WorldWideScience

Sample records for resilience scale based

  1. Transdisciplinary Application of Cross-Scale Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana M. Sundstrom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  2. Resilience scales of a dammed tropical river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Elisa; Schmid, Martin; Wehrli, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Artificial river impoundments disrupt the seasonality and dynamics of thermal, chemical, morphological and ecological regimes in river systems. These alterations affect the aquatic ecosystems in space and time and specifically modify the seasonality and the longitudinal gradients of important biogeochemical processes. Resilience of river systems to anthropogenic stressors enables their recovery along the flow path; however little is known about the longitudinal distance that rivers need to partially restore their physical, chemical and biological integrity. In this study, the concept of a "resilience scale" will be explored for different water quality parameters downstream of Kariba dam, the largest artificial lake in the Zambezi basin (South-East Africa). The goal of this project is to develop a modelling framework to investigate and quantify the impact of large dams on downstream water quality in tropical context. In particular, we aim to assess the degree of reversibility of the main downstream alterations (temperature, oxygen, nutrients) and consequently the quantification of their longitudinal extent. Coupling in-situ measurements with hydraulic and hydrological parameters such as travel times, will allow us to define a physically-based parametrization of the different resilience scales for tropical rivers. The results will be used for improving future dam management at the local scale and assessing the ecological impact of planned dams at the catchment scale.

  3. A Measure of Team Resilience: Developing the Resilience at Work Team Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Kathryn; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2018-03-01

    This study develops, and initial evaluates, a new measure of team-based resilience for use in research and practice. We conducted preliminary analyses, based on a cross-sectional sample of 344 employees nested within 31 teams. Seven dimensions were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The measure had high reliability and significant discrimination to indicate the presence of a unique team-based aspect of resilience that contributed to higher work engagement and higher self-rated team performance, over and above the effects of individual resilience. Multilevel analyses showed that team, but not individual, resilience predicted self-rated team performance. Practice implications include a need to focus on collective as well as individual behaviors in resilience-building. The measure provides a diagnostic instrument for teams and a scale to evaluate organizational interventions and research the relationship of resilience to other constructs.

  4. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Therefore the resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. Also, due to practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems future systems are likely to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. As a result the techniques that seek to improve resilience must navigate the complex trade-off space between resilience and the overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power efficiency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience using the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. Each established solution is described in the form of a pattern that

  5. Derivative-based scale invariant image feature detector with error resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Pradip; Lafruit, Gauthier; Tack, Klaas; Van Gool, Luc; Lauwereins, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel scale-invariant image feature detection algorithm (D-SIFER) using a newly proposed scale-space optimal 10th-order Gaussian derivative (GDO-10) filter, which reaches the jointly optimal Heisenberg's uncertainty of its impulse response in scale and space simultaneously (i.e., we minimize the maximum of the two moments). The D-SIFER algorithm using this filter leads to an outstanding quality of image feature detection, with a factor of three quality improvement over state-of-the-art scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and speeded up robust features (SURF) methods that use the second-order Gaussian derivative filters. To reach low computational complexity, we also present a technique approximating the GDO-10 filters with a fixed-length implementation, which is independent of the scale. The final approximation error remains far below the noise margin, providing constant time, low cost, but nevertheless high-quality feature detection and registration capabilities. D-SIFER is validated on a real-life hyperspectral image registration application, precisely aligning up to hundreds of successive narrowband color images, despite their strong artifacts (blurring, low-light noise) typically occurring in such delicate optical system setups.

  6. Resilience of small-scale societies: a view from drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Balbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain insights on long-term social-ecological resilience, we examined adaptive responses of small-scale societies to dryland-related hazards in different regions and chronological periods, spanning from the mid-Holocene to the present. Based on evidence from Africa (Sahara and Sahel, Asia (south margin of the Thar desert, and Europe (South Spain, we discuss key traits and coping practices of small-scale societies that are potentially relevant for building resilience. The selected case studies illustrate four main coping mechanisms: mobility and migration, storage, commoning, and collective action driven by religious beliefs. Ultimately, the study of resilience in the context of drylands emphasizes the importance of adaptive traits and practices that are distinctive of small-scale societies: a strong social-ecological coupling, a solid body of traditional ecological knowledge, and a high degree of internal cohesion and self-organization.

  7. Resilience Design Patterns - A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale (version 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukerikar, Saurabh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Engelmann, Christian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest that very high fault rates in future systems. The errors resulting from these faults will propagate and generate various kinds of failures, which may result in outcomes ranging from result corruptions to catastrophic application crashes. Practical limits on power consumption in HPC systems will require future systems to embrace innovative architectures, increasing the levels of hardware and software complexities. The resilience challenge for extreme-scale HPC systems requires management of various hardware and software technologies that are capable of handling a broad set of fault models at accelerated fault rates. These techniques must seek to improve resilience at reasonable overheads to power consumption and performance. While the HPC community has developed various solutions, application-level as well as system-based solutions, the solution space of HPC resilience techniques remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to investigate and evaluate resilience holistically in HPC systems that consider impact scope, handling coverage, and performance & power eciency across the system stack. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software ecosystems, which are expected to be deployed on future systems. In this document, we develop a structured approach to the management of HPC resilience based on the concept of resilience-based design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the commonly occurring problems and solutions used to deal with faults, errors and failures in HPC systems. The catalog of resilience design patterns provides designers with reusable design elements. We define a design framework that enhances our understanding of the important

  8. Resilience Design Patterns: A Structured Approach to Resilience at Extreme Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, Christian; Hukerikar, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    Reliability is a serious concern for future extreme-scale high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Projections based on the current generation of HPC systems and technology roadmaps suggest the prevalence of very high fault rates in future systems. While the HPC community has developed various resilience solutions, application-level techniques as well as system-based solutions, the solution space remains fragmented. There are no formal methods and metrics to integrate the various HPC resilience techniques into composite solutions, nor are there methods to holistically evaluate the adequacy and efficacy of such solutions in terms of their protection coverage, and their performance \\& power efficiency characteristics. Additionally, few of the current approaches are portable to newer architectures and software environments that will be deployed on future systems. In this paper, we develop a structured approach to the design, evaluation and optimization of HPC resilience using the concept of design patterns. A design pattern is a general repeatable solution to a commonly occurring problem. We identify the problems caused by various types of faults, errors and failures in HPC systems and the techniques used to deal with these events. Each well-known solution that addresses a specific HPC resilience challenge is described in the form of a pattern. We develop a complete catalog of such resilience design patterns, which may be used by system architects, system software and tools developers, application programmers, as well as users and operators as essential building blocks when designing and deploying resilience solutions. We also develop a design framework that enhances a designer's understanding the opportunities for integrating multiple patterns across layers of the system stack and the important constraints during implementation of the individual patterns. It is also useful for defining mechanisms and interfaces to coordinate flexible fault management across

  9. Extreme-scale Algorithms and Solver Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, Jack [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-12-10

    A widening gap exists between the peak performance of high-performance computers and the performance achieved by complex applications running on these platforms. Over the next decade, extreme-scale systems will present major new challenges to algorithm development that could amplify this mismatch in such a way that it prevents the productive use of future DOE Leadership computers due to the following; Extreme levels of parallelism due to multicore processors; An increase in system fault rates requiring algorithms to be resilient beyond just checkpoint/restart; Complex memory hierarchies and costly data movement in both energy and performance; Heterogeneous system architectures (mixing CPUs, GPUs, etc.); and Conflicting goals of performance, resilience, and power requirements.

  10. Transdisciplinary application of the cross-scale resilience model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Angeler, David G.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Garcia, Jorge H.; Allen, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross-scale resilience model was developed in ecology to explain the emergence of resilience from the distribution of ecological functions within and across scales, and as a tool to assess resilience. We propose that the model and the underlying discontinuity hypothesis are relevant to other complex adaptive systems, and can be used to identify and track changes in system parameters related to resilience. We explain the theory behind the cross-scale resilience model, review the cases where it has been applied to non-ecological systems, and discuss some examples of social-ecological, archaeological/ anthropological, and economic systems where a cross-scale resilience analysis could add a quantitative dimension to our current understanding of system dynamics and resilience. We argue that the scaling and diversity parameters suitable for a resilience analysis of ecological systems are appropriate for a broad suite of systems where non-normative quantitative assessments of resilience are desired. Our planet is currently characterized by fast environmental and social change, and the cross-scale resilience model has the potential to quantify resilience across many types of complex adaptive systems.

  11. Development and Validation of the Mathematical Resilience Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooken, Janice; Welsh, Megan E.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Johnston-Wilder, Sue; Lee, Clare

    2016-01-01

    The Mathematical Resilience Scale measures students' attitudes toward studying mathematics, using three correlated factors: Value, Struggle, and Growth. The Mathematical Resilience Scale was developed and validated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses across three samples. Results provide a new approach to gauge the likelihood of…

  12. Development of a Career Resilience Scale for University Students

    OpenAIRE

    児玉, 真樹子

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a career resilience scale for university students. The data of 114 university students was collected. Career resilience, career decision making anxiety, and the degree of career development were measured. The result of a confirmatory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure of career resilience with a high Cronbach’s alpha: ability to cope with problems and changes; social skills; interest in novelty; optimism about the future; and willingness...

  13. The Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30): A New Multidimensional Construct Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is a psychological construct observed in some individuals that accounts for success despite adversity. Resilience reflects the ability to bounce back, to beat the odds and is considered an asset in human characteristic terms. Academic resilience contextualizes the resilience construct and reflects an increased likelihood of educational success despite adversity. The paper provides an account of the development of a new multidimensional construct measure of academic resilience. The 30 item Academic Resilience Scale (ARS-30) explores process—as opposed to outcome—aspects of resilience, providing a measure of academic resilience based on students’ specific adaptive cognitive-affective and behavioral responses to academic adversity. Findings from the study involving a sample of undergraduate students (N = 532) demonstrate that the ARS-30 has good internal reliability and construct validity. It is suggested that a measure such as the ARS-30, which is based on adaptive responses, aligns more closely with the conceptualisation of resilience and provides a valid construct measure of academic resilience relevant for research and practice in university student populations. PMID:27917137

  14. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA and the Herth hope scale (HHS in the prediction of anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanna Morote

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS, in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25. Methods Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25. Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM. First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r, then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. Results The hierarchical models showed that (1 hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2 Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3 RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness. Women showed higher scores

  15. Resilience or hope? Incremental and convergent validity of the resilience scale for adults (RSA) and the Herth hope scale (HHS) in the prediction of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Krysinska, Karolina; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-10-27

    Hope and resilience protect against inner vulnerabilities or harsh life circumstances; they explain individual differences in physical or mental health outcomes under high stress. They have been studied in complementary or competing theoretical frameworks; therefore, the study of measures of hope and resilience should be undertaken prior to explore if they are truly value-added for research. This study investigates the convergent and incremental validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and the Herth Hope Scale (HHS), in the prediction of anxiety and depression (HSCL-25). Participants in this community-based sample are 762 adults from 18 to 74 years old. They answered the RSA, HHS, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events Checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Incremental validity analyses combined hierarchical regression and structural equation models (SEM). First, hierarchical regression models were compared based on three criteria (R 2 Diff., ΔF, and semi-partial r), then the direct effect of resilience on affective symptoms was compared with the mediated effect of resilience on affective symptoms through hope. The hierarchical models showed that (1) hope and resilience account significantly for the variance of affective symptoms above age, sex, and life-stress; (2) Resilience Total score has greater incremental validity than positive scales of HHS Hope; and (3) RSA Total score, HHS Optimism/Spiritual support, Stressful life-events and sex are unique predictors of affective symptoms. The SEM analyses verified a stronger direct effect of resilience in the prediction of affective symptoms above the significant partial mediated effect of resilience through hope. Additionally, results show that age and better educational opportunities were associated with protection (i.e. resilience and hope) and emotional well-being (i.e. affective symptoms and hopelessness). Women showed higher scores in social competences and resources (RSA

  16. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  17. Cross-scale feedbacks and scale mismatches as influences on cultural services and the resilience of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; De Vos, Alta; Cumming, Graeme S; Moore, Christine; Biggs, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are a central strategy for achieving global conservation goals, but their continued existence depends heavily on maintaining sufficient social and political support to outweigh economic interests or other motives for land conversion. Thus, the resilience of protected areas can be considered a function of their perceived benefits to society. Nature-based tourism (NBT), a cultural ecosystem service, provides a key source of income to protected areas, facilitating a sustainable solution to conservation. The ability of tourism to generate income depends, however, on both the scales at which this cultural service is provided and the scales at which tourists respond to services on offer. This observation raises a set of location-, context-, and scale-related questions that need to be confronted before we can understand and value cultural service provision appropriately. We combine elements of resilience analysis with a systems ecology framework and apply this to NBT in protected areas to investigate cross-scale interactions and scale mismatches. We postulate that cross-scale effects can either have a positive effect on protected area resilience or lead to scale mismatches, depending on their interactions with cross-scale feedbacks. To demonstrate this, we compare spatial scales and nested levels of institutions to develop a typology of scale mismatches for common scenarios in NBT. In our new typology, the severity of a scale mismatch is expressed as the ratio of spatial scale to institutional level, producing 25 possible outcomes with differing consequences for system resilience. We predict that greater differences between interacting scales and levels, and greater magnitudes of cross-scale interactions, will lead to greater magnitudes of scale mismatch. Achieving a better understanding of feedbacks and mismatches, and finding ways of aligning spatial and institutional scales, will be critical for strengthening the resilience of protected areas that

  18. The Youth Ecological-Resilience Scale: A Partial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, Adrian D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In South Africa, the field of scale development and utilization in social work is referred to as "ecometrics," that is, the measurement of ecological constructs. There is, however, a lack of ecometric tools for social workers, particularly regarding strengths or resilience. Given the high vulnerability of South African youth,…

  19. Resilience to affective disorders: a comparative validation of two resilience scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontjevas, Ruslan; de Beek, Wendie Op; Lataster, Johan; Jacobs, Nele

    2014-10-01

    Resilience to affective disorders in rehabilitating patients or in individuals with a severe disability is of special research interest. However, there is no gold standard for measuring resilience. We aimed to test the accuracy of the Dutch translation of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRSnl) and of the Resilience Scale (RSnl) in recognizing rehabilitating patients without anxiety and depression, and to determine the reliability and construct validity of both scales. A within-subjects longitudinal study with six assessments, each one week apart. Forty residents of a nursing home rehabilitating unit were interviewed to assess resilience (BRSnl and RSnl), optimism and pessimism (LOT-R), depression and anxiety (HADS), positive and negative affect (PANAS), and pain (VAS). Receiver operating characteristic analyses for recognizing the absence of depression and anxiety (HADS-score≤7) revealed better accuracy (P=0.038) for the BRSnl (AUC=0.84; pscales correlated moderately at baseline (rs=0.35; p=0.026), and at four-week follow-up (rs=0.50; p=0.004). The RSnl was positively associated with positive outcomes (optimism and positive affect), and the BRSnl positively with positive outcomes, and negatively with negative outcomes (pessimism, anxiety and negative affect). The RSnl showed a better four-week test-retest reliability (ICC, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97) than the BRSnl (0.66; 95% CI, 0.29 to.83). Short study duration, a relatively small sample. The BRSnl showed better performance in detecting people without depression and anxiety than the RSnl, and performed better on construct validity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Alaskan Granular Base Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Resilient modulus (MR) of base course material is an important material input for : pavement design. In Alaska, due to distinctiveness of local climate, material source, : fines content and groundwater level, resilient properties of D-1 granular base...

  1. Multi-Scale Modeling and Probabilistic Assessment of Electrical Power and Dependent Systems' Resilience to Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, S.; Pasqualini, D.; Crawford, T.; Ewers, M.; Tasseff, B.; Ambrosiano, J.; Linger, S.; Roberts, R.; Bent, R.; Barnes, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical power systems and infrastructure systems that depend on electric power are deployed and operated at spatial scales ranging from individual facilities to cities to regions. The resilience of these systems has evolved naturally under the influence of extreme events. This evolution continues today as systems face more severe and frequent extreme events. Accurately representing the present resilience and future evolution of these systems across such a wide range of scales is both a modeling and computational challenge, especially considering that system evolution may involve new technologies and design approaches where no historical data are available to enable extrapolations. Naïve top-down aggregations of existing electrical power distribution networks will not capture important correlations between previous system hardening and critical dependent systems, leading to inaccurate modeling of current local resilience and costs associated with upgrades to improve local resilience and inaccurate boundary conditions on regional-scale electrical transmission models. Using probabilistic risk analysis approaches for hurricane and ice storm events, we present an integrated multi-scale, multi-sector modeling approach that can model and upscale naturally evolved resilience of fine-scale electrical distribution networks and their dependent critical systems. We use stochastic optimization-based models to predict and upscale potential future evolution driven by existing and emerging technologies. An optimization approach can incorporate human factors and represent potential bias in the resilience adaptation toward different residual risk profiles. We describe the coupling of these new aggregated models of fine-scale electrical power system resilience to models of regional electrical transmission systems and show how resilient regional operational strategies may be adapted to autonomous local resilience upgrades.

  2. Resilience Analysis of Countries under Disasters Based on Multisource Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Disasters occur almost daily in the world. Because emergencies frequently have no precedent, are highly uncertain, and can be very destructive, improving a country's resilience is an efficient way to reduce risk. In this article, we collected more than 20,000 historical data points from disasters from 207 countries to enable us to calculate the severity of disasters and the danger they pose to countries. In addition, 6 primary indices (disaster, personal attribute, infrastructure, economics, education, and occupation) including 38 secondary influencing factors are considered in analyzing the resilience of countries. Using these data, we obtained the danger, expected number of deaths, and resilience of all 207 countries. We found that a country covering a large area is more likely to have a low resilience score. Through sensitivity analysis of all secondary indices, we found that population density, frequency of disasters, and GDP are the three most critical factors affecting resilience. Based on broad-spectrum resilience analysis of the different continents, Oceania and South America have the highest resilience, while Asia has the lowest. Over the past 50 years, the resilience of many countries has been improved sharply, especially in developing countries. Based on our results, we analyze the comprehensive resilience and provide some optimal suggestions to efficiently improve resilience. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience is an important framework for understanding and managing complex systems of people and nature that are subject to abrupt and nonlinear change. The idea of ecological resilience was slow to gain acceptance in the scientific community, taking thirty years to become widel...

  4. Validation of the Chinese version of the resilience scale and its cutoff score for detecting low resilience in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Hong, Jin Sheng

    2013-05-01

    We aim to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Resilience Scale (RS-14) and to determine the cutoff score of the RS-14 for screening Chinese cancer patients with low resilience. The current study was divided into two studies. In the first study, we randomly selected 625 people and obtained their scores in the Chinese version of the RS-14 and SF-36 using cross-sectional survey. We then calculated the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the RS-14. In the second study, we selected 970 hospital cancer patients diagnosed during 2010 to 2011 and assessed for their resilience once and for anxiety, depression, and quality of life on two occasions. We determined the cutoff score of the RS-14 based on the maximum Youden Index, with the scores of anxiety and depression as gold standards. The correlation coefficients for inter-items were in the range of 0.23 to 0.68 (P cancer patients with low resilience (sensitivity and specificity were 0.74 and 0.71, respectively). The Chinese version of the RS-14 has good validity and reliability, and it can measure the resilience of Chinese people. The cutoff score of 64 for the RS-14 is appropriate for detecting cancer patients with low resilience in order to decrease psychological stress and improving quality of life. Health care nurses can screen and detect cancer patients with low resilience based on the said cutoff score to timely provide psychological care and interventions for the patients.

  5. DDDAS-based Resilient Cyberspace (DRCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    using three Dell XPS 8700 towers with i7 4770 processors and 12GB memory, with Ubuntu 12.04 Server as a host operating system. We deployed OpenStack...resilient scientific and engineering applications. 15 . SUBJECT TERMS Dynamic Data-Driven Application Systems (DDDAS), resiliency, resilient DDDAS (rDDDAS...edition number, etc. 14. ABSTRACT. A brief (approximately 200 words) factual summary of the most significant information. 15 . SUBJECT TERMS. Key words

  6. The Effectiveness of Resiliency based on Islamic Spirituality Training on Mental Health and Spiritual Resiliency among Mothers of Slow Pace (Mentally Retarded Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Bakhshizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Birth and presence of slow pace children in each family can be considered as challenging and adverse event that probably leads to stress and frustration and mental health related complications. According to several studies that show positive and significant relationship between resiliency and values and religious beliefs and their impact on mental health,the present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of resiliency skills training based on Islamic spirituality in promoting mental health and spiritual resilience among mothers of Slow Pace children. Methods: The present study used a semi-experimental design with pre test-post test which was conducted among mothers of Slow Pace Children in Dehdasht, Iran, and the countryside using random sampling, in which 30 of these mothers were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups, participated in this study. Twelve sessions of resiliency training based on Islamic spirituality were held for experimental group of 15 people.The tools used in this study included a mental health questionnaire-28 (Ghq and resiliency based on Islamic spirituality researcher made scale that were completed by individuals in pre and post tests. Finally, collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: Analysis of data using multivariate analysis of covariance showed that utilization of Intervention program among mothers of Slow Pace children in experimental group was significantly (P>0/05 effective on mental health and components of resiliency based on Islamic spirituality. In other words, spiritual resiliency skills training was led to improve depressive symptoms, social functioning and components of spiritual resiliency such as patience, contentment, Submission and thanksgiving. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that through changes in attitude of Slow Pace children's mothers, resiliency skills training based on Islamic

  7. Implementing a Global Tool for Mercy Corps Based on Spatially Continuous Precipitation Analysis for Resiliency Monitoring and Measuring at the Community-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, J. N.; El-Behaedi, R.; McCartney, S.; Lingo, R.; Thieme, A.

    2017-12-01

    Global water resources are important for societies, economies, and the environment. In Niger, limited water resources restrict the expansion of agriculture and communities. Mercy Corps currently works in over 40 countries around the world to address a variety of stresses which include water resources and building long-term food resilience. As Mercy Corps seeks to integrate the use of Earth observations, NASA has established a partnership to help facilitate this effort incorporating Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) data to create a standardized precipitation index that highlights low and high rainfall from 1981 - 2016. The team created a Google Earth Engine tool that combines precipitation data with other metrics of stress in Niger. The system is designed to be able to incorporate groundwater storage data as it becomes available. This tool allows for near real-time updates of trends in precipitation and improves Mercy Corps' ability to spatially evaluate changes in resiliency by monitoring shocks and stressors.

  8. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  9. Comparison of Mathematical Resilience among Students with Problem Based Learning and Guided Discovery Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M.; Darhim; Dahlan, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical resilience is very important thing in learning mathematics. It is a positive attitude in order to make student not easily give up in the face of adversity when solving mathematics problems through discussion and research about mathematics. The purpose of this study was to examine comparison of mathematical resilience among students receiving problem based learning model and the students who received guided discovery learning model. This research was conducted at one junior high school in Jakarta. The method was used in this study is quasi-experimental with 66 students as the samples. The instrument which was used in this research is mathematical resilience scale with 24 items of statements. The result of this research is mathematical resilience between the students who received problem based learning model is better than the students who received guided discovery learning model. According to this study result the authors presented some suggestions that: 1) problem based learning and guided discovery learning model can both develop mathematical resilience, but problem based learning is more recommended to use, 2) in order to achieve mathematical resilience better than this findings, it needs to do the next research that combine problem based learning with other treatment.

  10. Cyber physical system based on resilient ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuki, Katsumi

    2016-02-01

    While development of science and technology has built up the sophisticated civilized society, it has also resulted in quite a few disadvantages in global environment and human society. The common recognition has been increasingly shared worldwide on sustainable development society attaching greater importance to the symbiotic relationship with nature and social ethics. After the East Japan Great Earthquake, it is indispensable for sustainable social development to enhance capacity of resistance and restoration of society against natural disaster, so called "resilient society". Our society consists of various Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) that make up the physical systems by fusing with an Information Communication Technology (ICT). We describe the proposed structure of CPS in order to realize resilient society. The configuration of resilient CPS consisting of ICT and physical system is discussed to introduce "autonomous, distributed, and cooperative" structure, where subsystems of ICT and physical system are simultaneously coordinated and cooperated with Business Continuity Planning (BCP) engine, respectively. We show the disaster response information system and energy network as examples of BCP engine and resilient CPS, respectively. We also propose the structure and key technology of resilient ICT.

  11. Standardization of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Iranian subjects with Cerebrovascular Accident

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    Seyed Alireza Derakhshanrad1

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is a personal trait that can influence the stroke subjects’ attitudes toward future opportunities and facilitate the transitional process and adaptation in them. Assessment of this trait in stroke subjects with a standardized tool would promote the rehabilitation protocols and occupational therapy interventions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to standardize the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC for Persian Iranian people who have had strokes. Methods: A descriptive observational study was adopted in order to standardize the CD-RISC in stroke population. The population was comprised of 34 female and 29 male subjects with a mean age of 51.4±10.6 years and the history of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accidents. Subjects were recruited based on inclusion criteria within the period of two months between May and July of 2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated along with the Cronbach’s alpha to determine reliability. Standard multiple regression analyses searched for any correlation between variables and resilience. Results: Statistical parameters revealed a mean of 58.4±15.5 for CD-RISC raw scores. Percentile ranks were also calculated from raw data. Cronbach’s alpha of 0.892 revealed that the CD-RISC had high reliability for the population of this study. Multiple regression analyses showed that the functional status was the only variable that uniquely predicted subjects’ resilience (ß=0.41; P<0.01. Conclusion: The findings of this research confirmed applicability of CDRISC in Iranian people who have had strokes. The standardized CD-RISC was determined to be suitable for use in the clinic and for utilization in research studies in Iranian people status post-stroke.

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in resilience and vulnerability among older adults: a population-based birth cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Cooper, R; Kuh, D; Stafford, M

    2017-11-08

    Aging is associated with declines in physical capability; however, some individuals demonstrate high well-being despite this decline, i.e. they are "resilient." We examined socioeconomic position (SEP) and resilience and the influence of potentially modifiable behavioral resources, i.e. social support and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), on these relationships. Data came from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a nationally-representative birth cohort study. Resilience-vulnerability at age 60-64 years (n = 1,756) was operationalized as the difference between observed and expected levels of well-being, captured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS), given the level of performance-based physical capability. SEP was assessed by father's and own social class, parental education, and intergenerational social mobility. PA and structural/functional social support were reported at ages 53 years and 60-64 years. Path analysis was used to examine mediation of SEP and resilience-vulnerability through LTPA and social support. Participants in the highest social class had scores on the resilience to vulnerability continuum that were an average of 2.3 units (β = 0.46, 95% CI 0.17, 0.75) higher than those in the lowest social class. Greater LTPA (β = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31, 0.85) and social support (β = 3.27, 95% CI 2.90, 3.63) were associated with greater resilience; LTPA partly mediated participant social class and resilience (23.4% of variance). Adult socioeconomic advantage was associated with greater resilience. Initiatives to increase LTPA may contribute to reducing socioeconomic inequalities in this form of resilience in later life.

  13. Problem-based learning: Developing resilience in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Yuan Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A society needs mature and confident nurse practitioners, who are able to think analytically and flexibly, recognize needs for further preparation, and willing to engage in self-development. Concern is raised regarding how educators will build the capacity of resilient students with a knowledge base and a minimum set of skills in responding to various issues and for engaging in self-reflection. Drawing on the framework of nursing competencies and global standards for the education of professional nurses, resilient students may contribute through their social competence, problem-solving ability, sense of purpose, and persistence in the process to achieve the goal of the project. Educators should know how to build the resilient attribute in students by encouraging them to engage in self-reflection. This article discusses four areas that help students build resilience from project-based learning of a small group: the impact of problem-based learning at clinical practice, project/problem-based learning, resilient nursing student, and developing nursing students’ resilience. Self-assessment to check the promoting skills for teaching in a problem-based learning program helps the faculty holding the empowerment to encourage or support the students to face the challenge within the small team.

  14. Problem-based learning: developing resilience in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    A society needs mature and confident nurse practitioners, who are able to think analytically and flexibly, recognize needs for further preparation, and willing to engage in self-development. Concern is raised regarding how educators will build the capacity of resilient students with a knowledge base and a minimum set of skills in responding to various issues and for engaging in self-reflection. Drawing on the framework of nursing competencies and global standards for the education of professional nurses, resilient students may contribute through their social competence, problem-solving ability, sense of purpose, and persistence in the process to achieve the goal of the project. Educators should know how to build the resilient attribute in students by encouraging them to engage in self-reflection. This article discusses four areas that help students build resilience from project-based learning of a small group: the impact of problem-based learning at clinical practice, project/problem-based learning, resilient nursing student, and developing nursing students' resilience. Self-assessment to check the promoting skills for teaching in a problem-based learning program helps the faculty holding the empowerment to encourage or support the students to face the challenge within the small team. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

  15. The Measurement and Role of Ecological Resilience Systems Theory Across Domain-Specific Outcomes: The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie S; Chivers, Sally

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education. The Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales are found to predict unique variance in job satisfaction, lower job burnout, quality-of-life following illness, marriage commitment, and educational engagement, while controlling for factors including sex, age, personality, cognitive ability, and trait resilience. The findings also suggest a distinction between the three resilience dimensions in terms of the types of systems to which they contribute. Engineering resilience may contribute most to life domains where an established system needs to be maintained, for example, one's health. Ecological resilience may contribute most to life domains where the system needs sustainability in terms of present and future goal orientation, for example, one's work. Adaptive Capacity may contribute most to life domains where the system needs to be retained, preventing it from reaching a crisis state, for example, work burnout.

  16. Impact of Data Placement on Resilience in Large-Scale Object Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carns, Philip; Harms, Kevin; Jenkins, John; Mubarak, Misbah; Ross, Robert; Carothers, Christopher

    2016-05-02

    Distributed object storage architectures have become the de facto standard for high-performance storage in big data, cloud, and HPC computing. Object storage deployments using commodity hardware to reduce costs often employ object replication as a method to achieve data resilience. Repairing object replicas after failure is a daunting task for systems with thousands of servers and billions of objects, however, and it is increasingly difficult to evaluate such scenarios at scale on realworld systems. Resilience and availability are both compromised if objects are not repaired in a timely manner. In this work we leverage a high-fidelity discrete-event simulation model to investigate replica reconstruction on large-scale object storage systems with thousands of servers, billions of objects, and petabytes of data. We evaluate the behavior of CRUSH, a well-known object placement algorithm, and identify configuration scenarios in which aggregate rebuild performance is constrained by object placement policies. After determining the root cause of this bottleneck, we then propose enhancements to CRUSH and the usage policies atop it to enable scalable replica reconstruction. We use these methods to demonstrate a simulated aggregate rebuild rate of 410 GiB/s (within 5% of projected ideal linear scaling) on a 1,024-node commodity storage system. We also uncover an unexpected phenomenon in rebuild performance based on the characteristics of the data stored on the system.

  17. Diagnosing Disaster Resilience of Communities as Multi-scale Complex Socio-ecological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mochizuki, Junko; Keating, Adriana; Mechler, Reinhard; Williges, Keith; Hochrainer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Global environmental change, growing anthropogenic influence, and increasing globalisation of society have made it clear that disaster vulnerability and resilience of communities cannot be understood without knowledge on the broader social-ecological system in which they are embedded. We propose a framework for diagnosing community resilience to disasters, as a form of disturbance to social-ecological systems, with feedbacks from the local to the global scale. Inspired by iterative multi-scale analysis employed by Resilience Alliance, the related socio-ecological systems framework of Ostrom, and the sustainable livelihood framework, we developed a multi-tier framework for thinking of communities as multi-scale social-ecological systems and analyzing communities' disaster resilience and also general resilience. We highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on communities that exist from lower (e.g., household) to higher (e.g., regional, national) scales. The conceptual framework is then applied to a real-world resilience assessment situation, to illustrate how key components of socio-ecological systems, including natural hazards, natural and man-made environment, and community capacities can be delineated and analyzed.

  18. The Climate Resilience Toolkit: Central gateway for risk assessment and resilience planning at all governance scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, D.; Lipschultz, F.

    2016-12-01

    As people and organizations grapple with a changing climate amid a range of other factors simultaneously shifting, there is a need for credible, legitimate & salient scientific information in useful formats. In addition, an assessment framework is needed to guide the process of planning and implementing projects that allow communities and businesses to adapt to specific changing conditions, while also building overall resilience to future change. We will discuss how the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit (CRT) can improve people's ability to understand and manage their climate-related risks and opportunities, and help them make their communities and businesses more resilient. In close coordination with the U.S. Climate Data Initiative, the CRT is continually evolving to offer actionable authoritative information, relevant tools, and subject matter expertise from across the U.S. federal government in one easy-to-use location. The Toolkit's "Climate Explorer" is designed to help people understand potential climate conditions over the course of this century. It offers easy access to downloadable maps, graphs, and data tables of observed and projected temperature, precipitation and other decision-relevant climate variables dating back to 1950 and out to 2100. Since climate is only one of many changing factors affecting decisions about the future, it also ties climate information to a wide range of relevant variables to help users explore vulnerabilities and impacts. New topic areas have been added, such as "Fisheries," "Regions," and "Built Environment" sections that feature case studies and personal experiences in making adaptation decisions. A curated "Reports" section is integrated with semantic web capabilities to help users locate the most relevant information sources. As part of the USGCRP's sustained assessment process, the CRT is aligning with other federal activities, such as the upcoming 4th National Climate Assessment.

  19. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: Implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Emma; Sandin, Leonard; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  20. Quantifying spatial scaling patterns and their local and regional correlates in headwater streams: implications for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of functional traits within and across spatiotemporal scales has been used to quantify and infer the relative resilience across ecosystems. We use explicit spatial modeling to evaluate within- and cross-scale redundancy in headwater streams, an ecosystem type with a hierarchical and dendritic network structure. We assessed the cross-scale distribution of functional feeding groups of benthic invertebrates in Swedish headwater streams during two seasons. We evaluated functional metrics, i.e., Shannon diversity, richness, and evenness, and the degree of redundancy within and across modeled spatial scales for individual feeding groups. We also estimated the correlates of environmental versus spatial factors of both functional composition and the taxonomic composition of functional groups for each spatial scale identified. Measures of functional diversity and within-scale redundancy of functions were similar during both seasons, but both within- and cross-scale redundancy were low. This apparent low redundancy was partly attributable to a few dominant taxa explaining the spatial models. However, rare taxa with stochastic spatial distributions might provide additional information and should therefore be considered explicitly for complementing future resilience assessments. Otherwise, resilience may be underestimated. Finally, both environmental and spatial factors correlated with the scale-specific functional and taxonomic composition. This finding suggests that resilience in stream networks emerges as a function of not only local conditions but also regional factors such as habitat connectivity and invertebrate dispersal.

  1. Measuring resilience in adult women using the 10-items Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC. Role of trauma exposure and anxiety disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Scali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Resilience is the ability of individuals to adapt positively in the face of trauma. Little is known, however, about lifetime factors affecting resilience. METHODS: We assessed the effects of psychiatric disorder and lifetime trauma history on the resilience self-evaluation using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10 in a high-risk-women sample. Two hundred and thirty eight community-dwelling women, including 122 participants in a study of breast cancer survivors and 116 participants without previous history of cancer completed the CD-RISC-10. Lifetime psychiatric symptoms were assessed retrospectively using two standardized psychiatric examinations (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Watson's Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Inventory. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, education, trauma history, cancer, current psychiatric diagnoses, and psychoactive treatment indicated a negative association between current psychiatric disorder and high resilience compared to low resilience level (OR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.21-0.93]. This was related to anxiety and not mood disorder. A positive and independent association with a trauma history was also observed (OR = 3.18, 95% CI [1.44-7.01]. CONCLUSION: Self-evaluation of resilience is influenced by both current anxiety disorder and trauma history. The independent positive association between resilience and trauma exposure may indicate a "vaccination" effect. This finding need to be taken into account in future studies evaluating resilience in general or clinical populations.

  2. [Constructs of career resilience and development of a scale for their assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Makiko

    2015-06-01

    The constructs of career resilience were clarified and a scale was developed to assess them. Company employees (N = 241) participated in an online survey. The results of an exploratory factor analysis indicated a five-factor structure of career resilience with a high Cronbach's alpha: (a) ability to cope with challenges, problem-solving, and adaptation; (b) social skills; (c) novelty and diversity of interests; (d) future orientation; and (e) helping. The results of a correlation analysis showed that all five factors of career resilience directly promoted career development. The results of a two-way analysis of variance and t-tests revealed that all factors except for novelty and diversity of interests reduced the negative effects of risk on career development. The results confirmed that career resilience consisted of four factors: (a) ability to cope with challenges, problem-solving, and adaptation; (b) social skills; (d) future orientation; and (e) helping.

  3. Family resilience – definition of construct and preliminary results of the Polish adaptation of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Nadrowska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The article describes construct of family resilience with the main focus on the model Walsh. The aim of this article is to present preliminary results: adaptation, reliability, statistical analyses of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS for the Polish population. Participants and procedure Participants (n = 329, aged 18-35, completed experimental Polish version of the FRAS (SPR – Skala Prężności Rodzinnej. In the procedure of adaptation, scale was translated and modified into Polish. Scale consists of the following subscales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Utilizing Social and Economic Resources, Maintaining a Positive Outlook, Family Connectedness, Family Spirituality and Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity. Results The reliability of the experimental Polish version of the FRAS for the entire scale and five subscales are satisfactory. Only subscale Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity obtained reliability of less than 0.7. Taking into account the diversity of gender and declaring the passage through the difficult events were observed significant differences in the three scales: Family Communication and Problem Solving, Family Connectedness, Ability to Make Meaning of Adversity and total scale of FRAS. Conclusions The work on the questionnaire is still in progress and the results presented here should be considered as preliminary. In the next steps, the number of men should be increased in order to perform confirmatory factor analysis. Future studies should take into account a number of factors and contexts (e.g. family structure, social and cultural context and the type of stressful event.

  4. Psychometric validation of the French version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihard, G; Deumier, L; Alliot-Licht, B; Bouton-Kelly, L; Michaut, C; Quilliot, F

    2018-02-01

    Resilience defines the ability to face adversity with positive outcomes. Different scales, including the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRISC), have been elaborated in order to evaluate resilience among various populations. The evaluation of resilience in French populations was impossible until CDRISC was translated into French. In the present work, we aim to validate a French version of CDRISC (f-CDRISC). The survey was conducted at Nantes University. Both dental and medical students were eligible. The factor structure of f-CDRISC was determined and its replicability was tested on two sub-samples by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and parallel analysis (PA). A third student sample was used for confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA). We collected 1210 responses. Four items did not reach acceptance thresholds for reliability and were discarded from the f-CDRISC. EFA and PA of the remaining 21 items highlighted a replicable 3-factor structure that was further confirmed by CFA. Resilience factors included "tolerance to negative affects", "tenacity" and "self-confidence". All factors displayed acceptable to good internal consistency. They were characterized by positive medium to strong correlations with the overall f-CDRISC Scale. Significant positive correlations were also observed between the resilience factors. The present work constitutes the first study devoted to a French adaptation of the CDRISC questionnaire. We present evidence showing that the f-CDRISC is a reliable tool for resilience evaluation in French speaking populations. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Predict Resiliency Based On the Rate Of Emotional Intelligence In Public Organizations In Yasuj

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    Z Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: resiliency is the human ability in dealing with high-risk and traumatic conditions. Nevertheless, not all individuals are equally abiding, and resiliency can be increased or decreased by various factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of emotional intelligence in the level of resiliency among employees in public organizations of Yasuj, Iran. Methods: In the current correlational study, 382 state employees of Yasuj (221 males and 161 females were selected using multistage cluster sampling. For variable measurement, the Emotional Intelligence Scale and Connor-Davidson resilience scale were used. The collected data were analyzed by the correlation coefficient and regression methods. Results: Total score of emotional intelligence with resiliency revealed a significant positive relationship. Emotional intelligence can predict some degree of resilience. Emotional intelligence and resiliency among men is more than women. Conclusion: If the level of emotional intelligence goes higher, the possibility of employee’s resiliency in risky circumstances also increases.

  6. The notions of resilience in spatial planning for drought - flood coexistence (DFC) at regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trong Hoa, Nguyen; Vinh, Nguyen Quoc

    2018-04-01

    The notions of urban resilience and resilient city has been developed in the 2000s [1], four decades since the first concept of ecological resilience was originally introduced in the 1970s by ecologist C.S. Holling [2]. However, they have attracted great attentions and interests, in both academia and urban governance, then in planning practice over recent years. The first two sections of this paper examine the term resilience in ecological systems, urban systems, in spatial planning and in urban design. Specific attention of the paper, introduced in the third part, is to investigate resilience in the context of drought-flood coexistence (DFC), revolving two key objects and their interactions: DFC and urban at regional scale. Flood and drought events, in their turns intertwine in natural correlation, which is also reviewed. These relationships are literally investigated, to prove that they interplay mutually with each other, and that once a city develops in relation with water cycle at a regional context, in arid zone, not only hydrological drought could be regionally decreased, but human-induced floods could be ecologically regulated. The study concludes in the fourth, together with lessons from relevant case studies in America, China, with some principles on spatial planning, resilient/adaptive to DFC, which could be ecologically managed in correlation with urban development on a sustainable pathway.

