = 773). We examined the associations between everyday discrimination and both general distress and psychiatric disorders as measured by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Six dependent variables were examined: lifetime mood disorders, lifetime anxiety disorders, any lifetime disorder, number of lifetime disorders, depressive symptoms as measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Scale of Depression (CES-D), and serious psychological distress as measured by the Kessler 6 (K6). Overall, racial and non-racial everyday discrimination were consistently associated with worse mental health for older African Americans. Older African Americans who experienced higher levels of overall everyday discrimination had higher odds of any psychiatric disorder, any lifetime mood disorder, any lifetime anxiety disorder, and more lifetime DSM-IV disorders, in addition to elevated levels of depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress. These findings were similar for both racial discrimination and non-racial discrimination. This study documents the harmful association of not only racial discrimination, but also non-racial (and overall) discrimination with the mental health of older African Americans. Specifically, discrimination is negatively associated with mood and anxiety disorders as well as depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Nursing's role in racism and African American women's health. (United States)

    Eliason, M J


    African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.

  14. The Influence of the African American Father on Level of Self-Efficacy, Career Achievement, and Aspirations of His African American Daughter (United States)

    Stewart, April E.


    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the influence of perceived and desired paternal involvement of the African American father on his African American daughter. The research problem is how father involvement may influence self-efficacy, career achievements, and aspirations of African American females. This study sought to…

  15. The social context of the aeronautical education experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots (United States)

    Walker, Taurean Mashawn

    The purpose of this research is to explore the social context (the nature and cultural environment) of the aeronautical training experience of African-American civilian, commercial, and military pilots. This research highlights the challenges African-American pilots are exposed to in addition to drawing parallels between the social context and the obstacles they are subjected to along the way. This study is valuable for stakeholders, African-American pilot aspirants, aviation corporations, Federal Aviation Administration, flight schools - in the aviation industry in understanding ways to initiate a paradigm shift and increase awareness about representation and participation of African-American aviation professionals. The qualitative approach was selected to gather a better understanding of the sociological hurdles black aviators face while going through the journey of becoming a pilot. Hardiman (2010) states, "While quantitative research is valuable, qualitative research provides the researcher the ability to view real world situations as they naturally unfold" ( p. 25). According to OBAP (2014), less than 2% of pilots in the United States are African-American. The experiences shared by the participants can provide helpful insight of possible policy implications for the aeronautical industry. There were three research questions in the study: 1) What factors hindered pilot training? 2) What were the resilience factors experienced during pilot training? 3) What were the defining features of the social context surrounding pilot training? Semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted of six professional pilots. A qualitative data analysis was conducted to illustrate the context of the social challenges during the course of pilot training. Three themes were revealed: 1) access, 2) perception of inferiority, and 3) support. Implications of the significance of providing social networks to expose African-Americans to aviation were discussed. Additional means of

  16. Resilience In Arab American Couples in the Wake of the Terrorist Attacks on New York City: A Family Systems Perspective


    Beitin, Ben K


    This research explored how Arab American couples found the strength and resilience that empowered them to overcome the terrorist attacks of September 11th and the aftereffects that followed. Utilizing a family resiliency model grounded in systems theory and social constructionism, I interviewed 18 Arab American couples from the New York and New Jersey areas. I applied a phenomenological method of inquiry to gather the experiences of Arab American couples in order to understand the protective ...

  17. Witchcraft in African and African-American Novel – A Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In African and therefore, African American cultural world-view, some perceive witchcraft as evil and some identify it as an art that unifies and orders ... as evil conspirators and collaborators with the demonic world who are rarely benevolent and should be purged from the society; whereas, Toni Morrison sees them as ...

  18. Health-related Quality of Life of African American Breast Cancer Survivors Compared to Healthy African American Women (United States)

    Von Ah, Diane M.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zhao, Qianqian; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D.; Giesler, R. Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L.


    Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on Caucasian samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Even when African American BCS have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American women BCS to African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). Methods A total of 140 women (62 BCS and 78 control), ages 18 years or older and 2–10 years post-diagnosis, was recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a one-time survey based on Brenner’s (1995) proximal-distal health-related quality of life model. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, African American BCS experienced more fatigue (p=0.001), worse hot flashes (p<0.001) and worse sleep quality (p<0.001), but more social support from their partner (p=0.028) and more positive change (p=0.001) compared to African American women controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that African American women BCS may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socio-economic status and body mass index. Implications for Practice Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions. PMID:22228394

  19. Health-related quality of life of african american breast cancer survivors compared with healthy African American women. (United States)

    Von Ah, Diane M; Russell, Kathleen M; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O; Qianqian, Zhao; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D; Giesler, R Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L


    The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on white samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Even when African American BCSs have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American female BCSs with that of African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). A total of 140 women (62 BCSs and 78 controls), 18 years or older and 2 to 10 years postdiagnosis, were recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a 1-time survey based on the proximal-distal health-related quality of life model of Brenner et al (1995). After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, results show that African American BCSs experienced more fatigue (P = .001), worse hot flashes (P < .001), and worse sleep quality (P < .001) but more social support from their partner (P = .028) and more positive change (P = .001) compared with African American female controls. Our results suggest that African American female BCSs may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions.

  20. Unheard Voices: African American Fathers Speak about their Parenting Practices. (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark, Trenette T; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana; Nebbitt, Von E; Goldston, David B; Estroff, Sue E; Magan, Ifrah


    Researchers have called for qualitative investigations into African American fathers' parenting practices that consider their social context and identify specific practices. Such investigations can inform the way we conceptualize African American fathers' parenting practices, which can in turn contribute to prevention interventions with at-risk youth. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews about parenting with 30 self-identified, African American, biological fathers of pre-adolescent sons at-risk for developing aggressive behaviors, depressive symptoms, or both. Fathers provided descriptions of their parenting practices, which were at times influenced by their environmental context, fathers' residential status, and masculine ideologies. Our systematic analysis revealed four related themes that emerged from the data: managing emotions, encouragement, discipline, and monitoring. Of particular note, fathers in the current sample emphasized the importance of teaching their sons to manage difficult emotions, largely utilized language consistent with male ideologies (i.e., encouragement rather than love or nurturance), and engaged in high levels of monitoring and discipline in response to perceived environmental challenges and the developmental needs of their sons. The findings provide deeper insight into the parenting practices of African American fathers who are largely understudied, and often misunderstood. Further, these findings highlight considerations that may have important implications for father-focused prevention interventions that support African American fathers, youth, and families.

  1. Opinions of African Americans about tobacco industry philanthropy. (United States)

    King, Gary; Gebreselassie, Tesfayi; Mallett, Robyn K; Kozlowski, Lynn; Bendel, Robert B


    To investigate African Americans' opinions about the philanthropic contributions of the tobacco industry to Black organizations. One thousand African Americans were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample design of 10 U.S. congressional districts represented by African Americans. Almost two-thirds of African Americans favored accepting tobacco industry philanthropy as long as the recipients do not support smoking. A majority agreed that the tobacco industry gives money to African American communities to improve its image (71.2%), make money (83.2%), and to encourage people to smoke (60.5%). About one-third stated they believed it gave money to help the community (34.4%). Multiple logistic regression showed that women, the college educated, and current smokers were significantly (pphilanthropy. Multiple logistic regression revealed significant differences by education, smoking status, and selective attitudinal and behavioral variables with regard to tobacco industry philanthropy. The 18-34 age group was significantly less likely to agree that the tobacco industry gives money to help the community, with or without covariate adjustment. Results of this study are important because despite the perceived benefits to these communities, tobacco industry contributions could mitigate community concerns about tobacco-related diseases, mask their significance, and undermine tobacco control strategies and policies.

  2. Cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. (United States)

    Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S


    Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.

  3. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Carthron


    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.

  4. A Survey of Contemporary African American Poetry, Drama, & Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly Fernandes


    Full Text Available Analysis of literature indicates that varying viewpoints about different elements which define contemporary African American Literature has been identified. Majority of the scholarly works on African American writing are built on foundation of culture, political oppression and the need to express their true needs. This paper explores the current trends in contemporary African American Literature by examining tenets in poetry, fiction and drama.  Through the ages African American poetry, novels and drama can be considered to a chronicle documenting the struggles of a race which has been debated, debased and their humanity violated to the fight against oppression, social and political empowerment. From the views of this paper it can be concluded that the African American writing is not simply a reflection of the chain of events that took place but was a factor in change. Most of the writers and the works which have been highlighted in this essay have shown one primary theme: the use of literature as the means to voice their anger about social and economic repression. Keywords: s

  5. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson


    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  6. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers. (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others


    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  7. Parental Attachment, Self-Esteem, and Antisocial Behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American Adolescents. (United States)

    Arbona, Consuelo; Power, Thomas G.


    Examines the relation of mother and father attachment to self-esteem and self-reported involvement in antisocial behaviors among African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students. Findings indicated that adolescents from the 3 ethnic/racial groups did not differ greatly in their reported attachment. (Contains 70…

  8. African American fathers and incarceration: paternal involvement and child outcomes. (United States)

    Perry, Armon R; Bright, Mikia


    Despite only accounting for 6% of the general population, African American males represent nearly 50% of the prison population. To investigate the impact of mass incarceration on African American families, data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being study were analyzed. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of previous incarceration on African American fathers' instrumental and affective involvement with their children, and the extent to which their previous incarceration influences their children's behavior. Results revealed that 51% of the fathers in the sample had been incarcerated by their child's fifth birthday. The results also revealed that these fathers fared worse economically and were less involved with their children. Moreover, the children of previously incarcerated fathers had significantly worse behavioral problems than the children of fathers who had never been incarcerated.

  9. HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women. (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae


    African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.

  10. Inez Beverly Prosser and the education of African Americans. (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Henry, Keisha D; McMahon, Lance R


    Inez Beverly Prosser (ca. 1895-1934) was arguably the first African American woman to earn a doctorate in psychology. Her dissertation, completed in 1933, examined personality differences in black children attending either voluntarily segregated or integrated schools and concluded that black children were better served in segregated schools. This research was one of several studies in the 1920s and 1930s that was part of the debate on segregated schools as maintained in the United States under the "separate but equal" doctrine of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). This article examines the life and career of Prosser in the context of educational barriers and opportunities for African Americans in the early part of the twentieth century and explores the arguments that pitted African Americans against one another in determining how best to educate black children, arguments that eventually led to the desegregation decision of Brown v. Board of Education (1954). Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. African American parents' HPV vaccination intent and concerns. (United States)

    Sanders Thompson, Vetta L; Arnold, Lauren D; Notaro, Sheri R


    This study describes attitudes and social and environmental factors that affect African American parents' intent to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV). Thirty African American parents of daughters aged nine to 17 years and no history of HPV infection completed semi-structured interviews. Interviews addressed factors that influenced intent to vaccinate, perception of community norms related to vaccination, vaccination scenarios involving place of vaccination, and vaccination prior to or after the child's initiation of sexual activity. A recurring theme was the influence of physician recommendation on African American parents' intent to obtain HPV vaccination for their daughters. Most parents reported that they could overcome barriers to vaccination, except vaccine costs and lack of insurance. While religious beliefs were important to parents, they reported that they would not interfere with vaccination decisions; fears of early sexuality due to vaccination were limited. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s (United States)

    Angela Lumpkin


    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  13. Major depressive disorder in the African American population. (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Milapkumar; Barker, Narviar C; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta


    Depression is a common mental disorder that presents with depressed mood. It can become chronic or recurrent and lead to substantial impairment in an individual's ability to function. At this level, it is identified as major depressive disorder (MDD). Depression and MDD occur across all racial and ethnic groups. Although many depressed patients are treated in primary care, depression in these settings has been underdetected and undertreated. African Americans, especially, who suffer from depression are frequently underdiagnosed and inadequately managed in primary care due to patient, physician, and treatment setting factors. Patient factors include being poor, uninsured, restrictive insurance policies, biological-genetic vulnerability, nonresponsiveness to traditional pharmacological interventions, and stigma (i.e., attitudes and perceptions of mental illness). Physician factors include diagnosis and assessment, physician characteristics, physician bias, and culture; and treatment setting factors include systemic variables such as lack of or poor access to health care, racism, environment, and patient management. African Americans are less likely to receive proper diagnosis and treatment, more likely to have depression for long periods of time, and more likely to suffer greater disability from depression. Understanding patient, physician, and treatment setting factors as contributing barriers that impede effective diagnosis and treatment of depression and MDD in African Americans is critical to effective patient management and discovery. Greater African American participation in clinical research trials also is needed to effectively improve, diagnose, and treat depression in African Americans. This article examines depression among African Americans in the context of gender, culture, and psychosocial determinants, and their engagement in clinical trials.

  14. Developing culturally sensitive cancer genetics communication aids for African Americans. (United States)

    Baty, Bonnie Jeanne; Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Ellis, Sara Marie


    The goal of this project was to develop educational materials to communicate genetic health information in a culturally sensitive manner. These materials were designed to communicate information about cancer risk, genetic testing options, and health management options in an African American kindred with a known BRCA1 mutation. Educational materials were pilot-tested in four African American focus groups varying in socioeconomic status and gender. The audiotaped focus groups consisted of presentation of the educational materials, followed by a feedback session led by an African American facilitator. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts identified important themes and the educational materials were revised in response to the participants' suggestions. The products included a booklet and a flip chart for use in educational sessions. Focus group participants recommended a substantial reduction in technical detail, and recommended that information be personalized and made relevant to the lives of the target population. Other critical themes included the importance of building trust in the medical system and avoiding words and images that have strong negative associations in the African American community. Strategies that were successful included nontechnical images to explain genetic concepts, clip art images to energize and personalize word slides, vibrant color, identifiably African American figures, and the development of themes relevant to many African Americans. The use of these materials in an ongoing study offering BRCA1 counseling and testing to a large, rural Louisiana-based kindred will provide additional feedback about the effectiveness of the culturally tailored genetic education and counseling materials. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Impact of Grandchild Caregiving on African American Grandparents. (United States)

    Samuel, Preethy S; Marsack, Christina N; Johnson, Lisa A; LeRoy, Barbara W; Lysack, Catherine L; Lichtenberg, Peter A


    The aim of this study was to describe the context and impact of caregiving for grandchildren with health concerns on grandparents. The study sample comprised 391 African American grandparents aged 55 or older. Logistic regression analysis indicated that grandparent caregivers of grandchildren with psychiatric or behavioral problems were more likely to experience a negative impact on their health (AOR = 7.86, p =.008) and leisure (AOR = 14.31, p =.024) than grandparent caregivers of grandchildren with no or other types of health problems. The findings underscore the need to support African American grandparent caregivers, particularly those raising grandchildren with mental health problems.

  16. African-American Female Students and STEM: Principals' Leadership Perspectives (United States)

    Sampson, Kristin Morgan

    As the U.S. becomes more diverse, school leaders, major corporations, and areas of national defense continue to investigate science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education issues. African-American female students have historically been underrepresented in STEM fields, yet educational leadership research, examining this population is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how principals support African-American female students in schools with a STEM program. The Critical Race Theory (CRT)was used as a theoretical framework to highlight the inadequacies to support educational inequalities. The application of the CRT in this study is due to the embedded inequality practices within the educational system, that have resulted in the underrepresentation of African-American female students in STEM. To complement CRT, the transformative leadership model was also utilized to examine the emancipatory leadership practices principals utilized. These theories framed the context of this study by recognizing the need to address how support is actualized to African-American female students in STEM by their principals. A case study approach was an appropriate method to answer the two research questions, 1) How do principals feel they support African-American female students in their STEM programs? and 2) What practices do principals engage in that support underrepresented students in STEM? This approach intended to uncover how a principal leads a multifaceted population of underrepresented students in STEM programs. Two principals of STEM schools, where more than 50% of the population were African-American, were interviewed and observed completing daily operations at community-wide events. The STEM Coordinators and a teacher were also interviewed, and test scores were examined to provide further information about the STEM program, and public records were obtained to analyze the principals' means of communication. I found that principals supported

  17. Meaning of bereavement among older African American widows. (United States)

    Rodgers, Laura S


    In spite of the increase in research on spousal bereavement, researchers have not specifically addressed the impact that ethnicity may have on the bereavement experience. The results of this descriptive phenomenological study increase the understanding of spousal bereavement among older African American widows. Storytelling was at the heart of every participant's description of her bereavement experience. Six themes were identified: awareness of death, care giving, getting through, moving on, changing feelings, and financial security. For nurses to effectively intervene in the lives of bereaved older African American widows, they must consider each widow's culture, heritage, and lived experiences, which can be ascertained through eliciting and listening to the widow's life stories.

  18. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women. (United States)

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette


    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  19. Relationship between Physical Function and Sleep Quality in African Americans. (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Salas, Rachel E; Gamaldo, Charlene E; Whitfield, Keith E


    There is a growing body of research examining the relationship between sleep and functional outcomes. However, little is known about sleep and physical functioning in older African Americans. Data for this project included 450 community-dwelling older African Americans (71.4 ± 9.2 years of age) who participated in the Baltimore Study of Black Aging. Overall sleep pattern and quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Physical functioning was measured by the number of activities of daily living that each participant reported difficulty (ADL; e.g. eating, dressing, and bathing). Negative binomial regression models were conducted to estimate the association between sleep quality and physical functioning. Seventy-two percent of the participants reported poor sleep quality. African Americans who reported poor sleep quality had a greater likelihood of an increase in the number of difficulties in ADLs that they reported even after accounting for demographic characteristics and health conditions. The relationship between sleep quality and physical functioning did not vary by gender. Sleep may be an important factor to consider when seeking to improve physical functioning among community-dwelling older African Americans. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  20. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers. (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai


    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CDC Vital Signs–African American Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the May 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. The life expectancy of African Americans has improved, but it’s still an average of four years less than whites. Learn what can be done so all Americans can have the opportunity to pursue a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 5/2/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 5/2/2017.