  7. Assessing the outcomes of school-based partnership resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports on the outcomes of educational psychology school-based intervention. The aim was to determine whether the intervention served as an educational pathway to resilience. Through a concurrent mixed-methods research design interpreted through a pragmatic lens, academic school performance of ...

  8. Reliability and validity of the korean version of the connor-davidson resilience scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Young; Choi, Kyeong-Sook

    2010-06-01

    The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) measures various aspects of psychological resilience in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric ailments. This study sought to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC). In total, 576 participants were enrolled (497 females and 79 males), including hospital nurses, university students, and firefighters. Subjects were evaluated using the K-CD-RISC, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were examined as a measure of reliability, and convergent validity and factor analysis were also performed to evaluate validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. The total score on the K-CD-RISC was positively correlated with the RSES (r=0.56, pvalidity for measurement of resilience among Korean subjects.

  9. Incorporating resilience and cost in ecological restoration strategies at landscape scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Stefanes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of deforested or degraded areas can contribute to biodiversity conservation and global resilience given the current and projected impacts of climate change. In recent years, a robust array of ecological restoration frameworks have been generated to address restoration challenges at large scales in different ecosystems around the world. Unfortunately, the costs associated with restoration at such scales greatly challenges the implementation of such frameworks. We used landscape ecology principles with multicriteria optimization of landscape resilience and agricultural productivity as a way to mitigate the trade-offs between production and restoration. We used the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, as a case study to apply our framework. We compared three scenarios: minimal legal compliance (MLC; selection by ecological resilience (SER; and selection by restoration cost (SRC. Our results show that increasing the restoration target from MLC (25% to SER (30% means moving from 968,316 to 1592 million hectares, which can represent a huge opportunity cost for agricultural lands. However, because costs and resilience are not homogeneously distributed throughout landscapes, we can select areas of intermediate ecological resilience and low cost, for the same restoration area target. This process can reduce potential conflicts and make restoration a more viable process. Our results also reveal some areas that can be particularly important for reconciling agriculture and landscape restoration. Those areas combined high and intermediate resilience and an above average profitability. This could mean that increasing restoration in this area could be very expensive, assuming that our proxy roughly represents the restoration implementation cost. However, there is another important message here, that some areas can be productive at the same time that they maintain levels of resilience above the legal compliance, which facilitates

  10. Using the Kannada version of the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale to assess resilience and its relationship with psychological distress among adolescent girls in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidheek, K P Fasli; Satyanarayana, Veena A; Sowmya, H R; Chandra, Prabha S

    2017-12-01

    A widely used and accepted scale for assessing resilience is the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The aim of the present study was to establish the psychometric properties of the Kannada version of the scale and assess the relationship between resilience and psychological distress in a sample of adolescent girls living in low-income settings. Data was obtained from a sample of 606 adolescent girls studying in a college meant for women from a socio-economically disadvantaged setting. The CD- RISC (25 item) was used to assess resilience and Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) was used to assess psychological distress. Exploratory factor analysis yielded four stable factors instead of the original five factors. Similar results have been obtained in other factor-analytic studies. A significant negative correlation was found between psychological distress and resilience. Our study shows that the CD-RISC is a valuable measure to assess resilience among adolescents in low-income settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychometric properties of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in a Spanish sample of entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-García, Guadalupe; Ayala Calvo, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The literature regarding entrepreneurship suggests that the resilience of entrepreneurs may help to explain entrepreneurial success, but there is no resilience measure widely accepted by researchers. This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in a sample of Spanish entrepreneurs. A telephone survey research method was used. The participants were entrepreneurs operating in the business services sector. Interviewers telephoned a total of 900 entrepreneurs of whom 783 produced usable questionnaires. The CD-RISC was used as data collection instrument. We used principal component analysis factor and confirmatory factor analysis to determine the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Confirmatory factor analysis failed to verify the original five-factor structure of the CD-RISC, whereas principal component analysis factor yielded a 3-factor structure of resilience (hardiness, resourcefulness and optimism). In this research, 47.48% of the total variance was accounted for by three factors, and the obtained factor structure was verified through confirmatory factor analysis. The CD-RISC has been shown to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring entrepreneurs' resilience.

  12. A simulation infrastructure for examining the performance of resilience strategies at scale.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Levy, Scott N.; Bridges, Patrick G.

    2013-04-01

    Fault-tolerance is a major challenge for many current and future extreme-scale systems, with many studies showing it to be the key limiter to application scalability. While there are a number of studies investigating the performance of various resilience mechanisms, these are typically limited to scales orders of magnitude smaller than expected for next-generation systems and simple benchmark problems. In this paper we show how, with very minor changes, a previously published and validated simulation framework for investigating appli- cation performance of OS noise can be used to simulate the overheads of various resilience mechanisms at scale. Using this framework, we compare the failure-free performance of this simulator against an analytic model to validate its performance and demonstrate its ability to simulate the performance of two popular rollback recovery methods on traces from real

  13. Clinical applications of a polyphosphazene-based resilient denture liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, R; Khan, Z; Haeberle, C B; Beam, D

    1993-12-01

    The use of resilient denture liners provides an invaluable modality in removable prosthodontic treatment. Treatment of atrophic mandibles, preoperative and postoperative soft tissue management, and retention of removable prosthesis are a few applications of these materials. This article describes the clinical application of a polyphosphazene-based liner (Novus, Hygenic Corp, Dayton, OH) as a denture liner and retentive material in conventional and implant overdenture rehabilitation.

  14. A test of the cross-scale resilience model: Functional richness in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, D.A.; Allen, Craig R.; Peterson, G.D.; Tyre, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological resilience has been proposed to be generated, in part, in the discontinuous structure of complex systems. Environmental discontinuities are reflected in discontinuous, aggregated animal body mass distributions. Diversity of functional groups within body mass aggregations (scales) and redundancy of functional groups across body mass aggregations (scales) has been proposed to increase resilience. We evaluate that proposition by analyzing mammalian and avian communities of Mediterranean-climate ecosystems. We first determined that body mass distributions for each animal community were discontinuous. We then calculated the variance in richness of function across aggregations in each community, and compared observed values with distributions created by 1000 simulations using a null of random distribution of function, with the same n, number of discontinuities and number of functional groups as the observed data. Variance in the richness of functional groups across scales was significantly lower in real communities than in simulations in eight of nine sites. The distribution of function across body mass aggregations in the animal communities we analyzed was non-random, and supports the contentions of the cross-scale resilience model. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents in Norwegian adolescents 13-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Unni K; Haugan, Gørill

    2018-03-01

    Resilience is seen as a vital resource for coping and mental health in adolescents. However, there is no universally accepted theory or definition of resilience, leading to considerable challenges regarding how to operationalise and measure this construct. The study aimed at providing further knowledge of the psychometric properties (dimensionality, construct validity and internal consistency) of the 28-item version of the Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) in N = 1183 Norwegian adolescents, 13-18 years old. Dimensionality of READ was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Convergent validity and reliability were tested using Pearson's correlation analysis, Cronbach's alpha and composite reliability. The CFA supported a modified, 20-item, five-factor structure with high reliability, supporting the dimensionality and internal consistency of the instrument. Convergent validity was confirmed where all factors correlated in expected directions with measures of sense of coherence, self-esteem, stress and depression. The psychometric properties of the READ need to be further evaluated in adolescents; however, the results indicate that a modified 20-item version of READ is adequate for assessing resilience in the present sample of Norwegian adolescents. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Resilience to climate change in a cross-scale tourism governance context: a combined quantitative-qualitative network analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Luthe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Social systems in mountain regions are exposed to a number of disturbances, such as climate change. Calls for conceptual and practical approaches on how to address climate change have been taken up in the literature. The resilience concept as a comprehensive theory-driven approach to address climate change has only recently increased in importance. Limited research has been undertaken concerning tourism and resilience from a network governance point of view. We analyze tourism supply chain networks with regard to resilience to climate change at the municipal governance scale of three Alpine villages. We compare these with a planned destination management organization (DMO as a governance entity of the same three municipalities on the regional scale. Network measures are analyzed via a quantitative social network analysis (SNA focusing on resilience from a tourism governance point of view. Results indicate higher resilience of the regional DMO because of a more flexible and diverse governance structure, more centralized steering of fast collective action, and improved innovative capacity, because of higher modularity and better core-periphery integration. Interpretations of quantitative results have been qualitatively validated by interviews and a workshop. We conclude that adaptation of tourism-dependent municipalities to gradual climate change should be dealt with at a regional governance scale and adaptation to sudden changes at a municipal scale. Overall, DMO building at a regional scale may enhance the resilience of tourism destinations, if the municipalities are well integrated.

  17. An ant colony based resilience approach to cascading failures in cluster supply network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingcong; Xiao, Renbin

    2016-11-01

    Cluster supply chain network is a typical complex network and easily suffers cascading failures under disruption events, which is caused by the under-load of enterprises. Improving network resilience can increase the ability of recovery from cascading failures. Social resilience is found in ant colony and comes from ant's spatial fidelity zones (SFZ). Starting from the under-load failures, this paper proposes a resilience method to cascading failures in cluster supply chain network by leveraging on social resilience of ant colony. First, the mapping between ant colony SFZ and cluster supply chain network SFZ is presented. Second, a new cascading model for cluster supply chain network is constructed based on under-load failures. Then, the SFZ-based resilience method and index to cascading failures are developed according to ant colony's social resilience. Finally, a numerical simulation and a case study are used to verify the validity of the cascading model and the resilience method. Experimental results show that, the cluster supply chain network becomes resilient to cascading failures under the SFZ-based resilience method, and the cluster supply chain network resilience can be enhanced by improving the ability of enterprises to recover and adjust.

  18. Nature-based solutions for resilient landscapes and cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortezza, Raffaele; Chen, Jiquan; van den Bosch, Cecil Konijnendijk; Randrup, Thomas B

    2017-12-04

    Nature-based solutions (NBS) are increasingly applied to guide the design of resilient landscapes and cities to enable them to reach economic development goals with beneficial outcomes for the environment and society. The NBS concept is closely related to other concepts including sustainability, resilience, ecosystem services, coupled human and environment, and green (blue) infrastructure; however, NBS represent a more efficient and cost-effective approach to development than traditional approaches. The European Commission is actively engaged in investing in NBS as a driver in developing ecosystem services-based approaches throughout Europe and the world. The pool of knowledge and expertise presented in this Special Issue of Environmental Research highlights the applications of NBS as 'living' and adaptable tools to boost the capacity of landscapes and cities to face today's critical environmental, economic and societal challenges. Based on the literature and papers of this Special Issue, we propose five specific challenges for the future of NBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Resilience Scale-25 Spanish version: validation and assessment in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Las Hayas, Carlota; Calvete, Esther; Gómez del Barrio, Andrés; Beato, Luís; Muñoz, Pedro; Padierna, Jesús Ángel

    2014-08-01

    To validate into Spanish the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale - 25 (RS-25), assess and compare the scores on the scale among women from the general population, eating disorder (ED) patients and recovered ED patients. This is a cross-sectional study. ED participants were invited to participate by their respective therapists. The sample from the general population was gathered via an open online survey. Participants (N general population=279; N ED patients=124; and N recovered ED patients=45) completed the RS-25, the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean age of participants ranged from 28.87 to 30.42years old. Statistical analysis included a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and ANOVA. The two-factor model of the RS-25 produced excellent fit indexes. Measurement invariance across samples was generally supported. The ANOVA found statistically significant differences in the RS-25 mean scores between the ED patients (Mean=103.13, SD=31.32) and the recovered ED participants (Mean=138.42, SD=22.26) and between the ED patients and the general population participants (Mean=136.63, SD=19.56). The Spanish version of the RS-25 is a psychometrically sound measurement tool in samples of ED patients. Resilience is lower in people diagnosed with ED than in recovered individuals and the general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Blockchain for Smart Grid Resilience: Exchanging Distributed Energy at Speed, Scale and Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylrea, Michael E.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2017-09-18

    Blockchain may help solve several complex problems related to integrity and trustworthiness of rapid, distributed, complex energy transactions and data exchanges. In a move towards resilience, blockchain commoditizes trust and enables automated smart contracts to support auditable multiparty transactions based on predefined rules between distributed energy providers and customers. Blockchain based smart contracts also help remove the need to interact with third-parties, facilitating the adoption and monetization of distributed energy transactions and exchanges, both energy flows as well as financial transactions. This may help reduce transactive energy costs and increase the security and sustainability of distributed energy resource (DER) integration, helping to remove barriers to a more decentralized and resilient power grid.

  1. Quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment in large-scale stochastic dynamic systems for resilient and economic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sonjoy; Goswami, Kundan; Datta, Biswa N.

    2014-01-01

    Failure of structural systems under dynamic loading can be prevented via active vibration control which shifts the damped natural frequencies of the systems away from the dominant range of loading spectrum. The damped natural frequencies and the dynamic load typically show significant variations in practice. A computationally efficient methodology based on quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment technique and optimization under uncertainty has been formulated in the present work that will rigorously account for these variations and result in an economic and resilient design of structures. A novel scheme based on hierarchical clustering and importance sampling is also developed in this work for accurate and efficient estimation of probability of failure to guarantee the desired resilience level of the designed system. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology

  2. Coupled Vulnerability and Resilience: the Dynamics of Cross-Scale Interactions in Post-Katrina New Orleans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Gotham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of trauma on cross-scale interactions in order to identify the major social-ecological factors affecting the pace and trajectory of post-Katrina rebuilding in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Disaster and traumatic events create and activate networks and linkages at different spatial and institutional levels to provide information and resources related to post-trauma recovery and rebuilding. The extension, intensification, and acceleration of cross-scale linkages and interactions in response to trauma alter organizational couplings, which then contribute to the vulnerability and resilience of social-ecological systems. Rather than viewing urban ecosystems as either resilient or vulnerable, we conceptualize them as embodying both resilient and vulnerable components. This integrated approach directs analytical attention to the impact of socio-legal regulations, government policies, and institutional actions on resilience and vulnerability, which are also systemic properties of urban ecosystems.

  3. Use of Model-Based Design Methods for Enhancing Resiliency Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Lenora A.

    The most common traditional non-functional requirement analysis is reliability. With systems becoming more complex, networked, and adaptive to environmental uncertainties, system resiliency has recently become the non-functional requirement analysis of choice. Analysis of system resiliency has challenges; which include, defining resilience for domain areas, identifying resilience metrics, determining resilience modeling strategies, and understanding how to best integrate the concepts of risk and reliability into resiliency. Formal methods that integrate all of these concepts do not currently exist in specific domain areas. Leveraging RAMSoS, a model-based reliability analysis methodology for Systems of Systems (SoS), we propose an extension that accounts for resiliency analysis through evaluation of mission performance, risk, and cost using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) modeling and design trade study variability modeling evaluation techniques. This proposed methodology, coined RAMSoS-RESIL, is applied to a case study in the multi-agent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) domain to investigate the potential benefits of a mission architecture where functionality to complete a mission is disseminated across multiple UAVs (distributed) opposed to being contained in a single UAV (monolithic). The case study based research demonstrates proof of concept for the proposed model-based technique and provides sufficient preliminary evidence to conclude which architectural design (distributed vs. monolithic) is most resilient based on insight into mission resilience performance, risk, and cost in addition to the traditional analysis of reliability.

  4. Scenario-based resilience assessment framework for critical infrastructure systems: Case study for seismic resilience of seaports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafieezadeh, Abdollah; Ivey Burden, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    A number of metrics in the past have been proposed and numerically implemented to assess the overall performance of large systems during natural disasters and their recovery in the aftermath of the events. Among such performance measures, resilience is a reliable metric. This paper proposes a probabilistic framework for scenario-based resilience assessment of infrastructure systems. The method accounts for uncertainties in the process including the correlation of the earthquake intensity measures, fragility assessment of structural components, estimation of repair requirements, the repair process, and finally the service demands. The proposed method is applied to a hypothetical seaport terminal and the system level performance of the seaport is assessed using various performance metrics. Results of this analysis have shown that medium to large seismic events may significantly disrupt the operation of seaports right after the event and the recovery process may take months. The proposed framework will enable port stakeholders to systematically assess the most-likely performance of the system during expected future earthquake events. - Highlights: • A scenario-based framework for seismic resilience assessment of systems is presented. • Seismic resilience of a hypothetical seaport with realistic settings is studied. • Berth availability is found to govern seaport functionality following earthquakes

  5. Managing for resilience: an information theory-based ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystems are complex and multivariate; hence, methods to assess the dynamics of ecosystems should have the capacity to evaluate multiple indicators simultaneously. Most research on identifying leading indicators of regime shifts has focused on univariate methods and simple models which have limited utility when evaluating real ecosystems, particularly because drivers are often unknown. We discuss some common univariate and multivariate approaches for detecting critical transitions in ecosystems and demonstrate their capabilities via case studies. Synthesis and applications. We illustrate the utility of an information theory-based index for assessing ecosystem dynamics. Trends in this index also provide a sentinel of both abrupt and gradual transitions in ecosystems. In response to the need to identify leading indicators of regime shifts in ecosystems, our research compares traditional indicators and Fisher information, an information theory based method, by examining four case study systems. Results demonstrate the utility of methods and offers great promise for quantifying and managing for resilience.

  6. Reliability and validity of a Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Björn; Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Lejonklou, Anna K; Lundman, Beril

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Swedish language version of the Resilience Scale (RS). Participants were 142 adults between 19-85 years of age. Internal consistency reliability, stability over time, and construct validity were evaluated using Cronbach's alpha, principal components analysis with varimax rotation and correlations with scores on the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). The mean score on the RS was 142 (SD = 15). The possible scores on the RS range from 25 to 175, and scores higher than 146 are considered high. The test-retest correlation was .78. Correlations with the SOC and the RSE were .41 (p validity of the Swedish language version of the RS.

  7. Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callegari C

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Camilla Callegari,1 Lorenza Bertù,2 Melissa Lucano,1 Marta Ielmini,1 Elena Braggio,1 Simone Vender1 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine – Psychiatric Division, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Centre for Research EPIMED – Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: In recent years resilience has gained clinical relevance in sociological, psychological, and medical disciplines, and a lot of scales measuring resilience have been developed and have been utilized in the western countries. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14, by describing its validity and reliability. As agreed with the authors of the original English version of the RS-14, it was translated into Italian. Then the standard procedure for back-translation was followed. Methods: In total, 150 participants among the nursing and professional education students of the University of Insubria of Varese and health workers of the “ASST dei Sette Laghi-Ospedale di Circolo” of Varese were enrolled. The responses to the questionnaires were collected only from the students and the health workers between the ages of 18 and 65 years who gave their consent to participate in the study from April to September 2015. A subsample of 26 students and health workers was retested on the RS-14, 5 weeks after the first assessment. The questionnaires were handed out to 214 people, and 150 sets of questionnaires (70% were returned, of which eight were subsequently removed because >60% of the answers were missing. In order to ensure anonymity, every completed questionnaire was identified only via a code. Results: No significant differences were found between the mean values of the resilience scores between women (76.1 and men (76.3, with unpaired t-test = –0.08 and P=0.93. Similarly, no difference between resilience scores were found between

  8. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondo Maki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS and short version of the RS (RS-14. Findings The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Japanese version of RS has psychometric properties with high degrees of internal consistency, high test-retest reliability, and relatively low concurrent validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale and its short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Uehara, Ritei; Kondo, Maki; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2010-11-17

    The clinical relevance of resilience has received considerable attention in recent years. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Resilience Scale (RS) and short version of the RS (RS-14). The original English version of RS was translated to Japanese and the Japanese version was confirmed by back-translation. Participants were 430 nursing and university psychology students. The RS, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Internal consistency, convergent validity and factor loadings were assessed at initial assessment. Test-retest reliability was assessed using data collected from 107 students at 3 months after baseline. Mean score on the RS was 111.19. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. The test-retest correlation coefficients for the RS and RS-14 were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. Both the RS and RS-14 were negatively correlated with the CES-D and SDS, and positively correlated with the RSES, SSQ and PSS (all p validity. RS-14 was equivalent to the RS in internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity. Low scores on the RS, a positive correlation between the RS and perceived stress, and a relatively low correlation between the RS and depressive symptoms in this study suggest that validity of the Japanese version of the RS might be relatively low compared with the original English version.

  10. Risk-based generation dispatch in the power grid for resilience against extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanbakht, Pirooz

    Natural disasters have been considered as one of the main causes of the largest blackouts in North America. When it comes to power grid resiliency against natural hazards, different solutions exist that are mainly categorized based on the time-frame of analysis. At the design stage, robustness and resiliency may be improved through redundant designs and inclusion of advanced measurement, monitoring, control and protection systems. However, since massive destructive energy may be released during the course of a natural disaster (such as a hurricane) causing large-scale and widespread disturbances, design-stage remedies may not be sufficient for ensuring power grid robustness. As a result, to limit the consequent impacts on the operation of the power grid, the system operator may be forced to take immediate remedial actions in real-time. To effectively manage the disturbances caused by severe weather events, weather forecast information should be incorporated into the operational model of the power grid in order to predict imminent contingencies. In this work, a weather-driven generation dispatch model is developed based on stochastic programming to provide a proactive solution for power grid resiliency against imminent large-scale disturbances. Hurricanes and ice storms are studied as example disaster events to provide numerical results. In this approach, the statistics of the natural disaster event are taken into account along with the expected impact on various power grid components in order to determine the availability of the grid. Then, a generation dispatch strategy is devised that helps operate the grid subject to weather-driven operational constraints.

  11. Predicting the Resiliency in Parents with Exceptional Children Based on Their Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Sosan; Firoozabadi, Somayeh Sadati; Rostami, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to predict the resiliency in parents with exceptional children based on their mindfulness. This descriptive correlational study was performed on 260 parents of student (105 male and 159 female) that were selected by cluster sampling method. Family resiliency questionnaire (Sickby, 2005) and five aspect…

  12. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale in Critical Care Nurses: A Psychometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealer, Meredith; Schmiege, Sarah J; Meek, Paula

    2016-01-01

    (a) To investigate the factor structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) in critical care nurses, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and (b) to assess reliability and known group differences of the CD-RISC on critical care nurses. CD-RISC surveys were collected on 744 critical care nurses across the United States. An abridged version of the CD-RISC was used for the EFA and CFA. Further reliability and known group differences were also tested. EFA identified 3 factors with eigenvalues >1.0 and an explained variance of 59%. The factors were labeled personal competence, perseverance, and leadership, and each factor had salient loadings. The 3-factor CFA provided good fit to the data, χ(2) = 243.1, p < .001; RMSEA = .062; CFI = .935, although correlations among the 3 factors were high (.78-.86). A 1-factor model was subsequently tested but did not produce a better fit, and model comparison analyses supported retention of the 3-factor model. Known group differences was supported as intensive care unit (ICU) nurses with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had significantly lower total resilience scores (M = 75.43) compared to those without a diagnosis of PTSD (M = 83.21; t = 5.01; p < .001). The current investigation found that the 3-factor structure provided the best fit for the data on the abridged version of the CD-RISC in a population of ICU nurses. Analyses also supported the reliability and known group differences of the 16-item measure. Further research is needed to examine trait and capacity features of resilience as it relates to this population.

  13. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  14. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH 3 -N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  15. Stress and burnout in residents: impact of mindfulness-based resilience training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldhagen BE

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brian E Goldhagen,1 Karen Kingsolver,2 Sandra S Stinnett,1 Jullia A Rosdahl1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground and objective: Stress and burnout impact resident physicians. This prospective study tests the hypothesis that a mindfulness-based resilience intervention would decrease stress and burnout in residents.Methods: Resident physicians from the Departments of Family Medicine, Psychiatry, and Anesthesia at Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, participated in two or three 1-hour sessions of mindfulness-based resilience activities, which introduced mindful-awareness and included practical exercises for nurturing resilience. Anonymous surveys were distributed before (completed by 47 residents and after the intervention (both completed by 30 residents; a follow-up survey was distributed 1 month later (seven residents completed all three surveys. The survey included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, 21-question version (DASS-21, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and ten questions from the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire.Results: At baseline, most residents’ scores were in the normal range with respect to stress; however, female residents had higher DASS-21 scores than male residents (31.7, females vs 18.4, males; P=0.002. Most residents’ burnout scores were in the abnormal range, both with respect to exhaustion (38/47 residents, subscore ≥2.25 and disengagement (37/47 residents, subscore ≥2.1. Higher perceived levels of stress correlated with the instruments. Analysis of the surveys before and after the intervention showed no significant short-term change in stress, burnout, mindful-awareness, or cognitive failure. There was a trend for females and post-medical school graduate year 1 and 2 (PGY1 and PGY2 residents to have a reduction in DASS-21 scores after intervention. There was also a trend of

  16. Resilience-based perspectives to guiding high-nature-value farmland through socioeconomic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Bieling, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV) farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspec...... conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change....

  17. Citizen Science to Support Community-based Flood Early Warning and Resilience Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J. D.; Buytaert, W.; Allen, S.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Bhusal, J.; Cieslik, K.; Clark, J.; Dewulf, A.; Dhital, M. R.; Hannah, D. M.; Liu, W.; Nayaval, J. L.; Schiller, A.; Smith, P. J.; Stoffel, M.; Supper, R.

    2017-12-01

    In Disaster Risk Management, an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments towards more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Combined with technologies for robust and low-cost sensor networks, a citizen science approach has recently emerged as a promising direction in the provision of extensive, real-time information for flood early warning systems. Here we present the framework and initial results of a major new international project, Landslide EVO, aimed at increasing local resilience against hydrologically induced disasters in western Nepal by exploiting participatory approaches to knowledge generation and risk governance. We identify three major technological developments that strongly support our approach to flood early warning and resilience building in Nepal. First, distributed sensor networks, participatory monitoring, and citizen science hold great promise in complementing official monitoring networks and remote sensing by generating site-specific information with local buy-in, especially in data-scarce regions. Secondly, the emergence of open source, cloud-based risk analysis platforms supports the construction of a modular, distributed, and potentially decentralised data processing workflow. Finally, linking data analysis platforms to social computer networks and ICT (e.g. mobile phones, tablets) allows tailored interfaces and people-centred decision- and policy-support systems to be built. Our proposition is that maximum impact is created if end-users are involved not only in data collection, but also over the entire project life-cycle, including the analysis and provision of results. In this context, citizen science complements more traditional knowledge generation practices, and also enhances multi-directional information provision, risk management, early-warning systems and local resilience building.

  18. Trading river services: optimizing dam decisions at the basin scale to improve socio-ecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S. G.; Gold, A.; Uchida, E.; McGreavy, B.; Smith, S. M.; Wilson, K.; Blachly, B.; Newcomb, A.; Hart, D.; Gardner, K.

    2017-12-01

    Dam removal has become a cornerstone of environmental restoration practice in the United States. One outcome of dam removal that has received positive attention is restored access to historic habitat for sea-run fisheries, providing a crucial gain in ecosystem resilience. But dams also provide stakeholders with valuable services, and uncertain socio-ecological outcomes can arise if there is not careful consideration of the basin scale trade offs caused by dam removal. In addition to fisheries, dam removals can significantly affect landscape nutrient flux, municipal water storage, recreational use of lakes and rivers, property values, hydroelectricity generation, the cultural meaning of dams, and many other river-based ecosystem services. We use a production possibility frontiers approach to explore dam decision scenarios and opportunities for trading between ecosystem services that are positively or negatively affected by dam removal in New England. Scenarios that provide efficient trade off potentials are identified using a multiobjective genetic algorithm. Our results suggest that for many river systems, there is a significant potential to increase the value of fisheries and other ecosystem services with minimal dam removals, and further increases are possible by including decisions related to dam operations and physical modifications. Run-of-river dams located near the head of tide are often found to be optimal for removal due to low hydroelectric capacity and high impact on fisheries. Conversely, dams with large impoundments near a river's headwaters can be less optimal for dam removal because their value as nitrogen sinks often outweighs the potential value for fisheries. Hydropower capacity is negatively impacted by dam removal but there are opportunities to meet or exceed lost capacity by upgrading preserved hydropower dams. Improving fish passage facilities for dams that are critical for safety or water storage can also reduce impacts on fisheries. Our

  19. Resilience-based optimal design of water distribution network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    Optimal design of water distribution network is generally aimed to minimize the capital cost of the investments on tanks, pipes, pumps, and other appurtenances. Minimizing the cost of pipes is usually considered as a prime objective as its proportion in capital cost of the water distribution system project is very high. However, minimizing the capital cost of the pipeline alone may result in economical network configuration, but it may not be a promising solution in terms of resilience point of view. Resilience of the water distribution network has been considered as one of the popular surrogate measures to address ability of network to withstand failure scenarios. To improve the resiliency of the network, the pipe network optimization can be performed with two objectives, namely minimizing the capital cost as first objective and maximizing resilience measure of the configuration as secondary objective. In the present work, these two objectives are combined as single objective and optimization problem is solved by differential evolution technique. The paper illustrates the procedure for normalizing the objective functions having distinct metrics. Two of the existing resilience indices and power efficiency are considered for optimal design of water distribution network. The proposed normalized objective function is found to be efficient under weighted method of handling multi-objective water distribution design problem. The numerical results of the design indicate the importance of sizing pipe telescopically along shortest path of flow to have enhanced resiliency indices.

  20. Providing Evidence-Based, Intelligent Support for Flood Resilient Planning and Policy: The PEARL Knowledge Base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Karavokiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While flood risk is evolving as one of the most imminent natural hazards and the shift from a reactive decision environment to a proactive one sets the basis of the latest thinking in flood management, the need to equip decision makers with necessary tools to think about and intelligently select options and strategies for flood management is becoming ever more pressing. Within this context, the Preparing for Extreme and Rare Events in Coastal Regions (PEARL intelligent knowledge-base (PEARL KB of resilience strategies is presented here as an environment that allows end-users to navigate from their observed problem to a selection of possible options and interventions worth considering within an intuitive visual web interface assisting advanced interactivity. Incorporation of real case studies within the PEARL KB enables the extraction of (evidence-based lessons from all over the word, while the KB’s collection of methods and tools directly supports the optimal selection of suitable interventions. The Knowledge-Base also gives access to the PEARL KB Flood Resilience Index (FRI tool, which is an online tool for resilience assessment at a city level available to authorities and citizens. We argue that the PEARL KB equips authorities with tangible and operational tools that can improve strategic and operational flood risk management by assessing and eventually increasing resilience, while building towards the strengthening of risk governance. The online tools that the PEARL KB gives access to were demonstrated and tested in the city of Rethymno, Greece.

  1. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  2. What do you mean, 'resilient geomorphic systems'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, M. C.; Piégay, H.; Parsons, M.

    2018-03-01

    Resilience thinking has many parallels in the study of geomorphology. Similarities and intersections exist between the scientific discipline of geomorphology and the scientific concept of resilience. Many of the core themes fundamental to geomorphology are closely related to the key themes of resilience. Applications of resilience thinking in the study of natural and human systems have expanded, based on the fundamental premise that ecosystems, economies, and societies must be managed as linked social-ecological systems. Despite geomorphology and resilience sharing core themes, appreciation is limited of the history and development of geomorphology as a field of scientific endeavor by many in the field of resilience, as well as a limited awareness of the foundations of the former in the more recent emergence of resilience. This potentially limits applications of resilience concepts to the study of geomorphology. In this manuscript we provide a collective examination of geomorphology and resilience as a means to conceptually advance both areas of study, as well as to further cement the relevance and importance of not only understanding the complexities of geomorphic systems in an emerging world of interdisciplinary challenges but also the importance of viewing humans as an intrinsic component of geomorphic systems rather than just an external driver. The application of the concepts of hierarchy and scale, fundamental tenets of the study of geomorphic systems, provide a means to overcome contemporary scale-limited approaches within resilience studies. Resilience offers a framework for geomorphology to expand its application into the broader social-ecological domain.

  3. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale as a Positive Psychology Measure for People with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Mayu; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Chan, Fong; Catalano, Denise; Hunter, Celeste; Bengtson, Kevin; Rahimi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the measurement structure of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) as a positive psychology measure for people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) using confirmatory factor analysis. The participants consisted of 274 Canadians with SCI living in the community. The result indicated that the…

  4. Social-ecological resilience and biosphere-based sustainability science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Humanity has emerged as a major force in the operation of the biosphere. The focus is shifting from the environment as externality to the biosphere as precondition for social justice, economic development, and sustainability. In this article, we exemplify the intertwined nature of social-ecological systems and emphasize that they operate within, and as embedded parts of the biosphere and as such coevolve with and depend on it. We regard social-ecological systems as complex adaptive systems and use a social-ecological resilience approach as a lens to address and understand their dynamics. We raise the challenge of stewardship of development in concert with the biosphere for people in diverse contexts and places as critical for long-term sustainability and dignity in human relations. Biosphere stewardship is essential, in the globalized world of interactions with the Earth system, to sustain and enhance our life-supporting environment for human well-being and future human development on Earth, hence, the need to reconnect development to the biosphere foundation and the need for a biosphere-based sustainability science.

  5. Setting characteristics of silicone-based resilient denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Koichi; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Kanie, Takahito; Ban, Seiji; Inoue, Mitsuko

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the setting characteristics of seven silicone-based resilient denture liners during setting. Maximum extrusion force--at the flow rate of 1 cm/min--ranged from 0.183 to 1.26 MPa. Working time and setting time ranged from 2.0 to 5.0 minutes and 1.9 to 6.8 minutes respectively. Consistency as described in JIS T6519-2000 was 32.4 to 46.5 mm. As normal load of 1 kgf was applied to a specimen held between two glass plates after mixing, the time at which film thickness reached up to 1 mm was 4.0 to 13.0 minutes at 23 degrees C and 2.2 to 5.5 minutes at 37 degrees C. These results suggested that the reaction rate of materials used in this study differed from one brand to another. Against this backdrop of differing reaction rates amongst brands, it is therefore vital that a denture liner material's setting characteristics be carefully considered whenever it is used in clinical dentistry to prevent any undesirable or unexpected results and outcome.

  6. Design values of resilient modulus of stabilized and non-stabilized base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The primary objective of this research study is to determine design value ranges for typical base materials, as allowed by LADOTD specifications, through laboratory tests with respect to resilient modulus and other parameters used by pavement design ...

  7. Adaptation of failure scenario based resilience schemes toward availability guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Various resilience schemes have been proposed to allow for fault-tolerant transport networks. Their common aim is to survive certain failure patterns such as node or span failures by providing alternative transmission paths. However, network operators guarantee the resulting network reliability in terms of service availability to their business customers. A maximum duration of service disruption per year must not be exceeded. We investigate an optimal design of resilient network configurations that adapts to end-to-end availability requirements. We formulate an integer linear program that minimizes the resource utilization and investigate a case study.

  8. A fuzzy logic based method to monitor organizational resilience: application in a brazilian radioactive facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Vidal, Mario C.R.; Cosenza, Carlos A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under expected and unexpected conditions. This definition focuses on the ability to function, rather than on being impervious to failure, and thereby overcomes the traditional conflict between productivity and safety. Resilience engineering (RE) has fast become recognized as a valuable complement to the established approaches to safety of complex socio-technical systems and methods to monitor organizational resilience are needed. However, few, if any, comprehensive and systematic research studies focus on developing an objective, reliable and practical assessment model for monitoring organizational resilience. Most methods cannot fully solve the subjectivity of resilience evaluation. In order to remedy this deficiency, the aim of this research is to adopt a Fuzzy Set Theory (FST) approach to establish a method for resilience assessment in organizations based on leading safety performance indicators, defined according to the resilience engineering principles. The method uses FST concepts and properties to model the indicators and to assess the results of their application. To exemplify the method we performed an exploratory case study at the process of radiopharmaceuticals dispatch package of a Brazilian radioactive facility. (author)

  9. A framework for the quantitative assessment of performance-based system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huy T.; Balchanos, Michael; Domerçant, Jean Charles; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing system complexity and threat uncertainty require the consideration of resilience in the design and analysis of engineered systems. While the resilience engineering community has begun to converge on a definition and set of characteristics for resilience, methods for quantifying the concept are still limited in their applicability to system designers. This paper proposes a framework for assessing resilience that focuses on the ability of a system to absorb disruptions, recover from them, and adapt over time. The framework extends current approaches by explicitly considering temporal aspects of system responses to disruptions, volatility in system performance data, and the possibility of multiple disruption events. Notional system performance data is generated using the logistic function, providing an experimental platform for a parametric comparison of the proposed resilience metric with an integration-based metric. An information exchange network model is used to demonstrate the applicability of the framework towards system design tradeoff studies using stochastic simulations. The presented framework is domain-agnostic and flexible, such that it can be applied to a variety of systems and adjusted to focus on specific aspects of resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a quantitative framework and metrics for assessing system resilience. • Metrics focus on absorption, recovery, and adaptation to disruptions. • The framework accepts volatile data and is easily automated for simulation studies. • The framework is applied to a model of adaptive information exchange networks. • Results show benefits of network adaptation against random and targeted threats.

  10. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  11. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folke, C.; Carpenter, S.R.; Walker, B.; Scheffer, M.; Chapin, T.; Rockstrom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change

  12. Rurality and resilience in education: place-based partnerships and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an ongoing longitudinal intervention study (STAR)1 we found that, although similarities existed in the way teachers promoted resilience, rural schools (in comparison to other STAR case schools) took longer to implement strategies to buoy support and found it difficult to sustain such support. Using rurality we wanted to ...

  13. Assessing the outcomes of school-based partnership resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanie Moen

    2017-02-28

    Feb 28, 2017 ... Centre for the Study of Resilience and Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria,. Pretoria ... sponsorship, teacher development, parent involvement programmes (Aid for Africa, 2017; Epstein & Dauber,. 1991) ..... pumping a lot of money into sports at school (P2,.

  14. Exploring the interplay of resilience and energy consumption for a task-based partial differential equations preconditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Rizzi, F.

    2017-05-25

    We discuss algorithm-based resilience to silent data corruptions (SDCs) in a task-based domain-decomposition preconditioner for partial differential equations (PDEs). The algorithm exploits a reformulation of the PDE as a sampling problem, followed by a solution update through data manipulation that is resilient to SDCs. The implementation is based on a server-client model where all state information is held by the servers, while clients are designed solely as computational units. Scalability tests run up to ∼ 51K cores show a parallel efficiency greater than 90%. We use a 2D elliptic PDE and a fault model based on random single and double bit-flip to demonstrate the resilience of the application to synthetically injected SDC. We discuss two fault scenarios: one based on the corruption of all data of a target task, and the other involving the corruption of a single data point. We show that for our application, given the test problem considered, a four-fold increase in the number of faults only yields a 2% change in the overhead to overcome their presence, from 7% to 9%. We then discuss potential savings in energy consumption via dynamic voltage/frequency scaling, and its interplay with fault-rates, and application overhead.

  15. SPACE BASED INTERCEPTOR SCALING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-02-01

    Space Based Interceptor (SBI) have ranges that are adequate to address rogue ICBMs. They are not overly sensitive to 30-60 s delay times. Current technologies would support boost phase intercept with about 150 interceptors. Higher acceleration and velocity could reduce than number by about a factor of 3 at the cost of heavier and more expensive Kinetic Kill Vehicles (KKVs). 6g SBI would reduce optimal constellation costs by about 35%; 8g SBI would reduce them another 20%. Interceptor ranges fall rapidly with theater missile range. Constellations increase significantly for ranges under 3,000 km, even with advanced interceptor technology. For distributed launches, these estimates recover earlier strategic scalings, which demonstrate the improved absentee ratio for larger or multiple launch areas. Constellations increase with the number of missiles and the number of interceptors launched at each. The economic estimates above suggest that two SBI per missile with a modest midcourse underlay is appropriate. The SBI KKV technology would appear to be common for space- and surface-based boost phase systems, and could have synergisms with improved midcourse intercept and discrimination systems. While advanced technology could be helpful in reducing costs, particularly for short range theater missiles, current technology appears adequate for pressing rogue ICBM, accidental, and unauthorized launches.

  16. Building organisational cyber resilience: A strategic knowledge-based view of cyber security management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Jason

    The concept of cyber resilience has emerged in recent years in response to the recognition that cyber security is more than just risk management. Cyber resilience is the goal of organisations, institutions and governments across the world and yet the emerging literature is somewhat fragmented due to the lack of a common approach to the subject. This limits the possibility of effective collaboration across public, private and governmental actors in their efforts to build and maintain cyber resilience. In response to this limitation, and to calls for a more strategically focused approach, this paper offers a knowledge-based view of cyber security management that explains how an organisation can build, assess, and maintain cyber resilience.

  17. [The Effects of Violence Coping Program Based on Middle-Range Theory of Resilience on Emergency Room Nurses' Resilience, Violence Coping, Nursing Competency and Burnout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Sung, Kyung Mi

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a violence coping program (VCP) based on Polk's middle-range theory of resilience on nursing competency, resilience, burnout, and the ability to cope with violence in nurses working in emergency rooms. A quasi-experimental study, with a nonequivalent control group and a pretest-posttest design, was conducted. Participants were 36 nurses who worked in emergency rooms and had experienced violence; 18 nurses from D hospital and 18 nurses from C hospital were assigned to the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group received the VCP twice per week for 8 weeks. Levels of resilience, F=59.41, pnursing competency, F=59.41 pburnout, F=52.74, pburnout and improving resilience, active coping behavior, and nursing competency. Therefore, it would be a useful intervention for improving the quality of nursing care provided in emergency rooms. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  18. Satellite imaging coral reef resilience at regional scale. A case-study from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gwilym; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Metsamaa, Liisa; Bruckner, Andrew; Renaud, Philip

    2012-06-01

    We propose a framework for spatially estimating a proxy for coral reef resilience using remote sensing. Data spanning large areas of coral reef habitat were obtained using the commercial QuickBird satellite, and freely available imagery (NASA, Google Earth). Principles of coral reef ecology, field observation, and remote observations, were combined to devise mapped indices. These capture important and accessible components of coral reef resilience. Indices are divided between factors known to stress corals, and factors incorporating properties of the reef landscape that resist stress or promote coral growth. The first-basis for a remote sensed resilience index (RSRI), an estimate of expected reef resilience, is proposed. Developed for the Red Sea, the framework of our analysis is flexible and with minimal adaptation, could be extended to other reef regions. We aim to stimulate discussion as to use of remote sensing to do more than simply deliver habitat maps of coral reefs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Network Science Based Quantification of Resilience Demonstrated on the Indian Railways Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Udit; Kumar, Devashish; Kodra, Evan; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2015-01-01

    The structure, interdependence, and fragility of systems ranging from power-grids and transportation to ecology, climate, biology and even human communities and the Internet have been examined through network science. While response to perturbations has been quantified, recovery strategies for perturbed networks have usually been either discussed conceptually or through anecdotal case studies. Here we develop a network science based quantitative framework for measuring, comparing and interpreting hazard responses as well as recovery strategies. The framework, motivated by the recently proposed temporal resilience paradigm, is demonstrated with the Indian Railways Network. Simulations inspired by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2012 North Indian blackout as well as a cyber-physical attack scenario illustrate hazard responses and effectiveness of proposed recovery strategies. Multiple metrics are used to generate various recovery strategies, which are simply sequences in which system components should be recovered after a disruption. Quantitative evaluation of these strategies suggests that faster and more efficient recovery is possible through network centrality measures. Optimal recovery strategies may be different per hazard, per community within a network, and for different measures of partial recovery. In addition, topological characterization provides a means for interpreting the comparative performance of proposed recovery strategies. The methods can be directly extended to other Large-Scale Critical Lifeline Infrastructure Networks including transportation, water, energy and communications systems that are threatened by natural or human-induced hazards, including cascading failures. Furthermore, the quantitative framework developed here can generalize across natural, engineered and human systems, offering an actionable and generalizable approach for emergency management in particular as well as for network resilience in general.

  20. Network Science Based Quantification of Resilience Demonstrated on the Indian Railways Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Bhatia

    Full Text Available The structure, interdependence, and fragility of systems ranging from power-grids and transportation to ecology, climate, biology and even human communities and the Internet have been examined through network science. While response to perturbations has been quantified, recovery strategies for perturbed networks have usually been either discussed conceptually or through anecdotal case studies. Here we develop a network science based quantitative framework for measuring, comparing and interpreting hazard responses as well as recovery strategies. The framework, motivated by the recently proposed temporal resilience paradigm, is demonstrated with the Indian Railways Network. Simulations inspired by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2012 North Indian blackout as well as a cyber-physical attack scenario illustrate hazard responses and effectiveness of proposed recovery strategies. Multiple metrics are used to generate various recovery strategies, which are simply sequences in which system components should be recovered after a disruption. Quantitative evaluation of these strategies suggests that faster and more efficient recovery is possible through network centrality measures. Optimal recovery strategies may be different per hazard, per community within a network, and for different measures of partial recovery. In addition, topological characterization provides a means for interpreting the comparative performance of proposed recovery strategies. The methods can be directly extended to other Large-Scale Critical Lifeline Infrastructure Networks including transportation, water, energy and communications systems that are threatened by natural or human-induced hazards, including cascading failures. Furthermore, the quantitative framework developed here can generalize across natural, engineered and human systems, offering an actionable and generalizable approach for emergency management in particular as well as for network resilience in general.

  1. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Folke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES. Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part of resilience. It represents the capacity to adjust responses to changing external drivers and internal processes and thereby allow for development along the current trajectory (stability domain. Transformability is the capacity to cross thresholds into new development trajectories. Transformational change at smaller scales enables resilience at larger scales. The capacity to transform at smaller scales draws on resilience from multiple scales, making use of crises as windows of opportunity for novelty and innovation, and recombining sources of experience and knowledge to navigate social-ecological transitions. Society must seriously consider ways to foster resilience of smaller more manageable SESs that contribute to Earth System resilience and to explore options for deliberate transformation of SESs that threaten Earth System resilience.

  2. A Spatial Disaster Assessment Model of Social Resilience Based on Geographically Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwikyung Chun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since avoiding the occurrence of natural disasters is difficult, building ‘resilient cities’ is gaining more attention as a common objective within urban communities. By enhancing community resilience, it is possible to minimize the direct and indirect losses from disasters. However, current studies have focused more on physical aspects, despite the fact that social aspects may have a closer relation to the inhabitants. The objective of this paper is to develop an assessment model for social resilience by measuring the heterogeneity of local indicators that are related to disaster risk. Firstly, variables were selected by investigating previous assessment models with statistical verification. Secondly, spatial heterogeneity was analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR method. A case study was then undertaken on a flood-prone area in the metropolitan city, Seoul, South Korea. Based on the findings, the paper proposes a new spatial disaster assessment model that can be used for disaster management at the local levels.

  3. Ecosystem Processes at the Watershed Scale: Stability and Resilience of Catchment Spatial Structure and Function to Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ecohydrological systems evolve spontaneously in response to geologic, hydroclimate and biodiversity drivers. The stability and resilience of these systems to multiple disturbances can be addressed over specific temporal extents, potentially embedded within long term transience in response to geologic or climate change. The limits of ecohydrological resilience of system state in terms of vegetation canopy and soil catenae and the space/time distribution of water, carbon and nutrient cycling is determined by a set of critical feedbacks and potential substitutions of plant functional forms in response to disturbance. The ability of forest systems to return to states functionally similar to states prior to major disturbance, or combinations of multiple disturbances, is a critical question given increasing hydroclimate extremes, biological invasions, and human disturbance. Over the past century, forest landscape ecological patterns appear to have the ability to recover from significant disturbance and re-establish similar hydrological and ecological function in humid, biodiverse regions such as the southern Appalachians, and potentially drier forest ecosystems. Understanding and prediction of past and future long term dynamics requires explicit representation of spatial and temporal feedbacks and dependencies between hydrological, ecosystem and geomorphic processes, and the spatial pattern of species or plant functional type (PFT). Comprehensive models of watershed ecohydrological resilience requires careful balance between the level of process and parameter detail between the interacting components, relative to the structure, organization, space and time scales of the landscape.

  4. Economics Of Climate Resiliency A Case Of The Small-Scale Industrial Sector In Jamuna River Basin Of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Saleh Ahmed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The climate resilient cluster village with handlooms was established by an NGO named ActionAid Bangladesh with the objective of ensuring secure living and productive service for sustained livelihood in the Jamuna river basin of Bangladesh. The experience was that the poor people had their handloom factories and dwellings devastated by flood almost every year with consequential threat to livelihood and dignity of the women. It was therefore felt essential to facilitate them in building multi-hazard resilient handloom factories so as to make them self-protective from windy storm foggy weather monsoon flooding theft etc. The program started with a threadbare discussion with the vulnerable communities in a participatory manner where the program staffs has sat with the community groups especially the poor to generate the basic analysis of vulnerabilities the community is facing and its link to climate change. The community itself did the analysis and analyzed the vulnerability faced by them. The result is building of climate resilient handloom industry for 10 families whose industrial unit and dwellings were devastated almost annually by flood. A variant of a social and economic analysis is carried out to determine scaling up of these types of adaptations to similar ecological zones of the country and elsewhere.

  5. Modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the large-scale disruptive event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janic, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with modeling resilience, friability, and cost of an airport affected by the largescale disruptive event. These events affecting the airport's operations individually or in combination can be bad weather, failures of particular crucial aiiport and ATC (Air Traffic Control)

  6. Mechanisms of Resilience in Common-pool Resource Management Systems: an Agent-based Model of Water Use in a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Schlüter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience is widely promoted as a promising notion to guide new approaches to ecosystem and resource management that try to enhance a system's capacity to cope with change. A variety of mechanisms of resilience specific for different systems have been proposed. In the context of resource management those include but are not limited to the diversity of response options and flexibility of the social system to adaptively respond to changes on an adequate scale. However, implementation of resilience-based management in specific real-world systems has often proven difficult because of a limited understanding of suitable interventions and their impact on the resilience of the coupled social-ecological system. We propose an agent-based modeling approach to explore system characteristics and mechanisms of resilience in a complex resource management system, based on a case study of water use in the Amudarya River, which is a semiarid river basin. Water resources in its delta are used to sustain irrigated agriculture as well as aquatic ecosystems that provide fish and other ecosystem services. The three subsystems of the social-ecological system, i.e., the social system, the irrigation system, and an aquatic ecosystem, are linked by resource flows and the allocation decision making of actors on different levels. Simulation experiments are carried out to compare the resilience of different institutional settings of water management to changes in the variability and uncertainty of water availability. The aim is to investigate the influence of (1 the organizational structure of water management, (2 information on water availability, and (3 the diversity of water uses on the resilience of the system to short and long-term water scarcity. In this paper, the model concept and first simulation results are presented. As a first illustration of the approach the performances of a centralized and a decentralized regime are compared under different

  7. Natural Hazard Resilience - A Large-scale Transdisciplinary "National Science Challenge" for New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The National Science Challenges are initiatives to address the most important public science issues that face New Zealand with long-term funding and the combined strength of a coordinated science-sector behind them. Eleven major topics are tackled, across our human, natural and built environments. In the "Resilience Challenge" we address New Zealand's natural hazards. Alongside severe metrological threats, New Zealand also faces one of the highest levels of earthquake and volcanic hazard in the world. Resilience is a hotly discussed concept, here, we take the view: Resilience encapsulates the features of a system to anticipate threats, acknowledge there will be impacts (no matter how prepared we are), quickly pick up the pieces, as well as learn and adapt from the experience to better absorb and rebound from future shocks. Our research must encompass innovation in building and lifelines engineering, planning and regulation, emergency management practice, alongside understanding how our natural hazard systems work, how we monitor them and how our communities/governance/industries can be influenced and encouraged (e.g., via economic incentives) to develop and implement resilience practice. This is a complex interwoven mix of areas and is best addressed through case-study areas where researchers and the users of the research can jointly identify problems and co-develop science solutions. I will highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of this coordinated approach to an all-hazard, all-country problem, using the example of the Resilience Challenge approach after its first two and a half years of operation. Key issues include balancing investment into high-profile (and often high consequence), but rare hazards against the frequent "monthly" hazards that collectively occupy regional and local governance. Also, it is clear that despite increasingly sophisticated hazard and hazard mitigation knowledge being generated in engineering and social areas, a range of policy

  8. Extreme-Scale Algorithms & Software Resilience (EASIR) Architecture-Aware Algorithms for Scalable Performance and Resilience on Heterogeneous Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    subset of the IEEE Floating Point Standard 754-2008, uses just 6 words to represent a “reproducible accumulator,” and requires just one read-only pass over the data, or one reduction in parallel. New instructions based on this work are being considered for inclusion in the future IEEE 754-2018 floating-point standard, and new reproducible BLAS are being considered for the next version of the BLAS standard.

  9. Building Resilience for Palliative Care Clinicians: An Approach to Burnout Prevention Based on Individual Skills and Workplace Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Anthony L; Steinhauser, Karen E; Kamal, Arif H; Jackson, Vicki A

    2016-08-01

    For palliative care (PC) clinicians, the work of caring for patients with serious illness can put their own well-being at risk. What they often do not learn in training, because of the relative paucity of evidence-based programs, are practical ways to mitigate this risk. Because a new study indicates that burnout in PC clinicians is increasing, we sought to design an acceptable, scalable, and testable intervention tailored to the needs of PC clinicians. In this article, we describe our paradigm for approaching clinician resilience, our conceptual model, and curriculum for a workplace resilience intervention for hospital-based PC teams. Our paradigm for approaching resilience is based on upstream, early intervention. Our conceptual model posits that clinician well-being is influenced by personal resources and work demands. Our curriculum for increasing clinician resilience is based on training in eight resilience skills that are useful for common challenges faced by clinicians. To address workplace issues, our intervention also includes material for the team leader and a clinician perception survey of work demands and workplace engagement factors. The intervention will focus on individual skill building and will be evaluated with measures of resilience, coping, and affect. For PC clinicians, resilience skills are likely as important as communication skills and symptom management as foundations of expertise. Future work to strengthen clinician resilience will likely need to address system issues more directly. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prospects for resilience and sustainability of urban socio-techno-ecological systems to evolving stressors at global, regional, and local scales (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, N. B.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is occurring at an accelerating rate against a backdrop of the numerous other globally significant environmental changes that are the hallmark of the Anthropocene. Thus an understanding of the environmental impacts of urbanization must recognize the multiscalar context of other environmental changes. Cities are focal points of human population, production, and consumption, including the generation of waste and most of the critical emissions to the atmosphere. They are highly modified and dominated by built structure. They are generally depauperate of species and harbor their own microclimates and hot spots of pollutants. But they also are centers of human creative activities, and in that capacity may provide platforms for the transition to a more sustainable world. A view of the city, a complex social-technological-ecological system, as both driver and responder to these multiple stressors is key to developing appropriate conceptual frameworks for understanding urban ecosystem change. The convergence of global environmental change, including climate change, and worldwide urbanization presents numerous challenges for sustainability that are manifest at global, regional, and local scales. This presentation will explore the current reality and future prospects for resilience of cities and, more specifically, urban water systems, to extant and changing stressors at these three scales. At the global scale, challenges of supplying water for three billion new urban residents in the coming decades are explored through a geography of water availability, quality, and accessibility. At regional scales, I highlight differences in solutions to climate change-related challenges that derive from geophysical and socioecological gradients. And, at the local scale, blended technological and ecological solutions to the challenges of urban stormwater and the 'new normal' are discussed, based on a case study in an arid urban ecosystem. Urban resilience and sustainability

  11. Graceful Failure and Societal Resilience Analysis Via Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, P. S.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Rogers, J. D.; Bassett, J.; Hailegiorgis, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Agent-based social modeling is opening up new methodologies for the study of societal response to weather and climate hazards, and providing measures of resiliency that can be studied in many contexts, particularly in coupled human and natural-technological systems (CHANTS). Since CHANTS are complex adaptive systems, societal resiliency may or may not occur, depending on dynamics that lack closed form solutions. Agent-based modeling has been shown to provide a viable theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing and understanding disasters and societal resiliency in CHANTS. Our approach advances the science of societal resilience through computational modeling and simulation methods that complement earlier statistical and mathematical approaches. We present three case studies of social dynamics modeling that demonstrate the use of these agent based models. In Central Asia, we exmaine mutltiple ensemble simulations with varying climate statistics to see how droughts and zuds affect populations, transmission of wealth across generations, and the overall structure of the social system. In Eastern Africa, we explore how successive episodes of drought events affect the adaptive capacity of rural households. Human displacement, mainly, rural to urban migration, and livelihood transition particularly from pastoral to farming are observed as rural households interacting dynamically with the biophysical environment and continually adjust their behavior to accommodate changes in climate. In the far north case we demonstrate one of the first successful attempts to model the complete climate-permafrost-infrastructure-societal interaction network as a complex adaptive system/CHANTS implemented as a ``federated'' agent-based model using evolutionary computation. Analysis of population changes resulting from extreme weather across these and other cases provides evidence for the emergence of new steady states and shifting patterns of resilience.

  12. Evaluation of Resilient Modulus of Subgrade and Base Materials in Indiana and Its Implementation in MEPDG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement MEPDG hierarchical inputs for unbound and subgrade soil, a database containing subgrade MR, index properties, standard proctor, and laboratory MR for 140 undisturbed roadbed soil samples from six different districts in Indiana was created. The MR data were categorized in accordance with the AASHTO soil classifications and divided into several groups. Based on each group, this study develops statistical analysis and evaluation datasets to validate these models. Stress-based regression models were evaluated using a statistical tool (analysis of variance (ANOVA and Z-test, and pertinent material constants (k1, k2 and k3 were determined for different soil types. The reasonably good correlations of material constants along with MR with routine soil properties were established. Furthermore, FWD tests were conducted on several Indiana highways in different seasons, and laboratory resilient modulus tests were performed on the subgrade soils that were collected from the falling weight deflectometer (FWD test sites. A comparison was made of the resilient moduli obtained from the laboratory resilient modulus tests with those from the FWD tests. Correlations between the laboratory resilient modulus and the FWD modulus were developed and are discussed in this paper.

  13. Quality of Life of Women Heading Family: the Role of Resiliency, and Family Functioning Based on Mc Master Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    زهرا سادات رضایی

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Single mothers who head the families face many problems; and multiple roles for women cause negative effects on their health, satisfaction and quality of life in these women. In this study, quality of life and family functioning and the mediating role of resiliency in these families were investigated. All households headed by woman in Tehran were our statistical population. Due to the type of research, the inventory and its subscales, the sample size was determined as 160 individuals who were selected through the available sampling method. Family Assessment Scale, Quality of Life Inventory and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were given as a battery of scales. Results showed that there is a significant positive relationship between resiliency with physical health, mental health, environmental health and social relations. There was a significant negative correlation between aspects of quality of life and resiliency with all subscales of the Family Function Device scales. Also mediating role of resiliency in the suggested relationships between general family functioning and physical health, roles with mental health, roles and general functioning with environmental health, and between general functioning and the roles with social relationship were significant. It can be resiliency might be recognized as an effective variable in the relationship between quality of life and family function levels.

  14. Resilience-Based Perspectives to Guiding High-Nature-Value Farmland through Socioeconomic Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental challenges require approaches that integrate biodiversity conservation, food production, and livelihoods at landscape scales. We reviewed the approach of conserving biodiversity on "high-nature-value" (HNV farmland, covering 75 million ha in Europe, from a resilience perspective. Despite growing recognition in natural resource policies, many HNV farmlands have vanished, and the remaining ones are vulnerable to socioeconomic changes. Using landscape-level cases across Europe, we considered the following social-ecological system properties and components and their integration into HNV farmland management: (1 coupling of social and ecological systems, (2 key variables, (3 adaptive cycles, (4 regime shifts, (5 cascading effects, (6 ecosystem stewardship and collaboration, (7 social capital, and (8 traditional ecological knowledge. We argue that previous conservation efforts for HNV farmland have focused too much on static, isolated, and monosectoral conservation strategies, and that stimulation of resilience and adaptation is essential for guiding HNV farmland through rapid change.

  15. Quantitative Estimation of Risks for Production Unit Based on OSHMS and Process Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambayar, D.; Koshijima, I.; Eguchi, H.

    2017-06-01

    Three principal elements in the production field of chemical/petrochemical industry are (i) Production Units, (ii) Production Plant Personnel and (iii) Production Support System (computer system introduced for improving productivity). Each principal element has production process resilience, i.e. a capability to restrain disruptive signals occurred in and out of the production field. In each principal element, risk assessment is indispensable for the production field. In a production facility, the occupational safety and health management system (Hereafter, referred to as OSHMS) has been introduced to reduce a risk of accidents and troubles that may occur during production. In OSHMS, a risk assessment is specified to reduce a potential risk in the production facility such as a factory, and PDCA activities are required for a continual improvement of safety production environments. However, there is no clear statement to adopt the OSHMS standard into the production field. This study introduces a metric to estimate the resilience of the production field by using the resilience generated by the production plant personnel and the result of the risk assessment in the production field. A method for evaluating how OSHMS functions are systematically installed in the production field is also discussed based on the resilience of the three principal elements.

  16. Personal resilience in nurses and midwives: effects of a work-based educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Glenda; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley; Vickers, Margaret H

    2013-08-01

    Nurses and midwives commonly face a variety of challenges and difficulties in their everyday work. Stress, pressure, fatigue and anxiety are acknowledged sources of workplace adversity, which causes decreased perceptions of health and wellbeing. This study reports the effects of a work-based, educational intervention to promote personal resilience in a group of 14 nurses and midwives working in a busy clinical environment. The intervention encouraged participants to focus on the key characteristics of a resilient person and the elements that assisted them in their maintenance of personal resilience. The intervention also explored potential strategies for the future. Opportunities were provided for experiential learning, creative self-expression and exposure to new ideas. Primary effects of the intervention were found to benefit the participants in personal and professional areas; by enhanced confidence, self-awareness, assertiveness and self-care. This intervention had implications for the education and practice of nurses and midwives in terms of building and maintaining their personal resilience, especially those exposed to workplace adversity.

  17. A new framework for assessing hospital crisis management based on resilience engineering approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Gh A; Azadian, Sh; Saki, A

    2016-06-14

    In recent years, an increasing number of natural and man-made disasters have exposed many people and properties to various disasters. This has resulted in approximately 75,000 deaths worldwide every year due to disasters. Crisis management is becoming increasingly important to cope effectively with the magnitude and potential damage resulting from disasters. Hospitals, as the final point in the rescue chain, have a key role in the crisis management and need to be resilient against disasters. The purpose of this paper is to present a new framework for assessing the crisis management based on resilience principles in hospital infrastructure of a developing country. A questionnaire was developed and completed by 310 staff (nurses and managers) of eight hospitals in Iran. The findings indicate that the eight hospitals included in the study have moderate conditions in general, while hospitals X3, X4, and X7 have poor conditions in the crisis management. Consequently, it seems that the crisis management system was not resilient in all these hospitals in general. Using resilience engineering in assessing crisis management can improve and develop the ability of the hospitals' management to cope with any type of disaster.

  18. Wood-based bioenergy in western Montana: the importance of understanding path dependence and local context for resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler A. Beeton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of biomass for wood-based bioenergy (WBB has been argued as a mechanism to mitigate the impacts of climate change, reduce vulnerability to disturbance events such as fires, and to enhance rural socioeconomic development. Yet, WBB development is characterized by a multitude of feedstock sources, bioenergy pathways, scales, and end uses, the feasibility of which is contingent upon place-based and context-specific social and environmental factors. We present an exploratory case study that draws on key informant interviews among a cohort of diverse stakeholders in rural western Montana forest communities, which was informed by a social-ecological systems framework and resilience thinking from a social science lens. The purpose of this paper is the following: (a to document the ways in which key informants define the opportunities and constraints associated with WBB in local contexts; and (b to understand how, and under what contexts, WBB can contribute to forest and community resilience under change. Interviews were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach, and supplemented by document analysis. Results illustrate the ways in which historical contingencies (i.e., path dependence, individual and group values, and social context can affect the capacity to implement WBB projects. Results also help identify multiple perspectives and trade-offs, which can provide a step toward identifying the most desirable and plausible options for WBB development. As such, these lessons can be used as a starting point to help determine WBB development pathways that contribute to the social and ecological resilience of local places and people under change.

  19. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    SMARTeST. A web based three tier advisory system FLORETO-KALYPSO (http://floreto.wb.tu-harburg.de/, Manojlovic et al, 2009) devoted to support decision-making process at the building level has been further developed to support multi-scale decision making on resilient systems, improving the existing data mining algorithms of the Business Logic tier. Further tuning of the algorithms is to be performed based on the new developments and findings in applicability and efficiency of different FRe Technology for different flood typologies. The first results obtained at the case studies in Greater Hamburg, Germany indicate the potential of this approach to contribute to the multiscale resilient planning on the road to flood resilient cities. FIAC (2007): "Final report form the Awareness and Assistance Sub-committee", FIAC, Scottish Government Zevenbergen C. et al (2008) "Challenges in urban flood management: travelling across spatial and temporal scales", Journal of FRM Volume 1 Issue 2, p 81-88 Manojlovic N., et al (2009): "Capacity Building in FRM through a DSS Utilising Data Mining Approach", Proceed. 8th HIC, Concepcion, Chile, January, 2009

  20. Effect of Somatic Experiencing Resiliency-Based Trauma Treatment Training on Quality of Life and Psychological Health as Potential Markers of Resilience in Treating Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal E. Winblad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals who treat trauma are at significant risk of vicarious traumatization and burnout. Somatic Experiencing® (SE® is a resiliency-focused trauma treatment modality designed to address autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation and its impacted physical health and mental health symptoms e.g., anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, migraines, fibromyalgia, and chronic fatigue, etc. The SE® training supports the development of clinical skills to reduce physical health/mental health symptoms as well as increase clinician resilience. Individuals who display resilience often have increased experiences of well-being (quality of life and decreased levels of self-reported psychological symptoms. Greater resilience could mitigate the risks to providers and the clients they treat.Materials and Methods: This within-groups, longitudinal study assessed students (N = 18 over the course of a 3-year SE® practitioner training. This training focuses on increased ANS, physical, and emotional regulation skills. The convenience of a web-based survey allowed for: measures of a general quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF, psychological symptoms, somatic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms (PHQ-SADS, as well as a measure of early life exposure to adversity (CDC/Kaiser Permanente ACE Score Calculator Questionnaire. The clinician survey was conducted yearly for 3 years. Future studies would do well to also include laboratory-based objective measures of ANS functioning.Results: ANOVA with repeated measures showed that there were significant reductions in anxiety symptoms (GAD7, p < 0.001 and somatization symptoms (PHQ15, p < 0.001. Health-related quality of life (a measure of physical well-being and social quality of life (a measure of interpersonal well-being both increased significantly (Health QoL p = 0.028; Social QoL p = 0.046.Conclusions: Results suggest that professionals attending the 3-year SE® training course experience a significant

  1. Shaping a Stories of Resilience Model from urban American Indian elders' narratives of historical trauma and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M; Attakai, Agnes; Kahn, Carmella B; Whitewater, Shannon; Teufel-Shone, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    American Indians (AIs) have experienced traumatizing events but practice remarkable resilience to large-scale and long-term adversities. Qualitative, community-based participatory research served to collect urban AI elders' life narratives on historical trauma and resilience strategies. A consensus group of 15 elders helped finalize open-ended questions that guided 13 elders in telling their stories. Elders shared multifaceted personal stories that revealed the interconnectedness between historical trauma and resilience, and between traditional perceptions connecting past and present, and individuals, families, and communities. Based on the elders' narratives, and supported by the literature, an explanatory Stories of Resilience Model was developed.

  2. Social capital, community-based governance and resilience in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the Mozambique government policy promotes community-based fisheries management in artisanal fisheries, we argue that under current conditions of ineffective community-based governance, a strong focus on reconstruction of social capital will be required before a community-based resource management process ...

  3. Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of resilience scale specific to cancer: an item response theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Zhang, Hao Wei; Li, Peng Fei; Ouyang, Xue Ren; Yu, Yuan Liang; Liu, Mei Ling; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-03-22

    Classic theory test has been used to develop and validate the 25-item Resilience Scale Specific to Cancer (RS-SC) in Chinese patients with cancer. This study was designed to provide additional information about the discriminative value of the individual items tested with an item response theory analysis. A two-parameter graded response model was performed to examine whether any of the items of the RS-SC exhibited problems with the ordering and steps of thresholds, as well as the ability of items to discriminate patients with different resilience levels using item characteristic curves. A sample of 214 Chinese patients with cancer diagnosis was analyzed. The established three-dimension structure of the RS-SC was confirmed. Several items showed problematic thresholds or discrimination ability and require further revision. Some problematic items should be refined and a short-form of RS-SC maybe feasible in clinical settings in order to reduce burden on patients. However, the generalizability of these findings warrants further investigations.

  4. Of resilient places: planning for urban resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmood, Abid

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that resilience of a place cannot necessarily be associated only with the level of its vulnerability to the environment or security. A place-based perspective to resilience helps understand the capacity of communities to withstand or adapt with change. Resilience of a place does not only refer to contingencies—such as formulating immediate responses to crisis situations or incidents such as earthquakes, floods or other disasters in vulnerable areas—but also considers long-te...

  5. A New Resilience Measure for Supply Chain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiying Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, supply chain networks can span the whole world, and any disruption of these networks may cause economic losses, decreases in sales and unsustainable supplies. Resilience, the ability of the system to withstand disruption and return to a normal state quickly, has become a new challenge during the supply chain network design. This paper defines a new resilience measure as the ratio of the integral of the normalized system performance within its maximum allowable recovery time after the disruption to the integral of the performance in the normal state. Using the maximum allowable recovery time of the system as the time interval under consideration, this measure allows the resilience of different systems to be compared on the same relative scale, and be used under both scenarios that the system can or cannot restore in the given time. Two specific resilience measures, the resilience based on the amount of product delivered and the resilience based on the average delivery distance, are provided for supply chain networks. To estimate the resilience of a given supply chain network, a resilience simulation method is proposed based on the Monte Carlo method. A four-layered hierarchial mobile phone supply chain network is used to illustrate the resilience quantification process and show how network structure affects the resilience of supply chain networks.

  6. Development of a multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents: the Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzwell Simone

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of resilience has captured the imagination of researchers and policy makers over the past two decades. However, despite the ever growing body of resilience research, there is a paucity of relevant, comprehensive measurement tools. In this article, the development of a theoretically based, comprehensive multi-dimensional measure of resilience in adolescents is described. Methods Extensive literature review and focus groups with young people living with chronic illness informed the conceptual development of scales and items. Two sequential rounds of factor and scale analyses were undertaken to revise the conceptually developed scales using data collected from young people living with a chronic illness and a general population sample. Results The revised Adolescent Resilience Questionnaire comprises 93 items and 12 scales measuring resilience factors in the domains of self, family, peer, school and community. All scales have acceptable alpha coefficients. Revised scales closely reflect conceptually developed scales. Conclusions It is proposed that, with further psychometric testing, this new measure of resilience will provide researchers and clinicians with a comprehensive and developmentally appropriate instrument to measure a young person's capacity to achieve positive outcomes despite life stressors.

  7. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index Martin Thoms, Melissa Parsons, Phil Morley Bushfire and Natural Hazards Cooperative Research Centre, Geography and Planning, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. Natural hazard management policy directions in Australia - and indeed internationally - are increasingly being aligned to ideas of resilience. Resilience to natural hazards is the ability of individuals and communities to cope with disturbance and adversity and to maintain adaptive behaviour. Operationalizing the measurement and assessment of disaster resilience is often undertaken using a composite index, but this exercise is yet to be undertaken in Australia. The Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index is a top-down, national scale assessment of the resilience of communities to natural hazards. Resilience is assessed based on two sets of capacities: coping and adaptive capacities. Coping capacity relates to the factors influencing the ability of a community to prepare for, absorb and recover from a natural hazard event. Adaptive capacity relates to the arrangements and processes that enable adjustment through learning, adaptation and transformation. Indicators are derived under themes of social character, economic capital, infrastructure and planning, emergency services, community capital, information and engagement and governance/leadership/policy, using existing data sets (e.g. census data) or evaluation of policy and procedure (e.g. disaster management planning). A composite index of disaster resilience is then computed for each spatial division, giving national scale coverage. The results of the Australian Natural Disaster Resilience Index will be reported in a State of Disaster Resilience report, due in 2018. The index is co-designed with emergency service agencies, and will support policy development, planning, community engagement and emergency management.

  8. A Network-Based Impact Measure for Propagated Losses in a Supply Chain Network Consisting of Resilient Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Felix Bayta Valenzuela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The topology of a supply chain network affects the impacts of disruptions in it. We formulate a network-based measure of the impact of a disruption loss in a supply chain propagating downstream from an originating node. The measure takes into account the loss profile of the originating node, the structure of the supply network, and the resilience of the network components. We obtain an analytical expression for the impact measure under a beta-distributed initial loss (generalizable to any continuous distribution supported on the interval 0,1, under a breakthrough scenario (in which a fraction of the initial production loss reaches a focal company downstream as opposed to containment upstream or at the originating point. Furthermore, we obtain a closed-form solution for a supply chain network with a k-ary tree topology; a numerical study is performed for a scale-free network and a random network. Our proposed approach enables the evaluation of potential losses for a focal company considering its supply chain network structure, which may help the company to plan or redesign a robust and resilient network in response to different types of disruptions.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Serrano-Parra, María D; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; García-Campayo, Javier; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2011-08-05

    The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC) is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS) and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI) were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient.The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Campayo Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  11. The economic-wide consequences of large-scale floods. How resilient is the European economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; De Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    For a successful adaptation strategy, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the economic consequences of a flood. To assess the economic consequences of large-scale river floods in Europe, we introduce an integrated direct and indirect risk model for the European economy as a whole. The proposed methodology consists of multiple steps. First, a direct loss assessment is conducted for the 50 largest river basin districts in Europe, based on simulated floods for several return periods. Second, the direct losses in capital and labour are translated into the loss in production per sector. Third, the recovery of this production shock is modelled using a hybrid interregional input-output model, combining non-linear programming and input-output modelling. This combination makes it possible to find (1) the possible production losses in the affected regions and other European regions, (2) the required production in Europe to satisfy additional reconstruction demands from the affected regions and (3) the required production in other regions that is necessary to take over lost production in the affected region. Consequently, when knowing how much production is lost (or gained) in each region, the economic consequences can be assessed. Finally, the model outcome is loss estimation expressed in terms of expected annual damage. To assess these consequences, interregional supply and use tables are used, consisting of 256 different European NUTS2 regions. This data makes it possible to model the indirect losses for both the affected regions and the rest of Europe in detail. By combining the outcomes of all floods in all the river basin districts, it is possible to determine the flood risk of each region in Europe, even when a region is not directly hit by a flood. Consequently, the overall consequences for the European Union are found to be positive for small-scale floods and negative for large-scale floods.

  12. Regional Economic Resilience: Resistance and Recoverability of Resource-Based Cities during Economic Crises in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantitatively analyzes the economic resilience of resource-based cities (RBCs in Northeast China in terms of resistance and recoverability during two economic crises: the Asian financial crisis and the global financial crisis. Moreover, it analyzes the main factors that affected regional resilience. There are three main findings. First, the RBCs in general demonstrated poor resistance during both recessions, but there were variations among the different types of RBCs. Petroleum and metal cities demonstrated the most resistance, whereas coal cities performed the worst. Second, the influential factors affecting economic resilience varied across the two economic cycles, but location advantage, research and development (R and D intensity, foreign trade dependence ratio, and supporting policies had positive effects on resilience during both economic cycles, while the proportion of employed persons in resource industries had a negative effect. Industrial diversity had a weak and ambiguous effect on resilience. Third, the secondary industry was more resilient during the Asian financial crisis, but the tertiary industry was more resilient during the global financial crisis. This shift may be attributed to both the nature of the crises and the strength of the sectors at the time of the crises.

  13. FORUM: Effective management of ecological resilience – are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Bryan M.; Ives, Stephen C.; Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birk, Sebastian; Carvalho, Laurence; Cavers, Stephen; Daunt, Francis; Morton, R. Daniel; Pocock, Michael J. O.; Rhodes, Glenn; Thackeray, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological resilience is developing into a credible paradigm for policy development and environmental management for preserving natural capital in a rapidly changing world. However, resilience emerges from complex interactions, limiting the translation of theory into practice.Main limitations include the following: (i) difficulty in quantification and detection of changes in ecological resilience, (ii) a lack of empirical evidence to support preventative or proactive management and (iii) difficulties in managing processes operating across socio-ecological systems that vary in space and time.We highlight recent research with the potential to address these limitations including new and/or improved indicators of resilience and tools to assess scale as a driver of resilience.Synthesis and applications. Effective resilience-based management must be adaptive in nature. To support this, we propose an operational model using resilience-based iterative management actions operating across scales.

  14. Identifying resilient and non-resilient middle-adolescents in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non- resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient ...

  15. Energy Resiliency for Marine Corps Logistics Base Production Plant Barstow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    13 1. Biomass, Landfill Gas, and Biogas ...security. Figure 3. SCE SAIDI and SIAIF data 2008 – 2014 E. ENERGY SOURCES 1. Biomass, Landfill Gas, and Biogas Biomass and Biogas ...availability is significant to this study because biogas is used at other Marine Corps Logistics Bases as a means of producing energy, and as an alternative to

  16. Formal Approach For Resilient Reachability based on End-System Route Agility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauf, Usman; Gillani, Fida; Al-Shaer, Ehab; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Chatterjee, Samrat; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2016-12-28

    The deterministic nature of existing routing protocols has resulted into an ossified Internet with static and predictable network routes. This gives persistent attackers (e.g. eavesdroppers and DDoS attackers) plenty of time to study the network and identify the vulnerable links (critical) to plan a devastating and stealthy attack. Recently, route mutation approaches have been proposed to address such issues. However, these approaches incur significantly high overhead and depend upon the availability of disjoint routes in the network, which inherently limit their use for mission critical services. To cope with these issues, we extend the current routing architecture to consider end-hosts as routing elements, and present a formal method based agile defense mechanism to increase resiliency of the existing cyber infrastructure. The major contributions of this paper include: (1) formalization of efficient and resilient End to End (E2E) reachability problem as a constraint satisfaction problem, which identifies the potential end-hosts to reach a destination while satisfying resilience and QoS constraints, (2) design and implementation of a novel decentralized End Point Route Mutation (EPRM) protocol, and (3) design and implementation of planning algorithm to minimize the overlap between multiple flows, for the sake of maximizing the agility in the system. Our implementation and evaluation validates the correctness, effectiveness and scalability of the proposed approach.

  17. Psychometric properties of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) and its relationship with life-stress, anxiety and depression in a Hispanic Latin-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, Roxanna; Hjemdal, Odin; Martinez Uribe, Patricia; Corveleyn, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Resilience is a multi-dimensional construct associated with health and well-being. At present, we do not yet have a valid, scientific instrument that is designed to evaluate adult resilience in Spanish-speaking countries and that accounts for family, social and individual components. This study aimed at investigating the construct and cross-cultural validity of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) by combining Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Hierarchical Regression models in a Hispanic Latin-American group. A community sample of 805 adults answered the RSA, Spanish Language Stressful Life-Events checklist (SL-SLE), and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). First-order CFA verified the six factors structure for the RSA (RMSEA = .037, SRMR = .047, CFI = .91, TLI = .90). Five RSA scales and total score have good internal consistency (scales α > .70; total score α = .90). Two second-order CFA verified the intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of the protector factors of resilience, as well as their commonality and uniqueness with affective symptoms (anxiety and depression). An exploratory MDS reproduced the relations of RSA items and factors at first and second-order levels against random simulated data, thereby providing initial evidence of its cross-cultural validity in a Spanish-speaking group. The Four-steps hierarchical model showed that the RSA scales are the strongest predictors of anxiety and depression-greater than gender, age, education and stressful life-events. Three RSA scales are significant unique predictors of affective symptoms. In addition, similar to findings in diverse cultural settings, resilience is positively associated with age but not with education. Women report higher scores of Social Resources and Social Competence and lower scores of Perception of the Self. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the construct and criterion-related validity of the RSA in broad, diverse and Spanish speaking

  18. Resilience of the IMS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on end-to-end resilience analysis of the IMS based network through the principal resilience parameters by using OPNET. The resilience behaviours of communication across multiple IMS domains are investigated at different communication scenarios and compared with previous state......-of-the-art. Moreover, the resilience effects when adding a redundancy of the S-CSCF unit are examined. The results disclose interesting resilience behaviours for long distance communications....