  2. Androgen Receptor Mutations and Polymorphisms in African American Prostate Cancer


    Koochekpour, Shahriar; Buckles, Erick; Shourideh, Mojgan; Hu, SiYi; Chandra, Dhyan; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Attwood, Kristopher


    The Androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the normal development of the prostate gland, in prostate carcinogenesis, and in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to advanced metastatic disease. African American (AA) men with PCa present with higher tumor volume, more advanced tumor stage, and higher Gleason score. This could be in part related to the AR expression or activity in the prostate tissue of AA men, or to unique mutations or polymorphisms of the AR. In Caucasian Americans...

  3. Resilient response characterisation of hot-mix asphalt mixes for a new South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph


    Full Text Available The South Africa National Road Agency Ltd (SANRAL) is in the process of revising the South African Pavement Design Method (SAPDM). A necessary part of this programme is to develop resilient response models. Dynamic (complex) modulus has been used...

  4. Parenting within Cultural Context: Comparisons between African-American and Asian-American Parents (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen


    Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…

  5. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.


    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  6. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.


    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  7. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents (United States)

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.


    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  8. A review of sociocultural factors that may underlie differences in African American and European American anxiety. (United States)

    Hopkins, Patricia D; Shook, Natalie J


    Preliminary evidence indicates there may be differences in the prevalence and severity of anxiety in African Americans and European Americans. A number of sociocultural risk and protective factors have been suggested to contribute to these group differences, such as salience of physical illnesses, discrimination, stigma toward mental illness, religiosity, and ethnic identity. In this paper, the literature concerning each of these factors is reviewed. Overall, the strongest evidence was found for ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness as factors underlying group differences in anxiety. Ethnic identity and stigma toward mental illness consistently differed by racial group and were associated with anxiety in African Americans. Ethnic identity may buffer against the negative consequences of anxiety, reducing prevalence rates in African Americans. Stigma toward mental illness may decrease African Americans willingness to report anxiety symptoms, reducing overall prevalence rates but increasing the severity of treated cases. The research regarding discrimination, salience of physical illnesses, and religiosity was less clear. Much more research is required, but the findings of this review suggest that future studies should put particular emphasis on stigma toward mental illness and ethnic identity as important factors in understanding African American anxiety outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in knowledge of breast cancer screening among African American, Arab American, and Latina women. (United States)

    Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E


    We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  10. The World Is Waiting for the Sunrise: African Americans "yel Mundo Latino." (United States)

    Widener, Danny


    Traces the long and varied history of interaction and collective action by African Americans and Latinos, focusing on common culture and political cooperation. Outlines issues related to the continued cooperation of African Americans and Latinos, and common political projects. (SLD)

  11. Psychodynamics of Coping and Survival of the African-American Female in a Changing World. (United States)

    Young, Carlene


    Analyzes the sociopsychological factors that account for increased stressors and dysfunctionality in contemporary African American women. Discusses the importance of African American family life values in combating dehumanization. (FMW)

  12. Cycling in the African American Community : safety training guidelines and findings. (United States)


    This report is a program users manual for the Cycling in the African American Community (CAAC) safety training intervention. The CAAC safety training intervention was designed to nudge more African Americans, who are often beginning cyclists...

  13. Phenotypic variance explained by local ancestry in admixed African Americans. (United States)

    Shriner, Daniel; Bentley, Amy R; Doumatey, Ayo P; Chen, Guanjie; Zhou, Jie; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N


    We surveyed 26 quantitative traits and disease outcomes to understand the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by local ancestry in admixed African Americans. After inferring local ancestry as the number of African-ancestry chromosomes at hundreds of thousands of genotyped loci across all autosomes, we used a linear mixed effects model to estimate the variance explained by local ancestry in two large independent samples of unrelated African Americans. We found that local ancestry at major and polygenic effect genes can explain up to 20 and 8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. These findings provide evidence that most but not all additive genetic variance is explained by genetic markers undifferentiated by ancestry. These results also inform the proportion of health disparities due to genetic risk factors and the magnitude of error in association studies not controlling for local ancestry.

  14. Using African American Children's Literature to Support Literacy Development (United States)

    McClellan, Sally; Fields, M. Evelyn


    Reading is an essential skill for young children. It can chart a course for school success. Without this ability, children are likely to be unsuccessful and drop out of school. In this article, the authors focus on the use of Authentic African American children's literature to support literacy development, help unite the home and school…

  15. The Brotherhood: Empowering Adolescent African-American Males toward Excellence (United States)

    Wyatt, Shelby


    A review of the literature reveals that African-American males do not achieve at the same academic levels as their White counterparts. This article reports the effectiveness of a school-based male mentoring program established by a professional school counselor in an urban high school that formed a relationship of support for male students…

  16. NGOMA: Celebrate the Dream with African-American Literature (United States)

    Brinson, Sabrina A.


    How can everyone celebrate the most powerful dream (Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s) in America's history, which paved the way for civil rights, equality, and social justice? How can everyone heighten students' awareness of these civil and social issues? An increased use of African-American literature is one effective way. In this article,…

  17. New role perspective of African American women in Terry Mcmillan's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of studies on female-authored African American literary works have focused on female writers' creative responses to male-authored representations of the tensions of racism, internal crisis of man-woman relationships and the challenges of empowering the black female character. Little attention has been paid to ...

  18. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.


    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  19. Predicting Relationship Stability among Midlife African American Couples (United States)

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Russell, Daniel W.; Burzette, Rebecca G.; Wesner, Kristin A.; Bryant, Chalandra M.


    Objective: This study examined predictors of relationship stability over 5 years among heterosexual cohabiting and married African American couples raising an elementary-school-age child. The vulnerability-stress-adaptation model of relationships (Karney & Bradbury, 1995) guided the investigation. Contextual variables were conceptualized as…

  20. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy


    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  1. Physical Education and Academic Performance in Urban African American Girls (United States)

    Shen, Bo


    This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…

  2. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.


    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  3. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita


    .... The objectives of this study were to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  4. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren


    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  5. The Sociocultural Benefits of Writing for African American Adolescent Males (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie


    Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…

  6. The Impact of African American Fathers on Adolescent Sexual Behavior. (United States)

    Dittus, Patricia J.; Gordon, Vivian V.; Jaccard, James


    The impact the father's attitude toward premarital sexual intercourse has on the sexual behavior of the father's adolescent child was studied with approximately 750 inner-city African American youth. Results showed that adolescent perceptions of paternal attitudes were predictive of teen sexual behavior independent of perceptions of maternal…

  7. Tough Girls: Fiction for African American Urban Teens. (United States)

    Doyle, Miranda


    Includes annotated bibliographies for 10 books of fiction that appeal to urban African American girls, five adult titles and five young adult titles. Identifies seven essential characteristics present in the most popular books in a teen section, based on conversations with teens. (LRW)

  8. Critical Readings: African American Girls and Urban Fiction (United States)

    Gibson, Simone


    The goal of this writing is to introduce the reader to the urban fiction genre, explore why adolescent African American girls may be engaging with novels from the genre, and how teachers may be able to use texts from the genre to increase literacy skills.

  9. Kinship Care for African American Children: Disproportionate and Disadvantageous (United States)

    Harris, Marian S.; Skyles, Ada


    To highlight the individual and systemic practices that perpetuate the overuse of and reliance on kinship care and instead emphasize family reunification as the permanency plan for African American children in the child welfare system, the authors first discuss how kinship care is affected by federal child welfare policy and provide a historical…

  10. Bibliographies of Microforms Relating to African-Americans. (United States)

    Ransom, Charles G.


    Lists approximately 250 microforms from the University of Michigan library that relate to African Americans. Headings are biographies, civil rights, Civil War, colonization, economics, employment, freedmen, history, Michigan, music, news, papers, periodicals, politics, race, Reconstruction, religion, riots, segregation, slavery, social conditions,…

  11. Bilingualism and How it Impacts the African American Child (United States)

    Anthony,Taiwanna D.; Kritsonis, William A.


    As the era of bilingualism increases in many states, African American children are some how being overlooked. There are many challenges for non-native Spanish speakers. Many of the school programs are focused on ESL (English as a Second Language), ELL (English Language Learner), or LEP (Limited English Proficiency) students. The authors provide…

  12. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.


    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  13. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.


    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  14. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.


    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  15. Secondary Teacher Education Pathway: Recruiting African American Male Teachers (United States)

    Rudd, Helena Virginia


    This executive position paper proposes an innovative Career and Technical Pathway for secondary education. The Secondary Teacher Education Pathway (STEP) is a teacher education pathway for high school students who are interested in teaching as a profession. The goal of this Program is to increase the number of African American male teachers in…

  16. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.


    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  17. Integrating African American Fiction into the Middle School Curriculum. (United States)

    Bacharach, Nancy; Miller, Terry


    Examines the psychosocial development of middle school readers and suggests ways to use fiction with admirable African American characters to help develop cultural awareness and sensitivity during the middle school years. Covers mystery or problem-solving units, historical and survival units, and friends and family relationships units. Includes a…

  18. Immersion and Identity: Experiences of an African American Preschool Child (United States)

    McCullough, Ruanda Garth; Reyes, Sharon Adelman


    This article explores the benefits and challenges of a Spanish language immersion preschool from the perspective of a non-Spanish speaking African American family. Data explored include the decision to enroll, reactions from peers and family, home-school communication issues, language development, and family involvement. In addition,…

  19. Depression and Risk Perceptions in Older African Americans With Diabetes. (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Haller, Julia A; Casten, Robin J; Murchison, Ann P; Hark, Lisa A


    Objective. The purpose of this study is to describe the impact of depression on perceptions of risks to health, diabetes self-management practices, and glycemic control in older African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Methods. The authors analyzed data on depression, risk perceptions, diabetes self-management, and A1C in African Americans with type 2 diabetes. T-tests, χ(2), and multivariate regression were used to analyze the data. Results. The sample included 177 African Americans (68% women) whose average age was 72.8 years. Thirty-four participants (19.2%) met criteria for depression. Compared to nondepressed participants, depressed participants scored significantly higher on Personal Disease Risk (the perception of being at increased risk for various medical problems), Environmental Risk (i.e., increased risk for environmental hazards), and Composite Risk Perception (i.e., overall perceptions of increased risk); adhered less to diabetes self-management practices; and had marginally worse glycemic control. Depression and fewer years of education were independent predictors of overall perception of increased health risks. Conclusion. Almost 20% of older African Americans with type 2 diabetes in this study were depressed. Compared to nondepressed participants, they tended to have fewer years of education, perceived themselves to be at higher risk for multiple health problems, and adhered less to diabetes self-management practices. It is important for diabetes educators to recognize the impact of low education and the fatalistic perceptions that depression engenders in this population.

  20. African American Trickster: Representations in the Work of Romare Bearden. (United States)

    Schramm, Susan L.; Jeffries, Rhonda B.


    Examines the role of the African American "trickster" archetype and the conceptions of the trickster in folk tales and pop culture. Discusses the trickster in the life and work of Romare Bearden. Provides a rationale for an arts-based integrated curriculum and describes a four-step art criticism technique to integrate Bearden and the…

  1. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.


    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  2. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.


    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  3. Black Students, Black Colleges: An African American College Choice Model. (United States)

    McDonough, Patricia M.; Antonio, Anthony Lising; Trent, James W.


    Explores African Americans' college choice decisions, based on a national sample of 220,757 freshmen. Independent of gender, family income, or educational aspiration, the most powerful predictors for choosing historically black colleges and universities are geography, religion, the college's academic reputation, and relatives' desires. The top…

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen


    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  5. African-American Female Student Experiences in Community College (United States)

    Dozier, Nedra


    This is a mixed method study focusing on African-American Female (AAF) student experiences and success in the community college. This study was focused at a large southeastern, comprehensive community college. A chi-squared analysis of extant data concerning questions from the Community College Survey for Student Engagement (CCSSE) instrument was…

  6. A Motivational Intervention for African American Boys Labeled as Aggressive (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia


    A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…

  7. African American Students' Experiences in Special Education Programs (United States)

    Craft, Eleanor; Howley, Aimee


    Background/Context: Disproportionate placement of African American students into special education programs is likely to be a form of institutional racism, especially when such placement stigmatizes students. If placement also fails to lead to educational benefits, the practice becomes even more suspect. Some studies have explored disproportionate…

  8. African American Child-Women: Nutrition Theory Revisited (United States)

    Talpade, Medha


    Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…

  9. African American Male College Athletes' Narratives on Education and Racism (United States)

    Singer, John N.


    This study presents narrative case study vignettes of three elite African American male football athletes at a major historically White institution of higher education with a big-time athletics department. More specifically, I draw from critical race theory to garner insight into their secondary schooling background, what education means to them,…

  10. Allostatic Load and Health Status of African Americans and Whites (United States)

    Deuster, Patricia A.; Kim-Dorner, Su Jong; Remaley, Alan T.; Poth, Merrily


    Objectives: To compare health risks in 84 healthy African American and 45 white men and women after calculating allostatic load (AL) from biologic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures. Methods: Participants (18-45 years) ranging in weight from normal to obese and without hypertension or diabetes. Fitness, body fat, CRP, mood, social support,…

  11. Teaching and Learning African American History in a Multiracial Classroom (United States)

    Chikkatur, Anita


    The author explores the challenges of teaching and learning African American history, a history fraught with uncomfortable implications about contemporary race relations and race-based inequalities. Drawing on various theories of anti-oppressive education, and using data from an ethnographic study conducted in one history classroom, the author…

  12. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011 (United States)


    ... and women have persevered to enrich our national life and bend the arc of history toward justice. From... justice and equality laid out by our forbearers. In the Emancipation Proclamation, President Abraham... to climb out of poverty. During National African American History Month, we recognize the...

  13. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey


    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  14. Intergroup Differences and Their Impact on African American Teachers. (United States)

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Madsen, Jean A.


    Examined how intergroup differences within suburban schools affected African American teachers' experiences. Organizational culture strongly influenced how whites treated their minority counterparts. Because the majority established norms, minorities were expected to comply with uniform sets of rules and regulations. Intergroup conflict arose…

  15. Genetic Counseling for Breast Cancer Susceptibility in African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hughes, Chanita


    .... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...

  16. Slaves No More: The Caring Power of African-American Female Leaders (United States)

    Sernak, Kathleen S.


    In this article the author examines the historical significance of the cultural aspect of race on African American females' leadership values and styles that encourage caring in schools. The author focuses her study by asking: What aspects of their (African American female leaders) cultural backgrounds as Africans and as African Americans…

  17. Relationship of pain and ancestry in African American women. (United States)

    Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F


    African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A. M


    .... In 2002 the scope of the study was expanded to include African-Americans and African migrants in the United States so as to investigate the role of dietary nutrients associated with increased prostate cancer risk (fatty acids...

  19. "I Worship Black Gods": Formation of an African American Lucumi Religious Subjectivity


    Norman, Lisanne


    In 1959, Christopher Oliana and Walter “Serge” King took a historic journey to pre-revolutionary Cuba that would change the religious trajectory of numerous African Americans, particularly in New York City. They became the first African American initiates into the Afro-Cuban Lucumi orisha tradition opening the way for generations of African Americans who would comprehensively transform their way of life. This dissertation examines the inter-diasporic exchanges between African Americans and th...

  20. African american women, hair care, and health barriers. (United States)

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace


    The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.

  1. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  2. Morphological awareness skills of fourth-grade African American students. (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Thomas-Tate, Shurita


    We examined the morphological awareness skills of fourth-grade African American children and the association between degree of African American English (AAE) use and performance on written measures of morphological awareness. Additional purposes were to determine whether performance on the morphological awareness tasks (a) was affected by the transparency of morphologically related words and the type of task administered, (b) was associated with other literacy and literacy-related skills, and (c) explained unique variance on these latter abilities. Thirty fourth-grade African American children from low-income backgrounds were administered 2 morphological awareness tasks and completed norm-referenced measures of word-level reading, reading comprehension, spelling, phonemic awareness, and receptive vocabulary. The degree of AAE use was not associated with students' performance on the morphological awareness tasks. On these tasks, significantly higher scores were obtained on items that represented a transparent relationship between a base word and its derived form. The students' performance on the morphological awareness tasks was significantly and moderately related to their performance on the word-level reading, spelling, and receptive vocabulary measures. Morphological awareness scores explained significant unique variance on measures of word-level reading and spelling, above that predicted by performance on measures of phonemic awareness and vocabulary. As shown in previous investigations of Caucasian children's morphological awareness skills, fourth-grade African American students' morphological awareness abilities are associated with select language and literacy skills. Professionals should capitalize on students' intact capabilities in morphological awareness during literacy instruction in an effort to maximize language and literacy performance for African American students.

  3. Fat, Fiber and Cancer Risk in African Americans and Rural Africans (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen J.D.; Li, Jia V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, Junhai; Carbonero, Franck; Mohammed, Khaled; Posma, Joram M; Kinross, James; Wahl, Elaine; Ruder, Elizabeth; Vipperla, Kishore; Naidoo, Vasudevan; Mtshali, Lungile; Tims, Sebastian; Puylaert, Philippe G.B.; DeLany, James; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Benefiel, Ann C.; Kaseb, Hatem O.; Newton, Keith; Nicholson, Jeremy K.; de Vos, Willem M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Zoetendal, Erwin G.