  19. Adaptação transcultural, confiabilidade e validade da escala de resiliência Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the resilience scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata P. Pesce

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Busca-se apresentar os resultados da adaptação transcultural para o português da escala de resilência de Wagnild & Young e da avaliação psicométrica desta. A escala foi adaptada para uma amostra de escolares dos ensinos fundamental e médio da rede pública de ensino do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São apresentados dados do estudo-piloto, com 203 alunos entrevistados em dois momentos consecutivos (teste-reteste, bem como do total de alunos investigados na pesquisa (977. Quanto à adaptação transcultural, foram encontrados bons resultados na equivalência semântica dos itens, tanto para o significado geral,quanto para o referencial. O alfa de Chronbach encontrado foi de 0,85 no pré-teste e 0,80 na amostra total. Na confiabilidade intra-observador, verificou-se que o kappa situou-se entre regular e moderado e o coeficiente de correlação intraclasse foi de 0,746 (p = 0,000. Análise fatorial indicou três fatores não totalmente homogêneos e diferenciados dos achados pelo autor da escala. Quanto à validade de constructo, nota-se correlação direta e significativa com auto-estima, supervisão familiar, satisfação de vida e apoio social. Verificou-se correlação inversa com a escala que avalia violência psicológica.This study describes the cross-cultural adaptation to Portuguese and the psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale developed by Wagnild & Young. The scale was adapted for a sample of students from public schools in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from the pilot study (203 students interviewed at two points in time and from the entire study (977 are presented. The cross-cultural adaptation showed good results in the semantic equivalence for: general meaning (above 90.0% and referential meaning (above 85.0%. Chronbach alpha was 0.85 in the pilot study and 0.80 in the total sample. Kappa between the two points in time was regular and moderate, and the intraclass correlation

  20. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Richard G; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R (2) = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R (2) = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  1. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gregory Cowden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT, resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = .59, but negatively associated with total stress (r = -.44. The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = .35. Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = .21. Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport.

  2. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, Richard G.; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport. PMID:27014132

  3. Herbivory, connectivity, and ecosystem resilience: response of a coral reef to a large-scale perturbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Adam

    Full Text Available Coral reefs world-wide are threatened by escalating local and global impacts, and some impacted reefs have shifted from coral dominance to a state dominated by macroalgae. Therefore, there is a growing need to understand the processes that affect the capacity of these ecosystems to return to coral dominance following disturbances, including those that prevent the establishment of persistent stands of macroalgae. Unlike many reefs in the Caribbean, over the last several decades, reefs around the Indo-Pacific island of Moorea, French Polynesia have consistently returned to coral dominance following major perturbations without shifting to a macroalgae-dominated state. Here, we present evidence of a rapid increase in populations of herbivorous fishes following the most recent perturbation, and show that grazing by these herbivores has prevented the establishment of macroalgae following near complete loss of coral on offshore reefs. Importantly, we found the positive response of herbivorous fishes to increased benthic primary productivity associated with coral loss was driven largely by parrotfishes that initially recruit to stable nursery habitat within the lagoons before moving to offshore reefs later in life. These results underscore the importance of connectivity between the lagoon and offshore reefs for preventing the establishment of macroalgae following disturbances, and indicate that protecting nearshore nursery habitat of herbivorous fishes is critical for maintaining reef resilience.

  4. Analysing urban resilience through alternative stormwater management options: application of the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System model at the neighbourhood scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsells, M; Barroca, B; Amdal, J R; Diab, Y; Becue, V; Serre, D

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in cities and their environments, caused by rapid urbanisation and climate change, have increased both flood probability and the severity of flooding. Consequently, there is a need for all cities to adapt to climate and socio-economic changes by developing new strategies for flood risk management. Following a risk paradigm shift from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future urban development, one of the main emerging tasks for city managers becomes the development of resilient cities. However, the meaning of the resilience concept and its operability is still not clear. The goal of this research is to study how urban engineering and design disciplines can improve resilience to floods in urban neighbourhoods. This paper presents the conceptual Spatial Decision Support System (DS3) model which we consider a relevant tool to analyse and then implement resilience into neighbourhood design. Using this model, we analyse and discuss alternative stormwater management options at the neighbourhood scale in two specific areas: Rotterdam and New Orleans. The results obtained demonstrate that the DS3 model confirmed in its framework analysis that stormwater management systems can positively contribute to the improved flood resilience of a neighbourhood.

  5. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  6. Training resilience for high-risk environments: Towards a strenght-based approach within the military

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Delahaij, R.; Korteling, J.E.; Euwema, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we introduced the concept of resilience as especially relevant for soldiers as they nowadays operate in cumulative stressful environments. Resilience is different from traditional approaches to building, maintaining and restoring soldiers’ adaptation capabilities, because it focuses

  7. Coordinated SLNR based Precoding in Large-Scale Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram

    2017-03-06

    This work focuses on the downlink of large-scale two-tier heterogeneous networks composed of a macro-cell overlaid by micro-cell networks. Our interest is on the design of coordinated beamforming techniques that allow to mitigate the inter-cell interference. Particularly, we consider the case in which the coordinating base stations (BSs) have imperfect knowledge of the channel state information. Under this setting, we propose a regularized SLNR based precoding design in which the regularization factor is used to allow better resilience with respect to the channel estimation errors. Based on tools from random matrix theory, we provide an analytical analysis of the SINR and SLNR performances. These results are then exploited to propose a proper setting of the regularization factor. Simulation results are finally provided in order to validate our findings and to confirm the performance of the proposed precoding scheme.

  8. The Resilience Program: preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Poul L.; Midgley, Nick; Zhu, Jin L.; Wistoft, Karen; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations i...

  9. Fuzzy Logic-Based Operation of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs for Enhancing the Resiliency of Hybrid Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The resiliency of power systems can be enhanced during emergency situations by using microgrids, due to their capability to supply local loads. However, precise prediction of disturbance events is very difficult rather the occurrence probability can be expressed as, high, medium, or low, etc. Therefore, a fuzzy logic-based battery energy storage system (BESS operation controller is proposed in this study. In addition to BESS state-of-charge and market price signals, event occurrence probability is taken as crisp input for the BESS operation controller. After assessing the membership levels of all the three inputs, BESS operation controller decides the operation mode (subservient or resilient of BESS units. In subservient mode, BESS is fully controlled by an energy management system (EMS while in the case of resilient mode, the EMS follows the commands of the BESS operation controller for scheduling BESS units. Therefore, the proposed hybrid microgrid model can operate in normal, resilient, and emergency modes with the respective objective functions and scheduling horizons. Due to the consideration of resilient mode, load curtailment can be reduced during emergency operation periods. Numerical simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for enhancing the resiliency of hybrid microgrids.

  10. Conference Presentation on “Scaling up the Circular Economy: Smart and Resilient Cities.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conference is designed to engage sustainability practitioners from across sectors, including business, academia, government and NGOs. US BCSD meetings typically attract 100+ leading sustainability practitioners from around the US and world. Cities play a key role in scaling u...

  11. Cross-Scale and Cross-Level Dynamics: Governance and Capacity for Resilience in a Social-Ecological System in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Sheng Tai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking has strongly influenced how people understand and pursue sustainability of linked social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking highlights the need to build capacity and manage general system properties in a complex, constantly changing world. I modified an analytical framework to address associations among cross-scale and cross-level dynamics, attributes of governance, and capacity to enhance resilience. The Danungdafu Forestation Area represents one of Taiwan’s most controvisal cases concerning land use, indigenous rights, and environmental issues. Analysis of this Taiwanese experience from a social-ecological perspective can show how current capacities for managing resilience are related to critical governance attributes. Analysis helped identify fundamental flaws in current governance and key issues needing to be addressed. The Danungdafu Forestation Area should transition towards a governance regime that is more participatory, deliberative, multi-layered, accountable, just, and networked. This can be done by developing an intermediate level institution that coordinates the cross-scale and cross-level interactions that better fit this social-ecological system.

  12. Reliability and Validity Testing of the Physical Resilience Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Barbara; Galik, Elizabeth; Dorsey, Susan; Scheve, Ann; Gutkin, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test reliability and validity of the Physical Resilience Scale. Methods: A single-group repeated measure design was used and 130 older adults from three different housing sites participated. Participants completed the Physical Resilience Scale, Hardy-Gill Resilience Scale, 14-item Resilience Scale,…

  13. Parameters affecting the resilience of scale-free networks to random failures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Hamilton E.; LaViolette, Randall A.; Lane, Terran (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Saia, Jared (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-09-01

    It is commonly believed that scale-free networks are robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. For example, Cohen et al. in (1) study scale-free networks including some which approximate the measured degree distribution of the Internet. Their results suggest that if each node in this network failed independently with probability 0.99, most of the remaining nodes would still be connected in a giant component. In this paper, we show that a large and important subclass of scale-free networks are not robust to massive numbers of random node deletions. In particular, we study scale-free networks which have minimum node degree of 1 and a power-law degree distribution beginning with nodes of degree 1 (power-law networks). We show that, in a power-law network approximating the Internet's reported distribution, when the probability of deletion of each node is 0.5 only about 25% of the surviving nodes in the network remain connected in a giant component, and the giant component does not persist beyond a critical failure rate of 0.9. The new result is partially due to improved analytical accommodation of the large number of degree-0 nodes that result after node deletions. Our results apply to power-law networks with a wide range of power-law exponents, including Internet-like networks. We give both analytical and empirical evidence that such networks are not generally robust to massive random node deletions.

  14. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  15. Survival analysis of mandibular complete dentures with acrylic-based resilient liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Suguru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Gunji, Atsuko; Ito, Nana; Kawai, Yasuhiko

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this long-term randomised controlled trial was to compare the longevity of dentures constructed using a conventional acrylic resin (CAR) to that of dentures constructed using an acrylic-based resilient liner (ARL). The follow-up study was essentially carried out by annual telephone calls to each of the 67 participants. The Kaplan-Meier method and life-table analysis were used for univariate analyses. The Cox proportional-hazards test was used as a final model for statistically adjusting predictor variables such as sex, clinician type, mandibular denture type and age at denture delivery. The denture type was likely to affect the survival time of the dentures, while the sex and clinician type were not. The group using acrylic-based resilient denture liners had twice the risk of having shorter denture-survival times than those using conventional acrylic resin dentures. Younger participants were likely to have a reduced risk of having shorter denture-survival times than older participants. We conclude that mandibular complete dentures constructed using ARL are twice as likely as dentures constructed using CAR to have shorter denture survival times, mainly because of material deterioration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Examining the Resilience of Crop Production, Livestock Carrying Capacity, and Woodland Density in a Rural Zimbabwean Socio-Ecological System Using Agent-Based Models Representing Human Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzel Solera, M. V.; Neves, K.; Veski, A.; Solera, J.; Omoju, O. E.; Mawere Ndlovu, A.; Wilson, K.

    2016-12-01

    As climate change increases the pressures on arid ecosystems by changing timing and amount of rainfall, understanding the ways in which human management choices affect the resilience of these systems becomes key to their sustainability. On marginal farmland in Mazvihwa, Midlands Province, the historical carrying capacity of livestock has been consistently surprisingly high. We explore this phenomenon by building an agent-based model in NetLogo from a wealth of long-term data generated by the community-based participatory research team of The Muonde Trust, a Zimbabwean non-governmental organization. We combine the accumulated results of 35 years of indigenous and local knowledge with national datasets such as rainfall records. What factors keep the carrying capacity high? What management choices can maintain crops, livestock, and woodland at levels necessary for the community's survival? How do these choices affect long-term sustainability, and does increasing resilience at one scale reduce resilience at another scale? We use our agent-based model to explore the feedbacks between crops, livestock, and woodland and the impacts of various human choices as well as temporal and spatial ecological variation. By testing different scenarios, we disentangle the complex interactions between these components. We find that some factors out of the community's control can strongly affect the sustainability of the system through times of drought, and that supplementary feed may maintain livestock potentially at the expense of other resources. The challenges to resilience encountered by the farmers in Mazvihwa are not unique - many indigenous and rural people face drought and the legacies of colonialism, which contribute to lowered resilience to external challenges such as climate change, epidemics, and political instability. Using the agent-based model as a tool for synthesis and exploration initiates discussion about resilience-enhancing management choices for Mazvihwa's farmer-researchers.

  17. Validation of the Urdu Version of Wagnild and Young's Long and Short Resilience Scales Among 20- to 40-Year-Old Married Women Living in Urban Squatter Settlements of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhamani, Shireen Shehzad; Pasha, Omrana; Karmaliani, Rozina; Asad, Nargis; Azam, Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    There were no instrument exists in South Asia to assess resilience. Thus, this study assessed the validity and reliability of the Urdu version of Wagnild and Young's long and short Resilience Scales. Study was carried out in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Resilience Scales were validated against the depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction scales among 20- to 40-year-old married women. Sample size for validity and reliability were 636 and 319. Moderate negative correlation with the depression and anxiety and moderate positive significant correlation with life satisfaction were found with both scales. The test-retest correlation were .54 and .49, respectively. Internal consistency were found acceptable. Concurrent validity were .729 and .813. Study found a valid and reliable resilience scale in Urdu language.

  18. Millennial-scale faunal record reveals differential resilience of European large mammals to human impacts across the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crees, Jennifer J; Carbone, Chris; Sommer, Robert S; Benecke, Norbert; Turvey, Samuel T

    2016-03-30

    The use of short-term indicators for understanding patterns and processes of biodiversity loss can mask longer-term faunal responses to human pressures. We use an extensive database of approximately 18,700 mammalian zooarchaeological records for the last 11,700 years across Europe to reconstruct spatio-temporal dynamics of Holocene range change for 15 large-bodied mammal species. European mammals experienced protracted, non-congruent range losses, with significant declines starting in some species approximately 3000 years ago and continuing to the present, and with the timing, duration and magnitude of declines varying individually between species. Some European mammals became globally extinct during the Holocene, whereas others experienced limited or no significant range change. These findings demonstrate the relatively early onset of prehistoric human impacts on postglacial biodiversity, and mirror species-specific patterns of mammalian extinction during the Late Pleistocene. Herbivores experienced significantly greater declines than carnivores, revealing an important historical extinction filter that informs our understanding of relative resilience and vulnerability to human pressures for different taxa. We highlight the importance of large-scale, long-term datasets for understanding complex protracted extinction processes, although the dynamic pattern of progressive faunal depletion of European mammal assemblages across the Holocene challenges easy identification of 'static' past baselines to inform current-day environmental management and restoration. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Resilience in patients with psychotic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozikas, V; Parlapani, E

    2016-01-01

    comprise the so called "phenomenological resilience" that can be measured by scales.4,5 Originally, research focused on resilience in relation to post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Recently, resilience was proven a significant predictor of depressive episode recurrence in bipolar disorder.6 Low resilience levels were also established in individuals at clinical high risk state for development of psychosis. Interestingly, individuals at high risk that developed a full-blown psychosis had shown significantly lower resilience levels compared with non-converters. Additionally, high resilience levels in individuals at high risk for psychosis related to less severe negative, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as higher social functioning.7,8 Schizophrenia patients with higher resilience levels and optimism showed higher levels of happiness that associated in turn with lower perceived stress and higher personal mastery,9 while resilience was a significant predictor of functioning in a subgroup of non-medicated schizophrenia patients.10 In light of evidence supporting a positive association between resilience and schizophrenia outcome and based on the fact that resilience is modifiable and could improve with treatment,5 resilience studies are particularly meaningful, specifically within the first 3-5 years after schizophrenia onset,11 and could lead to interventions that aim at harnessing resilience during this "critical period". Diverse positive psychology interventions aim at improving psychological well-being by developing and nourishing positive feelings, behaviours and cognitions. Lately, positive psychotherapy was adapted for schizophrenia patients and was proven a feasible intervention that might contribute to improvement in functioning.12 Conclusively, sustained improvement in social and occupational functioning remains the most important indicator of recovery from schizophrenia. Still, such an improvement may not be accomplished in all patients by

  20. Systemic resilience model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, Jonas; Johansson, Björn JE

    2015-01-01

    It has been realized that resilience as a concept involves several contradictory definitions, both for instance resilience as agile adjustment and as robust resistance to situations. Our analysis of resilience concepts and models suggest that beyond simplistic definitions, it is possible to draw up a systemic resilience model (SyRes) that maintains these opposing characteristics without contradiction. We outline six functions in a systemic model, drawing primarily on resilience engineering, and disaster response: anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, and self-monitoring. The model consists of four areas: Event-based constraints, Functional Dependencies, Adaptive Capacity and Strategy. The paper describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies. We argue that models such as SyRes should be useful both for envisioning new resilience methods and metrics, as well as for engineering and evaluating resilient systems. - Highlights: • The SyRes model resolves contradictions between previous resilience definitions. • SyRes is a core model for envisioning and evaluating resilience metrics and models. • SyRes describes six functions in a systemic model. • They are anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, learning, self-monitoring. • The model describes dependencies between constraints, functions and strategies

  1. A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briony C. Ferguson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society's future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a diagnostic procedure for revealing insights into which types of strategic action are most likely to influence the direction and pace of change in the overall system toward a desired trajectory. The procedure used the multipattern approach, from transition theory, to identify the system conditions and type of changes necessary for enabling system transformation. It incorporated the adaptive cycle, from resilience theory, to identify the current phase of change for different parts of the system. Finally, it drew on the concepts of institutional pillars and institutional work to identify mechanisms that are likely to be most effective in influencing the transformative dynamics of the system toward a desired trajectory. We have demonstrated application of the proposed diagnostic procedure on a case study of recent transformative change in the urban water system of Melbourne, Australia. We have proposed that an operational diagnostic procedure provides a useful platform from which planners, policy analysts, and decision makers could follow a process of deduction that identifies which types of strategic action best fit the current system conditions.

  2. A Distributed Resilient Autonomous Framework for Manned/Unmanned Trajectory-Based Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resilient Ops, working in collaboration with Metron Aviation, Inc., proposes to develop a prototype system for planning Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) trajectories...

  3. The Resilience Program: preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Poul L; Midgley, Nick; Zhu, Jin L; Wistoft, Karen; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations in individual therapy as well as group levels. The program has shown promising results in pilot studies and is now tested in controlled trials in settings such as schools and educational institutions, adults diagnosed with ADHD, and children in care.

  4. The Resilience Program: Preliminary evaluation of a mentalization-based education program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Lundgaard Bak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage with the burden of mental health problems in the world we need to develop cost-effective and safe preventive interventions. Education about resilience to support the ability to cope with life challenges in general, may be a useful strategy. We consider the concepts of Theory of Mind and Mentalization to be relevant in this context. In this paper we describe a simple modular intervention program based on these concepts which can be tailored to specific needs and situations in individual therapy as well as group levels. The program has shown promising results in pilot studies and is now tested in controlled trials in settings such as schools and educational institutions, adults diagnosed with ADHD and children in foster care.

  5. The Effect of an Experiential, Adventure-Based "Anti-Bullying Initiative" on Levels of Resilience: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Gray, Sky; Carter, Susan; Gass, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an experiential, adventure-based "Anti-Bullying Initiative" on levels of resilience. The goal of this initiative was to create a more positive, caring, and safe learning environment for all students at a local elementary school in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Activities were designed to…

  6. Higher Education and Urban Migration for Community Resilience: Indigenous Amazonian Youth Promoting Place-Based Livelihoods and Identities in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Diana

    2018-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of indigenous Peruvian Amazonian youth pursuing higher education through urban migration to contribute to the resilience of their communities, place-based livelihoods, and indigenous Amazonian identities. Youth and their communities promoted education and migration as powerful tools in the context of…

  7. A community based approach to improving resilience of forests and water resources: A local and regional climate adaptation methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby Thaler; Gwen Griffith; Nancy Gilliam

    2014-01-01

    Forest-based ecosystem services are at risk from human-caused stressors, including climate change. Improving governance and management of forests to reduce impacts and increase community resilience to all stressors is the objective of forest-related climate change adaptation. The Model Forest Policy Program (MFPP) has applied one method designed to meet this objective...

  8. Identifying Resilient and Non-Resilient Middle-Adolescents in a Formerly Black-Only Urban School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mampane, Ruth; Bouwer, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    The aim in this study was to develop a way of identifying resilient and non-resilient middle adolescents in a formerly black-only urban residential (township) school, in order to ultimately support the development of learners' resilience under stressful circumstances. A Resilience Scale was developed to screen for resilient and non-resilient…

  9. Examining the resilience of national energy systems: Measurements of diversity in production-based and consumption-based electricity in the globalization of trade networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Sato, Masahiro; Yarime, Masaru; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yu, Yadong; Kraines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Energy is a critical component of achieving sustainable development. In addition to the three aspects of promoting access, renewables, and efficiency, the dimension of resilience in energy systems should also considered. The implementation of resilient energy systems requires a quantitative understanding of the socio-economic practices underlying such systems. Specifically, in line with the increasing globalization of trade, there remains a critical knowledge gap on the link between embodied energy in the production and consumption of traded goods. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate the resilience of global energy systems through an examination of a diversity measure of global embodied electricity trade based on multi-regional input-output (MRIO) networks. The significance of this research lies in its ability to utilize high resolution MRIO data sets in assessing the resilience of national energy systems. This research indicates that secure and responsible consumption requires the diversification of not only energy generation but also energy imports. This research will lay the ground for further research in the governance of resilience in global energy networks. - Highlights: • We examine the resilience of global embodied energy based on (MRIO) trade networks. • We propose a secure and responsible mode of thinking for national energy consumption. • Secure & responsible consumption requires diversity in energy generation and imports.

  10. Resilience Metrics for the Electric Power System: A Performance-Based Approach.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Castillo, Andrea R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva-Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Grid resilience is a concept related to a power system's ability to continue operating and delivering power even in the event that low probability, high-consequence disruptions such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and cyber-attacks occur. Grid resilience objectives focus on managing and, ideally, minimizing potential consequences that occur as a result of these disruptions. Currently, no formal grid resilience definitions, metrics, or analysis methods have been universally accepted. This document describes an effort to develop and describe grid resilience metrics and analysis methods. The metrics and methods described herein extend upon the Resilience Analysis Process (RAP) developed by Watson et al. for the 2015 Quadrennial Energy Review. The extension allows for both outputs from system models and for historical data to serve as the basis for creating grid resilience metrics and informing grid resilience planning and response decision-making. This document describes the grid resilience metrics and analysis methods. Demonstration of the metrics and methods is shown through a set of illustrative use cases.

  11. Towards a remote sensing based indicator of rangeland ecosystem resistance and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding ecosystem resistance and resilience to disturbance and invasive species is critical to the sustainable management of rangeland systems. In this context, resistance refers to the inherent ability of an ecosystem to resist disturbance, while resilience refers to the capacity of an ecosys...

  12. "I know it when I see it." The complexities of measuring resilience among parents of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Starks, Helene; Jones, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Promoting parent resilience may provide an opportunity to improve family-level survivorship after pediatric cancer; however, measuring resilience is challenging. The "Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer" was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of bereaved and non-bereaved parents. Surveys included the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, the Kessler-6 psychological distress scale, the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, and an open-ended question regarding the ongoing impact of cancer. We conducted content analyses of open-ended responses and categorized our impressions as "resilient," "not resilient," or "unable to determine." "Resilience" was determined based on evidence of psychological growth, lack of distress, and parent-reported meaning/purpose. We compared consensus impressions with instrument scores to examine alignment. Analyses were stratified by bereavement status. Eighty-four (88 %) non-bereaved and 21 (88 %) bereaved parents provided written responses. Among non-bereaved, 53 (63 %) were considered resilient and 15 (18 %) were not. Among bereaved, 11 (52 %) were deemed resilient and 5 (24 %) were not. All others suggested a mixed or incomplete picture. Rater-determined "resilient" parents tended to have higher personal resources and lower psychological distress (p = resilient" parents also had higher post-traumatic growth (p = 0.02). Person-level analyses demonstrated that only 50-62 % of parents had all three instrument scores aligned with our impressions of resilience. Despite multiple theories, measuring resilience is challenging. Our clinical impressions of resilience were aligned in 100 % of cases; however, instruments measuring potential markers of resilience were aligned in approximately half. Promoting resilience therefore requires understanding of multiple factors, including person-level perspectives, individual resources, processes of adaptation, and emotional well-being.

  13. The Bird Community Resilience Index: a novel remote sensing-based biodiversity variable for quantifying ecological integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, N. L.; Wilsey, C.; Burkhalter, C.; Trusty, B.; Langham, G.

    2017-12-01

    Scalable indicators of biodiversity change are critical to reporting overall progress towards national and global targets for biodiversity conservation (e.g. Aichi Targets) and sustainable development (SDGs). These essential biodiversity variables capitalize on new remote sensing technologies and growth of community science participation. Here we present a novel biodiversity metric quantifying resilience of bird communities and, by extension, of their associated ecological communities. This metric adds breadth to the community composition class of essential biodiversity variables that track trends in condition and vulnerability of ecological communities. We developed this index for use with North American grassland birds, a guild that has experienced stronger population declines than any other avian guild, in order to evaluate gains from the implementation of best management practices on private lands. The Bird Community Resilience Index was designed to incorporate the full suite of species-specific responses to management actions, and be flexible enough to work across broad climatic, land cover, and bird community gradients (i.e., grasslands from northern Mexico through Canada). The Bird Community Resilience Index consists of four components: density estimates of grassland and arid land birds; weighting based on conservation need; a functional diversity metric to incorporate resiliency of bird communities and their ecosystems; and a standardized scoring system to control for interannual variation caused by extrinsic factors (e.g., climate). We present an analysis of bird community resilience across ranches in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. As predicted, Bird Community Resilience was higher in lands implementing best management practices than elsewhere. While developed for grassland birds, this metric holds great potential for use as an Essential Biodiversity Variable for community composition in a variety of habitat.

  14. The evaluation of microleakage and bond strength of a silicone-based resilient liner following denture base surface pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Duygu; Sarac, Y Sinasi; Basoglu, Tarik; Yapici, Oktay; Yuzbasioglu, Emir

    2006-02-01

    The failure of adhesion between a silicone-based resilient liner and a denture base is a significant clinical problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of denture base resin surface pretreatments with different chemical etchants preceding the silicone-based resilient liner application on microleakage and bond strength. The initial effects of chemical etchants on the denture base resin in terms of microstructural changes and flexural strength were also examined. Forty-two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin (Meliodent) specimens consisting of 2 plates measuring 30 x 30 x 2 mm were prepared and divided into 7 groups (n = 6). Specimen groups were treated by immersion in acetone for 30 (A30) or 45 (A45) seconds, methyl methacrylate monomer for 180 (M180) seconds, and methylene chloride for 5 (MC5), 15 (MC15) or 30 (MC30) seconds. Group C had no surface treatment and served as the control. Subsequently, an adhesive (Mollosil) and a silicone-based resilient denture liner (Mollosil) were applied to the treated surfaces, and all specimens were immersed in the radiotracer solution (thalium-201 chloride) for 24 hours. Tracer activity (x-ray counts), as a parameter of microleakage, was measured using a gamma camera. For bond-strength measurement, 84 rectangular PMMA specimens (10 x 10 x 40 mm) were surface-smoothed for bonding and treated with the different chemical etchants using the same previously described group configurations. The adhesive and the silicone-based denture liner were applied to the treated surfaces. Tensile bond-strength (MPa) was measured in a universal testing machine. Flexural strength measurement was performed with 49 PMMA specimens (65 x 10 x 3.3 mm according to ISO standard 1567) in 7 groups (n = 7), with 1 flat surface of each treated with 1 of the chemical etchants preceding adhesive application. The flexural strength (MPa) was measured using a 3-point bending test in a universal testing machine. The data were

  15. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  16. Preparing ITER ICRF: development and analysis of the load resilient matching systems based on antenna mock-up measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiaen, A.; Vervier, M.; Dumortier, P.; Grine, D.; Lamalle, P.U.; Durodie, F.; Koch, R.; Louche, F.; Weynants, R.

    2009-01-01

    The reference design for the ICRF antenna of ITER is constituted by a tight array of 24 straps grouped in eight triplets. The matching network must be load resilient for operation in ELMy discharges and must have antenna spectrum control for heating or current drive operation. The load resilience is based on the use of either hybrid couplers or conjugate-T circuits. However, the mutual coupling between the triplets at the low expected loading strongly counteracts the load resilience and the spectrum control. Using a mock-up of the ITER antenna array with adjustable water load matching solutions are designed. These solutions are derived from transmission line modelling based on the measured scattering matrix and are finally tested. We show that the array current spectrum can be controlled by the anti-node voltage distribution and that suitable decoupler circuits can not only neutralize the adverse mutual coupling effects but also monitor this anti-node voltage distribution. A matching solution using four 3 dB hybrids and the antenna current spectrum feedback control by the decouplers provides outstanding performance if each pair of poloidal triplets undergoes a same load variation. Finally, it is verified by modelling that this matching scenario has the same antenna spectrum and load resilience performances as the antenna array loaded by plasma as described by the TOPICA simulation. This is true for any phasing and frequency in the ITER frequency band. The conjugate-T solution is presently considered as a back-up option.

  17. Effect of an acrylic resin-based resilient liner applied to mandibular complete dentures on satisfaction ratings among edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Suguru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Murakami, Hiroshi; Atsuko, Gunji; Ogawa, Akina; Kawai, Yasuhkio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an acrylic resin-based resilient liner (ARL) could improve the satisfaction ratings of complete denture wearers. The null hypothesis was that no difference exists between the satisfaction ratings of conventional acrylic resin denture (CARD) wearers and those of ARL denture (ARLD) wearers. From April 2004 to July 2006, a randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers, including 74 edentulous patients. Of these, 37 patients were each randomly allocated to the ARLD and CARD groups. All of the patients rated their satisfaction with dentures, including general satisfaction and satisfaction with chewing ability, speaking, cleaning, stability, retention, comfort, and esthetics. These satisfaction ratings were measured by a 100-mm visual analog scale. Perceived chewing ability of different foods, divided into five grades, was measured using a questionnaire. The mastication index (MI) was calculated for each grade. General satisfaction, satisfaction with chewing, and satisfaction with speaking were significantly higher in the ARLD than in the CARD group (P = .049, .025, and .049, respectively). The chewing satisfaction with maxillary dentures in the ARLD group was significantly higher than that of the CARD group (P = .02). No significant difference existed between the MI of the ARLD (69.2 ± 17.0) and CARD groups (66.7 ± 18.7). Within its limitations, this study showed that the ARL improves a complete denture wearer's satisfaction ratings.

  18. Validation and application of the Chinese version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) among parents of children with cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Qiu, Hong Zhong; Li, Peng Fei; Chen, Peng; Liang, Mu Zi; Liu, Mei Ling; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Quan, Xiao Ming

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with cancer often experience considerable emotional distress for their children with negative emotions, such as disbelief, depression, anxiety, hope and shock. Resilience is defined as the psychological characteristics that promote positive adaptation in the face of stress and adversity, which has been demonstrated to relate to positive coping and less psychological distress. Thus, a quick screening tool to evaluate the levels of resilience of parents with cancer-diagnosed children is urgently required. The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were used to evaluate the CD-RISC-10 using a sample size of 500 parents. Velicer's Minimum Average Partial (MAP) Test and a parallel analysis were also supplemented to confirm the EFA-derived structure of the scale. The participants were given the 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and Medical Coping Modes Questionnaire (MCMQ) to test the associates with CD-RISC-10 and obtain the cut-off of the scale. The Chinese version of CD-RISC-10 has good psychometric properties and retains its single dimension in the original English version, which can explain 49.602% of the total variance. The CFA demonstrates the fit indices of a one-order model: Chi-Square = 39.987, CMIN/DF = 1.333, P resilience of the parents when their children undergo treatment, which can be the most important indicator to their psychological health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring resilience in integrated planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apneseth, K.; Wahl, A. M.; Hollnagel, E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter demonstrates how a Resilience Analysis Grid (RAG) can be used to profile the performance of a company in terms of the four abilities that characterize a resilient organization. It describes the development of a new, RAG-based tool founded on Resilience Engineering principles that can...... be used to assess an organization's resilience. The tool was tested in a case study involving a company in the offshore oil and gas industry. The company had decided to adopt an Integrated Operations (IO) approach to operations and maintenance planning and the tool was used to evaluate the impact...... of the Integrated Planning (IPL) process on its resilience....

  20. The design of scenario-based training from the resilience engineering perspective: a study with grid electricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Wachs, Priscila; Righi, Angela Weber; Henriqson, Eder

    2014-07-01

    Although scenario-based training (SBT) can be an effective means to help workers develop resilience skills, it has not yet been analyzed from the resilience engineering (RE) perspective. This study introduces a five-stage method for designing SBT from the RE view: (a) identification of resilience skills, work constraints and actions for re-designing the socio-technical system; (b) design of template scenarios, allowing the simulation of the work constraints and the use of resilience skills; (c) design of the simulation protocol, which includes briefing, simulation and debriefing; (d) implementation of both scenarios and simulation protocol; and (e) evaluation of the scenarios and simulation protocol. It is reported how the method was applied in an electricity distribution company, in order to train grid electricians. The study was framed as an application of design science research, and five research outputs are discussed: method, constructs, model of the relationships among constructs, instantiations of the method, and theory building. Concerning the last output, the operationalization of the RE perspective on three elements of SBT is presented: identification of training objectives; scenario design; and debriefing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A modeling framework for the resilience analysis of networked systems-of-systems based on functional dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Roberto; Silva, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Critical infrastructures provide services that are essential for the support of everyday activities in modern societies. Being the result of a continuous process of integration of diverse technologies and organizations, they require a multi-disciplinary, systemic approach in order to be understood. In this respect, one of the most challenging issues is the analysis of infrastructures under disturbance or malfunctioning, and their ability to resist, react and recover, in a word the resilience. This paper presents a methodology of resilience analysis of systems of systems, with infrastructures as a special instance. A conceptual representation of the infrastructure, based on the functional relationships among its components, is given and then analyzed with respect to its structural and dynamic properties. Most critical and vulnerable components are identified. The response of the system to failure propagation is simulated in order to check if it is able to cope with them and recover in a resilient fashion. The analysis outcomes are used for a resilience-informed review of the infrastructure

  2. A novel PRP based deterministic, redundant and resilient IEC 61850 substation communication architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Suhail Hussain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A secure, reliable, redundant, resilient, time critical, efficient and interoperable substation communication network (SCN is a prerequisite for a viable Substation Automation System (SAS. Due to emergence of IEC 61850 as a global standard for substation automation, the interoperability issues among components of substation from different vendors are resolved. The communication network must be fault tolerant and any substantial levels of disturbances should not affect the normal operation of the SAS. Due to digitization in SCN, the communication methodology is mainly focused on exchange of encrypted packet information. Failure of the communication mechanism, even for the order of milliseconds, would lead to catastrophic effects within the substation and also impacts the operation of grid, if not cleared timely. The high reliability of such a system is only possible under a redundant communication network which has a zero switchover time. Hence IEC 62439-3 based redundant protocols such as Parallel Redundancy Protocol (PRP recommended to be used in SCNs to achieve redundancy and seamless recovery in case of a failure. PRP based SAS along with detailed analysis of underlying process for implementing PRP protocol and its comparison with existing conventional protocols based SCN reported in literature is presented.

  3. Response and Resiliency of Wildlife and Vegetation to Large-Scale Wildfires and Climate Change in the North Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowitz, K.; Morrison, P.; Romain-Bondi, K.; Smith, C. W.; Warne, L.; McGill, D.

    2016-12-01

    Changing climatic patterns have affected the western US in a variety of ways: decreases in precipitation and snowpack, earlier spring snowmelt, and increased lightning strikes have created a drier, more fire-prone system, despite variability in these characteristics. Wildfires are a natural phenomenon, but have been suppressed for much of the past century. Effects of this evolving fire regime on native vegetation and wildlife are not well understood. Increased frequency and intensity of fires coupled with subsequent drought and extreme heat may inhibit or alter recovery of native ecosystems. We are currently investigating how a mega-fire has affected presence of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus, WGS) in the North Cascades, and the mortality, survival, and recovery of vegetation following these fires and extreme drought. The Methow Valley in WA experienced a record-breaking wildfire in 2014, which disturbed nearly 50% of priority habitat of the North Cascades population of WGS. WGS were studied at the same pre and post-fire plots. WGS were present at over half of the post-burn plots (58%). There was a significant difference in the number of WGS hair samples collected in different levels of remaining vegetation: the most in moderate, few in low, and none in high. Vegetation recovery was assessed through field data, and a chronosequence of satellite images and aerial photography. 75% of the 2014 fire burned non-forested vegetation. Ponderosa pine forests comprised the rest. The forests experienced about 70% initial mortality. Recovery of the forest appears slower than in the shrub-steppe. First year seedling survival was poor due to an extremely hot, dry summer, while second year survival appears higher due to a cool, moist spring and summer. One year after a large, multi-severity fire we found WGS may be more resilient to disturbance such as fires than previously thought. Future studies of WGS will help elucidate long-term response to large-scale fires, and

  4. Resilience, tipping, and hydra effects in public health: emergent collective behavior in two agent-based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Robert Keane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collective health behavior often demonstrates counter-intuitive dynamics, sometimes resisting interventions designed to produce change, or even producing effects that are in the opposite direction than intended by the intervention, e.g. lowering infectivity resulting in increased infections. At other times collective health behavior exhibits sudden large-scale change in response to small interventions or change in the environment, a phenomenon often called “tipping.” I hypothesize that these seemingly very different phenomena can all be explained by the same dynamic, a type of collective resilience. Methods I compared two simple agent-based models of interactions in networks: a public health behavior game, in which individuals decide whether or not to adopt protective behavior, and a microbial-level game, in which three different strains of bacteria attack each other. I examined the type of networks and other conditions that support a dynamic balance, and determined what changes of conditions will tip the balance. Results Both models show lasting dynamic equilibrium and resilience, resulting from negative feedback that supports oscillating coexistence of diversity under a range of conditions. In the public health game, health protection is followed by free-riding defectors, followed by a rise in infection, in long-lasting cycles. In the microbial game, each of three strains takes turns dominating. In both games, the dynamic balance is tipped by lowering the level of local clustering, changing the level of benefit, or lowering infectivity or attack rate. Lowering infectivity has the surprising effect of increasing the numbers of infected individuals. We see parallel results in the microbial game of three bacterial strains, where lowering one strain’s attack rate (analogous to lowering infectivity increases the numbers of the restrained attacker, a phenomenon captured by the phrase, “the enemy of my enemy is my friend

  5. Construction of an Early Risk Warning Model of Organizational Resilience: An Empirical Study Based on Samples of R&D Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-hua Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Facing fierce competition, it is critical for organizations to keep advantages either actively or passively. Organizational resilience is the ability of an organization to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and adapt to incremental change and sudden disruptions in order to survive and prosper. It is of particular importance for enterprises to apprehend the intensity of organizational resilience and thereby judge their abilities to withstand pressure. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper clarifies a five-factor model for organizational resilience of R&D teams. Moreover, based on it, this paper applies fuzzy integrated evaluation method to build an early risk warning model for organizational resilience of R&D teams. The application of the model to a company shows that the model can adequately evaluate the intensity of organizational resilience of R&D teams. The results are also supposed to contribute to applied early risk warning theory.

  6. Resilient ledelse

    OpenAIRE

    Rygh, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Master i styring og ledelse Denne masteroppgaven bygger på litteraturanalyse og intervju med forskere, lederutviklere, ledere og tillitsvalgte. Oppgaven utvikler en hypotese om en resilient lederstil, diskuterer om og hvordan ledere kan bidra til å bedre resiliens hos underordnede, samt identifiserer hva som kan kjennetegne resilient ledelse. Resilient ledelse kan defineres som det en leder gjør for å bedre de underordnedes evne til å få mer psykologisk motstandskraft, det vil si gjør d...

  7. Resilience in the global food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekell, David; Carr, Joel; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fader, Marianela; Gephart, Jessica; Kummu, Matti; Magliocca, Nicholas; Porkka, Miina; Puma, Michael; Ratajczak, Zak; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Suweis, Samir; Tavoni, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Ensuring food security requires food production and distribution systems function throughout disruptions. Understanding the factors that contribute to the global food system’s ability to respond and adapt to such disruptions (i.e. resilience) is critical for understanding the long-term sustainability of human populations. Variable impacts of production shocks on food supply between countries indicate a need for national-scale resilience indicators that can provide global comparisons. However, methods for tracking changes in resilience have had limited application to food systems. We developed an indicator-based analysis of food systems resilience for the years 1992-2011. Our approach is based on three dimensions of resilience: socio-economic access to food in terms of income of the poorest quintile relative to food prices, biophysical capacity to intensify or extensify food production, and the magnitude and diversity of current domestic food production. The socio-economic indicator has a large variability, but with low values concentrated in Africa and Asia. The biophysical capacity indicator is highest in Africa and Eastern Europe, in part because of a high potential for extensification of cropland and for yield gap closure in cultivated areas. However, the biophysical capacity indicator has declined globally in recent years. The production diversity indicator has increased slightly, with a relatively even geographic distribution. Few countries had exclusively high or low values for all indicators. Collectively, these results are the basis for global comparisons of resilience between countries, and provide necessary context for developing generalizations about resilience in the global food system.

  8. Toward a digital resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn J. Wright

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As we contend with human impacts on the biosphere, there is rightfully a great emphasis now on community adaptation and resilience to climate change. Recent innovations in information technologies and analyses are helping communities to become more resilient. However, not often discussed in this vein is a path toward digital resilience. If mapping and information tools are to help communities, it stands to reason that they must be resilient themselves, as well as the data that they are based on. In other words, digital tools can help make communities resilient by providing data, evidence-based advice on community decisions, etc., but the resilience of the tools themselves can also be an issue. Digital resilience means that to the greatest extent possible, data and tools should be freely accessible, interchangeable, operational, of high quality, and up-to-date so that they can help give rise to the resilience of communities or other entities using them. Given the speed at which humans are altering the biosphere, the usefulness and effectiveness of these technologies must keep pace. This article reviews and recommends three fundamental digital practices, particularly from the standpoint of geospatial data and for community resilience and policy-making. These are: (1 create and implement a culture that consistently shares not only data, but workflows and use cases with the data, especially within maps and geographic information systems or GIS; (2 use maps and other visuals to tell compelling stories that many different kinds of audiences will understand and remember; and (3 be more open to different kinds of partnerships to reduce project costs, yield better results, and foster public awareness and behavioral change.

  9. Resilience versus "Resilient Individual": What Exactly Do We Study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The nature and definition of resilience, despite the extensive 40 years of research, is still unclear. Currently is resilience seen as a personality trait, sum of the traits/factors, result of adaptation, or as a process. The concept of resilience as personality traits is usually tied to uni-dimensional or "simplex" theories of resistance as Hardiness, Sense of Control, Ego-Resiliency, Self-efficacy, Sense of Coherence, or specific personality traits. Multidimensional concepts see resilience as a complex of personality and social (environmental factors that work in interaction, complement or replace each other, and, in aggregate, create a comprehensive picture of resilience. The concept of resilience as the result of adaptation examines resilience in terms of the presence/absence of adverse/pathological manifestations, consequences and outcomes in relation to the earlier effect of stressful, risky or otherwise unfavorable situations. Finally, the concept of resilience as the process examines individual's response to risk factors or wounds that are present in the environment. Resilience is thus a process consisting of interactions between individual characteristics and the environment. Most experts and a large part of resilience research is based on the first three concepts that however explore how "resilient" the individual is rather than resilience itself, since they are based on "diagnosing" or at best dimensional, at worse dichotomous rating of the individual's resilience (within personality trait approach, or on the evaluation of the presence/absence of factors/source of resilience, thereby they are still holding the "diagnostic" approach (within multidimensional approach. Only the examination of processes, such as the ongoing interaction between these risk factors, resilience factors, outcomes (expressions of personality, behavior, presence of problems, etc. and other variables allows us to understand resilience (the true nature of how

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Mindfulness-Based Approaches: Common Denominator Issues for Children with Emotional, Mental, or Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina; Gombojav, Narangerel; Solloway, Michele; Wissow, Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    US children with emotional, mental, or behavioral conditions (EMB) have disproportionate exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). There are theoretic and empirical explanations for early and lifelong physical, mental, emotional, educational, and social impacts of the resultant trauma and chronic stress. Using mindfulness-based, mind-body approaches (MBMB) may strengthen families and promote child resilience and success. This paper examines associations between EMB, ACEs, and protective factors, such as child resilience, parental coping/stress, and parent-child engagement. Findings encourage family-centered and mindfulness-based approaches to address social and emotional trauma and potentially interrupt cycles of ACEs and prevalence of EMB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Foundations of resilience thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P

    2014-08-01

    Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Resilience: Building immunity in psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Priyvadan Chandrakant

    2013-01-01

    The challenges in our personal, professional, financial, and emotional world are on rise, more so in developing countries and people will be longing for mental wellness for achieving complete health in their life. Resilience stands for one's capacity to recover from extremes of trauma and stress. Resilience in a person reflects a dynamic union of factors that encourages positive adaptation despite exposure to adverse life experiences. One needs to have a three-dimensional construct for understanding resilience as a state (what is it and how does one identify it?), a condition (what can be done about it?), and a practice (how does one get there?). Evaluating the level of resilience requires the measurement of internal (personal) and external (environmental) factors, taking into account that family and social environment variables of resilience play very important roles in an individual's resilience. Protection factors seem to be more important in the development of resilience than risk factors. Resilience is a process that lasts a lifetime, with periods of acquisition and maintenance, and reduction and loss for assessment. Overall, currently available data on resilience suggest the presence of a neurobiological substrate, based largely on genetics, which correlates with personality traits, some of which are configured via social learning. The major questions about resilience revolve around properly defining the concept, identifying the factors involved in its development and recognizing whether it is actually possible to immunize mental health against adversities. In the clinical field, it may be possible to identify predisposing factors or risk factors for psychopathologies and to develop new intervention strategies, both preventive and therapeutic, based on the concept of resilience. The preferred environments for application of resilience are health, education, and social policy and the right approach in integrating; it can be developed only with more research

  13. Excessive Heat Events and National Security: Building Resilience based on Early Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintzileos, A.

    2017-12-01

    Excessive heat events (EHE) affect security of Nations in multiple direct and indirect ways. EHE are the top cause for morbidity/mortality associated to any atmospheric extremes. Higher energy consumption used for cooling can lead to black-outs and social disorder. EHE affect the food supply chain reducing crop yield and increasing the probability of food contamination during delivery and storage. Distribution of goods during EHE can be severely disrupted due to mechanical failure of transportation equipment. EHE during athletic events e.g., marathons, may result to a high number of casualties. Finally, EHE may also affect military planning by e.g. reducing hours of exercise and by altering combat gear. Early warning systems for EHE allow for building resilience. In this paper we first define EHE as at least two consecutive heat days; a heat day is defined as a day with a maximum heat index with probability of occurrence that exceeds a certain threshold. We then use retrospective forecasts performed with a multitude of operational models and show that it is feasible to forecast EHE at forecast lead of week-2 and week-3 over the contiguous United States. We finally introduce an improved definition of EHE based on an intensity index and investigate forecast skill of the predictive system in the tropics and subtropics.

  14. A Risk-Based Approach to Shelter Resilience following Flood and Typhoon Damage in Rural Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Stephenson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philippines is exposed to numerous typhoons every year, each of which poses a potential threat to livelihoods, shelter, and in some cases life. Flooding caused by such events leads to extensive damage to land and buildings, and the impact on rural communities can be severe. The global community is calling for action to address and achieve disaster risk reduction for communities and people exposed to such events. Achieving this requires an understanding of the nature of the risks that flooding and typhoons pose to these communities and their homes. This paper presents the findings from a field based case study assessment of three rural settlements in the Philippines, where typhoons and associated flooding in recent years has caused significant damage to houses and livelihoods, leading to the reconstruction of homes that more often than not reproduce similar structural vulnerabilities as were there before these hazards occurred. This work presents a methodology for risk assessment of such structures profiling the flood and wind hazards and measuring physical vulnerability and the experience of communities affected. The aim of the work is to demonstrate a method for identifying risks in these communities, and seeks to address the challenge faced by practitioners of assisting communities in rebuilding their homes in more resilient ways. The work set out here contributes to the discussion about how best to enable practitioners and communities to achieve the sought for risk reduction and especially highlights the role that geoscience and engineering can have in achieving this ambition.

  15. Use of Natural and Nature-Based Features for Coastal Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, C.; Bridges, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural and Nature-Based Features (NNBF) have been used for decades to support a variety of objectives in coastal systems. Beach and dune projects have been a longstanding part of flood risk reduction strategies in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. Coastal restoration projects supporting wetlands, seagrass, oysters and other habitats and communities have been undertaken around the world to restore ecosystem functions. In more recent years there has been a growing interest in developing a technically sound engineering approach for integrating NNBF, in combination with conventional flood defense systems (e.g., levees, seawalls, etc.), for more comprehensive and sustainable flood defense systems. This interest was further stimulated by the outcomes of recent storm events, including Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in the United States, which have given rise to a range of studies and projects focused on the role of coastal landscape features in flood risk management. The global dialogue that has been underway for several years—including within the Engineering with Nature program in the United States—has revealed the demand for an authoritative guidance on the use of NNBF in shoreline management. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has initiated a collaborative project involving participants from several countries and organizations representing government, academia, and the private sector to develop international guidelines to inform the planning, design, construction, and operation or NNBF projects to support coastal resilience. This paper will describe the key issues and objectives informing the work of the international team that is developing the guidelines.

  16. The mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability, literacy attainment and 'resilience' of 'looked after children': a multidimensional, multiple-rater population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul

    2013-06-01

    Existing research studies suggest that children who are looked after by the State experience high levels of mental health difficulties and underachieve in many other domains. Few studies, however, aim to reflect the heterogeneity of these children and those who are performing well may be under-represented in the findings. This study aims to provide a more representative picture, offering novel data on resilience. A multidimensional, multiple-rater population-based study of looked after children. The entire population of looked after children aged 7-15 years (n = 193) in one local authority was assessed in core domains; mental health, emotional literacy, cognitive ability and literacy attainment. Measures included the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire, Emotional Literacy Assessment and Intervention Inventory, and the British Ability Scales. The children's data were compared with general population norms and existing research studies. The incidence of resilience, defined by the fulfilment of positive exception criteria, was recorded. Children fulfilling positive exception criteria were then compared to the remaining children on key factors. The looked after children performed less well in all domains compared with general population norms. Sixteen per cent of children met the positive exception criteria. Positive performance on individual measures varied from 34% to 76%. A statistically significant association was found between positive exception classification and two factors; parental contact and mainstream schooling. In general terms, this study supports the findings of previous research studies. However, evidence of positive exceptions across and within all domains cautions against overgeneralization of findings. The findings also implicate parental contact and mainstream education in the promotion of resilience. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Association between demographics and resilience - a cross-sectional study among nurses in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, S Y; Uthaman, T; Ayre, T C; Mordiffi, S Z; Ang, E; Lopez, V

    2018-03-08

    To give an overview of the level of resilience among nurses in Singapore and to examine associations between various demographics variables and resilience level. The World Health Organization reported a global needs-based shortage of over 9 million nurses and midwives in 2013. Building resilience among nurses has been postulated as one of the ways to support and retain nurses in the profession. A self-reported questionnaire consisting of questions on demographics and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale CD-RISC 10 was used. Univariate analysis identified marital status, age group, years of experience in nursing, highest education qualification and job grade to have significant associations with resilience. During multivariate analysis, only marital status, age group, highest educational qualification and job grade remained significant. A strong association was found between highest educational qualification and resilience level; nurses with bachelor's or postgraduate degree were about three times more likely than nurses with only a general nursing certificate to be of moderate/high resilience. The experience of life events (as exemplified by marital status, age and working experience) was associated with higher resilience levels. There is a need for healthcare organizations and nurse leaders to develop programmes focusing on building resilience among younger and less experienced nurses. Nurses should also be supported in their pursuits for higher education, which will in turn lead to higher resilience, and consequently, retention of nurses within the profession and institution. © 2018 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Resilience: Theory and Application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.L.; Haffenden, R.A.; Bassett, G.W.; Buehring, W.A.; Collins, M.J., III; Folga, S.M.; Petit, F.D.; Phillips, J.A.; Verner, D.R.; Whitfield, R.G. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-03

    There is strong agreement among policymakers, practitioners, and academic researchers that the concept of resilience must play a major role in assessing the extent to which various entities - critical infrastructure owners and operators, communities, regions, and the Nation - are prepared to respond to and recover from the full range of threats they face. Despite this agreement, consensus regarding important issues, such as how resilience should be defined, assessed, and measured, is lacking. The analysis presented here is part of a broader research effort to develop and implement assessments of resilience at the asset/facility and community/regional levels. The literature contains various definitions of resilience. Some studies have defined resilience as the ability of an entity to recover, or 'bounce back,' from the adverse effects of a natural or manmade threat. Such a definition assumes that actions taken prior to the occurrence of an adverse event - actions typically associated with resistance and anticipation - are not properly included as determinants of resilience. Other analyses, in contrast, include one or more of these actions in their definitions. To accommodate these different definitions, we recognize a subset of resistance- and anticipation-related actions that are taken based on the assumption that an adverse event is going to occur. Such actions are in the domain of resilience because they reduce both the immediate and longer-term adverse consequences that result from an adverse event. Recognizing resistance- and anticipation-related actions that take the adverse event as a given accommodates the set of resilience-related actions in a clear-cut manner. With these considerations in mind, resilience can be defined as: 'the ability of an entity - e.g., asset, organization, community, region - to anticipate, resist, absorb, respond to, adapt to, and recover from a disturbance.' Because critical infrastructure resilience is important

  19. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  20. The effect of poly(methyl methacrylate) surface treatments on the adhesion of silicone-based resilient denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Bertolini, Martinna Mendonça; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; da Silva, Wander José

    2014-12-01

    Different surface treatment protocols of poly(methyl methacrylate) have been proposed to improve the adhesion of silicone-based resilient denture liners to poly(methyl methacrylate) surfaces. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different poly(methyl methacrylate) surface treatments on the adhesion of silicone-based resilient denture liners. Poly(methyl methacrylate) specimens were prepared and divided into 4 treatment groups: no treatment (control), methyl methacrylate for 180 seconds, acetone for 30 seconds, and ethyl acetate for 60 seconds. Poly(methyl methacrylate) disks (30.0 × 5.0 mm; n = 10) were evaluated regarding surface roughness and surface free energy. To evaluate tensile bond strength, the resilient material was applied between 2 treated poly(methyl methacrylate) bars (60.0 × 5.0 × 5.0 mm; n = 20 for each group) to form a 2-mm-thick layer. Data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). A Pearson correlation test verified the influence of surface properties on tensile bond strength. Failure type was assessed, and the poly(methyl methacrylate) surface treatment modifications were visualized with scanning electron microscopy. The surface roughness was increased (P denture liner to poly(methyl methacrylate). Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Resilience Training: A Pilot Study of a Mindfulness-Based Program with Depressed Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jill R; Emmons, Henry C; Rivard, Rachael L; Griffin, Kristen H; Dusek, Jeffery A

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based programs have been primarily used to target anxiety or the prevention of relapse in recurrent depression; however, limited research has been conducted on the use of mindfulness programs for relief of current depressive symptoms. To investigate the potential effect of resilience training (RT) on symptom relief for current or recurrent depression, and other psychological/behavioral outcomes. Wait-list comparison pilot study. Penny George Institute for Health and Healing, Allina Health, Minneapolis, MN. A total of 40 actively working healthcare professionals age 18-65 years. RT is an eight-week mindfulness-based program that synergizes elements of mindfulness meditation with nutrition and exercise. The first 20 consecutive individuals meeting all eligibility criteria were assigned to the RT group. The next 20 consecutive eligible individuals were placed into the wait-list control group and had an eight-week waiting period before starting the RT program. Psychological/behavioral outcomes were measured before and after completion of the RT program and two months after completion. Wait-list participants also had measures taken just before starting on the wait-list. The RT group exhibited a 63-70% (P ≤ .01) reduction in depression, a 48% (P ≤ .01) reduction in stress, a 23% (P ≤ .01) reduction in trait anxiety, and a 52% (P ≤ .01) reduction in presenteeism (a per-employee savings of $1846 over the eight-week program). All outcomes were statistically significantly different from the wait-list group. Most improvements persisted up to two months after completion of the RT program. Further replication with a larger sample size, and enhanced control group is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resource degradation, marginalization, and poverty in small-scale fisheries: threats to social-ecological resilience in India and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep K. Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examine poverty in local fisheries using a social-ecological resilience lens. In assessing why "fishery may rhyme with poverty", Christophe Béné suggests a typology of impoverishment processes, which includes economic exclusion, social marginalization, class exploitation, and political disempowerment as key mechanisms that accelerate poverty. We extend his analysis by exploring these four mechanisms further and by intertwining them with processes of environmental change and degradation. Our goal is to understand poverty in local fisheries as a process rooted in social and institutional factors as influenced by ecological dynamics. We argue that understanding poverty will require a focus on the social-ecological system (SES as a whole, and addressing poverty will mean rebuilding not only collapsed stocks but the entire social-ecological system, including restoring relationships between resources and people. Information from two cases, the Chilika Lagoon on the Bay of Bengal in India, and the Paraty region on the southeastern coast of Brazil, is used to understand how fishery social-ecological systems come under pressure from drivers at multiple levels, resulting in a range of impacts and pushing the system to a breaking point or collapse. We analyze elements of what it takes for the whole system to break down or collapse and push fishers into poverty and marginalization. The Chilika SES has already broken down, and the Paraty SES is under pressure from multiple drivers of change. The two cases help contrast key dynamics in the social, cultural, economic, political, and environmental spheres, for lessons on system collapse and recovery. Rebuilding fisheries may be examined as a process of building and strengthening resilience. The challenge is to make the fishery social-ecological system more resilient, with more flexibility and options, not only within fishing activities but also within a range of other sectors.

  3. Assessing Resilience in Stressed Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine T. Nemec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although several frameworks for assessing the resilience of social-ecological systems (SESs have been developed, some practitioners may not have sufficient time and information to conduct extensive resilience assessments. We have presented a simplified approach to resilience assessment that reviews the scientific, historical, and social literature to rate the resilience of an SES with respect to nine resilience properties: ecological variability, diversity, modularity, acknowledgement of slow variables, tight feedbacks, social capital, innovation, overlap in governance, and ecosystem services. We evaluated the effects of two large-scale projects, the construction of a major dam and the implementation of an ecosystem recovery program, on the resilience of the central Platte River SES (Nebraska, United States. We used this case study to identify the strengths and weaknesses of applying a simplified approach to resilience assessment. Although social resilience has increased steadily since the predam period for the central Platte River SES, ecological resilience was greatly reduced in the postdam period as compared to the predam and ecosystem recovery program time periods.

  4. Resilience Associated with Self-Disclosure and Relapse Risks in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayako; Yoshioka, Shin-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the self-disclosure and risks of relapse associated with promoting resilience of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and participating in self-help groups. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to 48 patients with AUD and participating in self-help groups; this questionnaire consisted of basic attributes, a bidimensional resilience scale to assess both innate and acquired resilience factors, a scale to assess depth of self-disclosure, and a scale assessing relapse risks. We conducted an evaluation by dividing the respondents into a high group and low group based on their median values for both innate and acquired resilience. Innate/acquired resilience had a mutually reinforcing relationship, and, compared with the low resilience group, the high resilience group had significantly reduced risks for relapses and resulted in deeper self-disclosure. Patients with high resilience had lower risk of alcohol relapse and deeper self-disclosure. The results suggest that one way of supporting patients with AUD in recovery is assisting them in building personal relationships with others and in deepening self-disclosure in a setting where they can relax, thus promoting their natural ability to recover.

  5. A strategy-based framework for assessing the flood resilience of cities : a Hamburg case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restemeyer, Britta; Woltjer, Johannes; van den Brink, Margaretha

    Climate change and continuous urbanization contribute to an increased urban vulnerability towards flooding. Only relying on traditional flood control measures is recognized as inadequate, since the damage can be catastrophic if flood controls fail. The idea of a flood-resilient city – one which can

  6. 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing & Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems & 6th International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Braubach, Lars; Venticinque, Salvatore; Badica, Costin

    2015-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Eight International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC'2014, of the Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems - WSRL-2014, and of the Sixth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics- MASTS-2014. All the events were held in Madrid, Spain, during September 3-5, 2014. The 47 contributions published in this book address several topics related to theory and applications of the intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: agent-based data processing, ambient intelligence, collaborative systems, cryptography and security, distributed algorithms, grid and cloud computing, information extraction, knowledge management, big data and ontologies, social networks, swarm intelligence or videogames amongst others.

  7. Stepping Stones to Resiliency following a community-based two-generation Canadian preschool programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Carla S; Benzies, Karen M; Keown, Leslie Anne; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billlie

    2018-05-01

    Early intervention programmes are designed to address complex inequities for Canadian families living with low income, affecting social relationships, well-being and mental health. However, there is limited understanding of resiliency and change in families living with low income over time. We conducted a mixed methods study with recent immigrant, other Canadian-born, and Aboriginal families living with low income, who attended a two-generation preschool programme (CUPS One World) between 2002 and 2008. The aim of this study was to develop an understanding of the processes of change. We included 134 children and their caregivers living with low income, and experiencing mental health problems, addiction or social isolation. Children's receptive language, a proxy for school readiness, was measured at programme intake, exit, and age 10 years using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test 3rd Edition (PPVT-III). In Phase I (quantitative), we identified children with receptive language scores in the top and bottom 25th percentile, informing participant selection for Phase II. In Phase II (qualitative), we engaged in constructivist grounded theory to explore experiences of 14 biological mothers, after their children (n = 25) reached age 10 years. Interviews were conducted between June and September 2015. The core category, Stepping Stones to Resiliency, encompassed Perceptions of Family, Moving Forward, Achieving Goals, and Completely Different. Perceptions of Family influenced families' capabilities to move across the Stepping Stones to Resiliency. Stepping Stones to Resiliency provides a lens from which to view others in their daily challenges to break free of painful intergenerational cycles. It is a reminder of our struggle, our shared humanness, and that movement towards resiliency is more difficult for some than others. Our findings challenge traditional episodic, biomedical treatment paradigms for low-income families also experiencing intergenerational cycles of

  8. Aligning Organizational Pathologies and Organizational Resilience Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Morales Allende

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing resilient individuals, organizations and communities is a hot topic in the research agenda in Management, Ecology, Psychology or Engineering. Despite the number of works that focus on resilience is increasing, there is not completely agreed definition of resilience, neither an entirely formal and accepted framework. The cause may be the spread of research among different fields. In this paper, we focus on the study of organizational resilience with the aim of improving the level of resilience in organizations. We review the relation between viable and resilient organizations and their common properties. Based on these common properties, we defend the application of the Viable System Model (VSM to design resilient organizations. We also identify the organizational pathologies defined applying the VSM through resilience indicators. We conclude that an organization with any organizational pathology is not likely to be resilient because it does not fulfill the requirements of viable organizations.

  9. Is there room for resilience? A scoping review and critique of substance use literature and its utilization of the concept of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzinski, Katherine; McDonough, Peggy; Gartner, Rosemary; Strike, Carol

    2017-09-15

    Research in the area of illicit substance use remains preoccupied with describing and analyzing the risks of people who use drugs (PWUD), however more recently there has been a drive to use a strengths-based or resilience approach as an alternative to investigating drug use. This leads us to ask: what can be known about PWUD from the point of view of resilience? The objective of this scoping review is to analyze how the concept of resilience is defined, operationalized, and applied in substance use research. Popular health, social science, psychology, and inter-disciplinary databases namely: SCOPUS, PUBMED, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. Studies were selected if they used the concept of resilience and if substance use was a key variable under investigation. A total of 77 studies were identified which provided a definition of resilience, or attempted to operationalize (e.g., via scales) the concept of resilience in some manner. Data were charted and sorted using key terms and fundamental aspects of resilience. The majority of studies focus on youth and their resistance to, or engagement in, substance use. There is also a small but growing area of research that examines recovery from substance addiction as a form of resilience. Very few studies were found that thoroughly investigated resilience among PWUD. Consistently throughout the literature drug use is presented as a 'risk factor' jeopardizing one's ability to be resilient, or drug use is seen as a 'maladaptive coping strategy', purporting one's lack of resilience. Currently, substance use research provides a substantial amount of information about the internal strengths that can assist in resisting future drug use; however there is less information about the external resources that play a role, especially for adults. Though popular, outcome-based conceptualizations of resilience are often static, concealing the potential for developing resilience over time or as conditions change. Studies of

  10. Integrated Approach to a Resilient City: Associating Social, Environmental and Infrastructure Resilience in its Whole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising complexity, numbers and severity of natural and manmade disasters enhance the importance of reducing vulnerability, or on contrary – increasing resilience, of different kind of systems, including those of social, engineering (infrastructure, and environmental (ecological nature. The goal of this research is to explore urban resilience as an integral system of social, environmental, and engineering resilience. This report analyses the concepts of each kind of resilience and identifies key factors influencing social, ecological, and infrastructure resilience discussing how these factors relate within urban systems. The achievement of resilience of urban and regional systems happens through the interaction of the different elements (social, psychological, physical, structural, and environmental, etc.; therefore, resilient city could be determined by synergy of resilient society, resilient infrastructure and resilient environment of the given area. Based on literature analysis, the current research provides some insights on conceptual framework for assessment of complex urban systems in terms of resilience. To be able to evaluate resilience and define effective measures for prevention and risk mitigation, and thereby strengthen resilience, we propose to develop an e-platform, joining risk parameters’ Monitoring Systems, which feed with data Resiliency Index calculation domain. Both these elements result in Multirisk Platform, which could serve for awareness and shared decision making for resilient people in resilient city.

  11. Water Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Drinking Water and Wastewater Resiliency site provides tools and resources for drinking water and wastewater utilities in the full spectrum of emergency management which includes prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.

  12. Advancing empirical resilience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically.

  13. Spatially Explicit Assessment of Ecosystem Resilience: An Approach to Adapt to Climate Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystem resilience plays a key role in maintaining a steady flow of ecosystem services and enables quick and flexible responses to climate changes, and maintaining or restoring the ecosystem resilience of forests is a necessary societal adaptation to climate change; however, there is a great lack of spatially explicit ecosystem resilience assessments. Drawing on principles of the ecosystem resilience highlighted in the literature, we built on the theory of dissipative structures to develop a conceptual model of the ecosystem resilience of forests. A hierarchical indicator system was designed with the influencing factors of the forest ecosystem resilience, including the stand conditions and the ecological memory, which were further disaggregated into specific indicators. Furthermore, indicator weights were determined with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP and the coefficient of variation method. Based on the remote sensing data and forest inventory data and so forth, the resilience index of forests was calculated. The result suggests that there is significant spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystem resilience of forests, indicating it is feasible to generate large-scale ecosystem resilience maps with this assessment model, and the results can provide a scientific basis for the conservation of forests, which is of great significance to the climate change mitigation.

  14. A Comparative Study on Resilience, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness Among Cancer Patients Treated with Curative and Palliative Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ravindran Ottilingam; Devamani, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Psychological distress is common among patients affected by cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship between resilience, social support, and hopelessness among cancer patients treated with curative and palliative care. Patients and Methods: Sixty cancer patients in the age range of 18–65 years were randomly selected and divided into two groups based on their treatment intent namely, curative care (n = 30) and palliative care (n = 30). Both groups were assessed by the following instruments: Bharathiar University Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Results: Resilience was significantly associated with less hopelessness and higher levels of perceived social support. Conclusion: Cancer patients are found to be resilient, and the role of social support and hopelessness on promoting resilience cannot be ignored. PMID:27162423

  15. A Comparative Study on Resilience, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness Among Cancer Patients Treated with Curative and Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Ravindran Ottilingam; Devamani, Kiran A

    2016-01-01

    Psychological distress is common among patients affected by cancer. In this study, we examined the relationship between resilience, social support, and hopelessness among cancer patients treated with curative and palliative care. Sixty cancer patients in the age range of 18-65 years were randomly selected and divided into two groups based on their treatment intent namely, curative care (n = 30) and palliative care (n = 30). Both groups were assessed by the following instruments: Bharathiar University Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Resilience was significantly associated with less hopelessness and higher levels of perceived social support. Cancer patients are found to be resilient, and the role of social support and hopelessness on promoting resilience cannot be ignored.

  16. A case study exploring the experience of resilience-based clinical supervision and its influence on care towards self and others among student nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Stacey

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare organisations are increasingly recognising their responsibility to support the wellbeing of nurses as a result of the accumulative demands of their role. Resilience-based clinical supervision is a newly developed intervention that encourages practitioners to pay attention and apply reasoning to behaviours and responses to emotive scenarios through a process of stress alleviation and prevention. Aims: To evaluate an intervention aimed at supporting pre-registration nursing students to develop resilience-based competencies that enable them to regulate their response to stress and monitor their own wellbeing using mindfulness, reflective discussion and positive reframing. Method: Case study methodology was used to explore how the characteristics associated with the expression and maintenance of resilience have been influenced by the intervention. Data were collected through focus groups at three timepoints with students and at the end of the intervention period with supervision facilitators, and then analysed by pattern matching to theoretical propositions. Findings: Participants expressed positive experiences of resilience-based clinical supervision. Their perception of the importance of self-care increased and their commitment to caring for others was maintained. They continued to demonstrate competencies of self-care six months after qualifying as nurses, despite the complexities of the workplace. As qualified nurses, participants recognised the implications of limited time and resources on the quality of care they were able to provide to patients, but they externalised this as organisational failings as opposed to personal inadequacy, and worked around such constraints where possible to maintain personal standards. Conclusion: Resilience-based clinical supervision has the potential to support healthcare practitioners in developing resilience-based competencies that allow them to recognise and attend to workplace stressors

  17. Resilience correlates with outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokish, John M; Kissenberth, Michael J; Tolan, Stefan J; Salim, Tariq I; Tadlock, Josh; Kellam, Thomas; Long, Catherine D; Crawford, Ashley; Lonergan, Keith T; Hawkins, Richard J; Shanley, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    Resilience, characterized by an ability to bounce back or recover from stress, is increasingly recognized as a psychometric property affecting many outcomes' domains including quality of life, suicide risk in active-duty military personnel, and recovery in cancer patients. This study examines the correlation between resilience, as measured by the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), and traditional outcome scores including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Penn scores in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Seventy patients undergoing primary anatomic TSA were followed up for a minimum of 2 years (mean, 30 ± 3 months). Patients were stratified into groups a priori, based on deviation from the mean of the BRS score, into low-resilience (LR), normal-resilience (NR), and high-resilience (HR) patients, and outcome scores were calculated for each group. Postoperative BRS scores significantly correlated with ASES, Penn, and SANE scores (r = 0.41-0.44, P resilience group, the LR group had a Penn score that was 34 points lower than that in the HR group. Likewise, the LR group had a SANE score that averaged 40 points lower than that in the HR group (SANE score of 53 points in LR group and 92 points in HR group, P = .05). When we evaluated ASES subscores, it appeared that the pain subscale was responsible for most of the difference between the LR and HR groups (29 points and 48 points [out of 50 points], respectively; P = .03). Resilience is a major predictor of postoperative outcomes after TSA. Patients who are classified as having LR have outcome scores that are 30 to 40 points lower on traditional outcome scales than patients with HR. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Resilience of Past Landscapes: Resilience Theory, Society, and the Longue Durée

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    Charles L. Redman

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Resilience theory is an expanding body of ideas that attempts to provide explanations for the source and role of change in adaptive systems, particularly the kinds of change that are transforming. Scholars from various disciplines have contributed to the current state of this formulation. This article proposes that resilience theory would benefit from an increasing collaboration with archaeologists, who would provide a long-term perspective on adaptive cycles. Although archaeologists and anthropologists have written provocatively about studying the resilience of past and present societies, such an approach has not become common in these disciplines. We suggest, however, that a resilience framework offers a potential mechanism for reinvigorating the conceptual base of archaeological and anthropological disciplines. To make this case, we (1 highlight three features of resilience theory, including cross-scale interactions, information flow, and phases of the adaptive cycle; (2 examine the extent to which purely natural or social science analyses would give complementary or contradictory conclusions; and (3 discuss the implications of using a long-term integrative perspective for understanding linked social and ecological systems.

  19. Multiscale Metrics to Assess Flood Resilience: Feedbacks from SMARTesT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertzer, D.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the FP7 SMARTesT project is to greatly improve flood resilient technologies and systems. A major difficulty is that hydrological basins, in particular urban basins, are systems that are not only complicated due to their large number of components with multiple functions, but also complex. This explains many failures in flood management, as well as to assess, including with the help of numerical simulations, the resilience of a flood management system and therefore to optimize strategies. The term resilience has become extremely fashionable, although corresponding operational and mathematical definitions have remained rather elusive. The latter is required to analyse flood scenarios and simulations. It should be based on some conceptual definition, e.g. the definition of "ecological resilience" (Hollings 1973). The first attempt to define resilience metrics was based on the dynamical system approach. In spite of its mathematical elegance and apparent rigor, this approach suffers from a series of limitations. A common limitation with viability theory is the emergence of spatial scales in systems that are complex in time and space. As recently discussed (Folke et al., 2010), "multiscale resilience is fundamental for understanding the interplay between persistence and change, adaptability and transformability". An operational definition of multiscale resilience can be obtained as soon as scale symmetries are considered. The latter considerably reduce the space-time complexity by defining scale independent variables, called singularities. Ae scale independent resilient metrics should rely on singularities, e.g. to measure qualitative changes of their distribution. Incidentally, singularities are more and more used to analyse urban floods e.g. with the help done for climate scenario analysis. A radical point of view would correspond to define the scale independent analogues of the viability constraint set, viability kernel and resilient basin for

  20. Resiliency against stress among athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Litwic-Kaminska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this paper is to describe the results of a study concerning the relationship between resiliency and appraisal of a stressful situation, anxiety reactions and undertaken methods of coping among sportsmen. Participants and procedure The research concerned 192 competitors who actively train in one of the Olympic disciplines – individual or team. We used the following instruments: Resiliency Assessment Scale (SPP-25; Stress Appraisal Questionnaire A/B; Reactions to Competition Questionnaire; Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Sport Stress Coping Strategies Questionnaire (SR3S, self-constructed. Results Athletes most frequently apply positive types of stress appraisal, and they cope with stress through a task-oriented style during competitions. There is a relationship between the level of resiliency and the analysed aspects of the process of stress. The higher the resiliency, the more positive is the appraisal of a stressful situation and the more task-oriented are the strategies applied. Similarly, in everyday situations resilient sportspeople positively appraise difficult situations and undertake mostly task-oriented strategies. Resiliency is connected with less frequently experiencing reactions in the form of anxiety. Conclusions The obtained results, similarly to previous research, suggest that resiliency is connected with experiencing positive emotions. It causes more frequent appraisal of stressful situations as a challenge. More resilient people also choose more effective and situation-appropriate coping strategies. Therefore they are more resistant to stress.

  1. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Adventure Education and Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…

  3. Depression and Resilience in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Stefanovski, Petar; Smichkoska, Snezhana; Raleva, Marija; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-12-15

    A significant number of breast cancer patients, during their life with the diagnosis, experience emotional distress in the form of depression and anxiety. Psychological resilience is the ability of a person to protect his/her mental health when faced with adverse circumstances such as the cancer diagnosis. This study aims to assess the resilience in breast cancer patients and to explore whether depression affects the resilience. Two hundred eighteen (218) women, treated for early breast cancer responded to Connor - Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale, in order to assess the level of psychological resilience and the level of depression. There is a significant negative correlation between depression and resilience in our sample (r = - 0.562, p resilience. There is no statistically significant correlation between the ages of the participants; time passed since diagnosis, cancer stage and resilience levels. This study shows that patients who are less depressed have higher levels of resilience and that psychological resilience may independently contribute to lower levels of depression among breast cancer patients. The level of psychological resilience may be a protective factor for depression and psychological distress.

  4. Citizen science for hydrological risk reduction and resilience building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Buytaert, Wouter; Allen, Simon; Ballesteros‐Cánovas, Juan A.; Bhusal, Jagat K.; Cieslik, Katarzyna; Clark, Julian; Dugar, Sumit; Hannah, David M.; Stoffel, M.; Dewulf, A.R.P.J.; Dhital, Megh R.; Liu, Wei; Nayaval, Janak Lal; Neupane, Bhanu; Schiller, Arnulf; Smith, P.J.; Supper, Robert

    2017-01-01

    In disaster risk management (DRM), an emerging shift has been noted from broad-scale, top-down assessments toward more participatory, community-based, bottom-up approaches. Arguably, nonscientist local stakeholders have always played an important role in knowledge risk management and resilience

  5. Linking disaster resilience and urban sustainability: a glocal approach for future cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asprone, Domenico; Manfredi, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Resilience and sustainability will be two primary objectives of future cities. The violent consequences of extreme natural events and the environmental, social and economic burden of contemporary cities make the concepts of resilience and sustainability extremely relevant. In this paper we analyse the various definitions of resilience and sustainability applied to urban systems and propose a synthesis, based on similarities between the two concepts. According to the proposed approach, catastrophic events and the subsequent transformations occurring in urban systems represent a moment in the city life cycle to be seen in terms of the complex sustainability framework. Hence, resilience is seen as a requirement for urban system sustainability. In addition, resilience should be evaluated not only for single cities, with their physical and social systems, but also on a global scale, taking into account the complex and dynamic relationships connecting contemporary cities. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  6. “More Than a Game”: The Impact of Sport-Based Youth Mentoring Schemes on Developing Resilience toward Violent Extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Johns

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon the findings of an evaluation of “More than a Game”, a sport-focused youth mentoring program in Melbourne, Australia that aimed to develop a community-based resilience model using team-based sports to address issues of identity, belonging, and cultural isolation amongst young Muslim men in order to counter forms of violent extremism. In this essay we focus specifically on whether the intense embodied encounters and emotions experienced in team sports can help break down barriers of cultural and religious difference between young people and facilitate experiences of resilience, mutual respect, trust, social inclusion and belonging. Whilst the project findings are directly relevant to the domain of countering violent extremism, they also contribute to a growing body of literature which considers the relationship between team-based sport, cross-cultural engagement and the development of social resilience, inclusion and belonging in other domains of youth engagement and community-building.

  7. Balancing psychache and resilience in aging Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohana, Irit; Golander, Hava; Barak, Yoram

    2014-06-01

    Psychache can and does co-exist alongside resilience and coping amongst trauma survivors. This has been the center of the a-integrative theory of aging demonstrating an attitude to life based on cognitive and emotional dimensions. Aging of Holocaust survivors (HS) is especially difficult when focus is brought to the issue of integrating their life history. The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between psychache and resilience amongst aging HS. Cross-sectional study of HS and a matched comparison group recruited from the general population was carried out. All underwent a personal interview and endorsed quantifiable psychache and resilience scales. We enrolled 214 elderly participants: 107 HS and 107 comparison participants. Mean age for the participants was 80.7± years; there were 101 women and 113 men in each group. Holocaust survivors did not differ in the level of resilience from comparisons (mean: 5.82 ± 0.68 vs. 5.88 ± 0.55, respectively). Psychache was significantly more intense in the HS group (F(8,205) = 2.21; p < 0.05). The present study demonstrates the complex interplay between psychache and resilience. Aging HS still have to cope with high levels of psychache while realizing a life-long process of development through resilience.

  8. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  9. Fishing for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Management approaches that focus on social–ecological systems—systems comprised of ecosystems, landscapes, and humans—are needed to secure the sustainability of inland recreational fisheries without jeopardizing the integrity of the underlying social and ecological components. Resilience management can be useful because it focuses on providing recreational capacity for fishermen under a variety of conditions while assuring that the social–ecological system is not pushed to a critical threshold that would result in a new, undesired system regime. Resilience management is based on a system perspective that accounts for the possible regimes a system could manifest. It aims to enhance system properties that allow continued maintenance of the system in a desired regime in which multiple goods and services, including recreational capacity, are provided. In this forum paper, we provide an overview of the potential of a resilience approach to the management of recreational fisheries and highlight the scientific and administrative challenges to its successful implementation.

  10. A general CFD framework for fault-resilient simulations based on multi-resolution information fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjoon; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-10-01

    We develop a general CFD framework for multi-resolution simulations to target multiscale problems but also resilience in exascale simulations, where faulty processors may lead to gappy, in space-time, simulated fields. We combine approximation theory and domain decomposition together with statistical learning techniques, e.g. coKriging, to estimate boundary conditions and minimize communications by performing independent parallel runs. To demonstrate this new simulation approach, we consider two benchmark problems. First, we solve the heat equation (a) on a small number of spatial "patches" distributed across the domain, simulated by finite differences at fine resolution and (b) on the entire domain simulated at very low resolution, thus fusing multi-resolution models to obtain the final answer. Second, we simulate the flow in a lid-driven cavity in an analogous fashion, by fusing finite difference solutions obtained with fine and low resolution assuming gappy data sets. We investigate the influence of various parameters for this framework, including the correlation kernel, the size of a buffer employed in estimating boundary conditions, the coarseness of the resolution of auxiliary data, and the communication frequency across different patches in fusing the information at different resolution levels. In addition to its robustness and resilience, the new framework can be employed to generalize previous multiscale approaches involving heterogeneous discretizations or even fundamentally different flow descriptions, e.g. in continuum-atomistic simulations.

  11. Recognizing resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Gillian Baine; Mary E. Northridge; Lindsay K. Campbell; Sara S. Metcalf

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a year after a devastating tornado hit the town of Joplin, Missouri, leaving 161 people dead and leveling Joplin High School and St. John's Hospital, President Obama addressed the graduating seniors: "There are a lot of stories here in Joplin of unthinkable courage and resilience. . . . [People in Joplin] learned that we have the power to...