    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat and lower fiber consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short chain fatty acid quantities and higher mucosal proliferative biomarkers of cancer risk in otherwise healthy middle aged volunteers. Here we investigate further the role of fat and fiber in this association. We performed two-week food exchanges in subjects from the same populations, where African Americans were fed a high-fiber, lowfat African-style diet, and rural Africans a high-fat low-fiber western-style diet under close supervision. In comparison to their usual diets, the food changes resulted in remarkable reciprocal changes in mucosal biomarkers of cancer risk and in aspects of the microbiota and metabolome known to affect cancer risk, best illustrated by increased saccharolytic fermentation and butyrogenesis and suppressed secondary bile acid synthesis in the African Americans. PMID:25919227

  4. African Americans' opinions about human-genetics research. (United States)

    Achter, Paul; Parrott, Roxanne; Silk, Kami


    Research on attitudes toward genetics and medicine registers skepticism among minority communities, but the reasons for this skepticism are not well known. In the past, studies linked mistrust of the medical system to historical ethics violations involving minority groups and to suspicions about ideological premise and political intent. To assess public knowledge, attitudes, and behavior regarding human-genetics research, we surveyed 858 Americans onsite in four community settings or online in a geographically nonspecific manner. Compared to participants as a whole, African Americans were significantly more likely to believe that clinical trials might be dangerous and that the federal government knowingly conducted unethical research, including studies in which risky vaccines were administered to prison populations. However, African Americans were also significantly more likely to believe that the federal government worked to prevent environmental exposure to toxicants harmful to people with genetic vulnerabilities. Our data suggest that most Americans trust government to act ethically in sponsoring and conducting research, including genetics research, but that African Americans are particularly likely to see government as powerfully protective in some settings yet selectively disingenuous in others.

  5. What's So "Powerful" about African American Children's Literature?: Let's Ask the Students. (United States)

    Hefflin, Bena R.


    Outlines what educators and academics describe as the "power" of children's literature and multicultural children's literature, which includes African American children's literature. Explores what four African American third-graders have to say about the "power" of six African American children's books. Concludes with the…

  6. African American Children's Literature that Helps Students Find Themselves: Selection Guidelines for Grade K-3. (United States)

    Barksdale-Ladd, Mary Alice; Hefflin, Bena R.


    Suggests guidelines for selecting African American children's literature of high literary and artistic qualities for grades K-3. Presents guidelines for all teachers, whether they have African American children in their classrooms or not. Provides a list of 27 selected recent books with an African American context that meet the same criteria for…

  7. "The Brown Face of Hope": Reading Engagement and African American Boys (United States)

    Meier, Terry


    African American children's literature has a potentially powerful role to play in increasing reading engagement for African American boys. Unfortunately, this body of literature is not always used effectively in schools. Many teachers use African American books as an add-on to pre-exisiting curriculum rather than fully exploring the topics,…

  8. An Examination of African American Female College Presidents' Professional Ascendancy and Mentoring Experiences (United States)

    Smith-Ligon, Pamela


    There is a large disparity in the number of African American women leaders in higher education, specifically in the presidency. Much of the literature negates the experiences of the African American woman, often fusing their experiences with those of all women, or those of African American men, which often disregards the challenges and successes…

  9. African Americans Majoring in Science at Predominantly White Universities (A Review of the Literature) (United States)

    Green, Andre; Glasson, George


    One of the most significant problems facing science education is the under-representation of African Americans in science related fields (Young, 2005). African American constitute a little more than 12% of the United States population. However, as recently as 1999 African Americans only comprised only 3.4% of persons working in science and…

  10. Young African American Male-Male Relationships: Experiences, Expectations, and Condom Use (United States)

    Taggart, Tamara; Ellen, Jonathan; Arrington-Sanders, Renata


    HIV disproportionately impacts young African American men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study, we sought to understand how previous relationship experiences and expectations for romantic relationships influence condom use among young African American MSM. Twenty African American MSM aged 16 to 24 years completed a semi-structured interview…

  11. African American and Latino Men's Recommendations for an Improved Campus Environment (United States)

    Cerezo, Alison; Lyda, James; Enriquez, Alma; Beristianos, Matthew; Connor, Michael


    The purpose of this study was to share findings from semistructured qualitative interviews with 9 African American and 12 Latino men about their ideas on how university personnel could better support their needs. Stressing the need for African American men to learn self-reliance to counter microaggressions, African American participants offered…

  12. African American Educators' Ideas and Practices for Increasing High School Graduation Rates, 1920-1940 (United States)

    Juergensen, Miyoshi B.


    This study explores African American educators' ideas about school completion in the 1920s and 1930s as a way to begin to understand their contributions to the historical discourse on school completion. Using publications from African American professional teaching organizations, the author elevates and examines how African American educators both…

  13. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women. (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.


    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  14. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline


    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  15. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar


    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  16. "Brother Where Art Thou?" African American Male Instructors' Perceptions of the Counselor Education Profession (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.

  17. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention (United States)

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.


    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  18. A Case Study of the Development of African American Women Executives (United States)

    Brooks Greaux, Lisa


    Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…

  19. Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.


    Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

  20. The Politics of Public Discourse: Discourse, Identity and African-Americans in Science Education (United States)

    Brown, Bryan A.


    This review examines twenty years of research (1985-2005) on African-American students in science education. This analysis identified three types of research studies on African-Americans. First, a series of studies provided status reports of African-American students' performance in science. Second, a series of studies highlighted cultural…

  1. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans. (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A


    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  2. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy


    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  3. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means


    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  4. Medical Advocacy Among African American Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: From Recipient to Resource (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Scherman, Ashley; Constant, Tara Hayes; Hempstead, Bridgette; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Richardson, Shayla; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Reding, Kerryn W.; Ceballos, Rachel M.


    Purpose Medical advocacy at multiple levels (self, community/interpersonal, national/public health interest) may be helpful to address the disproportionate burden of breast cancer African American women encounter. Little however is known about the interplay of medical advocacy at different levels. Methods We analyzed qualitative data from two studies focused on the psychosocial experiences of breast cancer among 38 African American women living in Western Washington State. Results Emergent themes suggested that survivors received community/interpersonal advocacy from different members of social networks in the form of social support (appraisal, emotional, informational, instrumental). Survivors indicated that receiving this advocacy was associated with greater self advocacy in terms of their own care experiences as well as greater community/interpersonal advocacy on their part as resources to other women diagnosed with breast cancer, their family, friends, and larger communities. Conclusion Our findings suggest that community/interpersonal advocacy, including providing different types of support, may lead to improved self advocacy as well as health-protective impacts for the networks in which survivors are embedded. Future quantitative research is warranted to support these findings and assess how this interplay is associated with improved outcomes among this marginalized and resilient population. PMID:26891843

  5. A confirmatory factor analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory in African American and European American young adults. (United States)

    Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Sarah R; Mast, Benjamin T; Woodruff-Borden, Janet


    The anxiety literature is particularly sparse as it relates to African Americans, and there are few studies to date that have examined the factor structure of anxiety assessment tools within this population. The current study investigated the original two-factor structure of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in addition to two extant factor structures of the BAI in a non-clinical sample of African American and European American young adults. One hundred twenty one European American and 100 African American young adults completed the BAI. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the previous factor structures of the Beck Anxiety Inventory do not provide the best fit for either the African American or the European American sample. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that an alternative, two-factor model provided the best fit for the sample, particularly for the African American sample. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Beyond Parenting Practices: Extended Kinship Support and the Academic Adjustment of African-American and European-American Teens (United States)

    Pallock, Linda L.; Lamborn, Susie D.


    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation.…

  7. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.


    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  8. Resilience in Arab American couples after September 11, 2001: a systems perspective. (United States)

    Beitin, Ben K; Allen, Katherine R


    Guided by a family resiliency model grounded in systems theory and social constructionism, we conducted in-depth interviews to explore how 18 Arab American couples living in New York and New Jersey perceived and dealt with the terrorist attacks and aftereffects of September 11, 2001. Results are organized around five themes: Making sense of the attacks; the social environment after September 11, 2001; construction of identity: Arab and/or American; how couples cope: reactions and resources; and immigration and acculturation. Clinical recommendations include helping couples to uncover and to explore conflicts in both Arab and American identities, using genograms to deal with family-of-origin histories, recognizing specific couple dynamics linked to traditional gender roles, helping couples connect to religious and cultural communities, and assessing acculturation.

  9. Tuskegee as Sacred Rhetoric: Focal Point for the Emergent Field of African American Religion and Health. (United States)

    Laws, Terri


    Scholars in African American religion engage the Tuskegee Syphilis Study as the focal point of the African American experience in institutional medicine. Seeking a way forward from this history and its intentional evil, the author proposes to position Tuskegee as a form of Lynch's culturally contextual sacred rhetoric to make use of its metaphoric value in the emerging field of African American religion and health. In this broader meaning-making frame, Tuskegee serves as a reminder that African American religious sensibility has long been an agential resource that counters abuse of the Black body. It also acknowledges the complex decisions facing African American clinical trial participants.

  10. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement. (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise


    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance.

  11. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels


    Full Text Available

    Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  12. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels


    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  13. Gender role orientation and anxiety symptoms among African american adolescents. (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S


    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to 19 (mean age 15.77; 57 girls). Results revealed that masculinity was negatively associated with anxiety symptoms whereas femininity was positively associated with anxiety symptoms. Gender role orientation accounted for unique variance in anxiety scores above biological gender and self-esteem, and self-esteem moderated the relation between femininity (but not masculinity) and overall anxiety symptoms. Consistent with research on children and Caucasians, findings supported gender role theory as a partial explanation for the observed gender disparity in anxiety symptoms among African American adolescents.

  14. CVD prevention strategies with urban and rural African American women. (United States)

    Williams, Armenia; Wold, Judith; Dunkin, Jeri; Idleman, Lynda; Jackson, Cennette


    Using Pender's Health Promotion Model, this study tested a work site cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor reduction intervention among low-income African American (LAAW) women. Individual CVD risk profiles were identified at the work site through (1) health risk appraisal, (2) blood pressure measurement, (3) body mass index calculation, (4) individual interviews about diet and exercise behaviors, and (5) total cholesterol analysis. Two LAAW groups, one urban and one rural, exhibited higher or similar pretest CVD relative risks (RR) when statistically compared with a national sample of African American women. The LAAW study samples were younger and more educated. Pretest cholesterol and fat intake for the rural women were higher than for the urban women (<.05). Posttest changes in cholesterol and fat intake risks were more significant in rural LAAW than in urban LAAW (<.05).

  15. Thriving older African American women: aging after Jim Crow. (United States)

    Shenk, D; Zablotsky, D; Croom, M B


    This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly that there is a core of key values that continue to hold meaning and struggle to impart these values to those whose lives they touch. The key values identified include education, religion, work, and giving back to the community, and illustrate the integration of both traditional and nontraditional definitions of success. Mentoring is proposed as an important concept for understanding the lives of African American women in later life.

  16. Diabetes awareness among African Americans in rural North Carolina. (United States)

    Antony, Angela K; Baaklini, Walid A


    To evaluate the extent of diabetes unawareness in rural North Carolina. Randomly administered an eight-question survey to African Americans age 15-74 living in Halifax County North Carolina. Ninety-five out of 116 eligible participants completed the survey (82% response rate). Most (67%) of the participants reported having two or more major risk factors for Type II diabetes (diabetes mellitus). More than half (51.6%) of the participants were obese. Most (96.8%) of the participants reported having been tested for diabetes at some point in their lives (10% testedpositive, only 8.4% of the remaining 9o% reported ever having a second test). Diabetes mellitus is a very prevalentproblem among the African American population of Halifax County North Carolina. Our study underscores the fact that patients are not systematically screened and followed-up for diabetes melitus. More healthcare and commnity programs need to be adapted to fight this serious public health problem.

  17. Measuring African American women's trust in provider during pregnancy. (United States)

    Peters, Rosalind M; Benkert, Ramona; Templin, Thomas N; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E


    Significant racial disparities exist in pregnancy outcomes, but few researchers have examined the relationship between trust in providers and pregnancy outcomes. The Trust in Physician Scale (TPS), the most widely used tool, has not been tested in pregnancy. We assessed the psychometric properties of the TPS and identified correlates of trust in 189 pregnant African American women. Evidence supports internal consistency reliability (>.85) and internal structure of the TPS (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .05; χ(2) (42) = 65.93, p = .001), but TPS scores did not predict pregnancy outcomes. African American women reported a high level of trust in obstetric providers. Trust did not differ by provider type (physician or midwife) but was related to the women's history of perceived racism and strength of ethnic identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Experiences and Learning Needs of African American Family Dementia Caregivers. (United States)

    Samson, Zoe Blake; Parker, Monica; Dye, Clinton; Hepburn, Kenneth


    Dementia family caregivers display significant rates of psychological and physical symptoms. African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by dementia. African American caregivers display unique patterns of symptomology and responses to interventions designed to promote caregiver well-being. This study analyzed qualitative focus group data from 32 AA caregivers to explore how issues of race and culture may be incorporated into a culturally sensitive intervention for AA dementia family caregivers. Caregivers were asked scripted questions about their caregiving experiences and to suggest alterations to an existing psychoeducation program. Analysis revealed 4 key themes: the tradition of family care, caregiving and caregiving issues, culturally appropriate care, and navigating without a map. Suggestions for an educational program included a focus on developing caregiver skills and knowledge for caregiving, promotion of self-care, and reflection on the AA family and community as resources for care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Structural health and the politics of African American masculinity. (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M


    This commentary describes ways in which notions of African American men's "health" attained by individual choice-embedded in the notion that African American men should visit doctors or engage in fewer risky behaviors-are at times in tension with larger cultural, economic, and political notions of "health." It argues that efforts to improve the health of Black men must take structural factors into account, and failure to do so circumvents even well-intentioned efforts to improve health outcomes. Using historical examples, the article shows how attempts to identify and intervene into what are now called social determinants of health are strengthened by addressing on-the-ground diagnostic disparities and also the structural violence and racism embedded within definitions of illness and health. And, that, as such, we need to monitor structural barriers to health that exist in institutions ostensibly set up to incarcerate or contain Black men and in institutions ostensibly set up to help them.

  20. Competing Claims: Religious Affiliation and African Americans' Intolerance of Homosexuals. (United States)

    Ledet, Richard


    Literature on religion and political intolerance indicates competing expectations about how Black Protestant church affiliation affects African Americans' attitudes about civil liberties. On the one hand, Black Protestant theology emphasizes personal freedom and social justice, factors generally linked to more tolerant attitudes. On the other hand, Black Protestants tend to be conservative on family and social issues, factors often linked to intolerance of gays and lesbians. Data from the General Social Survey are used to examine the influence of religious group identification, as well as other relevant aspects of religiosity, on political intolerance among African Americans. Results indicate that although other aspects of religion (beliefs and behaviors) help explain variation in political intolerance, Black Protestant church affiliation has no relationship with attitudes about the civil liberties of homosexuals. However, additional tests show that Black Protestant church affiliation significantly predicts intolerance of other target groups (atheists and racists).

  1. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents. (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L


    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences.

  2. African-American girls' dietary intake while watching television. (United States)

    Matheson, Donna M; Wang, Yun; Klesges, Lisa M; Beech, Bettina M; Kraemer, Helena C; Robinson, Thomas N


    Television viewing has been associated with childhood obesity, although the mechanisms that link television viewing to higher BMI have not been established. Therefore, our objectives, in this report, were to describe the amount and types of foods that African-American girls consume while watching television and to examine the associations between African-American girls' BMI and the food they consume while watching television. Data were collected from 210 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at four field centers by trained and certified nutritionists. Two nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from each girl. For each eating episode reported, the girls were asked if they had been watching television while eating. Height and weight were collected using standard methods and used to calculate BMI. The data were analyzed separately by field center. The proportion of average daily energy intake that the girls consumed while watching television ranged from 26.9% to 35.0%. At all field centers, 40% to 50% of evening meals were consumed while watching television. None of the Spearman correlations between girls' BMI and the amount and type of foods consumed while watching television or at other times during the day were statistically significant (p > 0.05). This research revealed that a significant proportion of African-American girls' daily energy intake is consumed while watching television. Interventions that target reductions in food consumption while watching television or reducing television viewing may be effective strategies to decrease children's energy intakes. These results support a need for research to test the efficacy of these approaches.

  3. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  4. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers


    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace


    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...

  5. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women (United States)


    higher BMI and more body fat than Caucasian women but significantly lower levels of disinhibition of control over eating . Dietary restraint was not...disinhibition of control over eating and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), in primarily Caucasian samples [7, 8]. African American college [9] and community...Disorder Diagnostic Scale [23] is a 22-item scale that is useful as a screening tool for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder

  6. The experiences of African American graduate students: A cultural transition (United States)

    Joseph, Joretta

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have long been an intellectual resource for the African American community. HBCUs have provided and continue to provide an educational pathway for many Black students, particularly women who seek graduate and advanced degrees. However, despite the overwhelmingly positive presence of HBCU in the African American community, the academic training of students who graduate from HBCUs may be perceived as insufficient by predominantly White graduate institutions (PWIs). As a result, African American students who are not well integrated into their respective departmental communities and cultures at PW/is are likely to leave graduate school. Thus the continuing loss of talented people, potential research, role models for society, and the next generation of African American students in the fields of math, engineering, and the sciences (STEM) create a segregated and limited university environment. Studies in the field that attempt to provide insight in to experiences of underrepresented students are ultimately beneficial. However, often such studies do not address the process of adapting to the culture of a predominantly white institution (PWI), particularly within white and male dominated fields such as mathematics and the sciences. Research has also indicated that the first two years at a predominantly white graduate institution is the crucial transitional period for students of color, and it is this transitional moment in time that is the focus of this study. I consider how students make the transition from HBCU to majority institutions, and what impact this transition has on their persistence and commitment to their discipline. The limited amount of research that does address the experiences of minority doctoral students in math and science is usually coupled with the experiences of women. However, race and gender are not linear or additive. It cannot be assumed that the same factors that effect the under representation

  7. Romantic Relationship Commitment Behavior Among Emerging Adult African American Men (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Yu, Tianyi; Brown, Geoffrey L.


    Contextual and intrapersonal factors affecting the development of African American men’s romantic relationship commitment-related behavior were investigated. Socioeconomic disadvantage during early adolescence was hypothesized to predict harsh, unsupportive parenting practices. Harsh parenting was hypothesized to result in youths’ emotion-regulation difficulties, indicated by elevated levels of anger during mid-adolescence, particularly when men were exposed to racial discrimination. Young African American men’s anger during mid-adolescence, a consequence of harsh, unsupportive parenting and racial discrimination, was expected to predict commitment-related behavior. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of rural African American men participating in a panel study from the ages of 11 through 21. Data from teachers, parents, and youths were integrated into a multi-reporter measurement plan. Results confirmed the hypothesized associations. Study findings indicate that the combination of harsh parenting and racial discrimination is a powerful antecedent of young men’s commitment-related behavior. Anger across mid-adolescence mediated this interaction effect. PMID:28989183

  8. Body Size Perceptions among Overweight and Obese African American Women. (United States)

    Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Magwood, Gayenell; Wilcox, Sara; Schlaff, Rebecca A


    Understanding body size perceptions and discrepancies among African American women may have implications for effective weight-loss interventions. The purpose of this study is to examine body size perceptions of economically disadvantaged, overweight and obese African American women. Cross-sectional using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. 18 census tracts in a central South Carolina city where ≥ 25% of residents were below poverty income. 147 economically disadvantaged, overweight and obese African American women. Using Pulvers' figure rating scale, participants chose the figure: 1) closest to their current figure; 2) they would be satisfied with; and 3) with a body weight that would be a health problem for the average person. Mean body mass indices corresponding to each figure were compared with those in a large sample of White women. Most participants wanted to be smaller (mean=2.6 figures smaller) than their current size. A majority (67%) chose the largest figure as representing a body size that could lead to a health problem, and most (60%) chose a current figure smaller than the figure they believed would be associated with health problems. The mean body mass index for women selecting any given figure as their current size was significantly larger (5.2-10.8 kg/m(2) larger, Phealth consequences. Body size misperceptions and/or satisfaction may pose barriers for effective weight-loss.

  9. Nocturnal blood pressure nondipping in obese African-Americans. (United States)

    Napan, Sirikarn; Kwagyan, John; Randall, Otelio S; Xu, Shichen; Ketete, Muluemebet; Maqbool, Abid R


    Nondipping pattern of circadian blood pressure (BP) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; however, limited data are available among obese African-Americans. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the pattern of circadian BP variation and to identify clinical conditions associated with nondipping in this population. A total of 211 obese African-Americans enrolled in a weight-reduction program underwent 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. Nondipping was defined as a nocturnal BP reduction of less than 10%. Systolic BP (SBP) nondipping was present in 158 participants (74.9%) and diastolic BP (DBP) nondipping was present in 93 participants (44.1%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, diabetes was associated with SBP nondipping (adjusted OR, 2.53; CI: 1.16-5.76; P=0.02), and increasing BMI (5 kg/m) was associated with DBP nondipping (adjusted OR, 1.46; CI: 1.17-1.83; P=0.001). In linear regression analyses, BMI was positively correlated to office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time SBP (P=0.03, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.005, respectively) and office, 24-h, daytime, and night-time PP (P=0.01, P<0.001, 0.001, and P=0.003, respectively). This study demonstrated an excessively high prevalence of nondippers and independent associations between diabetes and SBP nondipping and between BMI and DBP nondipping in an obese African-American population.

  10. Referential Ambiguity in the Narrative Productions of African American Adults. (United States)

    Wainwright, Angela Bradford; Cannito, Michael P


    The purpose of this study was to examine the production of referential ambiguities in two contrasting narrative conditions among age-defined groups of healthy African American women. Twenty middle-aged adults (M = 51 years) and 20 older adults (M = 72 years) produced a complex story retelling and a personal narrative. All narratives were transcribed orthographically, parsed into T-units, and analyzed for surface structure markings of referents and the presence of ambiguities. The results demonstrated that older adults produced more ambiguities than middle-aged adults, were more compromised with task complexity, used more role or relation designations to refer to story characters while underusing proper names, and exhibited significant lexical retrieval deficits during ongoing narrative production. Middle-aged adults produced more proper names, but were also challenged by the complexity of the story-retelling task. Moreover, the results showed that older adults produced more African American English variants than middle-aged adults. This investigation revealed a pattern of age-related ambiguities during narrative production. The results demonstrated that lexical retrieval from long-term semantic memory was an important predictor of ambiguity, whereas African American English contributed negligibly. These results show that referential ambiguities may be a robust characteristic of cognitive-linguistic changes that occur with typical aging.

  11. The "invisible caregiver": multicaregiving among diabetic African-American grandmothers. (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L; Bailey, Donald E; Anderson, Ruth A


    To explore the multicaregiving roles African-American grandmothers assume while self-managing their diabetes. This longitudinal, qualitative pilot study explored the challenges of self-managing diabetes among six African-American caregiving grandmothers. Data were collected at 5 times points across 18 months. Content analysis, guided by the Adaptive Leadership framework, was conducted using data matrices to facilitate within-case and cross-case analyses. Although participants initially stated they cared only for grandchildren, all had additional caregiving responsibilities. Four themes emerged which illustrated how African-American caregiving grandmothers put the care of dependent children, extended family and community before themselves. Using the Adaptive Leadership framework, technical and adaptive challenges arising from multicaregiving were described as barriers to diabetes self-management. When assisting these women to self-manage their diabetes, clinicians must assess challenges arising from multicaregiving. This might require developing collaborative work relationships with the client to develop meaningful and attainable goals. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children. (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine


    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  13. Characterizing Mobility Limitations Among Older African American Men. (United States)

    Mitchell, Jamie A; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Williams, Ed-Dee G; Thorpe, Roland


    This study represents an effort to contribute to the limited body of research on biopsychosocial contextual factors that influence or contribute to mobility limitations for older African American men. Specifically, we were interested in examining associations between socio-demographic, physical and emotional health experiences with mobility limitations. A secondary analysis of 1666 older African American men was performed to investigate socio-demographic, mental and physical health correlates to a specific measures of mobility limitation. In the final model, difficulty with self-care, severe pain interference, and problems with usual activities were most strongly associated with mobility limitations. Men who were married were significantly less likely to experience mobility limitations. Findings highlighted the relationship between mobility limitations and difficulty performing activities of daily living. Additional research should examine the impact of poor emotional health and the buffering effects of marriage on mobility for older African American men, a population at high risk of experiencing disparate health outcomes. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How African Americans express their intentions to be organ donors. (United States)

    Korda, Holly; Wagstaff, David A; McCleary, Karl J


    As part of an organ sharing network's outreach, African American adults were interviewed to assess their awareness of the network's efforts and willingness to donate their organs after death. To describe (1) the proportion who expressed their intentions to be an organ donor, (2) the means they had used, and (3) sociodemographic characteristics of the participants who used a particular means. A repeated, cross-sectional, random-digit dialing telephone interview was conducted from July 2005 (start of wave 1) to April 2006 (end of wave 3). Each interview averaged 7 minutes and consisted of 60 items. Trained interviewers placed telephone calls to the residences of African Americans who resided in 1 of 4 New Jersey locales: East Orange/Orange, Irvington, Jersey City/Newark, and Trenton. One thousand five hundred sixty-seven African Americans, aged 18 to 95 years. Five Yes/No items were used to determine if participants had declared their intention to be an organ donor via driver's license application, donor card, donor registry, will/healthcare directive, or discussion with a family member. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had expressed their intentions to be an organ donor with an organ donor card, driver's license, donor registry, or will/healthcare directive. The participants who had used one or more of these formal means were 14.4 times more likely to have discussed their intention to be an organ donor with a family member than were the participants who had not.

  15. Factors contributing to the resilience of middle-adolescents in a South African township: insights from a resilience questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlalepule Ruth Mampane


    Full Text Available Factors that contribute to resilience are key to the positive development of youths, and knowledge of such factors is essential for promoting resilience in schools through both policy and practice. This study reports on the results of an item and factor analysis of the Resilience Questionnaire for Middle-adolescents in Township Schools (R-MATS that was used to survey 291 Grade 9 middle-adolescent learners from two black-only township secondary schools. The majority of respondents indicated an overall sense of contending with various stressors, especially the exposure to violence, and academic challenges. Respondents attributed their buoyancy to individual and environmental factors, such as self-confidence, an internal locus of control, a tough personality, commitment, being achievement-oriented, as well as positive identification of and access to social support.

  16. Worse Cardiometabolic Health in African Immigrant Men than African American Men: Reconsideration of the Healthy Immigrant Effect


    O'Connor, Michelle Y.; Thoreson, Caroline K.; Ricks, Madia; Courville, Amber B.; Thomas, Francine; Yao, Jianhua; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Sumner, Anne E.


    Background: The healthy immigrant effect is a phrase that has been used for decades to describe better cardiometabolic health in African immigrants than African Americans. The recent global increase in cardiometabolic diseases raises the possibility that immigrant health may be changing. Therefore, a new assessment of cardiometabolic health in African immigrants is warranted.

  17. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  18. Playing spades: The rich resources of African American young men (United States)

    Schademan, Alfred R.

    Research has shown that African American young men as a demographic group occupy the lowest levels of academic performance in both science and mathematics. In spite of this educational problem, little research has been conducted on the knowledge related to these disciplines that these young men learn and develop through everyday cultural practices. Such knowledge is needed in order to: (1) combat the deficit views that many teachers currently hold of African American young men, and (2) inform teachers interested in implementing pedagogies in their classrooms that draw upon the knowledge of African American young men. To add to our knowledge in this field, this study examines the resources that African American young men learn, use, and develop through a card game called Spades. Specifically, the study identifies and analyzes the models and model-based reasoning that the players use in order to win games. The study focuses upon modeling as it is central to both science and mathematics. To imbed player models and reasoning in context, the study employs a syncretic theoretical framework that examines how Spades has changed over time and how it is currently played in a high school setting. The qualitative study uses ethnographic methods combined with play-by-play analyses to reconstruct games and examine player strategies and reasoning that guide their decisions. The study found that the players operate from a number of different models while playing the game. Specifically, the players consider multiple variables and factors, as well as their mathematical relationships, to predict future occurrences and then play cards accordingly. Further, the players use a number of resources to win games including changing the game to maintain a competitive edge, counting cards, selectively memorizing cards played, assessing risk, bluffing, reading partners as well as opponents, reneging, estimating probabilities, and predicting outcomes. The player models and resources bear

  19. Paradoxes in obesity with mid-life African American women. (United States)

    Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K; Thomas, Veronica G


    To examine the relationship among socioeconomic status, psychological factors (ie, health locus of control, health satisfaction), and health behaviors (ie, physical exercise, eating patterns) in a volunteer sample of mid-life African American women residing within Washington, DC. The study's sample included 351 African American women who participated in the 12-week Prime Time Sister Circles (PTSC) intervention and completed the initial self-report survey. Of the women completing the baseline survey, clinical assessments were taken on 277 participants. The majority (64.4%) of the women were either obese or extremely obese based upon their body mass index (BMI). Fewer than one-third of the women were satisfied with their weight. Despite these outcomes, most (61.8%) of the sample rated their health, in comparison to other African American women, as either good or very good. Further, more than one-half of the women were somewhat to very satisfied with their health knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and their physical, emotional, and spiritual health. There was no significant relationship between obesity level and socioeconomic status, as measured by education, personal income, and total household income. Additionally, there were no significant differences in weight or eating behaviors by education, personal income, and total household income. The findings revealed a significant difference in the number of days the women reported engaging in physical exercise by personal income (p < .01) and total household income (p = .05), surprisingly, with the women in the lower-income categories reporting engaging in more days of physical exercise than women in the higher-income categories. This study documents the paradox of obesity in mid-life African American women related to socioeconomic status inasmuch as there were no differences observed in the prevalence of obesity by socioeconomic status indicators. The obese women of lower socioeconomic status reported exercising more than

  20. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.


    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  1. A Qualitative Study of African American Women in Engineering Technology Programs in Community Colleges (United States)

    Blakley, Jacquelyn


    This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…

  2. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings (United States)

    Jackson, Alicia D.


    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  3. African-American Literature and "Post-Racial" America. Or, You Know, Not. (United States)

    Blackwell, Jacqueline A.


    In 1983, when the author began graduate school at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville as the only black student in the Graduate English School, it offered no graduate-level African-American Literature course. Today an undergraduate student at the University of Virginia can major in African-American and African Studies and take courses…

  4. Reading, Interpreting, and Teaching African American History: Examining How African American History Influences the Curricular and Pedagogical Decisions of Preservice Teachers (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel


    African American history and how it is taught in classroom spaces have been a point of contention with activists, historians, and educators for decades. In it current form, African American history narratives often are ambiguous and truncated, leaving students with a disjointed construction about U.S. history. Additionally, the pedagogical…

  5. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the African American population. (United States)

    Johnson, Derek C; Shrestha, Sadeep; Wiener, Howard W; Makowsky, Robert; Kurundkar, Ashish; Wilson, Craig M; Aissani, Brahim


    Genetic polymorphism along mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defines population-specific signatures called mtDNA haplogroups. Estimation of mtDNA haplogroup distribution may be prone to errors, notably if the study sample is not drawn from a multicenter cohort. Here, we report on mtDNA diversity in a sample of African American individuals (n = 343) enrolled in a multicenter cohort. Sequencing of the hypervariable regions I and II of the D-loop control region showed that the most common mitochondrial variants are 73G, 146C, 150T, 152C, 189G, 16278T, and 16311C. In agreement with the published data, we observed 17 common mtDNA haplogroups: L0, L1, L1b, L1c, L2, L2a, L2b, L2c, L2e, L3, L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3x, and L4. The most commonly observed haplogroup is L2a (19.8%), followed by L1b (10.2%). Overall, the observed mtDNA haplogroup distribution in our study is similar to those published for the African American and the African populations.

  6. An Examination of Self-Esteem and Empowerment of African American Female Youth in an After School Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Unroe


    Full Text Available This study investigated self-esteem and empowerment in three African American female cohort groups in an after school program. A sample of 136 students in the after school program comprised the three one-year female and male cohort groups. For this study, 71 African American females in the female cohort groups were analyzed. Social Cognitive Theory and Resiliency Theory were used to explore factors potentially influencing self-esteem and empowerment of an at-risk African American female population, with the after school program serving as a protective factor. Participants completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Developmental Assets Profile (DAP, but only DAP empowerment items were analyzed. No significant differences were found in self-esteem levels for the three separate female cohort groups. However, evidence was found for a positive correlation between self-esteem and empowerment. Study conclusions identify implications for after school program staff as they identify needs and conduct youth programs accordingly.

  7. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.


    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  8. The African American Male Librarian: Motivational Factors in Choosing a Career in Library and Information Science (United States)

    Davis-Kendrick, Kaetrena D.


    A recent American Library Association (ALA) report has shown that less than 1% of credentialed librarians are African American males. This article discusses possible reasons for this dearth; and, in an effort to inform future LIS recruiting and marketing campaigns, the included study attempted to discover which factors lead African American males…

  9. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah


    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  10. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt


    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  11. Ancestry-informative markers for African Americans based on the Affymetrix Pan-African genotyping array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhang


    Full Text Available Genetic admixture has been utilized as a tool for identifying loci associated with complex traits and diseases in recently admixed populations such as African Americans. In particular, admixture mapping is an efficient approach to identifying genetic basis for those complex diseases with substantial racial or ethnic disparities. Though current advances in admixture mapping algorithms may utilize the entire panel of SNPs, providing ancestry-informative markers (AIMs that can differentiate parental populations and estimate ancestry proportions in an admixed population may particularly benefit admixture mapping in studies of limited samples, help identify unsuitable individuals (e.g., through genotyping the most informative ancestry markers before starting large genome-wide association studies (GWAS, or guide larger scale targeted deep re-sequencing for determining specific disease-causing variants. Defining panels of AIMs based on commercial, high-throughput genotyping platforms will facilitate the utilization of these platforms for simultaneous admixture mapping of complex traits and diseases, in addition to conventional GWAS. Here, we describe AIMs detected based on the Shannon Information Content (SIC or Fst for African Americans with genome-wide coverage that were selected from ∼2.3 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs covered by the Affymetrix Axiom Pan-African array, a newly developed genotyping platform optimized for individuals of African ancestry.

  12. Monitoring Herbivorous Fishes as Indicators of Coral Reef Resilience in American Samoa (United States)

    Heenan, Adel; Williams, Ivor D.


    Resilience-based management aims to promote or protect processes and species that underpin an ecosystem's capacity to withstand and recover from disturbance. The management of ecological processes is a developing field that requires reliable indicators that can be monitored over time. Herbivory is a key ecological process on coral reefs, and pooling herbivorous fishes into functional groups based on their feeding mode is increasingly used as it may quantify herbivory in ways that indicate resilience. Here we evaluate whether the biomass estimates of these herbivore functional groups are good predictors of reef benthic assemblages, using data from 240 sites from five island groups in American Samoa. Using an information theoretic approach, we assembled a candidate set of linear and nonlinear models to identify the relations between benthic cover and total herbivore and non-herbivore biomass and the biomass of the aforementioned functional groups. For each benthic substrate type considered (encrusting algae, fleshy macroalgae, hard coral and turf algae), the biomass of herbivorous fishes were important explanatory variables in predicting benthic cover, whereas biomass of all fishes combined generally was not. Also, in all four cases, variation in cover was best explained by the biomass of specific functional groups rather than by all herbivores combined. Specifically: 1) macroalgal and turf algal cover decreased with increasing biomass of ‘grazers/detritivores’; and 2) cover of encrusting algae increased with increasing biomass of ‘grazers/detritivores’ and browsers. Furthermore, hard coral cover increased with the biomass of large excavators/bio-eroders (made up of large-bodied parrotfishes). Collectively, these findings emphasize the link between herbivorous fishes and the benthic community and demonstrate support for the use of functional groups of herbivores as indicators for resilience-based monitoring. PMID:24223183

  13. Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Investigate Meaningful Prenatal Care Among African American Women. (United States)

    Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna


    In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Toward improved interpretation and theory building of African American male sexualities. (United States)

    Lewis, Linwood J; Kertzner, Robert M


    This paper examined five challenges to clear understanding of African American male sexualities: incorrect assumptions of African American homogeneity; an underemphasis on developmental change, the contexts and the meanings of sexual behaviors; and a lack of compelling theoretical grounding for African American sexualities. Critical elements for effective theorizing and research about African American sexualities (i.e. multiple levels of analysis, examination of phenomenological meaning of sexuality, measurement of dynamic/developmental change) were outlined and candidate theories within sexual science (social exchange theories, symbolic interactionism, sexual scripting theory) were analyzed in light of these elements. It is suggested that a re-orientation of sex research about African American men using these elements will result in improved understanding of African American sexualities in multiple contexts.