  12. A work-based educational intervention to support the development of personal resilience in nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Glenda; Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley; Vickers, Margaret H

    2012-05-01

    A work-based educational programme was the intervention used in a collective case study aiming to develop, strengthen and maintain personal resilience amongst fourteen nurses and midwives. The participants attended six, monthly workshops and formed a participatory learning group. Post-intervention, participants reported positive personal and professional outcomes, including enhanced self-confidence, self-awareness, communication and conflict resolution skills. They strengthened relationships with their colleagues, enabling them to build helpful support networks in the workplace. The intervention used new and innovative ways of engaging nurses and midwives exhibiting the effects of workplace adversity - fatigue, pressure, stress and emotional labour. Participants were removed from their usual workplace environment and brought together to engage in critical reflection, experiential learning and creativity whilst also learning about the key characteristics and strategies of personal resilience. Participants' experiences and skills were valued and respected; honest airing of the differences within the group regarding common workplace issues and concerns was encouraged. The new contribution of this intervention for nursing and midwifery education was supporting the learning experience with complementary therapies to improve participants' wellbeing and reduce stress. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Resilience of Amazonian forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Flores, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon has recently been portrayed as a resilient forest system based on quick recovery of biomass after human disturbance. Yet with climate change, the frequency of droughts and wildfires may increase, implying that parts of this massive forest may shift into a savanna state. Although the

  14. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maltby

    Full Text Available The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being.

  15. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  16. Contingency-based emotional resilience: Effort-based reward training and flexible coping lead to adaptive responses to uncertainty in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly G Lambert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotional resilience enhances an animal’s ability to maintain physiological allostasis and adaptive responses in the midst of challenges ranging from cognitive uncertainty to chronic stress. In the current study, neurobiological factors related to strategic responses to uncertainty produced by prediction errors were investigated by initially profiling male rats as passive, active or flexible copers (n=12 each group and assigning to either a contingency-trained or non-contingency trained group. Animals were subsequently trained in a spatial learning task so that problem solving strategies in the final probe task, as well various biomarkers of brain activation and plasticity in brain areas associated with cognition and emotional regulation, could be assessed. Additionally, fecal samples were collected to further determine markers of stress responsivity and emotional resilience. Results indicated that contingency-trained rats exhibited more adaptive responses in the probe trial (e.g., fewer interrupted grooming sequences and more targeted search strategies than the noncontingent-trained rats; additionally, increased DHEA/CORT ratios were observed in the contingent-trained animals. Diminished activation of the habenula (i.e., fos-immunoreactivity was correlated with resilience factors such as increased levels of DHEA metabolites during cognitive training. Of the three coping profiles, flexible copers exhibited enhanced neuroplasticity (i.e., increased dentate gyrus doublecortin-immunoreactivity compared to the more consistently responding active and passive copers. Thus, in the current study, contingency training via effort-based reward training, enhanced by a flexible coping style, provided neurobiological resilience and adaptive responses to prediction errors in the final probe trial. These findings have implications for psychiatric illnesses that are influenced by altered stress responses and decision-making abilities (e.g., depression.

  17. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  18. Metrics for energy resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roege, Paul E.; Collier, Zachary A.; Mancillas, James; McDonagh, John A.; Linkov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Energy lies at the backbone of any advanced society and constitutes an essential prerequisite for economic growth, social order and national defense. However there is an Achilles heel to today's energy and technology relationship; namely a precarious intimacy between energy and the fiscal, social, and technical systems it supports. Recently, widespread and persistent disruptions in energy systems have highlighted the extent of this dependence and the vulnerability of increasingly optimized systems to changing conditions. Resilience is an emerging concept that offers to reconcile considerations of performance under dynamic environments and across multiple time frames by supplementing traditionally static system performance measures to consider behaviors under changing conditions and complex interactions among physical, information and human domains. This paper identifies metrics useful to implement guidance for energy-related planning, design, investment, and operation. Recommendations are presented using a matrix format to provide a structured and comprehensive framework of metrics relevant to a system's energy resilience. The study synthesizes previously proposed metrics and emergent resilience literature to provide a multi-dimensional model intended for use by leaders and practitioners as they transform our energy posture from one of stasis and reaction to one that is proactive and which fosters sustainable growth. - Highlights: • Resilience is the ability of a system to recover from adversity. • There is a need for methods to quantify and measure system resilience. • We developed a matrix-based approach to generate energy resilience metrics. • These metrics can be used in energy planning, system design, and operations

  19. Stress Management and Resilience Training (SMART) program to decrease stress and enhance resilience among breast cancer survivors: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Caitlin E; Prasad, Kavita; Schroeder, Darrell R; Sood, Amit

    2011-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial assessed the effect of a SMART (Stress Management and Resiliency Training) program among 25 women diagnosed with breast cancer. Resilience, perceived stress, anxiety, and quality of life improved at 12 weeks in the active but not the control arm. A brief training in the SMART program can enhance resilience and quality of life and decrease stress and anxiety. Patients with breast cancer experience stress and anxiety related to their diagnosis, with resulting lower quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a SMART (Stress Management and Resiliency Training) program for increasing resiliency and for decreasing stress and anxiety among mentors who themselves were previously diagnosed with breast cancer. The program consisted of two 90-minute group training sessions, a brief individual session, and 3 follow-up telephone calls. Twenty-four mentors at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, were randomized in a single-blind, wait-list controlled clinical trial to either the SMART intervention or a control group for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measures assessed at baseline and at week 12 included the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Smith Anxiety Scale, and Linear Analog Self Assessment Scale. Twenty patients completed the study. A statistically significant improvement in resilience, perceived stress, anxiety, and overall quality of life at 12 weeks, compared with baseline was observed in the study arm. No significant difference in any of these measures was noted in the control group. This study demonstrates that a brief, predominantly group-based resilience training intervention is feasible in patients with previous breast cancer; also, it may be efficacious. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Participation in rural community groups and links with psychological well-being and resilience: a cross-sectional community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Anthony; Fletcher, Gillian; Farmer, Jane; Kenny, Amanda; Bourke, Lisa; Carra, Kylie; Bariola, Emily

    2016-04-08

    Fostering the development of community groups can be an important part of boosting community participation and improving health and well-being outcomes in rural communities. In this article, we examine whether psychological well-being and resilience are linked to participating in particular kinds of rural community groups. We conducted a household survey involving 176 participants aged 18 to 94 years from a medium-sized rural Australian town. We gathered data on psychological well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale), resilience (Brief Resilience Scale), and the types of community groups that people participated in as well as a range of characteristics of those groups, such as size, frequency of group meetings, perceived openness to new members, and whether groups had leaders, defined roles for members, hierarchies, and rules. Univariable regression analyses revealed significant links between particular group characteristics and individual psychological well-being and resilience, suggesting that the characteristics of the group that an individual participates in are strongly tied to that person's well-being outcomes. Multivariable analyses revealed two significant independent factors. First, psychological well-being was greatest among those who participated in groups without a hierarchy, that is, equal-status relationships between members. Second, resilience was greater among those who reported having a sense of influence within a group. Our findings suggest that policymakers wishing to promote participation in rural community groups for health and well-being benefits may do well to encourage the development of particular characteristics within those groups, in particular equal-status relationships and a sense of influence for all group members.

  1. Addressing vulnerability, building resilience: community-based adaptation to vector-borne diseases in the context of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardosh, Kevin Louis; Ryan, Sadie J; Ebi, Kris; Welburn, Susan; Singer, Burton

    2017-12-11

    The threat of a rapidly changing planet - of coupled social, environmental and climatic change - pose new conceptual and practical challenges in responding to vector-borne diseases. These include non-linear and uncertain spatial-temporal change dynamics associated with climate, animals, land, water, food, settlement, conflict, ecology and human socio-cultural, economic and political-institutional systems. To date, research efforts have been dominated by disease modeling, which has provided limited practical advice to policymakers and practitioners in developing policies and programmes on the ground. In this paper, we provide an alternative biosocial perspective grounded in social science insights, drawing upon concepts of vulnerability, resilience, participation and community-based adaptation. Our analysis was informed by a realist review (provided in the Additional file 2) focused on seven major climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases: malaria, schistosomiasis, dengue, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, chagas disease, and rift valley fever. Here, we situate our analysis of existing community-based interventions within the context of global change processes and the wider social science literature. We identify and discuss best practices and conceptual principles that should guide future community-based efforts to mitigate human vulnerability to vector-borne diseases. We argue that more focused attention and investments are needed in meaningful public participation, appropriate technologies, the strengthening of health systems, sustainable development, wider institutional changes and attention to the social determinants of health, including the drivers of co-infection. In order to respond effectively to uncertain future scenarios for vector-borne disease in a changing world, more attention needs to be given to building resilient and equitable systems in the present.

  2. Degrees of Resilience: Profiling Psychological Resilience and Prospective Academic Achievement in University Inductees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, John F.; McKenna, Jim; Dominey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    University inductees may be increasingly vulnerable to stressors during transition into higher education (HE), requiring psychological resilience to achieve academic success. This study aimed to profile inductees' resilience and to investigate links to prospective end of year academic outcomes. Scores for resilience were based on a validated…

  3. Resilience associated with mental health problems among methadone maintenance treatment patients in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Mingxu; Gu, Jing; Xu, Huifang; Hao, Chun; Lau, Joseph T F; Mo, Phoenix; Liu, Di; Zhao, Yuteng; Zhang, Xiao; Babbitt, Andrew; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-05-01

    A considerable proportion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients have experienced mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety), and poor mental health status is associated with HIV-related risk behaviors and treatment drop-out. Resilience is known to be a protective factor for mental health problems but is not studied among MMT clients in China. This study aimed to explore the relationship between resilience and mental health problems (depression, anxiety and stress) among clients of community-based MMT clinics in China. A total of 208 MMT clients completed the face-to-face interview conducted at 4 of 11 MMT clinics in Guangzhou. The Chinese short version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) was used to assess the presence of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was used to measure resilience. Logistic regression models were fit in data analyses. Of all participants, 12.8%, 19.5% and 8.3% had depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. The mean resilience score was 57.6 (SD = 15.9). In the univariate analyses, resilience was negatively associated with two studied mental health problems (depression and anxiety, OR u  = 0.96 and 0.96, p mental health problems of MMT users should consider resilience as an important part in the designing of such interventions.

  4. Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A.

    2017-06-01

    Through vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks, rainfall reductions as a result of Amazon deforestation could reduce the resilience on the remaining forest to perturbations and potentially lead to large-scale Amazon forest loss. We track observation-based water fluxes from sources (evapotranspiration) to sinks (rainfall) to assess the effect of deforestation on continental rainfall. By studying 21st century deforestation scenarios, we show that deforestation can reduce dry season rainfall by up to 20% far from the deforested area, namely, over the western Amazon basin and the La Plata basin. As a consequence, forest resilience is systematically eroded in the southwestern region covering a quarter of the current Amazon forest. Our findings suggest that the climatological effects of deforestation can lead to permanent forest loss in this region. We identify hot spot regions where forest loss should be avoided to maintain the ecological integrity of the Amazon forest.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Resilience-Based Intervention for Children Affected by Parental HIV: Educational Outcomes at 24-, 30-, and 36-Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sayward E.; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, JiaJia; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2018-01-01

    Children of parents with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at-risk for a variety of negative outcomes, including poor educational achievement. The multi-level, resilience-based "ChildCARE" intervention has been found to yield short-term improvement in a number of school-related variables for children affected by parental HIV.…

  6. Community based Adaptation (CBA) as a source of conflict in strengthening local adaptive capacity and resilience in semi-arid regions in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Soeters, S.R.

    2017-01-01

    This article, based on fieldwork in Ghana, Burkina Faso and Kenya, provides an overview of different types of climate change adaptation interventions that are currently being implemented to enhance local community’s adaptive capacity and resilience. We show that CBA interventions, whilst measurably

  7. Building resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2011-04-01

    Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely. Some reel, recover, and move on with their lives; others get bogged down by anxiety, depression, and fear of the future. Seligman, who is known as the father of positive psychology, has spent three decades researching failure, helplessness, and optimism. He created a program at the University of Pennsylvania to help young adults and children overcome anxiety and depression, and has worked with colleagues from around the world to develop a program for teaching resilience. That program is being tested by the U.S. Army, an organization of 1.1 million people where trauma is more common and more severe than in any corporate setting. Nevertheless, businesspeo-ple can draw lessons from resilience training, particularly in times of failure and stagnation. The program is called Comprehensive Soldier Fitness, and it has three components: the Global Assessment Tool, a test for psychological fitness (administered to more than 900,000 soldiers to date); self-improvement courses following the test; and "master resilience training" (MRT) for drill sergeants. MRT focuses on enhancing mental toughness, highlighting and honing strengths, and fostering strong relationships-core competencies for any successful manager.

  8. Quantifying resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The biosphere is under unprecedented pressure, reflected in rapid changes in our global ecological, social, technological and economic systems. In many cases, ecological and social systems can adapt to these changes over time, but when a critical threshold is surpassed, a system under stress can undergo catastrophic change and reorganize into a different state. The concept of resilience, introduced more than 40 years ago in the ecological sciences, captures the behaviour of systems that can occur in alternative states. The original definition of resilience forwarded by Holling (1973) is still the most useful. It defines resilience as the amount of disturbance that a system can withstand before it shifts into an alternative stable state. The idea of alternative stable states has clear and profound implications for ecological management. Coral reefs, for example, are high-diversity systems that provide key ecosystem services such as fisheries and coastal protection. Human impacts are causing significant, ongoing reef degradation, and many reefs have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states in response to anthropogenic pressures such as elevated water temperatures and overfishing. Understanding and differentiating between the factors that help maintain reefs in coral-dominated states vs. those that facilitate a shift to an undesired algal-dominated state is a critical step towards sound management and conservation of these, and other, important social–ecological systems.

  9. A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Georga PE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP registrars. Methods We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional survey of GP registrars in Australia from June to July 2010, recruited from a newsletter item or registrar education events. Survey measures included the Resilience Scale-14, a single-item scale for burnout, Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL scale, Personal Meaning in Patient Care scale, Intolerance of Uncertainty-12 scale, and Physician Response to Uncertainty scale. Results 128 GP registrars responded (response rate 90%. Fourteen percent of registrars were found to be at risk of burnout using the single-item scale for burnout, but none met the criteria for burnout using the ProQOL scale. Secondary traumatic stress, general intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety due to clinical uncertainty and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients were associated with being at higher risk of burnout, but sex, age, practice location, training duration, years since graduation, and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to physicians were not. Only ten percent of registrars had high resilience scores. Resilience was positively associated with compassion satisfaction and personal meaning in patient care. Resilience was negatively associated with burnout, secondary traumatic stress, inhibitory anxiety, general intolerance to uncertainty, concern about bad outcomes and reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients. Conclusions GP registrars in this survey showed a lower level of burnout than in other recent surveys of the broader junior doctor population in both Australia

  10. “I know it when I see it.” The complexities of measuring resilience among parents of children with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R.; Starks, Helene; Jones, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Promoting parent resilience may provide an opportunity to improve family-level survivorship after pediatric cancer; however, measuring resilience is challenging. Methods The “Understanding Resilience in Parents of Children with Cancer” was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of bereaved and non-bereaved parents. Surveys included the Connor-Davidson Resilience scale, the Kessler-6 psychological distress scale, the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory, and an open-ended question regarding the on-going impact of cancer. We conducted content analyses of open-ended responses and categorized our impressions as “resilient,” “not resilient,” or “unable to determine.” “Resilience” was determined based on evidence of psychological growth, lack of distress, and parent-reported meaning/purpose. We compared consensus-impressions with instrument scores to examine alignment. Analyses were stratified by bereavement status. Results Eighty-four (88%) non-bereaved, and 21 (88%) bereaved parents provided written responses. Among non-bereaved, 53 (63%) were considered resilient, 15 (18%) were not. Among bereaved, 11 (52%) were deemed resilient, 5 (24%) were not. All others suggested a mixed or incomplete picture. Rater-determined “resilient” parents tended to have higher personal resources and lower psychological distress (p=resilient” parents also had higher post-traumatic growth (p=0.02). Person-level analyses demonstrated that only 50–62% of parents had all 3 instrument scores aligned with our impressions of resilience. Conclusions Despite multiple theories, measuring resilience is challenging. Our clinical impressions of resilience were aligned in 100% of cases; however, instruments measuring potential markers of resilience were aligned in approximately half. Promoting resilience therefore requires understanding of multiple factors, including person-level perspectives, individual resources, processes of adaptation and emotional well-being. PMID

  11. The concept of resilience- the scientific adaptation for society health

    OpenAIRE

    Svence, Guna

    2015-01-01

    The main idea of the paper to indicate the factors of resilience indicators. The task of the research - a theoretical analysis of the latest research resilience factors and resilience risk factors and to analyze the theory of the intervention of positive psychology and development programs. Based on quantitative methods (narrative content analysis) recognise the contents of resilience and create the resilience factor model. Author together with students form RTTEMA master study programme “Psy...

  12. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  13. Differential responses of emergent intertidal coral reef fauna to a large-scale El-Niño southern oscillation event: sponge and coral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J; Moraes, Simone Souza; Gomes, Rilza da Costa Tourinho; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Attrill, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997-8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995-2011) biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997-8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms.

  14. Using resistance and resilience concepts to reduce impacts of annual grasses and altered fire regimes on the sagebrush ecosystem and sage-grouse- A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Boyd, Chad S.; Campbell, Steve; Espinosa, Shawn; Havlina, Doug; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Wuenschel, Amarina

    2014-01-01

    This Report provides a strategic approach for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems and Greater Sage- Grouse (sage-grouse) that focuses specifically on habitat threats caused by invasive annual grasses and altered fire regimes. It uses information on factors that influence (1) sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution, relative abundance, and persistence of sage-grouse populations to develop management strategies at both landscape and site scales. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with sage-grouse habitat requirements for landscape cover of sagebrush to help decision makers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at landscape scales. Focal areas for management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation (PACs), breeding bird densities, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of focal areas for treatment and the most appropriate management treatments.

  15. Multi-Sited Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog

    2012-01-01

    Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced with natu......Participatory methods to build local resilience often involve the organization of local community groups. When global organizations use such methods, it reflects a desire to incorporate local agency. They thereby acknowledge the ability of a society to be innovative and adapt when faced...... with natural disasters and climate change. In a globalized world, however, it is hard to discern what is “local” as global organizations play an increasingly visible and powerful role. This paper will argue that local understandings and practices of resilience cannot be disentangled from global understandings...... flooding in northern Ghana, this paper examines the mutual construction of “local” and “global” notions and practices of resilience through multi-sited processes. It is based on interviews and participant observation in multiple sites at the “local,” “regional” and “global” levels....

  16. Resilience to stress and disturbance, and resistance to Bromus tectorum L. invasion in cold desert shrublands of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Bradley, Bethany A.; Brown, Cynthia S.; D'Antonio, Carla; Germino, Matthew J.; Grace, James B.; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Miller, Richard F.; Pyke, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Alien grass invasions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems are resulting in grass–fire cycles and ecosystem-level transformations that severely diminish ecosystem services. Our capacity to address the rapid and complex changes occurring in these ecosystems can be enhanced by developing an understanding of the environmental factors and ecosystem attributes that determine resilience of native ecosystems to stress and disturbance, and resistance to invasion. Cold desert shrublands occur over strong environmental gradients and exhibit significant differences in resilience and resistance. They provide an excellent opportunity to increase our understanding of these concepts. Herein, we examine a series of linked questions about (a) ecosystem attributes that determine resilience and resistance along environmental gradients, (b) effects of disturbances like livestock grazing and altered fire regimes and of stressors like rapid climate change, rising CO2, and N deposition on resilience and resistance, and (c) interacting effects of resilience and resistance on ecosystems with different environmental conditions. We conclude by providing strategies for the use of resilience and resistance concepts in a management context. At ecological site scales, state and transition models are used to illustrate how differences in resilience and resistance influence potential alternative vegetation states, transitions among states, and thresholds. At landscape scales management strategies based on resilience and resistance—protection, prevention, restoration, and monitoring and adaptive management—are used to determine priority management areas and appropriate actions.

  17. Bringing nature-based solutions to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Balog, Simone; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje

    2017-04-01

    Coastal communities in developing countries are highly exposed and vulnerable to coastal flood risk, and are likely to suffer from climate change induced changes in risk. Over the last decade, strong evidence has surfaced that nature-based solutions or ecosystem-based approaches are efficient and effective alternatives for flood risk reduction and climate change adaptation. In developing countries, numerous projects have therefore been implemented, often driven by international donors and NGOs. Some of these projects have been successful in reducing risk while improving environmental and socioeconomic conditions. However, the feasibility assessment, design and implementation of nature-based solutions is a multifaceted process, which needs to be well-understood before such solutions can be effectively implemented as an addition or alternative to grey infrastructure. This process has not always been followed. As a result, many projects have failed to deliver positive outcomes. The international community therefore has a challenge in bringing nature-based solutions to scale in an effective way. In this presentation, we will present best practice guidelines on nature-based solution implementation that are currently being discussed by the international community. Furthermore, we will present the alpha version of a new web platform being developed by the World Bank that will serve as a much-needed central repository for project information on nature-based solutions, and that will host actionable implementation guidelines. The presentation will also serve as an invitation to the scientific community to share their experience and lessons learned, and contribute to the outlining of best practice guidance.

  18. Resilience in women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Manuel; Rodriguez, Yhojan; Pacheco, Yovana; Zapata, Elizabeth; Monsalve, Diana M; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rodríguez-Jimenez, Monica; Ramírez-Santana, Carolina; Molano-González, Nicolás; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-28

    To evaluate the relationship between resilience and clinical outcomes in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Focus groups, individual interviews, and chart reviews were done to collect data on 188 women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, namely rheumatoid arthritis (n=51), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=70), systemic sclerosis (n=35), and Sjögren's syndrome (n=32). Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables were assessed including disease activity by patient reported outcomes. Resilience was evaluated by using the Brief Resilience Scale. Bivariate, multiple linear regression, and classification and regression trees were used to analyse data. Resilience was influenced by age, duration of disease, and socioeconomic status. Lower resilience scores were observed in younger patients (50years) had higher resilience scores regardless of socioeconomic status. There was no influence of disease activity on resilience. A particular behaviour was observed in systemic sclerosis in which patients with high socioeconomic status and regular physical activity had higher resilience scores. Resilience in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases is a continuum process influenced by age and socioeconomic status. The ways in which these variables along with exercise influence resilience deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of an acrylic-based resilient liner on perceived chewing ability in edentulous patients wearing mandibular complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Suguru; Kimoto, Katsuhiko; Gunji, Atsuko; Shinomiya, Mayako; Sawada, Tomofumi; Saita, Makiko; Kobayashi, Kihei

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acrylic-based resilient liner (ARL) on perceived chewing ability in patients using mandibular complete dentures compared with that of patients using mandibular complete dentures with a conventional acrylic resin (CAR). This randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers from April 2004 to July 2006. Seventy-four subjects were randomly allocated to either the ARL or CAR group using a random permuted block method after obtaining written informed consent. A valid questionnaire listing 35 foods was used to evaluate the subjects' perceived chewing ability of each item, assessed according to the following scale: 0=cannot eat, 1=can eat with difficulty, and 2=can eat easily. If subjects did not eat the food because they disliked it or had not eaten it since first wearing dentures, they filled in a triangle or square, respectively. These figures were treated as a 0 during analysis. No significant differences were observed between the ARL and CAR groups. The perceived chewing ability of subjects with new complete dentures was significantly higher than that of those with their old complete dentures. The duration of edentulism was positively associated with perceived chewing ability. An ARL applied to mandibular complete dentures has no significant impact on the perceived chewing ability of edentulous patients in comparison to a CAR.

  20. Resiliency and the Ability to Detect Cartoon Humor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killlon, Jessica B.; Torres, Aurora

    2017-01-01

    The Connor Davidson Resilience Scale was developed to measure resiliency, an individual's ability to positively adapt to stressful or adverse situations. Resilient individuals have close and secure relationships, have a strong sense of purpose, know when to turn to others for help, and find humor in situations. The focus of this study was on the…

  1. [The resilience and health status of primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ya-Chi; Chen, Mei-Bih; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Bai, Ya-Mei; Wei, Shiow-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Resilience has been shown to have a positive effect on health status. However, little research has been conducted on the impact of resilience on the health of primary caregivers of schizophrenia patients. This study investigated the correlations between resilience and the health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. A cross-sectional, descriptive research design was used. Data collection was conducted using a set of questionnaires that included a demographic datasheet, the SOC-13 (Sense of Coherence), the DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), and the SF-36 (short form). Seventy caregivers of schizophrenia patients were enrolled as participants at the psychiatric inpatient department of a medical center. SPSS 17.0 and SAS.9.2 statistical software packages were used to conduct descriptive analysis, the Sobel test, and Tobit model analysis. (1) The mean QOL (quality of life) scale score was 67.46 (SD = 17.74). Nearly one-fifth (18.6%) of caregivers were classified in the low to high depression range; 17.1% were classified in the low to high anxiety level; and 10% were classified in low to high stress level. (2) Duration of the caring period correlated negatively with caregiver QOL; having a concomitant disease significantly impacted QOL and resilience; and number of patient hospitalization days correlated negatively with level of caregiver anxiety. (3) The numbers of incidents of patient violence and patient suicide attempts correlated negatively with caregiver resilience and QOL. (4) Resilience was a mediator between care-giver demographic data and QOL. (5) Caregiver resilience was a predictor of QOL, depression, anxiety, and stress. The findings of the present study increase our understanding of the impact of resilience on the health status of caregivers of schizophrenia patients. The authors hope these finding may be referenced in the development of resilience-based nursing caring models in the future.

  2. Disease epidemics: Lessons for resilience in an increasingly connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; DeWitte, S.N.; Kurth, M.H.; Linkov, I.

    2016-01-01

    In public health, the term resilience often refers to the personality traits that individuals possess which help them endure and recover from stressors. However, resilience as a system characteristic, especially in regards to complex social-ecological systems, can be informative for public health at scales larger than the individual. Acute shocks to systems occur against a background of existing conditions, which are crucial determinants of the eventual public health outcomes of those shocks, and in the context of complex dependencies among and between ecological and societal elements. Many components of a system's baseline condition are chronic public health concerns themselves and diminish the capacity of the system to perform in the face of acute shocks. The emerging field of resilience management is concerned with holistically assessing and improving a system's ability to prepare for and absorb disruption, and then recover and adapt across physical, information, environmental and social domains. Integrating resilience considerations into current risk- and evidence-based approaches to disease control and prevention1 can move public health efforts toward more proactive and comprehensive solutions for protecting and improving the health of communities. Here, we look to the case of the Black Death as an illustrative case of a dramatic transformation in human history, an acute shock to a system that was underlain by chronic social maladies, to derive lessons about resilience management for public health in contemporary systems.

  3. Resilience and risk management in the urban project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyron, Jessica; Becue, Vincent; El Meouche, Rani; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    Our study focus on the recourse of resilience concept in an urban environment coupled with risk management concerns. The urban resilience is subject to interpretation according to the expertise fields and the using context. It brings underlying concepts of time and space out. For its part, the urban environment is complex because of the elements multitude which makes up it on a dense area as much humanly, structurally, materially as functionally. The resilience polysemy rediscovers within the risk management and is confronted with the operational expectation that she arouses in this field. Between absorption, recovery, adaptability or else effectiveness, the level of requirement of the urban area could be abundant and varied to a system to another and in front of a risk to another. The capability of the urban systems to integrate the outstanding risk scope could be reinforce through the use of spatialisation tools. The access to these knowledge more and more widespread makes the changing of spatial and temporal scales thought easier in the urban project approach along with the sharing of citizen and territorial actions and innovations. Our work gets into position between resilience and urban planning. Based on bibliography and urban planning feedback in front of risks, we envisage to study the achievement of the urban planning in the field of vulnerable districts or buildings. Our aim tends torwards characterise urban resilience in risk field through spatialisation tool setting up.

  4. A cluster randomised trial of a school-based resilience intervention to decrease tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use in secondary school students: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodder Rebecca K

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst schools provide a potentially appropriate setting for preventing substance use among young people, systematic review evidence suggests that past interventions in this setting have demonstrated limited effectiveness in preventing tobacco, alcohol and other drug use. Interventions that adopt a mental wellbeing approach to prevent substance use offer considerable promise and resilience theory provides one method to impact on adolescent mental well-being. The aim of the proposed study is to examine the efficacy of a resilience intervention in decreasing the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents. Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the unit of randomisation will be undertaken. Thirty two schools in disadvantaged areas will be allocated to either an intervention or a control group. A comprehensive resilience intervention will be implemented, inclusive of explicit program adoption strategies. Baseline surveys will be conducted with students in Grade 7 in both groups and again three years later when the student cohort is in Grade 10. The primary outcome measures will include self-reported tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and other illicit drug use. Comparisons will be made post-test between Grade 10 students in intervention and control schools to determine intervention effectiveness across all measures. Discussion To the authors’ knowledge this is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive school-based resilience intervention, inclusive of explicit adoption strategies, in decreasing tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of adolescents attending disadvantaged secondary schools. Trial registration ACTRN12611000606987

  5. Standardisation or Resilience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinck Pedersen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature...... begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with ‘safety dispositions’ as a precondition for delivering safe care....

  6. Ego and Spiritual Transcendence: Relevance to Psychological Resilience and the Role of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hanfstingl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates different approaches of transcendence in the sense of spiritual experience as predictors for general psychological resilience. This issue is based on the theoretical assumption that resilience does play a role for physical health. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirical evidence about the extent to which spirituality does play a role for resilience. As potential predictors for resilience, ego transcendence, spiritual transcendence, and meaning in life were measured in a sample of 265 people. The main result of a multiple regression analysis is that, in the subsample with people below 29 years, only one rather secular scale that is associated with ego transcendence predicts resilience, whereas for the older subsample of 29 years and above, spiritual transcendence gains both a positive (oneness and timelessness and a negative (spiritual insight relevance to psychological resilience. On the one hand, these results concur with previous studies that also found age-related differences. On the other hand, it is surprising that the MOS spiritual insight predicts psychological resilience negatively, the effect is increasing with age. One possible explanation concerns wisdom research. Here, an adaptive way of dealing with the age-related loss of control is assumed to be relevant to successful aging.

  7. Secondary outcomes of a school-based universal resiliency training for adolescents: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Y.R.; Kleinjan, M.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study investigated the long-term effectiveness of the adolescent cognitive behavioral resiliency training Op Volle Kracht (OVK) on the secondary outcomes: anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, happiness, life satisfaction, optimism, coping, self-efficacy, and school functioning. In

  8. Development of an Interview-Based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Christine; Scogin, Forrest

    1992-01-01

    Developed interview-based Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDRS) and administered 35-item GDRS to 68 older adults with range of affective disturbance. Found scale to have internal consistency and split-half reliability comparable to those of Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and Geriatric Depression Scale. Concurrent validity, construct…

  9. Reducing violence in poor urban areas of Honduras by building community resilience through community-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen-Nord, Nete Sloth; Kjaerulf, Finn; Almendarez, Juan; Rodas, Victor Morales; Castro, Julio

    2016-11-01

    To examine the impact of a 3 year community-based violence prevention intervention on risk of violence and social capital in two poor urban communities in Honduras in 2011-2014. A quasi-experimental design pre and post implementation of the intervention was conducted based on data from two randomly selected samples using the same structured questionnaire in 2011 and in 2014. Community members had a 42 % lower risk of violence in 2014 compared to 2011. There was a positive relation between participation in the intervention and structural social capital, and participants had more than twice the likelihood of engaging in citizenship activities compared to the general population. The intervention contributed to decreasing violence and increasing community resilience in two urban areas in Honduras. Citizenship activities and active community participation in the violence prevention agenda rather than social trust and cohesion characteristics was affected by the intervention. This research introduces important lessons learned to future researchers aiming to retrieve very sensitive data in a similarly violent setting, and provides strong research opportunities within areas, which to this date remain undiscovered.

  10. Inferring the relative resilience of alternative states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G Angeler

    Full Text Available Ecological systems may occur in alternative states that differ in ecological structures, functions and processes. Resilience is the measure of disturbance an ecological system can absorb before changing states. However, how the intrinsic structures and processes of systems that characterize their states affects their resilience remains unclear. We analyzed time series of phytoplankton communities at three sites in a floodplain in central Spain to assess the dominant frequencies or "temporal scales" in community dynamics and compared the patterns between a wet and a dry alternative state. The identified frequencies and cross-scale structures are expected to arise from positive feedbacks that are thought to reinforce processes in alternative states of ecological systems and regulate emergent phenomena such as resilience. Our analyses show a higher species richness and diversity but lower evenness in the dry state. Time series modeling revealed a decrease in the importance of short-term variability in the communities, suggesting that community dynamics slowed down in the dry relative to the wet state. The number of temporal scales at which community dynamics manifested, and the explanatory power of time series models, was lower in the dry state. The higher diversity, reduced number of temporal scales and the lower explanatory power of time series models suggest that species dynamics tended to be more stochastic in the dry state. From a resilience perspective our results highlight a paradox: increasing species richness may not necessarily enhance resilience. The loss of cross-scale structure (i.e. the lower number of temporal scales in community dynamics across sites suggests that resilience erodes during drought. Phytoplankton communities in the dry state are therefore likely less resilient than in the wet state. Our case study demonstrates the potential of time series modeling to assess attributes that mediate resilience. The approach is useful

  11. Resilience in rural social-ecological systems : a spatially explicit agent-based modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, M.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas are increasingly changed by drivers on large spatial scales such as economic globalization and climate change. These international drivers may bring forth abrupt disturbances, such as high output price peaks and falls, water floods and droughts, and massive outbreaks of animal

  12. Migration, remittances, livelihood trajectories, and social resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adger, W Neil; Kelly, P Mick; Winkels, Alexandra; Huy, Luong Quang; Locke, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    We argue that all aspects of demographic change, including migration, impact on the social resilience of individuals and communities, as well as on the sustainability of the underlying resource base. Social resilience is the ability to cope with and adapt to environmental and social change mediated through appropriate institutions. We investigate one aspect of the relationship between demographic change, social resilience, and sustainable development in contemporary coastal Vietnam: the effects of migration and remittances on resource-dependent communities in population source areas. We find, using longitudinal data on livelihood sources, that emigration and remittances have offsetting effects on resilience within an evolving social and political context. Emigration is occurring concurrently with, not driving, the expansion of unsustainable coastal aquaculture. Increasing economic inequality also undermines social resilience. At the same time diversification and increasing income levels are beneficial for resilience.

  13. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.

  14. The influence of patient characteristics on acrylic-based resilient denture liners embedded in maxillary complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Akina; Kimoto, Suguru; Saeki, Hiroyuki; Ono, Masanori; Furuse, Nobuhiko; Kawai, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    A major complication associated with the use of resilient denture liners (RDLs) is a change in hardness over time. In vivo studies on the deterioration of RDLs over time are needed. We aimed to investigate the influence of patient characteristics on the hardness of acrylic-based RDLs (ARDLs) embedded in complete maxillary dentures. We hypothesized that 1 month after application of the ARDLs, the hardness would be influenced by age, saliva condition, occlusal force, smoking, drinking, denture wearing during sleeping, denture cleanser usage, and denture type. Thirty complete maxillary denture wearers were recruited after obtaining informed consent. One investigator measured the Shore D hardness of the commercially available ARDLs, Soften (SFT), FD Soft (FDS), and Bio Liner (BIO) using a Vesmeter(®). The salivary flow rates and pH values and the occlusal force were measured for all patients before initiation of the study. T-tests and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for the statistical analyses. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Smoking, wearing dentures while sleeping, use of denture cleansers, and denture type were associated with an increase in the hardness of the RDLs. The resting saliva pH only influenced the hardness of the SFT ARDLs. Smoking, denture wearing while sleeping, denture cleanser usage, denture type, and resting saliva pH are important predictors of the deterioration of ARDLs over time. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Minority stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults: A resiliency-based conditional process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nicholas A; Christianson, Nathan; Cochran, Bryan N

    2016-12-01

    Sexual minority young adults experience elevated rates of distal stress (discrimination, victimization), and related psychological distress and alcohol misuse. However, few studies have examined the degree to which personality trait differences confer risk/resilience among sexual minority young adults. We hypothesized that psychological distress would mediate the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse, but that these relationships would be moderated by personality trait differences. Sexual minority young adults (N=412) were recruited nationally. Survey measures included demographic questions, minority stressors, Five Factor personality traits, and current psychological distress and alcohol misuse symptoms. We used a data-driven two-stage cluster analytic technique to empirically derive personality trait profiles, and conducted mediation and moderated mediation analyses using a regression-based approach. Our results supported a two-group personality profile solution. Relative to at-risk individuals, those classified as adaptive scored lower on neuroticism, and higher on agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience. As predicted, psychological distress mediated the relationship between distal stress and alcohol misuse. However, personality moderated these relationships to the degree that they did not exist among individuals classified as adaptive. In the current study, we found that personality moderated the established relationships between distal stress, psychological distress, and alcohol misuse among sexual minority young adults. Future research is needed to further explicate these relationships, and in order to develop tailored interventions for sexual minority young adults at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of tensile bond strength of heat cure and autopolymerizing silicone-based resilient denture liners before and after thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Nishtha; Datta, Kusum

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of simulated mouth conditions reproduced with thermocycling on the tensile bond strength of two silicone based resilient denture liners with acrylic resin bases. Two silicone-based soft denture liners (Mollosil - Chairside autopolymerization and Molloplast B - Heat polymerization) were tested. For each liner, 30 specimens with a cross-sectional area of 10 Χ 10 mm and thickness 3 mm were processed between two acrylic blocks (Trevalon). Specimens were divided into a control group that was stored for 24 hours in water at 37°C and a test group that was thermocycled (2500 cycles) between baths of 5° and 55°C. Tensile bond strength (kg/cm²) was determined in a universal testing machine using crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. The student t-test was used to determine the significance of the difference in bond strength between the two liners. The mean tensile bond strength for control and thermocycled specimens of the two liners were: Mollosil (6.82 kg/cm² and 8.41 kg/cm²) and Molloplast-B (16.30 kg/cm² and 13.67 kg/cm²), respectively. Comparison of bond strength of control specimens with thermocycled specimens of the liners indicated a significant difference for both Mollosil (P=0.045) and Molloplast-B (P=0.027). Comparison between control specimens of both liners and thermocycled specimens of both liners indicated a highly significant difference (Ptensile bond strength than autopolymerizing liner Mollosil regardless of thermocycling. The bond strength of Mollosil increased after thermocycling while that of Molloplast-B decreased after thermocycling. Although heat-polymerized denture liners require more processing time than autopolymerizing liners, but they display much better adhesion properties to denture base resin and should thus be preferred when soft liner has to be used for a longer duration of time.

  17. Vulnerability and Resilience of Temperate Forest Landscapes to Broad-Scale Deforestation in Response to Changing Fire Regimes and Altered Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepley, A. J.; Veblen, T. T.; Perry, G.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of on-going climatic warming and land-use change, there is growing concern that temperate forest landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to the fire regime or altered post-fire vegetation dynamics could lead to extensive conversion to shrublands or savannas. To evaluate vulnerability and resilience to such conversion, we develop a simple model based on three factors we hypothesize to be key in predicting temperate forest responses to changing fire regimes: (1) the hazard rate (i.e., the probability of burning in the next year given the time since the last fire) in closed-canopy forests, (2) the hazard rate for recently-burned, open-canopy vegetation, and (3) the time to redevelop canopy closure following fire. We generate a response surface representing the proportions of the landscape potentially supporting closed-canopy forest and non-forest vegetation under nearly all combinations of these three factors. We then place real landscapes on this response surface to assess the type and magnitude of changes to the fire regime that would drive extensive forest loss. We show that the deforestation of much of New Zealand that followed initial human colonization and the introduction of a new ignition source ca. 750 years ago was essentially inevitable due to the slow rate of forest recovery after fire and the high flammability of post-fire vegetation. In North America's Pacific Northwest, by contrast, a predominantly forested landscape persisted despite two periods of widespread burning in the recent past due in large part to faster post-fire forest recovery and less pronounced differences in flammability between forests and the post-fire vegetation. We also assess the factors that could drive extensive deforestation in other regions to identify where management could reduce this potential and to guide field and modeling work to better understand the responses and ecological feedbacks to changing fire regimes.