  15. Am I an African or an American? Duboisian Double consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun

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    Tayebeh Nowrouzi


    Full Text Available A Raisin in the Sun is the story that examines the problem of identity and lack of a true self consciousness among the members of an African American family. In this work, Hansberry is mainly referring to the psychological state in which African Americans are seeking whether they are Africans or Americans. In their constant search of identity, they finally comprehend that their identity is neither African nor American but African American, a merged identity. They, thus, must endeavor to reconcile the dual parts of their identity to which Dubois referred as double consciousness. Following Dubois’ theory of double consciousness, this study undertakes to locate African American identity in connection to Africa and America. It, furthermore, demonstrates that their identity cannot be defined solely in regards to Africa or America even if they tried so. Their identity is a merged one, and there is no escape from it.

  16. Testicular cancer among African American college men: knowledge, perceived risk, and perceptions of cancer fatalism. (United States)

    Powe, Barbara D; Ross, Louie; Wilkerson, Donoria; Brooks, Patrice; Cooper, Dexter


    African American men present at later stages of testicular cancer and have higher mortality rates than Caucasian men. Lack of awareness, beliefs, and access to care may influence this disparity. Guided by the Powe fatalism model, this comparative study assessed knowledge of testicular cancer, perceived risk, and cancer fatalism among African American and Caucasian men who attended selected colleges and universities. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory, the Testicular Cancer Knowledge Survey, and the Perceived Cancer Risk Survey. The majority (n = 190) of men were African American (70%), and the remainder were Caucasian. African American men were significantly younger than Caucasian men. African American men also had lower testicular cancer knowledge scores, higher perceptions of cancer fatalism, and lower perceived risk for the disease. Rates of testicular cancer screening were low for all the men. Research should focus on further understanding the relationship between cancer fatalism and health-promoting behaviors among African American men.

  17. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov


    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  18. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth. (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H


    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Introduction to Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Dudziak


    Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.

  20. A preliminary study comparing attitudes toward hospice referral between African American and white American primary care physicians. (United States)

    Ache, Kevin A; Shannon, Robert P; Heckman, Michael G; Diehl, Nancy N; Willis, Floyd B


    End-of-life (EOL) decision making is an integral component of high-quality health care. Factors influencing individual primary care physicians (PCPs) can affect their perspectives and referral preferences for EOL care. Numerous barriers have been cited, including patient and family readiness, physicians' comfort with discussing death, and the pursuit of a cure. This study explores another barrier by examining physician ethnicity and comparing the attitudes toward hospice referral between African American and white American primary care providers (PCPs). Training PCPs to efficiently transition from a curative model of care to a palliative model of care has the potential to increase the level of appropriate EOL care, increase hospice referral, and enhance patient and provider satisfaction; it is also fiscally prudent. This preliminary study aims to compare attitudes toward hospice referral and physicians' personal experiences with hospice between African American and white American PCPs. The survey tool was developed by PCPs at the Mayo Clinic Florida after a full literature review and consultation with hospice physicians, oncology specialists, and primary care colleagues from the residency programs at Mayo Minnesota and Mayo Arizona, with input from the Mayo Survey Office, and distributed to all physicians and residents in the departments of Family Medicine at via Mayo's intranet; Mayo's Midwest Regional Practices (245 physicians) received the survey via standard mail. The survey consisted of 17 questions regarding attitudes toward hospice referral and the one question regarding physicians' personal experience with hospice. The final sample size consisted of 167 white American physicians and 46 African American physicians. Responses were compared using a Wilcoxon rank sum test. P values ≤ 0.05 were considered statistically significant. All statistical analyses were performed using the SAS software package (SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina). The

  1. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children


    Edwards, Adrienne Laney


    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  2. African American Medical Culture in the Antebellum South: As Remembered in the WPA Narratives


    Barber, Daniel


    This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...

  3. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression


    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine


    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  4. Tobacco Withdrawal Amongst African American, Hispanic, and White Smokers. (United States)

    Bello, Mariel S; Pang, Raina D; Cropsey, Karen L; Zvolensky, Michael J; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Huh, Jimi; Leventhal, Adam M


    Persistent tobacco use among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States is a critical public health concern. Yet, potential sources of racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco use remain unclear. The present study examined racial/ethnic differences in tobacco withdrawal-a clinically-relevant underpinning of tobacco use that has received sparse attention in the disparities literature-utilizing a controlled laboratory design. Daily smokers (non-Hispanic African American [n = 178], non-Hispanic white [n = 118], and Hispanic [n = 28]) attended two counterbalanced sessions (non-abstinent vs. 16-hour abstinent). At both sessions, self-report measures of urge, nicotine withdrawal, and affect were administered and performance on an objective behavioral task that assessed motivation to reinstate smoking was recorded. Abstinence-induced changes (abstinent scores vs. non-abstinent scores) were analyzed as a function of race/ethnicity. Non-Hispanic African American smokers reported greater abstinence-induced declines in several positive affect states in comparison to other racial/ethnic groups. Relative to Hispanic smokers, non-Hispanic African American and non-Hispanic white smokers displayed larger abstinence-provoked increases in urges to smoke. No racial/ethnic differences were detected for a composite measure of nicotine withdrawal symptomatology, negative affect states, and motivation to reinstate smoking behavior. These results suggest qualitative differences in the expression of some components of tobacco withdrawal across three racial/ethnic groups. This research helps shed light on bio-behavioral sources of tobacco-related health disparities, informs the application of smoking cessation interventions across racial/ethnic groups, and may ultimately aid the overall effort towards reducing the public health burden of tobacco addiction in minority populations. The current study provides some initial evidence that there may be qualitative differences in the

  5. Characterizing the learning styles and testing the science-related attitudes of African American middle school students: Implications for the underrepresentation of African Americans in the sciences (United States)

    Perine, Donald Ray

    African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans and women are underrepresented among the population of scientists and science teachers in the United States. Specifically, the shortage of African Americans teaching math and science at all levels of the educational process and going into the many science-related fields is manifested throughout the entire educational and career structure of our society. This shortage exists when compared to the total population of African Americans in this country, the population of African American students, and to society's demand for more math and science teachers and professionals of all races. One suggestion to address this problem is to update curricular and instructional programs to accommodate the learning styles of African Americans from elementary to graduate school. There is little in the published literature to help us understand the learning styles of African American middle school students and how they compare to African American adults who pursue science careers. There is also little published data to help inform us about the relationship between learning styles of African American middle school students and their attitudes toward science. The author used a learning styles inventory instrument to identify the learning style preferences of the African American students and adults. The preferences identified describe how African American students and African American adult science professionals prefer to function, learn, concentrate, and perform in their educational and work activities in the areas of: (a) immediate environment, (b) emotionality, (c) sociological needs, and (d) physical needs. The learning style preferences for the students and adults were not significantly different in key areas of preference. A Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) was used to measure seven distinct science-related attitudes of the middle school students. A comparison of the profile of the mean scores for the students in this study

  6. Prosopis pod production - comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm in young plantations

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    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e. P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest.

  7. Genetic Heterogeneity in Colorectal Cancer Associations in Americans of African vs. European Descent (United States)

    Kupfer, Sonia S.; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A.; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.; Ellis, Nathan A.


    Background & Aims Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified risk variants in 10 genomic regions. None of these studies included African Americans, who have the highest incidence and mortality from CRC in the US. For the 10 genomic regions, we performed an association study of Americans of African and European descent. Methods We genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA samples from 1194 patients with CRC (795 African Americans and 399 European Americans) and 1352 controls (985 African Americans and 367 European Americans). At chromosome 8q24.21 region 3, we analyzed 6 SNPs from 1000 African American cases and 1393 controls. Association testing was done using multivariate logistic regression controlling for ancestry, age, and sex. Results Sizes and directions of association for all SNPs tested in European Americans were consistent with previously published studies, but for 9 of 22 SNPs tested in African Americans, they were of an opposite direction. Among African Americans, the SNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 was not associated with CRC (odds ratio [OR]=1.18; P=0.12); instead, the 8q24.21 SNP rs7014346 (OR=1.15; p=0.03) was associated with CRC in this population. At 15q13.3, rs10318 was associated with CRC in both populations. At 10p14, the opposite allele of rs10795668 was associated with CRC in African Americans (OR=1.35; P=0.04). At 11q23.1, rs3802842 was significantly associated with rectal cancer risk only among African Americans (OR 1.34; P=0.01); this observation was made in previous studies. Among European Americans, SNPs at 8q24.21, 11q23.1, and 16q22.1 were associated with CRC, in agreement with previous reports. Conclusion There is genetic heterogeneity in CRC associations in Americans of African vs. European descent. PMID:20659471

  8. Adapting a program to inform African American and Hispanic American women about cancer clinical trials. (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Gonzalez, Jenny; Mumman, Manpreet; Cullen, Lisa; Lahousse, Sheila F; Malcarne, Vanessa; Conde, Viridiana; Riley, Natasha


    The dearth of evidence-based clinical trial education programs may contribute to the under-representation of African American and Hispanic American women in cancer research studies. This study used focus group-derived data from 80 women distributed among eight Spanish- and English-language focus groups. These data guided the researchers' adaptation and refinement of the National Cancer Institute's various clinical trials education programs into a program that was specifically focused on meeting the information needs of minority women and addressing the barriers to study participation that they perceived. A "sisterhood" theme was adopted and woven throughout the presentation.

  9. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.


    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  10. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States. (United States)

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L


    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethnic differences in inter- and intra-situational blood pressure variation: Comparisons among African-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and European-American women. (United States)

    James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A


    The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  13. An ecological approach to physical activity in African American women. (United States)

    Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A


    Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.

  14. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students. (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type.

  15. Partner violence and medical encounters: African-American women's perspectives. (United States)

    McNutt, L A; van Ryn, M; Clark, C; Fraiser, I


    To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and patient satisfaction with medical encounters among an African-American population. Cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey. Community-based, primary care center. Consecutive African-American women recruited from an urban health center. A total of 102 women provided sufficient information to reveal whether they were currently experiencing IPV and to allow us to assess their experiences in their most recent primary care encounter. Patients' perceptions of their most recent encounter using questions adopted from the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale and Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Conflicts Tactics Scale, supplemented with questions measuring sexual violence and emotional abuse, to assess IPV "in the past year." Women who reported current IPV rated several aspects of the encounter more negatively than did women who did not report current abuse. The IPV victims were less likely to report that they felt respected and accepted during the encounter, and they provided lower ratings of the quality of communication with their providers. It is unclear why victims of partner violence experience medical encounters as less satisfactory. Researchers need to expand studies of medical encounters as experienced by abused women to determine whether IPV status adversely affects general medical care.

  16. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox. (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles


    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  17. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher? (United States)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  18. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith


    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  19. A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003. (United States)

    Uzogara, Ekeoma E; Lee, Hedwig; Abdou, Cleopatra M; Jackson, James S


    This study investigated perceptions of skin tone discrimination among adult African American men. Research suggests that through negative African American stereotypes, out-group members (Whites) perceive light-skinned African Americans favorably and dark-skinned African Americans unfavorably. However, it is unclear how treatment by in-group members (other African Americans) uniquely affects men. Using data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study and the 2003 National Survey of American Life, we investigated these relationships among African American men representing a wide range of socioeconomic groups. We found that African American men's perceptions of out-group and in-group treatment, respectively, were similar across time. Light-skinned men perceived the least out-group discrimination while dark-skinned men perceived the most out-group discrimination. In appraisals of skin tone discrimination from in-group members, medium-skinned men perceived the least discrimination while both light- and dark-skinned men perceived more in-group discrimination. Additionally, men of lower social economic groups were more affected by skin tone bias than others. Future research should explore the influence of these out- and in-group experiences of skin tone discrimination on social and psychological functioning of African American men.

  20. A Study of Resiliency Characteristics in the Adjustment of International Graduate Students at American Universities (United States)

    Wang, Jing


    This research introduced the concept of resilience into the study of adjustment of international graduate students at U.S. universities. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships among resilience characteristics, background variables, and adjustment problem areas, and to gauge the effects of resilience and background variables on…

  1. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction. (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.


    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  2. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel


    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  3. Perceptions of communication choice and usage among African American hearing parents: Afrocentric cultural implications for African American deaf and hard of hearing children. (United States)

    Borum, Valerie


    In a qualitative study employing an exploratory design, the researcher explored the perceptions of communication choice and usage among 14 African American hearing parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. Semistructured, in-depth thematic interviews were used with a modified grounded-theory approach in which themes were analyzed and coded. Four thematic challenges and opportunities related to communication choice and usage were found: (a) oral tradition-nommo, (b) sign and oral-diunital, (c) literacy, and (d) racial/ethnic cultural socialization. Afrocentric implications for deaf and hard of hearing children are explored based on research observations pertaining to the significance of the oral tradition in African American culture and the socialization of African American deaf and hard of hearing children in the context of African American hearing families.

  4. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    ... them to be combat multipliers for future conflicts. The thesis identifies trends in African Americans' military service from the Revolutionary War through their actions along the Mexican border during the first decade of the 20th century...

  5. Determining If the Actions of African American Combat Forces during World War I Positively Affected the Employment of African American Combat Soldiers during World War II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doward, Jr, Oscar W


    .... The War Department's recruitment, assessment, and induction practices in its preparation for the Great War are explored, and the impact of Jim Crow practices on the process of African American troop...

  6. Perception of Obesity in African-American and Arab-American Minority Groups. (United States)

    McClelland, Molly L; Weekes, Carmon V N; Bazzi, Hussein; Warwinsky, Joshua; Abouarabi, Wassim; Snell, Felicia; Salamey, Tarick


    Effectiveness of health education programs and interventions, designed to improve obesity rates, may vary according to perceptions of health within cultural groups. A qualitative approach was used. Two minority cultural groups (Arab-American and African-American) living in the same county were studied to compare perceptions of health, nutrition, and obesity and subsequent health behaviors. Control, expectations, bias, acceptance, and access were the five themes identified. Arab-Americans that had lower weights, lower prevalence of chronic diseases, expected healthy weights, reported age and gender bias related to being overweight were not as accepting of being overweight and did not report difficulties in accessing healthy food choices compared to their African-American counterparts. Health interventions aimed at reducing obesity rates and related chronic diseases should be culturally specific and aimed at changing expected and accepted cultural norms. Cultural group's void of certain disease states should be studied and used as models to ameliorate the problem in other cultures. Changing health behaviors within a certain cultural group may produce better outcomes when initiated from a member of that same group. The impact of economic and environmental factors on health behaviors must also be considered.

  7. Predicting warfarin dosage in European-Americans and African-Americans using DNA samples linked to an electronic health record. (United States)

    Ramirez, Andrea H; Shi, Yaping; Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Delaney, Jessica T; Xu, Hua; Oetjens, Matthew T; Zuvich, Rebecca L; Basford, Melissa A; Bowton, Erica; Jiang, Min; Speltz, Peter; Zink, Raquel; Cowan, James; Pulley, Jill M; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Masys, Daniel R; Roden, Dan M; Crawford, Dana C; Denny, Joshua C


    Warfarin pharmacogenomic algorithms reduce dosing error, but perform poorly in non-European-Americans. Electronic health record (EHR) systems linked to biobanks may allow for pharmacogenomic analysis, but they have not yet been used for this purpose. We used BioVU, the Vanderbilt EHR-linked DNA repository, to identify European-Americans (n = 1022) and African-Americans (n = 145) on stable warfarin therapy and evaluated the effect of 15 pharmacogenetic variants on stable warfarin dose. Associations between variants in VKORC1, CYP2C9 and CYP4F2 with weekly dose were observed in European-Americans as well as additional variants in CYP2C9 and CALU in African-Americans. Compared with traditional 5 mg/day dosing, implementing the US FDA recommendations or the International Warfarin Pharmacogenomics Consortium (IWPC) algorithm reduced error in weekly dose in European-Americans (13.5-12.4 and 9.5 mg/week, respectively) but less so in African-Americans (15.2-15.0 and 13.8 mg/week, respectively). By further incorporating associated variants specific for European-Americans and African-Americans in an expanded algorithm, dose-prediction error reduced to 9.1 mg/week (95% CI: 8.4-9.6) in European-Americans and 12.4 mg/week (95% CI: 10.0-13.2) in African-Americans. The expanded algorithm explained 41 and 53% of dose variation in African-Americans and European-Americans, respectively, compared with 29 and 50%, respectively, for the IWPC algorithm. Implementing these predictions via dispensable pill regimens similarly reduced dosing error. These results validate EHR-linked DNA biorepositories as real-world resources for pharmacogenomic validation and discovery.

  8. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer. (United States)

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney


    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Resilience and stability of the grasslands of the Transkei | B | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of very high stocking rates the grasslands of Transkei still have in many areas a high cover and many climax species. The concepts of resilience and stability are used in an attempt to explain dynamics of the grasslands. Keywords: resiliences|stabilities|grasslands|Transkei|stocking rates|basal covers|grass ...

  10. Optimism and education buffer the effects of syndemic conditions on HIV status among African American men who have sex with men. (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Stevens, Robin; Rutledge, Scott Edward; Icard, Larry D


    The present study sought to replicate effects of the number of syndemic psychosocial health conditions on sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a sample of high-risk African American men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify resilience factors that may buffer these effects. We used baseline data from an HIV risk-reduction trial to examine whether a higher number of syndemic conditions was associated with higher rates of self-reported sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Using logistic regression models, we tested for interactions between number of syndemic conditions and several potential resilience factors to identify buffering effects. Replicating previous studies, we found significant associations between numbers of syndemic conditions and higher rates of sexual risk behavior and HIV infection. Surprisingly, we also replicated a previous finding (Stall et al., Am J Public Health, 93(6):939-942, 2003) that the effects of syndemic burden on HIV status fell off at the highest levels of syndemic conditions. Among a variety of potential resilience factors, two-optimism and education-buffered the syndemic effect on HIV prevalence. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper to identify resilience factors buffering against syndemic effects among MSM. It also constitutes a significant contribution to the literature regarding prevention among black MSM. These results point to the need to identify HIV-positive black MSM and provide effective treatment for them and to develop interventions addressing both syndemic and resilience factors.

  11. Precious African American memories, post-racial dreams & the American nation. (United States)

    Martin, Waldo E


    This interdisciplinary essay explores a fundamental paradox at the heart of American race relations since the 1960s: "the changing same." The more things change; the more they remain the same. Combining historical and social-scientific evidence with autobiographical reflections, this discussion critically probes the paradoxical decline and persistence of two dimensions of our enduring racial quagmire: racial inequality and white supremacy. The essay argues that these powerful and interrelated elements of America's continuing racial dilemma demand a massive democratic movement to alleviate both at once. This wide-ranging struggle to realize the promise of American democracy requires more than just a revitalized African American Freedom Struggle that is both intraracial and interracial. Progress toward resolving the seemingly intractable problem of racial inequality in the United States demands far more than intensified efforts to alleviate economic inequality; it requires alleviating white supremacy as well.

  12. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.


    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  13. Hypertensive chronic kidney disease in African Americans: Strategies for improving care (United States)



    African Americans have a disproportionate burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which tends to have an earlier onset and a more rapid progression in this population. Many of the factors responsible for the rapid progression of CKD in African Americans are detectable by screening and are modifiable with prompt therapy. PMID:23027732

  14. Transitioning to High School: Issues and Challenges for African American Students (United States)

    Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl


    Although there is a growing body of literature on students' transition from middle school to high school, much of the literature fails to take into consideration the distinctive racial and environmental circumstances of African American students. This article reviews literature related to the transitioning of African American students and…

  15. The Design and Implementation of an Education Program for African American Inmates (United States)

    Nelson, Nancy J.


    This article describes an education program initiated by African American prisoners in the Airway Heights Correction Center in Airway Heights, Washington. The purpose of the program was to help the inmates to make productive use of their time while incarcerated and to help lessen the high return rate of African American men to the prison. Although…

  16. The Importance of Visibility: Students' and Teachers' Criteria for Selecting African American Literature (United States)

    Gray, Erika Swarts


    Previous research has demonstrated that African American children do not always relate to the literature available in their classrooms. The study examined fifth-grade students' responses to African American literature to determine the criteria students use to select books. Students' selection criteria were then compared with teachers' selection…

  17. College and Career Readiness for Gifted African American Girls: A Call to School Counselors (United States)

    Mayes, Renae D.; Hines, Erik M.


    Current literature on college and career readiness highlights the role of educators in promoting the success of all students. However, few studies have focused on the specific needs of gifted African American girls. This article discusses the school experiences and career development of gifted African American girls and it provides a culturally…

  18. The Images of African Americans in Children's Literature of the Past. (United States)

    Brown, Regina

    Focusing on the early examples of African American literature for children, this paper provides a glimpse into the historical development of children's literature that portrays African Americans and the people who had a definite effect on it. In contemporary time, numerous books are available that reflect the social and cultural traditions…

  19. African American College Students at Predominantly White and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (United States)

    McDonald, Nicole L.


    The purpose of this study was to more fully understand the socialization experiences of African American college students, and to investigate and/or uncover new information that can offer meaningful insight for transforming institutional barriers that interfere with the success of African American college students. The existing literature…

  20. The Social Construction of Ethnicity and Masculinity of African American College Men (United States)

    Johnson, Jonathan Lee


    The purpose of this study was to understand how African American college men construct masculine and ethnic notions of their identities, despite disproportionate social obstacles and hegemonic stereotypes. The primary research question of this study was, "how might African American undergraduate males understand and develop healthy concepts…

  1. An Examination of School Attitude and Self-Esteem among African-American Elementary School Students (United States)

    Foster, Esau, II


    The focus of this research investigation was to examine school attitudes and self-esteem among 48 African-American elementary school children. Based on achievement data on standardized testing, administered by a school district located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, African-American children were stratified in order to…

  2. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna


    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  3. Superstar or Scholar? African American Male Youths' Perceptions of Opportunity in a Time of Change (United States)

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.


    Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…

  4. The Mercantile Business Coalition: A Narrative Analysis of a Learning Organization in an African American Community (United States)

    Harrell, Alma S.


    "A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…

  5. Third Grade African American Boys Respond to Representations of Race, Class and Gender in Children's Literature (United States)

    Alberti, Joseph Michael


    African American students are often at odds with their education. Instead of being viewed as a place that can offer help, support, and a catalyst for social change, school is viewed by many African American boys as a place that does not recognize or understand their own lives, and where their knowledge and understandings of the world are not…

  6. Rationales for Support That African American Grandmothers Provide to Their Children Who Are Parenting Adolescents (United States)

    Sumo, Jen'nea; Dancy, Barbara; Julion, Wrenetha; Wilbur, JoEllen


    African American grandmothers are known to be a major source of support for their children who are parenting adolescents, but little is known about why they provide support. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of support provided by African American maternal and paternal grandmothers to their parenting adolescents and the reasons…

  7. Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Psychological Correlates of Current Overweight and Obesity in Older, Urban African American Women (United States)

    Patt, Madhavi Reddy; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.


    To better understand obesity and overweight among urban African American women, the authors examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors within body mass index (BMI) categories. A total of 496 women were recruited for cardiovascular risk factor screening from 20 urban African American churches. Study participants had a mean age…

  8. Pass It On: The Development of African-American Children's Literature. (United States)

    Taylor, Gail Singleton


    Examines the historical development of modern African American children's literature, from the griot in Africa to recent award-winning authors and illustrators. Addresses connections between African American children's literature and reading comprehension. Discusses culturally conscious literature which, though culturally rich and authentic and…

  9. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs (United States)

    Haizlip, Breyan N.


    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  10. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women (United States)

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…

  11. The Role of the African-American Church in Education about Teenage Pregnancy. (United States)

    Stevenson, Howard C.


    Recommends sharing of ideas among the church and mental health systems when confronting the problem of education about teenage pregnancy in the African-American community. Specifies three decision steps in initiating dialogue between mental health educators and African-American pastors: acknowledging, networking, and developing relationships.…

  12. Those of Broader Vision. An African-American Perspective on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting. (United States)

    National Urban League, Inc., New York, NY.

    The most devastating effects of teenage pregnancy are felt among African Americans because of the disproportionate number of adolescent unmarried females in this community who get pregnant and give birth each year. Aspects of this problem are discussed as they relate to the African-American community. Historical antecedents of the problem are…

  13. Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised Scale Validation for African Americans (United States)

    Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.; Irvin, Tawana


    The psychometric properties of Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (SWVI-R) were examined in a sample of 213 African American college students. Results indicated that the 12-values scales were as reliable and as valid in a sample of African Americans as has been demonstrated within a predominantly White college student sample. Values of…

  14. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.


    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  15. Improving Writing of At Risk Students with a Focus on the African American Male. (United States)

    Cason, Nancy; And Others


    An action research project designed and evaluated the effectiveness of an instructional strategy to improve the writing of all secondary students (particularly African-American males) in the Webster Groves, Missouri school district. The first year was devoted to an intensive study of African American culture and literature. A list of six…

  16. Colleges in the Making of Manhood and Masculinity: Gendered Perspectives on African American Males (United States)

    Dancy, T. Elon, II


    Using an interdisciplinary approach, this paper explores the ways in which colleges become sites that socialise African American men as gendered beings. Twenty-four African American men enrolled in 12 colleges and universities across the 19 southern and border states of America participated in this study. The purpose is to illustrate how…

  17. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents (United States)

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal


    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  18. The Impact of CHAMPS on the Exclusionary Discipline Incidents of African-American Boys (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Saundra


    African-American boys who receive exclusionary discipline (i.e. in- or out-of-school suspensions) are overrepresented at the elementary (kindergarten through fifth grade) level. Although African-American boys comprised only 15% of the population of this school, they accounted for 70% of the exclusionary discipline incidents. This…

  19. The Black Arts Movement and African American Young Adult Literature: An Evaluation of Narrative Style (United States)

    Henderson, Laretta


    In this article I question whether or not African American young adult literature serves as a primer for, and a version of, African American adult literature. Using the Black Aesthetic as my literary theory and the Coretta Scott King Award as the young adult canon, I note that while the content of adolescent literature is consistent with the…

  20. Impact of Science Tutoring on African Americans' Science Scores on the High School Students' Graduation Examination (United States)

    Davis, Edward


    This study investigated the relationship between an after-school tutorial program for African American high school students at a Title I school and scores on the science portion of the High School Graduation Examination (HSGE). Passing the examination was required for graduation. The target high school is 99% African American and the passing rate…

  1. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn


    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  2. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males (United States)

    Earls, Melissa K.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  3. Risk and Protective Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents (United States)

    Tandon, Darius S.; Solomon, Barry S.


    There is limited understanding of risk and protective factors associated with depression among African American adolescents living in impoverished, urban settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify a range of risk and protective factors associated with depressive symptoms among low-income urban African American adolescents. The…

  4. The Perceived Undergraduate Classroom Experiences of African American Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) (United States)

    Holmes, Kimberly Monique


    The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…

  5. Five African American Male Superintendents and Their Leadership in Diverse School Districts in Texas (United States)

    Smothers, Aneil Chrisfor


    The focus of this research is in the area of African American male superintendents and their leadership in diverse settings. The research approach adopted in this dissertation used semi-structured interviews with five African American male superintendents that consisted of three main issues: (1) personal; (2) leadership quality/effectiveness and…

  6. Pride, Heritage, and Self-Worth: Keys to African-American Male Achievement. (United States)

    White-Hood, Marian


    Young African American males' role models are those in the entertainment and sports arenas. Few see themselves as scholars, contributing to the common good. To counteract teachers' low expectations of black males' performance, educators at Benjamin Tasker Middle School in Bowie, Maryland, established African-American Achievers, a program that…

  7. Initial evidence of religious practice and belief in depressed african american cancer patients. (United States)

    Zhang, Amy Y; Gary, Faye; Zhu, Hui


    This study examined spiritual coping (beliefs and practices) of depressed African American cancer patients through a comparison with depressed White cancer patients and non-depressed African American cancer patients. Using mixed methods, 74 breast (n=41) and prostate (n=33) cancer survivors including 34 depressed and 23 nondepressed African Americans and 17 depressed Whites were interviewed. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. Qualitative data analysis identified themes that were coded. The codes were entered into SPSS software. The Fisher's exact test was performed to examine group differences in self-reported spiritual coping. Significantly more depressed African Americans questioned God when learning of a cancer diagnosis than the non-depressed African Americans (p=.03), but they did not differ from the depressed Whites in this regard (p=.70). Significantly more depressed African Americans reported having faith in God (p=.04), reading the bible (p=.02), and conversing with God (p=.01) than did the depressed Whites. They also reported praying alone (p=.01) more frequently than the depressed Whites who, on the other hand, reported praying with others (non-family members) together for one's own health more frequently (p=.04). Depression is associated with a deepening need for spirituality and it affects religious beliefs and practices more in African American than White cancer patients. Given its important role in the lives of African American cancer patients, spirituality may be utilized as a reasonable, culturally-based approach to better assess and treat depression in these patients.

  8. Withstanding Our Status as Outsiders-Within: Professional Counterspaces for African American Women Student Affairs Administrators (United States)

    West, Nicole M.


    Although engagement in social and academic counterspaces has been studied as a strategy used by African American college students to withstand racially inhospitable campus climates, very little research documents the impact of professional counterspaces on African American women student affairs administrators. The purpose of this basic…

  9. Social Messages, Social Context, and Sexual Health: Voices of Urban African American Youth (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee; Garwick, Ann


    Objective: To describe aspects of the social context that low-income, urban African American young women articulate as having influenced social messages they received during adolescence about pregnancy timing and childbearing. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 20 African American young women ages 18-22. Results: Findings clustered…

  10. African American and Latino Enrollment Trends among Medicine, Law, Business, and Public Affairs Graduate Programs (United States)

    de la Garza, Rodolfo; Moghadam, Sepehr Hejazi


    The purpose of this Tomas Rivera Policy Institute (TRPI) report is twofold: to provide an analysis of the enrollment trends for African American and Latino students among graduate professional programs in the fields of medicine, business, law, and public affairs, and to present other relevant data pertaining to African American and Latino students…

  11. What's up with This Leadership Thing? Voices of African American Male College Undergraduates (United States)

    Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli


    This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…

  12. African American and Latina(o) Community College Students' Social Capital and Student Success (United States)

    Sandoval-Lucero, Elena; Maes, Johanna B.; Klingsmith, Libby


    Using a framework of social and cultural capital, this study examined successful African American and Latina/o community college students. Based on focus group interviews with twenty two African American and Latina/o undergraduates at an urban community college, the authors reveal how social and cultural capital gained from students' relationships…

  13. Age and HIV Risk and Protective Behaviors among African American Women (United States)

    Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.


    Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…

  14. Fifty Years after Brown: The Benefits and Tradeoffs for African American Educators and Students (United States)

    Lyons, James E.; Chesley, Joanne


    The benefits and tradeoffs for African American professional educators and students resulting from the profound Brown v. Board of Education decision are discussed. Results show that the vast majority of respondents believed that Brown had benefited both African American educators and students.

  15. 77 FR 45471 - White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans (United States)


    ... provide substantial benefits for our country by, among other things, increasing college completion rates... role as the global leader in education, to strengthen the Nation by improving educational outcomes for African Americans of all ages, and to help ensure that all African Americans receive an education that...

  16. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy


    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  17. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.


    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  18. Parental Characteristics, Ecological Factors, and the Academic Achievement of African American Males (United States)

    Hines, Erik M.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl


    Parental characteristics, ecological factors, and the academic achievement of African American male high school students were examined. One hundred fifty-three 11th and 12th grade African American males completed the Parenting Style Index (Steinberg, Lamborn, Darling, Mounts, & Dornbusch, 1994) and a demographic questionnaire. Results…

  19. Value Dilemmas: Another Look at Placement Issues for African American Children. (United States)

    McRoy, Ruth G.


    Maintains that transracial adoptions will not significantly reduce the number of African American children in the child welfare system. Asserts that recruitment of adoptive African American parents is hampered by child welfare practices and legislative initiatives. Argues that the transracial adoption debate diverts attention from the differential…

  20. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans. (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.


    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  1. Recruitment and Retention Strategies Utilized by 1890 Land Grant Institutions in Relation to African American Students (United States)

    Westbrook, Johnnie R.; Alston, Antoine J.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the strategies employed by 1890 land grant universities in recruiting and retaining African Americans in agricultural science. Recruitment strategies such as African American agricultural role models, secondary agricultural education, summer enrichment programs, and prior agricultural life experiences were…

  2. African American Alumni Feelings of Attachment to a Predominately White Research Intensive University (United States)

    Burley, Hansel; Butner, Bonita; Causey-Bush, Tonia; Bush, Lawson, V


    The authors examined African American alumni opinions of their experience at a predominately white research intensive university from the development office's perspective. Research on decades of African American alumni opinions of their alma mater is nonexistent. Gender, financial aid and matriculation period were the independent variables. The…

  3. [Gene geography of Chile: regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions]. (United States)

    Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco


    The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a first approximation to determine genetic ancestry.

  4. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, N.D.; McDonough, C.W.; Hicks, P.J.; Roh, B.H.; Wing, M.R.; Sandy An, S.; Hester, J.M.; Cooke, J.N.; Bostrom, M.A.; Rudock, M.E.; Talbert, M.E.; Lewis, J.P.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ferrara, A.; Lu, L.; Ziegler, J.T.; Sale, M.M.; Divers, J.; Shriner, D.; Adeyemo, A.; Rotimi, C.N.; Ng, M.C.Y.; Langefeld, C.D.; Freedman, B.I.; Bowden, D.W.; Posthuma, D.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sladek, R.


    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide

  5. The Role of Colorism in Explaining African American Females' Suspension Risk (United States)

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Keith, Verna M.; Luo, Wen; Le, Huong; Salter, Phia


    African American female students' elevated suspension risk has received national attention. Despite a number of studies documenting racial/ethnic disparities in African American females' school suspension risk, few investigations have attempted to explain why these disparities occur. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of colorism in…

  6. African American Social Work Faculty: Overcoming Existing Barriers and Achieving Research Productivity (United States)

    Allen, Junior Lloyd; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Holosko, Michael J.; Briggs, Harold E.


    Purpose: This study explored the scholarship experiences of top-ranked African American faculty in schools of social work. Method: Qualitative interviews were conducted with N = 10 top-ranked African American faculty identified as achieving considerable productivity and impact of scholarship. Findings: Four major themes were identified, each of…

  7. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy


    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  8. The Influence of the Extended Family on the Involvement of Nonresident African American Fathers (United States)

    Perry, Armon R.