  18. The Resilience Assessment Framework: a common indicator for land management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Annette; Metternicht, Graciela; O'Connell, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    At the Rio+20 conference in June 2013, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reinforced their mutual interests in building linkages between biodiversity conservation, sustainable land management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The UNCCD sees building resilience of agro-ecosystems as a common interest that could strengthen linkages between the conventions and deliver synergies in progressing goals of each of the conventions. Furthermore, enhancing resilience of productive agro-ecosystems is fundamental to food security and sustainable development, and thus aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) shares the interest of the conventions in building resilience in agro-ecosystems. Indicators of resilience are required for monitoring progress in these endeavors, application of a common indicator between the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD as a measure of both land-based adaptation and ecosystem resilience, could strengthen links between the conventions and increase attention to the broad benefits of improved land management. Consequently, the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) to the GEF commissioned the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to produce a report reviewing the conceptual basis for resilience, and proposing an indicator approach that could meet the needs of the Conventions and the GEF for an indicator of agro-ecosystem resilience and land-based adaption. The paper presents a synthesis of scientific understanding of resilience in agro-ecosystems, reviews indicators that have been proposed, and, having concluded that none of the extant indicator approaches adequately assesses resilience of agro-ecosystems, proposes a new approach to the assessment of resilience. Recognizing that no single indicator of resilience is

  19. Improving urban ecosystems resilience at a city level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferrreira, Carla S. S.; Malta, Miguel; Soares, Daniel D. J.; Pardal, João; Vilhena, José

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of urban communities is at risk in a global change context, where environmental problems and the constraints posed by a limited access to key raw materials, energy and sanitation will cause profound changes on the way we interact with the natural environment. Major changes are expected on processes magnitude and connectivity at various scales, with profound impacts on the environmental and well-being problems posed by the packing of high density of people in restricted areas, that have to be dealt with. The conventional approach is to find technological solutions that are often expensive and inefficient, especially in what concerns the use of energy and raw materials, limiting long term sustainability and urban ecosystems' resilience, and consequent impacts on the quality of life and health of urban populations. To improve city resilience in face of global change threats (climatic change, growing world population, land use change, lower energy availability, reduced mobility as a result of fossil fuels stringency and costs), we need to develop a nested approach binding together various greening actions and management of green infrastructures at various scales (i.e. household, neighbourhood, city and urban/wildland interface). This paper presents the conceptual strategy being developed at the Coimbra City (Centre of Portugal) to increase the resilience of urban ecosystems, using them to reduce natural risk occurrence (such as flash floods), the promotion of human health and increasing city resilience towards an improve food self sufficiency. We present a discussion and evaluation of the different solutions designed and implemented to improve the overall urban sustainability at different scales of intervention, from the household solutions to more structural solutions such as the recover of riparian forests or the preservation and improvement of green corridors. Of paramount importance to improve urban ecosystem resilience is the development of new

  20. Real-Time and Resilient Intrusion Detection: A Flow-Based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, R.J.; Pras, Aiko

    Due to the demanding performance requirements of packet-based monitoring solutions on network equipment, flow-based intrusion detection systems will play an increasingly important role in current high-speed networks. The required technologies are already available and widely deployed: NetFlow and

  1. The Impact of a Values-Based Supply Chain (VBSC on Farm-Level Viability, Sustainability and Resilience: Case Study Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Hooks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Agriculture of the Middle’ (AotM development paradigm emphasises that in order to survive, family farms must transition from a supply chain approach to a values-based supply chain (VBSC approach, involving amendments to both product type and actor dynamics within the chain. This paper presents a qualitative case study of a beef co-operative integrated to a VBSC. We use an analytical framework of viability, sustainability and resilience to analyse impacts at farm-level. Our analysis highlights a number of positive effects on farm-level viability, sustainability and resilience. These benefits stemmed largely from improvements to market orientation, price stability, and members’ capacities in responding to problems. However, the autonomy of the co-operative was challenged by VBSC chain members, which impacted negatively on the stability of the co-operative.

  2. Prediction of Perceived Empathy Based on Emotional Schemas and Resilience in Mothers with Physically-Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Mohammad Aminzadeh

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion According to the results, the high resiliency and a positive emotional schemas such as having superior values and validation are predictors of perceived empathy in the mothers of disabled children. This means that the mothers of children with disabilities in dealing with situations when they have more resiliency and and interpret them as positive, are able to communicate more effectively with their surroundings.In this regard, one of the factors is perceived empathy that has a significant impact on the development of personal relationships between individuals and reflects the person's mental health. In addition, it can be used with resiliency and emotional schemas, so therapeutic intervention is implimented with respect to these two variables.

  3. Analysis Framework of China’s Grain Production System: A Spatial Resilience Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuan Ge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s grain production has transformed from absolute shortage to a current structural oversupply. High-intensity production introduced further challenges for the eco-environment, smallholder livelihood, and the man-land interrelationship. Driven by urban-rural transformation, research on food security patterns and grain production has expanded into a new field. To analyze the challenges and required countermeasures for China’s grain production system (GPS, this study constructed a theoretical GPS framework based on space resilience. Firstly, a new GPS concept was proposed and a functional system was established for protecting the regional food security, thus guaranteeing smallholder livelihood, stabilizing urban-rural transformation, and sustaining the eco-environment in terms of economic, social, and ecological attributes of the GPS. Secondly, based on a cross-scale interaction analysis that varied from a smallholder scale to a global scale, the systematic crisis of the GPS was analyzed. Thirdly, a cross-scale analytic framework of the GPS was formed from the perspective of spatial resilience, integrating both inner and external disturbance factors of the GPS. Both spatial heterogeneity and connectivity of internal and external disturbance factors are important contents of system space resilience. Finally, the hierarchy of spatial resilience of GPS became clear. The transformation of labor force and the land use transition form key thresholds of the GPS. In summary: based on protecting the basic functions of the GPS, the cross-scale effect of systematic disturbance factors and relevant countermeasures for spatial resilience are effectively influenced by the coordination of the interests of multiple stakeholders; spatial resilience is an effective analytical tool for GPS regulation, providing a reference for revealing the inherent mechanism and functional evolution of the GPS in the process of urban-rural transformation.

  4. Normative data and psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and the abbreviated version (CD-RISC2) among the general population in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Yu, Nancy X; Pang, Herbert; Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Stewart, Sunita M

    2016-01-01

    To examine whether the two-item version (CD-RISC2) of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) has adequate internal consistency and construct validity, as well as significant correlation with the full scale, and to provide normative data for the CD-RISC and the CD-RISC2 in a Chinese general population in Hong Kong. In total, 10,997 randomly selected participants aged ≥20 years completed the Chinese version of the CD-RISC (including the 2 items of the CD-RISC2), the Patient Health Questionnaire, Family Harmony Scale, Family APGAR, and CAGE Questionnaire. Internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 were assessed. Cronbach's α for CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 0.97 and 0.79, respectively. CD-RISC2 was associated with the 25-item version of the CD-RISC (r = 0.88), depressive symptoms (r s = -0.18), family harmony (r = 0.20), family functioning (r = 0.27) and was not associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.05). The mean score for the CD-RISC and CD-RISC2 was 59.99 (SD = 13.92) and 5.03 (SD = 1.37), respectively. Men, younger individuals, and those with higher education or higher household income reported higher resilience levels. The Chinese version of the CD-RISC2 was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measure in assessing resilience among the general population in Hong Kong.

  5. Developing Eastern Africa's resilience to flood and drought through multi-functional ecosystem-based management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Steve W.

    2017-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and agricultural expansion of Eastern Africa puts people in direct conflict with nature. Nowhere is this more obvious than for water resources where the delicate balance of too much water (flood) or too little water (drought) is a matter of life and death for millions. This work tackles this apparent conflict head-on by considering ecosystem service trade-offs relevant for water-based disasters as populations transition from rural to more intensive agricultural/urban lifestyles. Specifically, recent work from the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania, a region which has been targeted for development investment but where potential impacts (not to mention sustainability) associated with various development scenarios remain largely unresolved, will be presented as relevant case study. Our efforts on modelling and data synthesis for this region have shown promise as we seek to advance science in more and more remote (and in particular developing) regions while allowing important improvements for management of less and less available resources. Thus, in spite of large uncertainties the work highlights how research may still provide an improved system understanding of resource flows even when working under less than perfect conditions. Subsequently, such understanding feeds into development of frameworks for quantifying socio-hydrological impacts of land-water management. To ensure relevance regionally, we consider Kilombero Valley in the context of existing nature-based approaches dealing with disaster risk reduction. Such context potentially facilitates transfer of knowledge across country borders. Our goal here is to empower planners and stakeholders throughout the region by helping translate their knowledge into optimized adaptation strategies and linking their experiences through South-South transfer. There remains an open (and fundamental) question of how to best define management recommendations and activities that not only achieve climate resiliency

  6. An FPGA-Based High-Speed Error Resilient Data Aggregation and Control for High Energy Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Swagata; Saini, Jogender; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Sau, Suman; Chakrabarti, Amlan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2017-03-01

    Due to the dramatic increase of data volume in modern high energy physics (HEP) experiments, a robust high-speed data acquisition (DAQ) system is very much needed to gather the data generated during different nuclear interactions. As the DAQ works under harsh radiation environment, there is a fair chance of data corruption due to various energetic particles like alpha, beta, or neutron. Hence, a major challenge in the development of DAQ in the HEP experiment is to establish an error resilient communication system between front-end sensors or detectors and back-end data processing computing nodes. Here, we have implemented the DAQ using field-programmable gate array (FPGA) due to some of its inherent advantages over the application-specific integrated circuit. A novel orthogonal concatenated code and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) have been used to mitigate the effects of data corruption in the user data. Scrubbing with a 32-b CRC has been used against error in the configuration memory of FPGA. Data from front-end sensors will reach to the back-end processing nodes through multiple stages that may add an uncertain amount of delay to the different data packets. We have also proposed a novel memory management algorithm that helps to process the data at the back-end computing nodes removing the added path delays. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed FPGA-based DAQ utilizing optical link with channel coding and efficient memory management modules can be considered as first of its kind. Performance estimation of the implemented DAQ system is done based on resource utilization, bit error rate, efficiency, and robustness to radiation.

  7. Seeing the forest for the trees: hybridity and social-ecological symbols, rituals and resilience in postdisaster contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2014-01-01

    The role of community-based natural resources management in the form of "greening" after large scale system shocks and surprises is argued to provide multiple benefits via engagement with living elements of social-ecological systems and subsequent enhanced resilience at multiple scales. The importance of so-called social-ecological symbols, especially the...

  8. Genetic risk of major depressive disorder: the moderating and mediating effects of neuroticism and psychological resilience on clinical and self-reported depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrady, L B; Adams, M J; Chan, S W Y; Ritchie, S J; McIntosh, A M

    2017-11-29

    Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for depression correlate with depression status and chronicity, and provide causal anchors to identify depressive mechanisms. Neuroticism is phenotypically and genetically positively associated with depression, whereas psychological resilience demonstrates negative phenotypic associations. Whether increased neuroticism and reduced resilience are downstream mediators of genetic risk for depression, and whether they contribute independently to risk remains unknown. Moderating and mediating relationships between depression PRS, neuroticism, resilience and both clinical and self-reported depression were examined in a large, population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (N = 4166), using linear regression and structural equation modelling. Neuroticism and resilience were measured by the Eysenck Personality Scale Short Form Revised and the Brief Resilience Scale, respectively. PRS for depression was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression. No interaction was found between PRS and neuroticism, or between PRS and resilience. Neuroticism was associated with increased likelihood of self-reported and clinical depression, whereas resilience was associated with reduced risk. Structural equation modelling suggested the association between PRS and self-reported and clinical depression was mediated by neuroticism (43-57%), while resilience mediated the association in the opposite direction (37-40%). For both self-reported and clinical diagnoses, the genetic risk for depression was independently mediated by neuroticism and resilience. Findings suggest polygenic risk for depression increases vulnerability for self-reported and clinical depression through independent effects on increased neuroticism and reduced psychological resilience. In addition, two partially independent mechanisms - neuroticism and resilience - may form part of the pathway of vulnerability to depression.

  9. Perception-based Impact upon Community Resilience in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.

    2008-05-01

    In the event of natural disasters, recovery from the direct and indirect effects of the disaster phenomena are topics of most community emergency response plans. In addition to the direct and indirect impacts that represent changes in activity that can be tied directly to an event, additional perception-based impacts are possible. Usually these perception-based impacts are larger and more difficult to measure or mitigate than direct impacts. These impacts are based primarily on the affected population's changes in attitudes toward a particular neighborhood or region based on fear of a future event or future losses. These impacts can be motivated by fear of future storms or man-caused events, lingering toxic contamination that may or may not have been removed, and any other behavior by individuals that cannot be explained by actual events or calculated measures of risk or uncertainty. Perception-based impacts are often difficult to estimate directly. In many instaces, case studies of comparable events are used to attempt to develop judgemental estimates of possible future impacts on the area of question. For example, impacts from such events as Love Canal, the Three Mile Island nucear accident, the September 11 attacks, and the Goiana radioactive material spill are used to get a sense of the severity and duration of possible perception-based impacts of a particular event. Perception-based impacts can include additional losses in property value, losses in population (or reduced rates of population due to lower migration rates) that cannot be attributed to actual economic and demographic changes that can be tied to the event directly. Additional perception-based impacts can include long-term worker absenteeism by an asymptomatic public (i.e., the worried well), losses in tourism, losses in cargo at transportation hubs due to fears by shippers and recipients who choose alternative modes of transportation for shipping goods into the affected area. Another proxy for

  10. The importance of being resilient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, J.

    2012-04-01

    Despite many efforts to pin down resilience in terms of measurable indicators and indices, there is little agreement about what is the most appropriate scale, level of (dis)integration, functional relationship and trade-off between the various constituents of resilience. More than anything else, resilience is knowledge. Knowing how to prepare, respond and recover from hazard strikes. More than that, resilience is a capacity to deploy that knowledge. To help oneself to get back on feet after having sustained a blow. To learn how to. Resilience has many forms and manifestations. People convalescing after having lost what was dear to them. Communities recovering from shattering blows. Economies getting back on track after having sustained major shocks and losses. However, resilience has also negative connotation: the persistent overlooking of the threat and perceived powerlessness of individuals, in front of unacquainted community or nonsensical institutions, to make any difference. During the flood emergency situations, the community resilience is determined at individual level by the willpower and readiness of community members to help others in need ('we don't step away') and themselves, and the degree to which they know how to. In this sense, the preparedness comprises capability and experience that can be acquired or trained, and commitment which is transmitted by moral obligation and community membership. In the most cases it is not the professional staff trained for emergency situation which arrives as first at the place of disaster, however well the emergency response is organised. Before the professional rescue teams, the ordinary people intervene, or can do so, with positive or negative outcomes. The articles revisits recent flood events and identify factors and measures that boost community resilience to flood (REF). In Italy, the analysed events included 2000 Soverato, 2006 Vibo Valentia floods, both places situated in Calabria on Ionian and Tyrrhenian

  11. Why we need resilience thinking to meet societal challenges in bio-based production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ge, L.; Anten, N.P.R.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.; Feindt, P.H.; Kramer, K.; Leemans, H.B.J.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Sukkel, W.

    2016-01-01

    The need to feed an increasing world population and to
    respond to the effects of climate change creates
    unprecedented challenges for bio-based production systems.
    Many of these systems have been designed to maximize
    productivity and efficiency under standard

  12. Healthy ageing, resilience and wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosco, T D; Howse, K; Brayne, C

    2017-12-01

    The extension of life does not appear to be slowing, representing a great achievement for mankind as well as a challenge for ageing populations. As we move towards an increasingly older population we will need to find novel ways for individuals to make the best of the challenges they face, as the likelihood of encountering some form of adversity increases with age. Resilience theories share a common idea that individuals who manage to navigate adversity and maintain high levels of functioning demonstrate resilience. Traditional models of healthy ageing suggest that having a high level of functioning across a number of domains is a requirement. The addition of adversity to the healthy ageing model via resilience makes this concept much more accessible and more amenable to the ageing population. Through asset-based approaches, such as the invoking of individual, social and environmental resources, it is hoped that greater resilience can be fostered at a population level. Interventions aimed at fostering greater resilience may take many forms; however, there is great potential to increase social and environmental resources through public policy interventions. The wellbeing of the individual must be the focus of these efforts; quality of life is an integral component to the enjoyment of additional years and should not be overlooked. Therefore, it will become increasingly important to use resilience as a public health concept and to intervene through policy to foster greater resilience by increasing resources available to older people. Fostering wellbeing in the face of increasing adversity has significant implications for ageing individuals and society as a whole.

  13. Relevance of a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area to the Bering Strait Region: a Policy Analysis Using Resilience-Based Governance Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Hillmer-Pegram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Bering Strait, separating the North American and Asian continents, is a productive social-ecological marine system that is vulnerable to increasing maritime traffic. In other parts of the world, the International Maritime Organization (IMO, an agency of the United Nations, has designated similar marine systems as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (PSSA in an effort to protect vulnerable resources from international shipping. We present information about the 14 existing PSSAs around the world and the political process by which designation is achieved. We examine specific characteristics of the Bering Strait system that are relevant to a PSSA application; these include vulnerable resources such as marine mammals and their contribution to the food and cultural security of indigenous communities, threats to these resources from shipping activities, and the viable mitigation options to reduce these threats. We then use five criteria derived from empirical research on resilience-based governance to analyze whether a PSSA designation would promote the resilience of marine mammal populations and indigenous communities to increased maritime activities. Despite the elusiveness of a definitive answer, we conclude that although the designation is not a perfect fit from a theoretical standpoint, it still holds the potential to benefit marine mammals and indigenous communities in terms of resilience. We conclude by identifying critical challenges and trade-offs that practitioners would need to negotiate when attempting to apply theoretical governance principles via real-world policy tools.

  14. Army Medicine’s Role in Strength & Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    Resiliency Programs Physical Mental Spiritual Army Wellness Center Comprehensive Soldier Fitness Resiliency UNCLASSIFIED Comprehensive Pain ...Management  Evidence-Based Complimentary and Alternative Therapeutic Modes  Acupuncture  Biofeedback  Yoga  Meditation  Standardizes Pain Management...UNCLASSIFIED Army Strong More than a Slogan… the Key to Resilience Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden

  15. A non-equilibrium formulation of food security resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Smerlak, Matteo; Vaitla, Bapu

    2016-01-01

    Resilience, the ability to recover from adverse events ("shocks"), is of fundamental importance to food security. This is especially true in poor countries, where basic needs are frequently threatened by economic, environmental, and health shocks. An empirically sound formalization of the concept of food security resilience, however, is lacking. Here we introduce a general framework for quantifying resilience based on a simple definition: a unit is resilient if $(a)$ its long-term food securi...

  16. Building Resilience in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...

  17. Resiliant Space Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The task goal is to develop and demonstrate an innovative software architecture, the “Resilient Spacecraft Executive”, that will enable highly-resilient...

  18. Developing the resilience typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Daniel Morten

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in resilience in internal crisis management and crisis communication. How an organization can build up resilience as a response to organisational crisis, at a time when the amount of crises seem only to increase, is more relevant than ever before. Nevertheless resilience...... is often perceived in the literature as something certain organisations have by definition, without further reflection on what it is that creates this resiliency. This article explores what it is that creates organisational resilience, and in view of the different understandings of the resilience...... phenomenon, develops a typology of resilience. Furthermore the resilience phenomenon is discussed against the definition of a crisis as a cosmological episode, and implications for future research is discussed and summarized....

  19. Resilience and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown that a relationship exists between quality of life (QoL and resilience in breast cancer patients, but few studies present information on the nature of this relationship of resilience on QoL. Our aim was to examine the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. METHODS: QoL was measured in 218 consequent breast cancer patients, with EORTC - QLQ Core 30 questionnaire, and EORTC QLQ-BR23. The resilience was measured with Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. RESULTS: The global quality of life was positively correlated with the levels of resilience (R = 0.39 p < 0.001. All functional scales (physical, role, emotional, cognitive and social functioning was in a positive correlation with resilience. The symptoms severity (fatigue, nausea and vomitus, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, financial difficulties was in negative correlation with resilience. Less resilient breast cancer patients reported worse body image and future perspective and suffered from more severe adverse effects of systemic therapy, and arm/breast symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychological resilience affects different aspects of health-related quality of life. More resilient patients have significantly better quality of life in almost all aspects of QoL.

  20. Psychological resilience contributes to low emotional distress in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jung-Ah; Yoon, Sujung; Lee, Chang-Uk; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Chul; Song, Kyo-Young; Kim, Tae-Suk

    2013-09-01

    Although a considerable number of cancer patients suffer from emotional distress which may have an impact on their quality of life, it still remains poorly understood which psychosocial factors contribute to individual vulnerabilities to emotional distress of cancer patients. Recently, resilience has been suggested as the capacity to cope with adversities like cancer. In this study, we investigated the relationships between resilience and emotional distress in cancer patients. One hundred fifty-two cancer patients who were consecutively hospitalized for their scheduled treatments at the Seoul St. Mary's Hospital were enrolled and completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale to measure resilience and emotional distress. The relationships between the levels of psychological resilience and emotional distress were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Psychological resilience levels were negatively associated with emotional distress after controlling for relevant covariates. The highest quartile of resilience level was associated with a 90% (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03-0.34, P cancer patients, resilience was also found to be a significant protective factor for emotional distress (adjusted OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.79, P = 0.02). The present study suggests that psychological resilience may independently contribute to low emotional distress in cancer patients. The relationship between resilience and emotional distress was also significant in the subgroup of metastatic cancer patients. Psychosocial interventions to enhance resilience might provide useful approaches to overcome cancer-related emotional distress.

  1. Tapping soil survey information for rapid assessment of sagebrush ecosystem resilience and resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy D. Maestas; Steven B. Campbell; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Richard F. Miller

    2016-01-01

    A new ecologically-based approach to risk abatement has emerged that can aid land managers in grappling with escalating impacts of large-scale wildfire and invasive annual grasses in sagebrush ecosystems, particularly in the Great Basin. Specifically, ecosystem resilience and resistance (R&R) concepts have been more fully operationalized from regional...

  2. Self-Reported Resilient Behaviors of Seventh and Eighth Grade Students Enrolled in an Emotional Intelligence Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Veronica; Johnson, Michael B.; Smith, Robert

    2008-01-01

    School counselors are in a unique position to help at-risk students. Research indicates that teaching resiliency skills and emotional intelligence is a promising venture (Bernard, 1997; Chavkin & Gonzalez, 2000; Henderson & Milstein, 2002). Seventy identified at-risk seventh and eighth grade students enrolled in the Teen Leadership Program…

  3. Study of Impact on Undergraduates' Entrepreneurial Failure Based on the Model of Psychological Resilience-Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Tang; Dancheng, Luo; Ye, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The entrepreneurship is a course of gaining knowledge from the failure and stimulating positive energy constantly. The entrepreneur's psychological resilience is the key to gain knowledge (positive energy) from failure (negative energy). The education of undergraduate entrepreneurship is one of the priorities these days. Educators shall…

  4. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience —A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just...the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of

  5. Community-based health care is an essential component of a resilient health system: evidence from Ebola outbreak in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra Siekmans

    2017-01-01

    during the Ebola outbreak, making communities more resilient when facility-based health services were impacted by the crisis. To maximize the effectiveness of these interventions during a crisis, proactive training of CHWs in infection prevention and “no touch” iCCM guidelines, strengthening drug supply chain management and finding alternative ways to provide supportive supervision when movements are restricted are recommended.

  6. Psychological resilience after Hurricane Sandy: the influence of individual- and community-level factors on mental health after a large-scale natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Gruebner, Oliver; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Several individual-level factors are known to promote psychological resilience in the aftermath of disasters. Far less is known about the role of community-level factors in shaping postdisaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of both individual- and community-level factors on resilience after Hurricane Sandy. A representative sample of household residents (N = 418) from 293 New York City census tracts that were most heavily affected by the storm completed telephone interviews approximately 13-16 months postdisaster. Multilevel multivariable models explored the independent and interactive contributions of individual- and community-level factors to posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms. At the individual-level, having experienced or witnessed any lifetime traumatic event was significantly associated with higher depression and posttraumatic stress, whereas demographic characteristics (e.g., older age, non-Hispanic Black race) and more disaster-related stressors were significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress only. At the community-level, living in an area with higher social capital was significantly associated with higher posttraumatic stress. Additionally, higher community economic development was associated with lower risk of depression only among participants who did not experience any disaster-related stressors. These results provide evidence that individual- and community-level resources and exposure operate in tandem to shape postdisaster resilience.

  7. The Identification of Potential Resilient Estuary-based Enterprises to Encourage Economic Empowerment in South Africa: a Toolkit Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Bowd

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that ecosystem services can be used as the foundation to provide economic opportunities to empower the disadvantaged. The Ecosystem Services Framework (ESF approach for poverty alleviation, which balances resource conservation and human resource use, has received much attention in the literature. However, few projects have successfully achieved both conservation and economic objectives. This is partly due to there being a hiatus between theory and practice, due to the absence of tools that help make the transition between conceptual frameworks and theory, to practical integration of ecosystem services into decision making. To address this hiatus, an existing conceptual framework for analyzing the robustness of social-ecological systems was translated into a practical toolkit to help understand the complexity of social-ecological systems (SES. The toolkit can be used by a diversity of stakeholders as a decision making aid for assessing ecosystem services supply and demand and associated enterprise opportunities. The toolkit is participatory and combines both a generic "top-down" scientific approach with a case-specific "bottom-up" approach. It promotes a shared understanding of the utilization of ecosystem services, which is the foundation of identifying resilient enterprises. The toolkit comprises four steps: (i ecosystem services supply and demand assessment; (ii roles identification; (iii enterprise opportunity identification; and (vi enterprise risk assessment, and was tested at two estuary study sites. Implementation of the toolkit requires the populating of preprogrammed Excel worksheets through the holding of workshops that are attended by stakeholders associated with the ecosystems. It was concluded that for an enterprise to be resilient, it must be resilient at an external SES level,which the toolkit addresses, and at an internal business functioning level, e.g., social dynamics among personnel, skills, and literacy

  8. The Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire: the Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Silvana; Ghidelli, Claudio; Burro, Roberto; Vitacca, Michele; Scalvini, Simonetta; Della Vedova, Anna Maria; Roselli, Gianmarco; Ramponi, Jean-Pierre; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Resilience focuses on strength under stress, in the context of adversity. Walsh's theoretical model identifies relational processes that allow families to tackle and overcome critical situations, dividing them into three domains of family function. The aim of this study was to assess resilience in families of patients with a chronic disease by adapting and validating the Italian version of the Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire (Walsh-IT). An Italian adult sample of 421 participants (patients and relatives) was collected with the aim to assess the reliability and validity of the Walsh-IT. Concurrent validity was carried out by comparing this instrument with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III (FACES III) administered at the same time as the Walsh-IT. Reliability showed high correlation between repeated measurements. The alpha coefficient was 0.946. Both parallel analysis and minimum average partial criteria suggested that the best number of domains is equal to 3, explaining 50.4% of the total variance. Based on the results obtained from the Rasch analysis, items 10, 11, 16, 22, and 23 have been removed resulting in a short-form questionnaire (Walsh-IT-R) of 26 items with three domains: shared beliefs and support (SBS, α=0.928); family organization and interaction (FOI, α=0.863); and utilization of social resources (USR, α=0.567). The total score of the Walsh-IT-R was strongly correlated with the total score of FACES III Real Family Scale ( r =0.68; p family resilience in Italy when contending with the challenges of chronic disease. It could be used in pre- and post-assessment in practice effectiveness research, offering a profile of family resilience processes at the start and end of interventions and follow-up.

  9. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... and resources. This poster will present the conceptual framework for this project focusing on species resilience....

  10. Resilience among Military Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Ginsburg, Kenneth; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors present their approach to understanding resilience among military connected young people, and they discuss some of the gaps in their knowledge. They begin by defining resilience, and then present a theoretical model of how young people demonstrate resilient functioning. Next they consider some of the research on…

  11. A randomized controlled trial of a resilience-based intervention on psychosocial well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS: Effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward E; Fairchild, Amanda J; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Global literature suggests that resilience-based interventions may yield improvements in psychosocial well-being for vulnerable children, but limited data are available regarding the efficacy of such interventions among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. To evaluate initial efficacy of a multi-level resilience-based intervention among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in China in improving children's psychosocial well-being and resilience-related outcomes. Seven hundred-ninety children, 6-17 years of age, were recruited from rural China. Children were either AIDS orphans or were living with one or two parents infected with HIV/AIDS. Children and primary caregivers were randomly assigned to participate in a 4-arm trial to evaluate the Child-Caregiver-Advocacy Resilience (ChildCARE) intervention. This resilience-based psychosocial intervention provides programming at three levels (child, caregiver, community). Survey data were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 12-months in order to examine efficacy of the child-only and child + caregiver arms in improving children's psychological resilience. Intervention groups displayed improvements in several resilience-related outcomes at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, including self-reported coping, hopefulness, emotional regulation, and self-control. The child-only intervention arm showed some fading of intervention effects by 12-months. Preliminary findings suggest that the ChildCARE intervention is efficacious in promoting psychosocial well-being of children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China. Targeting both children and caregivers for psychosocial intervention may be effective in improving children's resilience. Additional evaluation and modifications, including the inclusion of booster sessions, should be considered to further strengthen the program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nature-based solutions to promote human resilience and wellbeing in cities during increasingly hot summers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Angelo; Carrus, Giuseppe; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Mariani, Luigi; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Air temperatures are increasing because of global climate change. A warming phenomenon strongly related to global climate change is the urban heat island. It has been shown that the hotter temperatures occurring in cities during the summer negatively affect human wellbeing, but little is known about the potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between hotter temperatures, cognitive psychological resources and wellbeing. The aim of the present research is to understand whether, and how, spending time in urban green spaces, which can be considered as a specific kind of Nature-Based Solution (NBS), helps the recovery of cognitive resources and wellbeing. The main hypothesis is that contact with urban green is related to wellbeing through the depletion of cognitive resources (i.e., ego depletion). Moreover, we expected that individuals showing higher scores of ego depletion also report a higher estimate of the maximum temperature reached during the summer. The results of a survey (N = 115) conducted among visitors to Parco Nord Milano, a large urban park located in Milan (Italy), point out that people visiting the park during the summer show a higher level of wellbeing as well as a lower level of ego depletion. A mediation analysis shows that visiting urban green spaces is associated with greater wellbeing through less ego depletion. Our results also point out that, as expected, people showing a higher level of ego depletion tend to overestimate the maximum air temperature. Implications for future studies and applied interventions regarding the role of NBS to promote human wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Resilience Mediates the Longitudinal Relationships Between Social Support and Mental Health Outcomes in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelmel, Emily; Hughes, Abbey J; Alschuler, Kevin N; Ehde, Dawn M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the longitudinal relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine resilience as a mediator between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes in this population. Observational, longitudinal cohort study. Participants were assessed at 4 time points over 12 months in the context of a previously reported randomized controlled trial. Telephone-based measures administered to community-based participants. Individuals (N=163) with MS and 1 or more of the following symptoms: depression, fatigue, and pain. Not applicable. Mental health outcomes included (1) depressive symptomatology, assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9; (2) anxious symptomatology, assessed using the short form of the Emotional Distress-Anxiety Scale from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; and (3) general mental health status, assessed using the Mental Component Summary score from the Short Form-8 Health Survey. Resilience was assessed using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. At any given time, social support from significant others, family members, and friends was significantly associated with subsequent mental health outcomes for all 3 measures assessed (all P values social support significantly mediated the relationships between social support and subsequent mental health outcomes. After controlling for resilience, most of the direct relationships between social support and mental health outcomes were no longer significant. There are significant longitudinal relationships between social support, resilience, and mental health outcomes for people with MS. Given the mediating role of resilience in supporting better mental health outcomes, future clinical research and practice may benefit from an emphasis on resilience-focused psychological interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of stress, coping, social support, and resilience of families having children with autism: A North East India-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamanta; Das, Bornali; Nath, Kakoli; Dutta, Arunima; Bora, Priyanka; Hazarika, Mythili

    2017-08-01

    Children with autism (CWA) is a segment of population in North East India who are marginalized due to lack of resources like skilled manpower and perceived stress. In comparison to other states and countries whether these children are unique in terms of care and rehabilitation from adult caregivers was the focus of our study. The study assessed level of parental stress, social support, coping mechanisms used by family and resilience in meeting the challenges as caregivers. Parents were selected by simple random sampling from a multi-specialty center dedicated to CWA. They were assessed with the help of structured tools like the Parental Stress Scale, the social support appraisals scale, the coping self-efficacy scale, and the Family Resilience Assessment Scale. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and findings suggest definite stress among the parents of CWA. Personal time constraint was noticed in majority of parents, which had adversely affected their professional lives. Despite wide array of stress factors, family members had satisfactory coping skills to work in harmony in adverse circumstances. Regarding secondary social support in terms of family, friends, and neighbors, responses were mixed; religious and spirituality were often resorted avenues. Social desirability, fatigue and the sample being restricted to only one center were though the limitations but, this study throws light on pertinent issues related to families with CWA from a region where specialty centers are a rarity. The future implication could focus on CWA's future, rehabilitation, care and parental concerns which are grossly neglected in North East India. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An assessment of depression, psychosocial factors, and resilience among women seeking prenatal care at an urban community health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine M; Paley, Frances M; Modest, Anna M; Hacker, Michele R; Shaughnessy, Sabine; Ricciotti, Hope A; Scott, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    To describe the relationship between resilience and mental health and psychosocial characteristics in the prenatal period. A prospective cohort pilot study was conducted among English-speaking women aged 18 years or older with singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks' duration who received prenatal care at an urban community health center in the USA between March and October 2014. Surveys were administered and a retrospective chart review was conducted. Resilience and depression were measured using validated scales and anxiety was self-reported. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed. Thirty women participated. The median resilience score was 82.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 74.0-92.0). Median resilience scores were significantly lower among women with a history of depression (73.0 [IQR 66.0-81.0]) than among those without a history (85.0 [IQR 79.0-92.0]; P=0.007). A history of using medication for anxiety, depression, or insomnia before pregnancy was also associated with lower resilience (median 74.0 [IQR 64.5-80.0] vs 83.5 [IQR 79.0-92.0]; P=0.029). Neither anxiety nor substance use was associated with resilience. Higher resilience was associated with religious affiliation and having adequate financial resources (both Presilience in pregnancy. These data inform a strengths-based approach to prenatal care and future research endeavors. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  16. GPU-based large-scale visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-11-19

    Recent advances in image and volume acquisition as well as computational advances in simulation have led to an explosion of the amount of data that must be visualized and analyzed. Modern techniques combine the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming to enable the interactive visualization of giga- and terabytes of image and volume data. A major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount of data that is actually visible on screen, decoupling it from the full data size. This leads to powerful display-aware multi-resolution techniques that enable the visualization of data of almost arbitrary size. The course consists of two major parts: An introductory part that progresses from fundamentals to modern techniques, and a more advanced part that discusses details of ray-guided volume rendering, novel data structures for display-aware visualization and processing, and the remote visualization of large online data collections. You will learn how to develop efficient GPU data structures and large-scale visualizations, implement out-of-core strategies and concepts such as virtual texturing that have only been employed recently, as well as how to use modern multi-resolution representations. These approaches reduce the GPU memory requirements of extremely large data to a working set size that fits into current GPUs. You will learn how to perform ray-casting of volume data of almost arbitrary size and how to render and process gigapixel images using scalable, display-aware techniques. We will describe custom virtual texturing architectures as well as recent hardware developments in this area. We will also describe client/server systems for distributed visualization, on-demand data processing and streaming, and remote visualization. We will describe implementations using OpenGL as well as CUDA, exploiting parallelism on GPUs combined with additional asynchronous

  17. Low stress resilience in late adolescence and risk of hypertension in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Greater blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress has been associated with higher risk of developing hypertension. We hypothesised that low stress resilience based on psychological assessment early in life is associated with hypertension in adulthood. National cohort study of 1,547,182 military conscripts in Sweden during 1969-1997 (97-98% of all 18-year-old males) without prior history of hypertension, who underwent standardised psychological assessment by trained psychologists for stress resilience (1-9 scale), and were followed up for hypertension identified from outpatient and inpatient diagnoses during 1969-2012 (maximum age 62). 93,028 men were diagnosed with hypertension in 39.4 million person-years of follow-up. Adjusting for body mass index (BMI), family history and socioeconomic factors, low stress resilience at age 18 was associated with increased risk of hypertension in adulthood (lowest vs highest quintile: HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.40 to 1.46; p < 0.001; incidence rates, 278.7 vs 180.0 per 100,000 person-years), including a strong linear trend across the full range of stress resilience (p(trend) < 0.0001). We also found a positive additive interaction between stress resilience and BMI (p < 0.001), indicating that low stress resilience accounted for more hypertension cases among those with high BMI. Men with a combination of low stress resilience and high BMI had a more than threefold risk of hypertension. These findings suggest that low stress resilience may contribute to etiological pathways for hypertension and accounts for more cases among those with high BMI. If confirmed, this knowledge may help inform better preventive interventions by addressing psychosocial risk factors and stress management across the lifespan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. How Robust is Your System Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayounfar, M.; Muneepeerakul, R.

    2017-12-01

    Robustness and resilience are concepts in system thinking that have grown in importance and popularity. For many complex social-ecological systems, however, robustness and resilience are difficult to quantify and the connections and trade-offs between them difficult to study. Most studies have either focused on qualitative approaches to discuss their connections or considered only one of them under particular classes of disturbances. In this study, we present an analytical framework to address the linkage between robustness and resilience more systematically. Our analysis is based on a stylized dynamical model that operationalizes a widely used concept framework for social-ecological systems. The model enables us to rigorously define robustness and resilience and consequently investigate their connections. The results reveal the tradeoffs among performance, robustness, and resilience. They also show how the nature of the such tradeoffs varies with the choices of certain policies (e.g., taxation and investment in public infrastructure), internal stresses and external disturbances.

  19. Resilience and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristevska-Dimitrovska, Gordana; Filov, Izabela; Rajchanovska, Domnika; Stefanovski, Petar; Dejanova, Beti

    2015-12-15

    Many studies have shown that a relationship exists between quality of life (QoL) and resilience in breast cancer patients, but few studies present information on the nature of this relationship of resilience on QoL. Our aim was to examine the relationship between resilience and quality of life in breast cancer patients. QoL was measured in 218 consequent breast cancer patients, with EORTC - QLQ Core 30 questionnaire, and EORTC QLQ-BR23. The resilience was measured with Connor Davidson Resilience Scale. The global quality of life was positively correlated with the levels of resilience (R = 0.39 p resilience. The symptoms severity (fatigue, nausea and vomitus, pain, dyspnea, insomnia, appetite loss, constipation, diarrhea, financial difficulties) was in negative correlation with resilience. Less resilient breast cancer patients reported worse body image and future perspective and suffered from more severe adverse effects of systemic therapy, and arm/breast symptoms. Our findings show that psychological resilience affects different aspects of health-related quality of life. More resilient patients have significantly better quality of life in almost all aspects of QoL.

  20. READY: a web-based geographical information system for enhanced flood resilience through raising awareness in citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, R.; Sole, A.; Adamowski, J.

    2015-07-01

    As evidenced by the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood management strategies in Europe have undergone a shift in focus in recent years. The goal of flood prevention using structural measures has been replaced by an emphasis on the management of flood risks using non-structural measures. One implication of this is that public authorities alone not only take responsibility for flood management. A broader range of stakeholders, who may personally experience the negative effects of flooding, also take on responsibility for protecting themselves. Therefore, it is vital that information concerning flood risks is conveyed to those who may be affected in order to facilitate the self-protection of citizens. Experience shows that problems persist even where efforts have been made to communicate flood risks. There is a need for the development of new tools that are able to rapidly disseminate flood-risk information to the general public. To be useful these tools must be able to present information relevant to the location of the user. Moreover, the content and design of the tool need to be adjusted to laypeople's needs. Dissemination and communication influence both people's access to and understanding of natural risk information. Such a tool could be a useful aid to effective management of flood risks. To address this gap, a web-based geographical information system (WebGIS) has been developed through the collaborative efforts of a group of scientists, hazard and risk analysts and managers, GIS analysts, system developers and communication designers. This tool, called "READY: Risk, Extreme Events, Adaptation, Defend Yourself", aims to enhance the general public knowledge of flood risk, making citizens more capable of responding appropriately during a flood event. The READY WebGIS has allowed for the visualization and easy querying of a complex hazard and risk database thanks to a high degree of interactivity and easily read maps. In this way, READY has enabled fast

  1. The Effect of Physical Activity on Resiliency and Productivity and Reducing Staff Absence Based on Public Health of University’s Female Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Habiby Vatan, Maryam; Noorbakhsh, Mahvash; Nourbakhsh, Parivash; Navabi Nejad, Shokoh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of 12-week physical activity on resiliency and productivity reducing staff absence based on public health of the female staff of Islamic Azad University. In this paper, we used the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study designs The method of this research was semi-experimental and carried out having pre-test and post-test with pre –post design with two control and experimental groups. The statistical population of the research consisted ...