    This study investigates the extent to which the extended family provides support to African American nonresident fathers and its influence on their involvement with their children. The data for this study were collected from 278 African American nonresident fathers as a part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. The findings revealed…

  9. African American Fathers' Involvement in Their Children's School-Based Lives (United States)

    Abel, Yolanda


    This research investigated African American fathers' involvement in the school-based lives of their elementary-aged children using the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler model of parent involvement and Epstein's framework of involvement. Questionnaires were administered to 101 African American males in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States.…

  10. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle


    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  11. African American English and Spelling: How Do Second Graders Spell Dialect-Sensitive Features of Words? (United States)

    Patton-Terry, Nicole; Connor, Carol


    This study explored the spelling skills of African American second graders who produced African American English (AAE) features in speech. The children (N = 92), who varied in spoken AAE use and word reading skills, were asked to spell words that contained phonological and morphological dialect-sensitive (DS) features that can vary between AAE and…

  12. African American Children and Mental Health. Child Psychology and Mental Health (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.


    This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…

  13. Familial Factors Predicting Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in African American Adolescents (United States)

    Clarke-Williams, Cassandra


    Teen dating violence is more prevalent among African Americans than any other racial group in the United States leading to serious health consequences for victims. However, limited data exists on how African American adolescents' attitudes and perceptions regarding dating violence are formed, and whether they are influenced by family members. The…

  14. Examining Instructional Practices, Intellectual Challenge, and Supports for African American Student Writers (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.


    The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…

  15. Determining the College Destination of African American High School Seniors: Does College Athletic Reputation Matter? (United States)

    Braddock, Jomills Henry, II; Hua, Lv


    A study prolongs research on college choice by analyzing what African American students state about the importance of the college's athletic reputation when choosing which school to attend. Descriptive results indicate that roughly one out of every three African American respondents believe that a school's athletic reputation is at least a…

  16. Self-Esteem Enhancing Reasons for Having Sex and the Sexual Behaviors of African American Adolescents (United States)

    Robinson, Melissa L.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Paikoff, Roberta


    A sample of 146 African American adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods with high HIV rates participated in the Chicago HIV Prevention and Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP), a longitudinal study of adolescent HIV risk exposure. The current study examined self-reported reasons why African American adolescents may participate in…

  17. Parental Involvement Promotes Rural African American Youths Self-Pride and Sexual Self-Concepts (United States)

    McBride Murry, V.; Brody, Gene H.; McNair, Lily D.; Luo, Zupei; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Wills, Thomas Ashby


    This study, an evaluation of the Strong African American Families Program, was designed to determine whether intervention-induced changes in targeted parenting behaviors were associated with young adolescents development of racial pride, self-esteem, and sexual identity. Participants were 332 African American mothers and their 11-year-old children…

  18. Spelling in African American Children: The Case of Final Consonant Devoicing (United States)

    Treiman, Rebecca; Bowman, Margo


    This study examined the effect of dialect variation on children's spelling by using devoicing of final /d/ in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) as a test case. In line with the linguistic interference hypothesis, African American 6-year-olds were significantly poorer at spelling the final "d" of words such as "salad"…

  19. African American Students' Graphic Understanding of the Derivative: Critical Case Studies (United States)

    Stringer, Eddy W., III.


    Data suggests that a significant loss of African American students from STEM majors occur between their freshmen and sophomore year. This attrition corresponds to the time period when students encounter the calculus sequence. For this reason, calculus persists as a serious barrier preventing African American students from entering STEM fields.…

  20. The Perceptions of African American Women Principals Who Have Been Influential in Public Education (United States)

    Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta


    This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…

  1. Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature (United States)

    Wright, Brian L.


    This article discusses broadly, the literature on racial-ethnic identity (REI) and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. The review also defines, describes, and interprets styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of REI among African American males in and outside of…

  2. "It Was like a Book Buffet!" Parents and Children Selecting African American Children's Literature Together (United States)

    McNair, Jonda C.


    This study examines how African American children--in grades kindergarten through 2--and their parents selected books within the context of a unique family literacy program entitled, "I Never Knew There Were So Many Books About Us!: Parents and Children Reading African American Children's Literature Together". This study is informed by…

  3. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.


    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  4. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support (United States)

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria


    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  5. Perceived Racism and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African American College Students (United States)

    Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.


    Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…

  6. African Literature in Afro-American Studies Programs or: Too Many Indispensables. (United States)

    Dorsey, David F., Jr.

    Within the Afro-American studies program, the study of African literature is invaluable in demonstrating the relationship between black Americans and Africa; it contributes to the sketchy glimpse of what black culture is and reflects the affective experience of colonialism and neocolonialism. This paper explores the values of an African-literature…

  7. Factors of Persistence for African American Men in a Student Support Organization (United States)

    Simmons, Lamont D.


    The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine factors of persistence for two African American men involved in the Project Empowerment (PE, pseudonym) student organization at a predominantly White institution. The participants are undergraduate student members of PE, a campus-based organization designed to enhance African American male…

  8. Exploring Spirituality Among African American Women: Implications for Promoting Breast Health Behaviors. (United States)

    Conway-Phillips, Regina; Janusek, Linda Witek

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain understanding of the definition, meaning, and function of spirituality to African American women. Four categories emerged that add insight for nurses to develop innovative spiritual-based strategies to promote African American women's positive health behaviors. Implications for promoting breast health behaviors are described.

  9. Meeting the Learning Needs of African American Youth in the Library (United States)

    Hodges, Janice; Pringle, Lajuan S.


    The African American male psyche is a complicated multi-layered mixture of outside media influences, stereotypes, peer pressure, how they see themselves, and how they think others see them. This article describes how school and public librarians can help raise the literacy efforts of young African American males. It cites the need for libraries to…

  10. An Interdisciplinary Outreach Model of African American Recruitment for Alzheimer's Disease Research (United States)

    Williams, Monique M.; Meisel, Marie M.; Williams, James; Morris, John C.


    Purpose: The African American Outreach Satellite (Satellite) provides educational outreach to facilitate African American recruitment for longitudinal studies at the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC). This descriptive article characterizes the Satellite's recruitment methods, plan for community engagement, results of…

  11. The Impact of Structural Hypocrisy on the School Performance of Young African American Males. (United States)

    Towns, Donna Penn

    Reasons for the disproportionate failure rate of young urban African American males were studied in an ethnographic study of third- and sixth-grade classrooms in a low-income African American community. The multimethod approach involved observing classroom sessions and school activities, interviewing students and teachers, and examining…

  12. The Role of Gender in the Racial and Ethnic Socialization of African American Adolescents (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Linver, Miriam R.; Evans, Melanie


    Scholars in the field of African American family studies recognize the influence of gender on socialization. However, few studies investigate how gender influences the racial and ethnic socialization of African American youth. To examine the role of gender (both caregiver and adolescent) in socialization practices, data were obtained from 218…

  13. Antihypertensive medications and diastolic dysfunction progression in an African American population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Prendergast*


    Conclusions: Our study showed use of Calcium channel blockers to have a protective effect against progression of diastolic dysfunction in this African American cohort. Identifying factors that can mediate disease progression is particularly important for hypertensive African Americans, who have significantly higher rates of developing disease complications such as diastolic heart failure.

  14. 3 CFR 8345 - Proclamation 8345 of February 2, 2009. National African American History Month, 2009 (United States)


    .... African Americans designed our beautiful Capital City, gave us the melodic rhythms of New Orleans Jazz... classic literature. This legacy has only added luster to the brand of the United States, which has drawn...,” is a chance to examine the evolution of our country and how African Americans helped draw us ever...

  15. Racial Discrimination, Coping, Life Satisfaction, and Self-Esteem among African Americans. (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Reynolds, Amy L.; Cancelli, Anthony A.


    Study examines the coping strategies used by African Americans in managing the stressful effects of racism. Results indicate that women preferred avoidance coping for racism experienced on a personal level. For African Americans in general, seeking social support and racism condition were the best predictors of racism-related stress. Life…

  16. Acculturation Style and Alcohol Use among African American College Students: An Exploration of Potential Moderators (United States)

    Abdullah, Tahirah; Brown, Tamara L.


    This study examined whether a relationship exists between acculturation and alcohol use among African American college students and if the relationship varies by religiosity and gender. Most researchers use unidimensional African American acculturation measures that cannot capture the construct's complexity; this study is the first to use a…

  17. The Role of Public Schools in HIV Prevention: Perspectives from African Americans in the Rural South (United States)

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R.; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha


    Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates…

  18. Straight Talk: HIV Prevention for African-American Heterosexual Men--Theoretical Bases and Intervention Design (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Bonner, Sebastian; Williams, Kim; Henny, Kirk; Bond, Keosha; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Smith, Stephen; Koblin, Beryl A.


    In the United States, racial disparities in HIV/AIDS are stark. Although African Americans comprise an estimated 14% of the U.S. population, they made up 52% of new HIV cases among adults and adolescents diagnosed in 2009. Heterosexual transmission is now the second leading cause of HIV in the United States. African Americans made up a full…

  19. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.


    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  20. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright


    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  1. Partnering with a Higher Power: Academic Engagement, Religiosity, and Spirituality of African American Urban Youth (United States)

    Holland, Nicole E.


    Engagement in and transitions between academic institutions may be enhanced for African American urban youth if we consider the role of religiosity, spirituality, and places of worship. This article presents the manner by which African American university students, who attended public high schools, conveyed the influence of their religious and…

  2. Academic and Career Trajectories of African American Males in San Bernardino (United States)

    Lyles, Lolita Laree


    A qualitative grounded theory approach is utilized to study the academic and career trajectories of twenty African American male collegiate students living in San Bernardino, California. There is limited research that explores the positive educational experiences of young adult African American males. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to…

  3. Calling Out the Elephant: An Examination of African American Male Achievement in Community Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Bush


    Full Text Available This mixed method study examines the effects of community college institutional factors on the academic achievement of African American males and their perceptions of their college experience. We found that African American men in comparison to other ethnic and gender sub-groups (for both the California community college system and at Inland Community College are disproportionately underachieving in all segments of the academic outcomes measured. African American men throughout California’s community college system (including Inland Community College are the lowest performing subgroup when one considers: percentage of degrees earned, persistence rates, and average cumulative grade point average. The analysis of African American men’s perceptions of their college experience suggest that African American men have greater amounts of dissatisfaction and do not engage with the various segments of the college when compared to the other subgroups in the study. African American males were more likely not to meet with faculty members or have contact with them outside of the classroom. More importantly, faculty interaction predicted if African American male students persisted, transferred, and maintained a higher grade point average at the case study institution. The variables associated with campus climate predicted if African American male students transferred, had higher grade point averages, and graduated at higher rates from the case institution.

  4. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza


    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  5. Representations of the Racialized Experiences of African Americans in Developmental Reading Textbooks (United States)

    Williams, Jeanine L.


    Race plays a major role in the lived experiences of African Americans. Consequently, race significantly impacts the identities and educational experiences of African American college students--many of whom require developmental reading courses. These courses, which are gateway courses in higher education, should address race along with reading…

  6. African Americans and Mathematics Outcomes on National Assessment of Educational Progress: Parental and Individual Influences (United States)

    Noble, Richard, III; Morton, Crystal Hill


    This study investigated within group differences between African American female and male students who participated in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress mathematics assessment. Using results from participating states, we compare average scale scores of African American students based on home regulatory environment and interest…

  7. Learning Other People's History: Pre-Service Teachers' Developing African American Historical Knowledge (United States)

    King, LaGarrett Jarriel


    Drawing from the historical lens of cultural memory, I examined the development of three social studies pre-service teachers' African American history knowledge. The participants were engaged in a rigorous summer reading program dedicated to learning African American history. This qualitative case study examined both pre and post interpretations…

  8. Supply chain design approaches for supply chain resilience: A qualitative study of South African fast-moving consumer goods grocery manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assilah Agigi


    Full Text Available Orientation: In today’s globalised and complex business environment, firms are ever more vulnerable to supply chain disruptions, originating both internally and externally from the supply chain. Supply chain resilience minimises the impact of a disruption through design approaches, which allows the supply chain to respond appropriately to disruptive events. Research purpose: This article investigated the supply chain risks faced by grocery manufacturers in the South African fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG industry and explored supply chain design approaches that enable supply chain resilience. Motivation for the study: South African grocery manufacturers are faced with distinct risks. Whilst supply chain risk management studies have provided firms with certain guidelines to mitigate risk, supply chains are still vulnerable to unanticipated risks. Literature on supply chain resilience in the South African context is scant. The concept of supply chain resilience provides firms with strategies that are built into the supply chain that allow firms to react and recover swiftly from disruptions. Furthermore, supply chain resilience strategies assist firms in becoming less vulnerable to possible disruptions. Research design approach and method: This study was conducted by using a descriptive qualitative research design. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with senior supply chain practitioners specifically within the South African FMCG grocery manufacturing industry. Main findings: The study found that labour unrest is the most common risk faced by the industry. Furthermore, strategic stock and supply chain mapping are of the most useful design approaches to enhance supply chain resilience. Practical/managerial implications: The study provides managers with new insights in guiding supply chain design decisions for resilient supply chains. Through the identification of risks and appropriate solutions linked to the various risks

  9. Supply chain design approaches for supply chain resilience: A qualitative study of South African fast-moving consumer goods grocery manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assilah Agigi


    Full Text Available Orientation: In today’s globalised and complex business environment, firms are ever more vulnerable to supply chain disruptions, originating both internally and externally from the supply chain. Supply chain resilience minimises the impact of a disruption through design approaches, which allows the supply chain to respond appropriately to disruptive events.Research purpose: This article investigated the supply chain risks faced by grocery manufacturers in the South African fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG industry and explored supply chain design approaches that enable supply chain resilience.Motivation for the study: South African grocery manufacturers are faced with distinct risks. Whilst supply chain risk management studies have provided firms with certain guidelines to mitigate risk, supply chains are still vulnerable to unanticipated risks. Literature on supply chain resilience in the South African context is scant. The concept of supply chain resilience provides firms with strategies that are built into the supply chain that allow firms to react and recover swiftly from disruptions. Furthermore, supply chain resilience strategies assist firms in becoming less vulnerable to possible disruptions.Research design approach and method: This study was conducted by using a descriptive qualitative research design. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with senior supply chain practitioners specifically within the South African FMCG grocery manufacturing industry.Main findings: The study found that labour unrest is the most common risk faced by the industry. Furthermore, strategic stock and supply chain mapping are of the most useful design approaches to enhance supply chain resilience.Practical/managerial implications: The study provides managers with new insights in guiding supply chain design decisions for resilient supply chains. Through the identification of risks and appropriate solutions linked to the various risks, the

  10. HIV/AIDS among midlife African American women: an integrated review of literature. (United States)

    Stampley, Cheryl D; Mallory, Caroline; Gabrielson, Marcena


    HIV occurs among African American women at rates exceeding those among White women, and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is rising disproportionately among African American adults over 40. The literature between 1987 and 2003 was reviewed for data on prevention and risk taking behavior regarding HIV transmission among midlife African American women. A search of relevant databases revealed four reports specifically targeting African American women aged 40-65. Five reports including this population also included men and other ethnic/racial groups. Content analysis revealed that factors related to risk for HIV included socioeconomic factors, knowledge, perceived vulnerability, sexual assertiveness, and risk taking behavior. Findings suggest that further research on the relationships between sociocultural variables and individual factors may explain prevention and risk taking behaviors in midlife African American women. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relationship of weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in African American and white female dieters. (United States)

    Caldwell, M B; Brownell, K D; Wilfley, D E


    The present study examined the relationship among weight, body dissatisfaction, and self-esteem in a large group of African American and white female dieters who were generally overweight and of middle to high socioeconomic status. Subjects were participants in a survey of dieting practices undertaken by Consumer Reports magazine. Major outcome measures included the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an assessment of shape and weight attitudes. No significant differences between African American and white women were found for body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, discrepancies between actual and ideal weight and shape, or the relationship between self-esteem and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index contributed less to body satisfaction scores in African American than in white women. This study provides a comparison of African American and white women in the upper social classes, and raises the possibility that previous findings of less body concern in African American women reflect class rather than race effects.

  12. Achieving high rates of consent for genetic testing among African American smokers. (United States)

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Bronars, Carrie A; Thomas, Janet L; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; King, Gary; Mayo, Matthew S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S


    Genetic factors play an important role in smoking behavior. Although African Americans are at disproportionately increased risk for tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, limited attention has been given to genetic investigation of tobacco use in this population. The present study examined consent for genetic testing among African American smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. African American light smokers (genetic analysis related to smoking. Participants completed assessment of demographic, psychosocial, and tobacco-related variables. Of 755 clinical trial participants, 745 (99%) responded to the genetic consent form. Of participants who responded, 620 (83%) provided consent for blood collection for genetic analysis. No significant differences were identified between individuals who consented to genetic analysis and those who denied consent. This study demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining consent for genetic analysis for smoking-related investigation among African American smokers. Findings support the inclusion of African Americans within genetic investigation of tobacco use and treatment.

  13. Problems in Translating Musical Elements in African American Poetry after 1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kočan


    Full Text Available In most cases, African American poetry eschews traditional literary norms. Contemporary African American poets tend to ignore grammatical rules, use unusual typography on many occasions, include much of their cultural heritage in their poetry, and interweave musical elements into literary genres. The influence of such musical genres as jazz, blues, soul, and gospel, together with the dilemmas that occur for the translator, will be shown to great extent, since music, like black speech, is a major part of African American culture and literature. The translator will have to maintain the specific African American rhythm, blues adaptations and the improvisational language under the jazz impact. The paper presents the problems in translating post-1950 African American poetry into Slovene, and asks to what extent can one successfully transfer the musical elements within this poetry for the target culture? Inevitably, it will identify a share of elements that are lost in translation.

  14. The relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. (United States)

    Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann


    In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.

  15. Genetic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer associations between African and European americans. (United States)

    Kupfer, Sonia S; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S; Ellis, Nathan A


    Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified risk variants in 10 genomic regions. None of these studies included African Americans, who have the highest incidence and mortality from CRC in the United States. For the 10 genomic regions, we performed an association study of Americans of African and European descent. We genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA samples from 1194 patients with CRC (795 African Americans and 399 European Americans) and 1352 controls (985 African Americans and 367 European Americans). At chromosome 8q24.21 region 3, we analyzed 6 SNPs from 1000 African American cases and 1393 controls. Association testing was done using multivariate logistic regression controlling for ancestry, age, and sex. Among African Americans, the SNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 was not associated with CRC (odds ratio, 1.18; P = .12); instead, the 8q24.21 SNP rs7014346 (odds ratio, 1.15; P = .03) was associated with CRC in this population. At 15q13.3, rs10318 was associated with CRC in both populations. At 11q23.1, rs3802842 was significantly associated with rectal cancer risk only among African Americans (odds ratio, 1.34; P = .01); this observation was made in previous studies. Among European Americans, SNPs at 8q24.21, 11q23.1, and 16q22.1 were significantly associated with CRC, and the odds ratios were of the same magnitude and direction for all SNPs tested, consistent with previously published studies. In contrast, in African Americans, the opposite allele of rs10795668 at 10p14 was associated with colorectal cancer (odds ratio, 1.35; P = .04), and altogether the odds ratios were in the opposite direction for 9 of the 22 SNPs tested. There is genetic heterogeneity in CRC associations in Americans of African versus European descent. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceptions of African-American culture and implications for clinical trial design. (United States)

    Ard, Jamy D; Durant, Raegan W; Edwards, Lori Carter; Svetkey, Laura P


    To identify unique cultural variables for African Americans that might limit the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in clinical trials. Focus group discussions lasting 90 minutes. Outpatient, clinical research center. Twenty-six African-American men and women, who completed the screening process but were ineligible for the PREMIER study, participated in six focus group sessions. PREMIER is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that studies the effects of three different lifestyle interventions designed to reduce blood pressure without medication. Participants used a value sort of cultural characteristics to select items that make them unique as African Americans. The following seven themes were consistently identified: 1) extensive use of nontraditional support systems; 2) general mistrust of European Americans; 3) African Americans' being undervalued as human beings and members of American society; 4) effective use of improvisation; 5) uneven playing field as a result of persistent discrimination; 6) preservation of a unique ethnic identity; 7) socioeconomic status as a major influence and predictor of behaviors. Cultural variables can affect African-American perceptions of the feasibility of certain behavior modifications as health interventions and their perceptions of clinical research. Using these themes, investigators can design trials and interventions that capitalize on certain cultural variables and avoid strategies that conflict with others. The identification of such cultural characteristics unique to African Americans may help to enhance the outcomes achieved by African Americans in clinical trials, improving the generalizability of results from behavior modification research.

  17. Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning. (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B


    This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.

  18. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults. (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Lee, Anna K; Witherspoon, Daphne D


    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students' experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups ( N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed.

  19. Epidemiological criminology: drug use among African American gang members. (United States)

    Lanier, Mark M; Pack, Robert P; Akers, Timothy A


    Epidemiological methods and public health theories can be tied to theories of crime and delinquency and used to create evidence-based policy. Interdisciplinary theoretical approaches to existing, and emerging, public health and criminal justice problems hold great promise. Differential association theory postulates that close association with delinquent peers leads to an increase in deviant activities such as illicit drug use. Social cognitive theory postulates that health behavior change is driven by the interaction of (a) cognitive states that support a health outcome, (b) the social and contextual environment, (c) and individual action. Combined, these theories can be applied to drug eradication programs as well as other health and crime issues. Focus groups and interviews were performed to identify rates of illicit substance use among incarcerated African American adolescent male gang members and nongang members. The policy recommendations illustrate the convergence of criminological and epidemiological theory under the new paradigm of epidemiological criminology or ''EpiCrim.''

  20. Survival Strategies for African American Astronomers and Astrophysicists (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.


    The question of how to increase the number of women and minorities in astronomy has been approached from several directions in the United States including examination of admission policies, mentoring, and hiring practices. These point to departmental efforts to improve conditions for some of the students which has the overall benefit of improving conditions for all of the students. However, women and minority astronomers have managed to obtain doctorates even within the non-welcoming environment of certain astronomy and physics departments. I present here six strategies used by African American men and women to persevere if not thrive long enough to earn their doctorate. Embedded in this analysis is the idea of `astronomy culture' and experiencing astronomy culture as a cross-cultural experience including elements of culture shock. These survival strategies are not exclusive to this small subpopulation but have been used by majority students, too.

  1. Coping strategies of African American head and neck cancer survivors. (United States)

    Agarwal, Mansi; Hamilton, Jill B; Crandell, Jamie L; Moore, Charles E


    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 50 African American head and neck cancer survivors. Common coping strategies were identified and examined in relation with quality of life and relationship well-being. Coping through support from God, seeking emotional support from family and friends, and helping others were the most commonly used strategies. Having emotional support, being strong and self-reliant, and engaging in distracting activities with family and friends had strongest associations with quality of life. Coping through emotional support, help from God, assistance from one's church family to maintain religious practices, helping others, and engaging in distracting activities with others was more strongly associated with relationship well-being. Future intervention studies should consider these strategies and their possible impact on the physical, psychological, and relationship well-being of this population.

  2. Elevated rates of prolonged grief disorder in African Americans. (United States)

    Goldsmith, B; Morrison, R S; Vanderwerker, L C; Prigerson, H G


    The prevalence of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) in non-Whites is currently unknown. This study was performed to explore the prevalence of PGD in African Americans (AAs). Multivariable analysis of two studies of recently bereaved individuals found AAs to have significantly higher rates of PGD than Whites (21% [14 of 66] vs. 12% [55 of 471], respectively; p = 0.03). Experiencing a loved one's death as sudden or unexpected was also significantly associated with PGD over and above the effects of race/ethnicity. AAs may be at increased risk for the development of PGD. The development of effective interventions to treat PGD highlights the need to identify high-risk individuals and refer them to therapy and suggests the potential need for such therapies to adopt culturally sensitive approaches to care.

  3. Race, Racism, and Access to Renal Transplantation among African Americans. (United States)

    Arriola, Kimberly Jacob


    There are clear and compelling racial disparities in access to renal transplant, which is the therapy of choice for many patients with end stage renal disease. This paper conceptualizes the role of racism (i.e., internalized, personally-mediated, and institutionalized) in creating and perpetuating these disparities at multiple levels of the social ecology by integrating two often-cited theories in the literature. Internalized racism is manifested at the intrapersonal level when, for example, African American patients devalue their self-worth, thereby not pursuing the most aggressive treatment available. Personally-mediated racism is manifested at the interpersonal level when, for example, physicians exhibit unconscious race bias that impacts their treatment decisions. One example of institutionalized racism being manifested at the institutional, community, and public policy levels is the longstanding existence of racial residential segregation and empirically established links between neighborhood racial composition and dialysis facility-level transplantation rates. This paper concludes with clinical, research, and policy recommendations.

  4. Screening for ATM Mutations in an African-American Population to Identify a Predictor of Breast Cancer Susceptibility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenstein, Barry


    The hypothesis being tested in this project is that a greater proportion of African-Americans with breast cancer harbor germline mutation in the ATM gene compared to African-American women without breast cancer...

  5. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Sharon


    The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...

  6. Psychological and Neuropsychological Predictors of Non-Compliance to Mammography Screening Among High-Risk African American Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha


    The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...

  7. Changing perceptions of cycling in the African American community to encourage participation in a sport that promotes health in adults. (United States)


    This study introduces two interventions designed to influence perceptions of cycling among African : Americans. Results from the 2001 National Household Transportation Survey reveal that African Americans : cycle at two-thirds the rate of White and H...

  8. Associations Between Cigarette Print Advertising and Smoking Initiation Among African Americans. (United States)

    Trinidad, Dennis R; Blanco, Lyzette; Emery, Sherry L; Fagan, Pebbles; White, Martha M; Reed, Mark B


    The objective of this study was to examine changes in the annual number of cigarette advertisements in magazines with a predominantly African-American audience following the broadcast ban on tobacco, and whether fluctuations in cigarette print advertising targeting African Americans during the late-1970s until the mid-1980s were associated with declines in smoking initiation. We tabulated the annual number of cigarette advertisements from magazines with large African-American readerships (Ebony, Essence, and Jet) from 1960 to 1990. Advertisements were coded depending on whether they featured African-American models. We calculated the incidence rate of regular smoking initiation from 1975 to 1990 for African-American 14-25 years old using data from the 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey. We examined whether trends in smoking initiation coincided with trends in cigarette advertising practices among African Americans. The annual aggregated number of printed cigarette advertisements in Ebony, Essence, and Jet magazines increased at least five-fold starting in 1971, following the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. A decrease in the percentage of ads by Brown & Williamson that showed African-American models was positively correlated (r = 0.30) with declines in the incidence rate of smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. The tobacco industry adapted quickly following the broadcast ban on cigarettes by increasing print advertising in African-American magazines. However, changes in print advertising practices by were associated with declines in smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to mid-1980s.

  9. Gambling and sexual behaviors in African-American adolescents. (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Lee, Grace P; Kim, June H; Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Storr, Carla L


    Late adolescence represents a developmental risk period when many youth become involved in multiple forms of high-risk behaviors with adverse consequences. This study assessed the degree to which two such behaviors, adolescent sexual behaviors and gambling, were associated in a community-based sample with a large African-American presence. Data are derived from a cohort study. This study focuses on 427 African-American participants with complete information on gambling and sexual behaviors by age 18 (72% of original cohort). Gambling involvement and related problems were based on responses to the South Oaks Gambling Screen - Revised for Adolescents. Several questions assessed sexual behaviors, including age of initiation. Multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, intervention status, impulsivity, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and alcohol and illegal drug use. Almost half of the sample (49%, n=211) had gambled at least once before age 18. More gamblers than non-gamblers had initiated sexual intercourse by age 18 (aOR: 2.29 [1.16, 4.52]). Among those who had initiated sexual activity, more gamblers than non-gamblers with high impulsivity levels at age 13 (vs. low impulsivity levels) had become pregnant or had impregnated someone. Among those who had initiated sexual activity by age 18, more male gamblers had impregnated someone by age 18 as compared to female gamblers becoming pregnant. Gambling and sexual behaviors often co-occur among adolescents. Such findings prompt the need for the inclusion of gambling, an often overlooked risky behavior, in behavioral prevention/intervention programs targeting adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of family resources and coping behaviors on well-being of African American and Caucasian parents of school-age children with asthma. (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; Jackson, Brenda; Parker, Veronica; DuBose, Lisa; Botchway, Portia


    A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to examine the influence of family resources and coping behaviors on the well-being of African American and Caucasian parents providing care to a school-age child with asthma. A convenience sample of 71 (33 African American and 38 Caucasian) parents of school-age children with asthma were recruited from two private medical practices and one school. Family resources were assessed using the Family Inventory of Resources for Management. Coping behaviors were assessed using the Coping Health Inventory for Parents and well-being was measured by the General Well-being Schedule. For both groups, the findings revealed family resources are significantly related to parental well-being. Also, coping behaviors were significantly related to the well-being of Caucasian parents. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of resiliency factors such as family resources and coping behaviors on parental well-being.

  11. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman


    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  12. A preliminary study investigating the factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females (United States)

    Ray, Tiffany Monique

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the significant factors influencing STEM major selection by African American females. A quantitative research design with a qualitative component was employed. Ex post facto survey research was conducted utilizing an online questionnaire to collect data from participants. African American undergraduate females that had declared a major in STEM comprised the target population for the study. As a basis for comparison, a second data collection ensued. All non-African American undergraduate females majoring in STEM also received the survey instrument to determine if there was a significant difference between factors that influence STEM major selection between the two groups. The Social Cognitive Career Choice Model comprised the conceptual framework for this study. Frequencies and percentages illustrated the demographic characteristics of the sample, as well as the average influence levels of each of the items without regard for level of significance. The researcher conducted an independent samples t-test to compare the mean scores for undergraduate African American females majoring in STEM and non-African American females majoring in STEM on each influential factor on the survey instrument. The researcher coded responses to open-ended questions to generate themes and descriptions. The data showed that African American female respondents were very influenced by the following items: specific interest in the subject, type of work, availability of career opportunities after graduation, parent/guardian, precollege coursework in science, and introductory college courses. In addition, the majority of respondents were very influenced by each of the confidence factors. African American females were overwhelmingly not influenced by aptitude tests. African American females were more influenced than their non-African American female counterparts for the following factors: reputation of the university, college or department, high level

  13. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females (United States)

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.


    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  14. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation between Race-Related Stress and Mental Health Symptoms for African Americans (United States)

    Greer, Tawanda M.; Laseter, Adrian; Asiamah, David


    The present study tested gender as a moderator of the relationship between race-related stress and mental health symptoms among African American adults. Because African American women are exposed to stressors associated with race and gender, we hypothesized that African American women would have higher levels of race-related stress and more severe…

  15. From Strain to Success: A Phenomenological Study of the Personal and Academic Pressures on African American Male Community College Students (United States)

    Mosby, John R.


    For many African American college students, the challenges to achieve academic success are overwhelming. The disproportionate number of African American male students enrolled in the community college system is of substantial concern because community colleges have not traditionally been successful in producing African American male graduates and…

  16. "Fool Me Once, Shame on You; Fool Me Twice, Shame on Me": African American Students' Reclamation of Smartness as Resistance (United States)

    Twyman Hoff, Pamela


    In African American culture competing value systems shape the definition and value of smartness. This article will explore African American "sayins" as a tool to transmit the counter-hegemonic cultural value of smartness. "Sayins," a facet of the African American oral tradition, are drawn from the deep structures of African…

  17. The Impact of Ethnic Identity Stage Development on the Intercultural Sensitivity of African-American Students during Study Abroad (United States)

    Dinani, Thandiwe T.


    African-American students represent 12% of the 14 million students enrolled in higher education institutions (National Center for Education Statistics, 2013). However, African-American students participate in study-abroad programs at a much lower percentage; African-American students represent 5% of the total number of students who study abroad…

  18. Perceived cancer risk and risk attributions among African-American residents of a low-income, predominantly African-American neighborhood. (United States)

    Orom, Heather; O'Quin, Karen E; Reilly, Sarah; Kiviniemi, Marc T


    In some national surveys, African-Americans have had lower scores on perceived cancer risk items than whites. Our goals were to confirm low perceptions of cancer risk in an African-American community sample and explore participants' attributions for their perceived cancer risk. Data were from three cross-sectional surveys. We report levels of perceived absolute and comparative cancer risk in a community sample of African-Americans (N = 88), and African-Americans (Ns = 655, 428) and whites (Ns = 5262, 1679) from two nationally representative Health Information National Trends Surveys (HINTS). We analyzed the content of spontaneously-provided explanations for perceived risk from the community sample. Perceived absolute and comparative cancer risk were lower in the community and national samples of African-Americans than in the national sample of whites. Participants' spontaneous attributions for low or lower than average risk included not having family history or behavioral risk factors, classes of attributions noted elsewhere in the literature. However, participants also explained that they wanted to avoid wishing cancer on themselves (positive affirmations) and hoped their risk was low (wishful thinking), responses rarely reported for majority-white samples. Results provide further evidence that cancer risk perceptions are lower among African-Americans than whites. Some participant explanations for low perceived risk (wishful thinking, affirmations) are inconsistent with behavioral scientists' assumptions about perceived risk questions. Results reveal a need to expand cancer risk attribution typologies to increase applicability to diverse populations, and may indicate that perceived cancer risk questions have lower validity in African-American populations.

  19. Tests of fit of historically-informed models of African American Admixture. (United States)

    Gross, Jessica M


    African American populations in the U.S. formed primarily by mating between Africans and Europeans over the last 500 years. To date, studies of admixture have focused on either a one-time admixture event or continuous input into the African American population from Europeans only. Our goal is to gain a better understanding of the admixture process by examining models that take into account (a) assortative mating by ancestry in the African American population, (b) continuous input from both Europeans and Africans, and (c) historically informed variation in the rate of African migration over time. We used a model-based clustering method to generate distributions of African ancestry in three samples comprised of 147 African Americans from two published sources. We used a log-likelihood method to examine the fit of four models to these distributions and used a log-likelihood ratio test to compare the relative fit of each model. The mean ancestry estimates for our datasets of 77% African/23% European to 83% African/17% European ancestry are consistent with previous studies. We find admixture models that incorporate continuous gene flow from Europeans fit significantly better than one-time event models, and that a model involving continuous gene flow from Africans and Europeans fits better than one with continuous gene flow from Europeans only for two samples. Importantly, models that involve continuous input from Africans necessitate a higher level of gene flow from Europeans than previously reported. We demonstrate that models that take into account information about the rate of African migration over the past 500 years fit observed patterns of African ancestry better than alternative models. Our approach will enrich our understanding of the admixture process in extant and past populations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sociocultural Influences on African Americans' Representations of Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study. (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Ward, Earlise; Brown, Carolyn


    Illness representations, known as patients' beliefs and expectations about an illness, may be influenced by cultural beliefs and personal experiences. This study explored African Americans' perceptions of the sociocultural factors that influence their representations of diabetes. Six semi-structured focus groups. Private space at a convenient site. Forty African Americans, aged 45-60 years with type 2 diabetes for at least one year prior. Participants perceived that there was a race-mediated effect of how they developed diabetes because of poverty due to past slavery, racial discrimination by health care providers, and the stigma associated with diabetes within the African American community. Participants perceived that poverty influenced African Americans' unhealthy eating habits, which led to diabetes diagnosis among their ancestors and their development of the disease since it was hereditary. Participants also perceived that there was provider ill intention, ie, providers were purposefully making people sick, and their lack of education on diabetes from providers was done on purpose, as information on diabetes was withheld and not shared due to racial discrimination. Perceived stigma by the community led to African Americans' avoidance and denial of the disease, and subsequently the development of diabetes. To enhance disease management for African Americans with diabetes, it is important to focus on the sociocultural context of how African Americans view their world that may be influenced by their knowledge of negative historical circumstances and their current provider relationship, which, in turn, may be reflected in their perceptions of diabetes.