  2. Social-ecological resilience and geomorphic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Scown, Murray

    2018-03-01

    Governance of coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) and the underlying geomorphic processes that structure and alter Earth's surface is a key challenge for global sustainability amid the increasing uncertainty and change that defines the Anthropocene. Social-ecological resilience as a concept of scientific inquiry has contributed to new understandings of the dynamics of change in SESs, increasing our ability to contextualize and implement governance in these systems. Often, however, the importance of geomorphic change and geomorphological knowledge is somewhat missing from processes employed to inform SES governance. In this contribution, we argue that geomorphology and social-ecological resilience research should be integrated to improve governance toward sustainability. We first provide definitions of engineering, ecological, community, and social-ecological resilience and then explore the use of these concepts within and alongside geomorphology in the literature. While ecological studies often consider geomorphology as an important factor influencing the resilience of ecosystems and geomorphological studies often consider the engineering resilience of geomorphic systems of interest, very few studies define and employ a social-ecological resilience framing and explicitly link the concept to geomorphic systems. We present five key concepts-scale, feedbacks, state or regime, thresholds and regime shifts, and humans as part of the system-which we believe can help explicitly link important aspects of social-ecological resilience inquiry and geomorphological inquiry in order to strengthen the impact of both lines of research. Finally, we discuss how these five concepts might be used to integrate social-ecological resilience and geomorphology to better understand change in, and inform governance of, SESs. To compound these dynamics of resilience, complex systems are nested and cross-scale interactions from smaller and larger scales relative to the system of interest

  3. Resilience and impact of children's intellectual disability on Indian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Anugraha Merin; John, Romate

    2017-12-01

    Resilience of parents in the context of raising a child with intellectual disability is gaining attention as a mechanism that addresses their inherent strengths to withstand the potential associated strain. Understanding its underlying factors has applications in fostering their resilience. The present study explored the resilience of parents and its relationship with the impact of child's disability. A total of 121 parents were assessed using Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped Disability Impact Scale. The results revealed that parenting a child with intellectual disability posed them with both positive and negative experiences. Their evaluations about the condition of the child significantly influenced their resilience. The positive perceptions about the child's disability operated as a protective element, whereas their negative evaluations acted as a risk element of resilience. The findings have specific importance in designing interventions for families of persons with intellectual disability.

  4. Resilience concepts in psychiatry demonstrated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Persson, Maj-Liz

    2018-02-09

    The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. We argue that both resilience definitions and uses are appropriate in psychology and psychiatry, but although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We borrow from the field of ecology to discuss resilience concepts in the mental health sciences. In psychology and psychiatry, the prevailing view of resilience is adaptation to, coping with, and recovery (engineering resilience) from adverse social and environmental conditions. Ecological resilience may be useful for describing vulnerability, onset, and the irreversibility patterns of mental disorders. We discuss this in the context of bipolar disorder. Rebound, adaptation, and coping are processes that are subsumed within the broader systemic organization of humans, from which ecological resilience emanates. Discerning resilience concepts in psychology and psychiatry has potential for a mechanistically appropriate contextualization of mental disorders at large. This might contribute to a refinement of theory and contextualize clinical practice within the broader systemic functioning of mental illnesses.

  5. Statistical amplitude scale estimation for quantization-based watermarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shterev, I.D.; Lagendijk, I.L.; Heusdens, R.

    2004-01-01

    Quantization-based watermarking schemes are vulnerable to amplitude scaling. Therefore the scaling factor has to be accounted for either at the encoder, or at the decoder, prior to watermark decoding. In this paper we derive the marginal probability density model for the watermarked and attacked

  6. Resilience Assessment as a Tool for Understanding the Amazon Frontier as a Social-Ecological System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Buschbacher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces resilience thinking and a methodology for Resilience Assessment that consists of defining the system (key issue and system boundaries in time and space; looking at history (timeline and cross-scale drivers and interactions; specifying resilience of what to what (defining attributes and variables; scenarios (likely future drivers and possible desirable and undesirable future regimes; and developing management considerations to promote desirable scenarios. Resilience assessment for three major social groups of Cotriguaçu municipality in Mato Grosso, Brazil -- medium to large landholders, the Rikbaktsa indigenous people, and family farmers -- found that each social group has gone through multiple iterations of the growth-collapse-reorganization adaptive cycle and that the dynamics of this system are largely determined by economic and policy drivers that come from a larger scale. Contributions to the resilience assessment methodology are to base the analysis of the system on its historical trajectory, seek to explicitly incorporate the perspectives of local actors, and use scenario analysis to develop possible management interventions.

  7. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holmes, Aimee E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Kearn P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  8. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2013-09-18

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  9. Manufacturing hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Josef Kridanto Kamadjaja

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A resilient denture liner is placed in the part of the hollow obturator base that contacts to post hemimaxillectomy mucosa. Replacing the resilient denture liner can makes the hollow obturator has an intimate contact with the mucosa, so it can prevents the mouth liquid enter to the cavum nasi and sinus, also eliminates painful because of using the hollow obturator. Resilient denture liner is a soft and resilient material that applied to the fitting surface of a denture in order to allow a more distribution of load. A case was reported about using the hollow obturator with resilient denture liner on post hemimaxillectomy to overcome these problems.

  10. SDG and qualitative trend based model multiple scale validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong; Xu, Xin; Yin, Jianjin; Zhang, Hongyu; Zhang, Beike

    2017-09-01

    Verification, Validation and Accreditation (VV&A) is key technology of simulation and modelling. For the traditional model validation methods, the completeness is weak; it is carried out in one scale; it depends on human experience. The SDG (Signed Directed Graph) and qualitative trend based multiple scale validation is proposed. First the SDG model is built and qualitative trends are added to the model. And then complete testing scenarios are produced by positive inference. The multiple scale validation is carried out by comparing the testing scenarios with outputs of simulation model in different scales. Finally, the effectiveness is proved by carrying out validation for a reactor model.

  11. Biological invasions, ecological resilience and adaptive governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Angeler, David G.; Herrmann, Dustin L.; Stow, Craig A.; Nystrom, Magnus; Sendzimir, Jan; Hopton, Matthew E.; Kolasa, Jurek; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    In a world of increasing interconnections in global trade as well as rapid change in climate and land cover, the accelerating introduction and spread of invasive species is a critical concern due to associated negative social and ecological impacts, both real and perceived. Much of the societal response to invasive species to date has been associated with negative economic consequences of invasions. This response has shaped a war-like approach to addressing invasions, one with an agenda of eradications and intense ecological restoration efforts towards prior or more desirable ecological regimes. This trajectory often ignores the concept of ecological resilience and associated approaches of resilience-based governance. We argue that the relationship between ecological resilience and invasive species has been understudied to the detriment of attempts to govern invasions, and that most management actions fail, primarily because they do not incorporate adaptive, learning-based approaches. Invasive species can decrease resilience by reducing the biodiversity that underpins ecological functions and processes, making ecosystems more prone to regime shifts. However, invasions do not always result in a shift to an alternative regime; invasions can also increase resilience by introducing novelty, replacing lost ecological functions or adding redundancy that strengthens already existing structures and processes in an ecosystem. This paper examines the potential impacts of species invasions on the resilience of ecosystems and suggests that resilience-based approaches can inform policy by linking the governance of biological invasions to the negotiation of tradeoffs between ecosystem services.

  12. New resilience instrument for patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zeng Jie; Liang, Mu Zi; Li, Peng Fei; Sun, Zhe; Chen, Peng; Hu, Guang Yun; Yu, Yuan Liang; Wang, Shu Ni; Qiu, Hong Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Resilience is an important concept in the cancer literature and is a salient indicator of cancer survivorship. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a new resilience instrument that is specific to patients with cancer diagnosis (RS-SC) in Mainland China. First, a resilience framework was constructed for patients with cancer diagnosis. Second, items were formulated based on the framework to reflect different aspects of resilience. Third, two rounds of expert panel discussion were performed to select important and relevant items. Finally, two cross-sectional studies were conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of this instrument. Fifty-one items were generated based on the resilience framework and the final 25-item RS-SC resulted in a five-factor solution including Generic Elements, Benefit Finding, Support and Coping, Hope for the Future and Meaning for Existence, accounting for 64.72% of the variance. The Cronbach's α of the RS-SC was 0.825 and the test-retest reliability was 0.874. The RS-SC is a brief and specific self-report resilience instrument for Chinese patients with cancer and shows sound psychometric properties in this study. The RS-SC has potential applications in both clinical practice and research with strength-based resiliency interventions.

  13. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  14. Impact of Natural Disasters on Livelihood Resilience of Sichuan Rural Residents and Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Livelihood resilience is defined as the capacity of all people across generations to sustain and improve their livelihood opportunities and well-being despite environmental, economic, social and political disturbances. Livelihood resilience has become a popular research and policy concept in the context of climate change. In this paper, we employ the structural dynamics method to describe livelihood resilience of Sichuan rural residents based on four components of livelihood quality, livelihood promotion, livelihood provision, and natural disasters pressure. Results indicate that: (i) The livelihood resilience of rural residents was significantly positively correlated with livelihood quality, livelihood promotion and livelihood provision, but there was a strong negative correlation with the natural disaster pressure. In the past 30 years, both livelihood promotion and livelihood provision declined, and the increase in disasters pressure offset the significant increase in the quality of livelihoods in Sichuan Province. The change curve of the livelihood resilience of rural residents showed the characteristics of first rising and then descending. (ii) The impact of different natural disasters on the resilience of livelihood is different. The contribution rates of earthquake, drought and flood disaster to the resilience of livelihood were -0.9 percent, -0.8 percent, and -0.3percent respectively. Due to the fact that the research area is not divided into earthquake-stricken area, non-earthquake-stricken area, heavy stricken area and light stricken area, to a certain extent, this has weakened the negative effect of earthquake disaster on the livelihood resilience of rural residents. (iii) From central government perspective, the reform of income distribution, tax system, and to change the reality of the income growth of rural residents behind national economic development are shown to be associated with highly significant and positive impact on livelihood resilience of

  15. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  16. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  17. Resilience and vision impairment in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetford, Clare; Bennett, Kate M; Hodge, Suzanne; Knox, Paul C; Robinson, Jude

    2015-12-01

    Some people fare better than others when faced with adversity; they appear to be more 'resilient'. This article explores the concept of resilience in the context of vision impairment using two linked sets of narrative interview data from 2007 to 2010. Three case studies were analysed in detail using a framework approach based upon a social-ecological model of resilience and vision impairment. Within the model a range of assets and resources are identified which influence an individual's capacity for resilience. A set of criteria were used to establish the extent to which each individual appeared to be resilient at each point in time. Analysis revealed that it is not merely the presence or absence of individual, social, and community resources - but how these resources interact with each other - that influences resilience and can create a risk to wellbeing. To possess only some of these resources is not sufficient; there is a co-dependency between these resources which requires the presence of other resources for resilience to be achieved. Resilience is not a fixed state; individuals can become more or less resilient as their circumstances and resources change over time. We suggest that the concept of resilience has much to offer the field of vision impairment as it allows the identification of enablers as well as areas of barriers to improving people's health and wellbeing and suggests further opportunities for service providers to engage with clients, even those who appear to be supported, as people's social, economic and emotional landscapes continue to change over time, rather than identifying deficit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Recommender Thermometer for Measuring the Preparedness for Flood Resilience Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kaklauskas, Arturas; Lepkova, Natalija; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Lill, Irene; Urbonaviciene, Vita; Naimaviciene, Jurga; Budryte, Loreta; Tupenaite, Laura; Kanapeckiene, Loreta

    2014-01-01

    A range of various thermometers and similar scales are employed in different human and resilience management activities: Distress Thermometer, Panic Thermometer, Fear Thermometer, fire danger rating, hurricane scales, earthquake scales (Richter\\ud Magnitude Scale, Mercalli Scale), Anxiety Thermometer, Help Thermometer, Problem Thermometer, Emotion Thermometer, Depression Thermometer, the Torino scale (assessing asteroid/comet impact prediction), Excessive Heat Watch, etc. Extensive financing ...

  19. Social and technological aspects of disaster resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, Alexandra; Sparf, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Large scale projects tasked with designing infrastructures and urban networks resilient to disasters face a common challenge, i.e. the need to address concomitant technological issues and social problems. What is more, conflicting technologies and the diverse philosophical underpinnings of distinct...... academic disciplines pose difficulties in the collaboration among experts of different fields. These difficulties and possible ways to tackle them have been highlighted by a questionnaire developed in the framework of an EU project named ANDROID (Academic Network for Disaster Resilience to Optimize...... Educational Development). More specifically, the project investigated the level of interdisciplinary work in current research and educational projects within the field of disaster resilience. Findings illustrate the number and types of disciplines involved in disaster resilience projects and suggest...

  20. Entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system (small scale and large scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash University, Caulfield (Australia). Division of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1996-09-01

    Our future energy needs will be supplied by a combination of many different sources ranging from small wind turbine to provide power for a single house to central power stations that provide power in very large scale fed into the national grid. Computer control systems will integrate the performance of all these systems to make sure that as much power as possible comes from environmentally friendlier sources. As alternative sources becomes more widely available, small scale systems meeting local needs may start to replace current large scale central power stations. The author is investigating the feasibility of an entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system. The developed system find so many applications as it can be used as small scale power system for Remote Area Power Supply, wind energy/battery or solar energy/battery, as well as large scale for interconnection with national grid. (Author)

  1. Generic metrics and quantitative approaches for system resilience as a function of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, Devanandham; Emmanuel Ramirez-Marquez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Resilience is generally understood as the ability of an entity to recover from an external disruptive event. In the system domain, a formal definition and quantification of the concept of resilience has been elusive. This paper proposes generic metrics and formulae for quantifying system resilience. The discussions and graphical examples illustrate that the quantitative model is aligned with the fundamental concept of resilience. Based on the approach presented it is possible to analyze resilience as a time dependent function in the context of systems. The paper describes the metrics of network and system resilience, time for resilience and total cost of resilience. Also the paper describes the key parameters necessary to analyze system resilience such as the following: disruptive events, component restoration and overall resilience strategy. A road network example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed resilience metrics and how these analyses form the basis for developing effective resilience design strategies. The metrics described are generic enough to be implemented in a variety of applications as long as appropriate figures-of-merit and the necessary system parameters, system decomposition and component parameters are defined. - Highlights: ► Propose a graphical model for the understanding of the resilience process. ► Mathematical description of resilience as a function of time. ► Identification of necessary concepts to define and evaluate network resilience. ► Development of cost and time to recovery metrics based on resilience formulation.

  2. Medical student resilience and stressful clinical events during clinical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpy, Jennifer C; Lee, Wei Wei; Woodruff, James N; Pincavage, Amber T

    2017-01-01

    Medical students face numerous stressors during their clinical years, including difficult clinical events. Fostering resilience is a promising way to mitigate negative effects of stressors, prevent burnout, and help students thrive after difficult experiences. However, little is known about medical student resilience. To characterize medical student resilience and responses to difficult clinical events during clinical training. Sixty-two third-year (MS3) and 55 fourth-year (MS4) University of Chicago medical students completed surveys in 2016 assessing resilience (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, CD-RISC 10), symptoms of burnout, need for resilience training, and responses to difficult clinical events. Medical student mean resilience was lower than in a general population sample. Resilience was higher in males, MS4s, those without burnout symptoms, and students who felt able to cope with difficult clinical events. When students experienced difficult events in the clinical setting, the majority identified poor team dynamics among the most stressful, and agreed their wellbeing was affected by difficult clinical events. A majority also would prefer to discuss these events with their team later that day. Students discussed events with peers more than with attendings or residents. Students comfortable discussing stress and burnout with peers had higher resilience. Most students believed resilience training would be helpful and most beneficial during MS3 year. Clinical medical student resilience was lower than in the general population but higher in MS4s and students reporting no burnout. Students had some insight into their resilience and most thought resilience training would be helpful. Students discussed difficult clinical events most often with peers. More curricula promoting medical student resilience are needed.

  3. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  4. Local knowledge: Empirical Fact to Develop Community Based Disaster Risk Management Concept for Community Resilience at Mangkang Kulon Village, Semarang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapiarsa, A. B.; Sariffuddin, S.

    2018-02-01

    Local knowledge in disaster management should not be neglected in developing community resilience. The circular relation between humans and their living habitat and community social relation have developed the local knowledge namely specialized knowledge, shared knowledge, and common knowledge. Its correlation with community-based disaster management has become an important discussion specially to answer can local knowledge underlie community-based disaster risk reduction concept development? To answer this question, this research used mix-method. Interview and crosstab method for 73 respondents with 90% trust rate were used to determine the correlation between local knowledge and community characteristics. This research found out that shared knowledge dominated community local knowledge (77%). While common knowledge and specialized knowledge were sequentially 8% and 15%. The high score of shared value (77%) indicated that local knowledge was occurred in household level and not yet indicated in community level. Shared knowledge was found in 3 phases of the resilient community in dealing with disaster, namely mitigation, emergency response, and recovery phase. This research, therefore, has opened a new scientific discussion on the self-help concept in community-help concept in CBDRM concept development in Indonesia.

  5. Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, Henrik; van der Leeuw, Sander E; Redman, Charles L; Meffert, Douglas J; Davis, George; Alfsen, Christine; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities--New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix--the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  6. The Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways Model: a multi-level framework on maternal, paternal, and child health disparities derived by community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Schafer, Peter; DeClerque, Julia L; Lanzi, Robin G; Hobel, Calvin; Shalowitz, Madeleine; Chinchilli, Vern; Raju, Tonse N K

    2015-04-01

    Emerging evidence supports the theoretical and clinical importance of the preconception period in influencing pregnancy outcomes and child health. Collectively, this evidence affirms the need for a novel, integrative theoretical framework to design future investigations, integrate new findings, and identify promising, evidence-informed interventions to improve intergenerational health and reduce disparities. This article presents a transdisciplinary framework developed by the NIH Community Child Health Network (CCHN) through community-based participatory research processes. CCHN developed a Preconception Stress and Resiliency Pathways (PSRP) model by building local and multi-site community-academic participatory partnerships that established guidelines for research planning and decision-making; reviewed relevant findings diverse disciplinary and community perspectives; and identified the major themes of stress and resilience within the context of families and communities. The PSRP model focuses on inter-relating the multiple, complex, and dynamic biosocial influences theoretically linked to family health disparities. The PSRP model borrowed from and then added original constructs relating to developmental origins of lifelong health, epigenetics, and neighborhood and community influences on pregnancy outcome and family functioning (cf. MCHJ 2014). Novel elements include centrality of the preconception/inter-conception period, role of fathers and the parental relationship, maternal allostatic load (a composite biomarker index of cumulative wear-and-tear of stress), resilience resources of parents, and local neighborhood and community level influences (e.g., employment, housing, education, health care, and stability of basic necessities). CCHN's integrative framework embraces new ways of thinking about how to improve outcomes for future generations, by starting before conception, by including all family members, and by engaging the community vigorously at multiple

  7. [Modeling continuous scaling of NDVI based on fractal theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hai-Jun; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Yu, Tao; Hu, Xin-Li; Huang, Yan; Du, Ling-Tong; Zhao, Li-Min; Wei, Xi; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhou-Wei; Li, Shao-Peng

    2013-07-01

    Scale effect was one of the very important scientific problems of remote sensing. The scale effect of quantitative remote sensing can be used to study retrievals' relationship between different-resolution images, and its research became an effective way to confront the challenges, such as validation of quantitative remote sensing products et al. Traditional up-scaling methods cannot describe scale changing features of retrievals on entire series of scales; meanwhile, they are faced with serious parameters correction issues because of imaging parameters' variation of different sensors, such as geometrical correction, spectral correction, etc. Utilizing single sensor image, fractal methodology was utilized to solve these problems. Taking NDVI (computed by land surface radiance) as example and based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image, a scheme was proposed to model continuous scaling of retrievals. Then the experimental results indicated that: (a) For NDVI, scale effect existed, and it could be described by fractal model of continuous scaling; (2) The fractal method was suitable for validation of NDVI. All of these proved that fractal was an effective methodology of studying scaling of quantitative remote sensing.

  8. Nature-based agricultural solutions: Scaling perennial grains across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Brad G; Mungai, Leah M; Messina, Joseph P; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2017-11-01

    Modern plant breeding tends to focus on maximizing yield, with one of the most ubiquitous implementations being shorter-duration crop varieties. It is indisputable that these breeding efforts have resulted in greater yields in ideal circumstances; however, many farmed locations across Africa suffer from one or more conditions that limit the efficacy of modern short-duration hybrids. In view of global change and increased necessity for intensification, perennial grains and long-duration varieties offer a nature-based solution for improving farm productivity and smallholder livelihoods in suboptimal agricultural areas. Specific conditions where perennial grains should be considered include locations where biophysical and social constraints reduce agricultural system efficiency, and where conditions are optimal for crop growth. Using a time-series of remotely-sensed data, we locate the marginal agricultural lands of Africa, identifying suboptimal temperature and precipitation conditions for the dominant crop, i.e., maize, as well as optimal climate conditions for two perennial grains, pigeonpea and sorghum. We propose that perennial grains offer a lower impact, sustainable nature-based solution to this subset of climatic drivers of marginality. Using spatial analytic methods and satellite-derived climate information, we demonstrate the scalability of perennial pigeonpea and sorghum across Africa. As a nature-based solution, we argue that perennial grains offer smallholder farmers of marginal lands a sustainable solution for enhancing resilience and minimizing risk in confronting global change, while mitigating social and edaphic drivers of low and variable production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Breaking resilience for a sustainable future: Thoughts for the anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaser, Marion; Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah Grahm; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Strong resilience of a system usually enables the protection of a status quo. Most resilience studies assume that resilience-building is the central objective of sustainability work. Even though transformation has become a central theme in development and social-ecological debates, questions...... surrounding the weakening resilience of undesired system states are rarely analyzed. We suggest that resilience studies not only serve to protect systems and feedbacks we want to maintain, but may also help to understand and overcome chronic, undesirable,—and thus wicked—resilience. This contribution focuses...... on reef fisheries in the Spermonde Island Archipelago in Indonesia, based on social and ecological studies between 2004 and 2016. We identify a number of interlocking wickedly resilient vicious cycles as predominant drivers of the impoverishment of fishing households and the overexploited, polluted...

  10. The psychobiology of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2009-02-01

    Although adverse environments are well known to be a risk factor for psychopathology, many individuals respond adaptively to such environments. There is growing interest in the underlying mechanisms involved in such resilience. Several cognitive-affective processes may be involved, and these may be mediated by particular neuronal circuits and neurochemical systems. This article summarizes some of the relevant work on the role of fear conditioning, reward processing, and social behavior in resilience. There is a growing body of data on how particular gene-environment interactions affect these processes, and thus underpin resilience. Ultimately, a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning resilience may lead to novel interventions.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Scalable Membership Service for Supercomputer Resiliency-Aware Runtime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Yoav [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Mandler, Benjamin [IBM Corporation, Haifa Research Center; Moreira, Jose [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Jones, Terry R [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    As HPC systems and applications get bigger and more complex, we are approaching an era in which resiliency and run-time elasticity concerns be- come paramount.We offer a building block for an alternative resiliency approach in which computations will be able to make progress while components fail, in addition to enabling a dynamic set of nodes throughout a computation lifetime. The core of our solution is a hierarchical scalable membership service provid- ing eventual consistency semantics. An attribute replication service is used for hierarchy organization, and is exposed to external applications. Our solution is based on P2P technologies and provides resiliency and elastic runtime support at ultra large scales. Resulting middleware is general purpose while exploiting HPC platform unique features and architecture. We have implemented and tested this system on BlueGene/P with Linux, and using worst-case analysis, evaluated the service scalability as effective for up to 1M nodes.

  12. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  13. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  14. Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline

    2016-05-06

    To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.

  15. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  16. Engagement, resilience and empathy in nursing assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Abal, Yolanda; López-López, M José; Climent-Rodríguez, José A

    To analyse the levels of engagement, resilience and empathy, and the relationship between them, in a sample of nursing assistants working in different private institutions in Huelva. A transversal, descriptive study. The sample comprised 128 nursing assistants working in private health centres of Huelva. They were given the following instruments: resilience scale Wagnild and Young, Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Utrech Work Engagement Scale. There is a relationship between the cognitive and emotional components of engagement and empathy. Certain sociodemographic variables associated with the organisation of work and working conditions are associated with level of engagement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of definitions and measures of system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Seyedmohsen; Barker, Kash; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose E.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling and evaluating the resilience of systems, potentially complex and large-scale in nature, has recently raised significant interest among both practitioners and researchers. This recent interest has resulted in several definitions of the concept of resilience and several approaches to measuring this concept, across several application domains. As such, this paper presents a review of recent research articles related to defining and quantifying resilience in various disciplines, with a focus on engineering systems. We provide a classification scheme to the approaches in the literature, focusing on qualitative and quantitative approaches and their subcategories. Addressed in this review are: an extensive coverage of the literature, an exploration of current gaps and challenges, and several directions for future research. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of definitions and measures of system resilience. • Focus given to resilience in engineering systems is provided. • Nearly 150 articles across several domains are reviewed. • Future directions in resilience research are discussed.

  18. Resilience and Treatment Adhesion in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniella Antunes Pousa; Revoredo, Luciana Silva; Vilar, Maria José; Eulália Maria Chaves, Maia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune, rheumatic inflammatory disease that can cause significant morbidity with evident psychological impacts and obvious harm to quality-of-life that require the patient to adapt treatment. Objective: Assessment of resilience and the self-reported treatment adhesion behaviors of patients with SLE, investigating which of these factors are associated to resilience. Method: Cross-sectional study of 40 women with SLE. A questionnaire with social demographic data, health history and the Wagnild Young Resilience Scale were used. Results: 62.5% followed the medical treatment properly but 55% found it difficult. 27.5% of the patients presented low resilience, 57.5% medium and 15% high resilience. Resilience was associated in the chi-square test (p-value individual capacities to learn how to tackle with the disease for which psychological support of family and doctors can play a significant role. PMID:24665352

  19. An allometric scaling relation based on logistic growth of cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An allometric scaling based on logistic process can be used to model urban growth. • The traditional allometry is based on exponential growth instead of logistic growth. • The exponential allometry represents a local scaling of urban growth. • The logistic allometry represents a global scaling of urban growth. • The exponential allometry is an approximation relation of the logistic allometry. - Abstract: The relationships between urban area and population size have been empirically demonstrated to follow the scaling law of allometric growth. This allometric scaling is based on exponential growth of city size and can be termed “exponential allometry”, which is associated with the concepts of fractals. However, both city population and urban area comply with the course of logistic growth rather than exponential growth. In this paper, I will present a new allometric scaling based on logistic growth to solve the above mentioned problem. The logistic growth is a process of replacement dynamics. Defining a pair of replacement quotients as new measurements, which are functions of urban area and population, we can derive an allometric scaling relation from the logistic processes of urban growth, which can be termed “logistic allometry”. The exponential allometric relation between urban area and population is the approximate expression of the logistic allometric equation when the city size is not large enough. The proper range of the allometric scaling exponent value is reconsidered through the logistic process. Then, a medium-sized city of Henan Province, China, is employed as an example to validate the new allometric relation. The logistic allometry is helpful for further understanding the fractal property and self-organized process of urban evolution in the right perspective

  20. Resilience and electricity systems: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molyneaux, Lynette; Wagner, Liam; Froome, Craig; Foster, John

    2012-01-01

    Electricity systems have generally evolved based on the natural resources available locally. Few metrics exist to compare the security of electricity supply of different countries despite the increasing likelihood of potential shocks to the power system like energy price increases and carbon price regulation. This paper seeks to calculate a robust measure of national power system resilience by analysing each step in the process of transformation from raw energy to consumed electricity. Countries with sizeable deposits of mineral resources are used for comparison because of the need for electricity-intensive metals processing. We find that shifts in electricity-intensive industry can be predicted based on countries' power system resilience. - Highlights: ► We establish a resilience index measure for major electricity systems. ► We examine a range of OECD and developing nations electricity systems and their ability to cope with shocks. ► Robustness measures are established to show resilience of electricity systems.

  1. The Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire: the Italian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Silvana Rocchi,1 Claudio Ghidelli,2 Roberto Burro,3 Michele Vitacca,4 Simonetta Scalvini,5 Anna Maria Della Vedova,6 Gianmarco Roselli,7 Jean-Pierre Ramponi,8 Giorgio Bertolotti9 1Psychology Service, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Lumezzane, 2Psychological Counselling Service, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Brescia, 3Department of Human Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, 4Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, 5Cardiac Rehabilitation Division, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Lumezzane, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 7Department of Mental Health, Spedali Civili, 8ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Lumezzane, Brescia, 9Psychology Unit, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Tradate, Varese, Italy Background: Resilience focuses on strength under stress, in the context of adversity. Walsh’s theoretical model identifies relational processes that allow families to tackle and overcome critical situations, dividing them into three domains of family function. The aim of this study was to assess resilience in families of patients with a chronic disease by adapting and validating the Italian version of the Walsh Family Resilience Questionnaire (Walsh-IT. Patients and methods: An Italian adult sample of 421 participants (patients and relatives was collected with the aim to assess the reliability and validity of the Walsh-IT. Concurrent validity was carried out by comparing this instrument with the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III (FACES III administered at the same time as the Walsh-IT. Results: Reliability showed high correlation between repeated measurements. The alpha coefficient was 0.946. Both parallel analysis and minimum average partial criteria suggested that the best number of domains is equal to 3, explaining 50.4% of the total variance. Based on the results obtained from the Rasch analysis, items 10, 11, 16, 22, and 23 have been removed resulting in a short-form questionnaire

  2. Resilience in Women who Experience Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos; Łuczak, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Violence in the family constitutes a serious social and psychological problem with harmful consequences leading, among others, to changes in the psychological functioning of the victim and, secondarily, also the perpetrator. The aim of this study was to examine resilience in women experiencing domestic violence. The "Ego Resiliency Scale" (ERS) was used to study the group of women suffering domestic violence. The study group included 52 women aged 30-65 years (mean age: 40.15) using assistance of the Crisis Intervention Centre due to experienced domestic violence. They most often reported suffering psychological and physical violence, with the husband or intimate partner being the most common perpetrator. Study women experiencing domestic violence obtained significantly lower scores on the ERS. The lowest scores on the ERS were achieved by women suffering paternal violence, while the highest - by women experiencing violence on the part of the intimate partner. Resilience of study women suffering domestic violence was lower than resilience of the general population, i.e. individuals not experiencing domestic violence. Suffered violence inflicted by the father exerted the greatest adverse impact on resilience. It seems advisable to consider resilience in the process of providing women experiencing domestic violence with psychosocial help.

  3. Systemic Resilience of Complex Urban Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Salat

    2012-07-01

    possibility of flow transfers, as is the case of historical cities. One of the central demonstrations in this paper is that an urban system’s structural resilience is highest when it is configured according to a scale free structure for its parts and for its connections. The spatial distribution and the intensity of connections in such a structure obeys a Pareto distribution – that is, an inverse power law found throughout the organization of living organisms and economic systems. The scale relationships between the different hierarchic levels of an arborescence, a leaf, and the blood and oxygen circulation systems in our bodies obey such a mathematical law. It states the frequency of an element’s appearance and the span of a connection based on its hierarchic level: the smaller an element is, the more often it will be encountered in the system; the bigger an element is the rarer it will be. This fundamental law defines in itself the manner in which living organisms and things should be organized to optimize their access to energy, the use that they make of it, and their resilience

  4. Resilient moves: Tinkering with practice theory to generate new ways of thinking about using resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Kay; Hart, Angie

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health policies have re-endorsed the key role all health and social care professionals have in tackling the social determinants of health inequalities. With inequalities firmly entrenched, and much theorising focused on reproduction rather than transformation, sustaining practitioner commitment and engagement with this work and maintaining confidence in achieving change is challenging. One increasingly popular way to intervene in practice to begin to address inequalities has been the use of resilience, even though resilience is frequently critiqued for its collusion with neoliberal imperatives in favouring individualised rather than socio-political responses. This article examines these concerns through the use of the practice turn and specifically 'slim-line' practice theory and 'tinkering' to explore the potential for reframing resilience theory and practice. Using an original data set derived from evaluations of resilience-based programmes, held with parents and practitioners between 2008 and 2012, this article re-examines participants' understandings of resilience. We show how practice theory reveals entangled and emergent meanings, competencies and materials that constitute resilience as a social practice comprised of resilient moves. The implications of this reframing are discussed in relation to ontology, agency and change; but also for resilience theory and practice and public health practices more generally. In conclusion, we argue practice theory's attention to context as more than mere backdrop to action helps shift inequality theorising beyond the individual and reproduction towards deeper, detailed social understandings of transformation and change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. How Resilience Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at coping skills that carry people through life and why some have them and others do not. Suggests that resilience is a reflex, a way of facing and understanding the world, and that resilient people and companies face reality with staunchness, make meaning out of hardship, and improvise. (JOW)

  6. Multifractal resilience and viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The term resilience has become extremely fashionable and there had been many attempts to provide operational definition and in fact metrics going beyond a set of more or less ad-hoc indicators. The viability theory (Aubin and Saint-Pierre, 2011) have been used to give a rather precise mathematical definition of resilience (Deffuant and Gilbert, 2011). However, it does not grasp the multiscale nature of resilience that is rather fundamental as particularly stressed by Folke et al (2010). In this communication, we first recall a preliminary attempt (Tchiguirinskaia et al., 2014) to define multifractal resilience with the help of the maximal probable singularity. Then we extend this multifractal approach to the capture basin of the viability, therefore the resilient basin. Aubin, J P, A. Bayen, and P Saint-Pierre (2011). Viability Theory. New Directions. Springer, Berlin,. Deffuant, G. and Gilbert, N. (eds) (2011) Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems. Springer Berlin.Folke, C., S R Carpenter, B Walker, M Sheffer, T Chapin, and J Rockstroem (2010). Resilience thinking: integrating re- silience, adaptability and transformability. Ecology and So- ciety, 14(4):20, Tchiguirinskaia,I., D. Schertzer, , A. Giangola-Murzyn and T. C. Hoang (2014). Multiscale resilience metrics to assess flood. Proceedings of ICCSA 2014, Normandie University, Le Havre, France -.

  7. Resilient health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollnagel, E.; Braithwaite, J.; Wears, R. L.

    . Whereas current safety approaches primarily aim to reduce or eliminate the number of things that go wrong, Resilient Health Care aims to increase and improve the number of things that go right. Just as the WHO argues that health is more than the absence of illness, so does Resilient Health Care argue...... rights reserved....

  8. Resilient Renewable Energy Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DiOrio, Nicholas A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Butt, Robert S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, Allison [Unaffiliated

    2017-11-14

    This presentation for the Cable-Tec Expo 2017 offers information about how renewable microgrids can be used to increase resiliency. It includes information about why renewable energy battery diesel hybrids microgrids should be considered for backup power, how to estimate economic savings of microgrids, quantifying the resiliency gain of microgrids, and where renewable microgrids will be successful.

  9. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature...

  10. Cluster Decline and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    -2011. Our longitudinal study reveals that technological lock-in and exit of key firms have contributed to impairment of the cluster’s resilience in adapting to disruptions. Entrepreneurship has a positive effect on cluster resilience, while multinational companies have contradicting effects by bringing...

  11. The Resilient Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  12. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  13. Arctic indigenous youth resilience and vulnerability: comparative analysis of adolescent experiences across five circumpolar communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulturgasheva, Olga; Rasmus, Stacy; Wexler, Lisa; Nystad, Kristine; Kral, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Arctic peoples today find themselves on the front line of rapid environmental change brought about by globalizing forces, shifting climates, and destabilizing physical conditions. The weather is not the only thing undergoing rapid change here. Social climates are intrinsically connected to physical climates, and changes within each have profound effects on the daily life, health, and well-being of circumpolar indigenous peoples. This paper describes a collaborative effort between university researchers and community members from five indigenous communities in the circumpolar north aimed at comparing the experiences of indigenous Arctic youth in order to come up with a shared model of indigenous youth resilience. The discussion introduces a sliding scale model that emerged from the comparative data analysis. It illustrates how a "sliding scale" of resilience captures the inherent dynamism of youth strategies for "doing well" and what forces represent positive and negative influences that slide towards either personal and communal resilience or vulnerability. The model of the sliding scale is designed to reflect the contingency and interdependence of resilience and vulnerability and their fluctuations between lowest and highest points based on timing, local situation, larger context, and meaning. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. From Risk to Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    This thesis investigates unpredictability in contemporary disaster and emergency management. The thesis traces the shift from risk thinking towards the resilience approach that has recently characterized the field. It asks how resilience manifests itself in practice and discusses how to incorporate...... this approach into preparedness planning to improve the ability of socio-technological systems to cope with unexpected disruptions. Those working in the field understand resilience as a broad umbrella term linked to risk thinking and concerned with flexible systems that are able to absorb and adapt...... resilience and complexity discourses in an attempt to conjoin the two concepts. This broad discussion leads into a case study of resilience thinking in contemporary disaster and emergency management: preparedness planning for long-term disruptions of the Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden. Through...

  15. Zoogeomorphology and resilience theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, David R.; Anzah, Faisal; Goff, Paepin D.; Villa, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Zoogeomorphology, the study of animals as geomorphic agents, has been largely overlooked in the context of resilience theory and biogeomorphic systems. In this paper, examples are provided of the interactions between external landscape disturbances and zoogeomorphological agents. We describe cases in which naturally occurring zoogeomorphological agents occupy a landscape, and examine whether those zoogeomorphic agents provide resilience to a landscape or instead serve as a landscape stress capable of inducing a phase-state shift. Several cases are described whereby the presence of exotic (introduced) zoogeomorphic agents overwhelms a landscape and induce collapse. The impact of climate change on species with zoogeomorphological importance is discussed in the context of resilience of a landscape. We conclude with a summary diagram illustrating the relationships existing between zoogeomorphic impacts and landscape resilience in the context of our case studies, and speculate about the future of the study of zoogeomorphology in the framework of resilience theory.

  16. Developing Mathematical Resilience of Prospective Math Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, L.; Herman, T.; Sumarmo, U.; Suryadi, D.

    2017-09-01

    Prospective math teachers need to develop positive adaptive attitudes toward mathematics that will enable them to continue learning despite having to deal with obstacles and difficulties. This research focuses on the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers after being treated using problem-based learning based on their basic knowledge on mathematic and their overall knowledge on math. This research used only one group for pre-test and post-test. The result of this research shows that there is improvement on prospective teachers’ resilience after they were given treatment using problem-based learning. One of the factors causing the resilience improvement of the prospective mathematic teachers is the instructions on students’ work sheet. In the instructions, stud ents were asked to write difficulties in solving math problems as well as write down the solution they take to overcome them. This research can be used as a reference for other researchers who want to do the same research related on students’ resiliency o n math and or math lecturers to improve the resilience of prospective teachers to be resilient teachers on math in the future.

  17. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  18. Absolute scale-based imaging position encoder with submicron accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Andrey G.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Lashmanov, Oleg U.; Vasilev, A. S.; Timofeev, Alexander N.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Gordeev, Sergey V.

    2013-04-01

    Study is devoted to experimental research and development of absolute imaging position encoder based on standard calibrated scale of invar alloy with 1 mm spacing. The encoder uses designed imaging system as a vernier and absolute magnetic encoder as a rough indication. The features of optical design, choice and use of imaging system as long as indexes images processing algorithm are described. A shadow method was implemented: indexes images on a CCD array are formed by the lens focused at the scale surface; the laser module lights up the scale through a beam-splitting prism by a parallel beam. Further dark indexes images on a light scale background are detected and analyzed to estimate the encoder position. Full range of experimental tests was set to calibrate the encoder and to estimate the accuracy. As a result, accuracy close to 1 μm at 1 m was achieved.

  19. An Extension of the Meaning Making Model Using Data From Chinese Cancer Patients: The Moderating Effect of Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Yu; Li, Wenju

    2017-10-05

    Meaning making refers to the process of integrating the appraised meaning of a traumatic event into one's global belief system to reduce cognitive discrepancy. Park and Folkman (1997) proposed the renowned "meaning-making model," which was a major contribution to trauma research from a positive psychology viewpoint. This concept is important for understanding the trauma of cancer patients, as searching for meaning is fairly common after a cancer diagnosis. However, the original model did not incorporate individual differences in resilience, which might account for the fact that research on this model has produced contradictory results. This study recruited 146 Chinese cancer patients and used different scales to measure each stage of the meaning-making process, resilience, posttraumatic growth (PTG), and anxiety/depression symptoms. A follow-up study was conducted after 6 months. A structural equation model was constructed; meaning discrepancy triggered meaning making, predicted changes in situational and global beliefs, and ultimately resulted in better mental health outcomes. The moderating effect of resilience was noteworthy; the indirect effect of meaning making on the relationship between meaning discrepancy (Time 1 [T1]) and mental health outcomes (Time 2 [T2]) was significant in the low resilience group, but nonsignificant in the high resilience group. These results suggest that the effects of meaning-making processes may differ based on individual factors, such as resilience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R McClanahan

    Full Text Available Managing coral reefs for resilience to climate change is a popular concept but has been difficult to implement because the empirical scientific evidence has either not been evaluated or is sometimes unsupportive of theory, which leads to uncertainty when considering methods and identifying priority reefs. We asked experts and reviewed the scientific literature for guidance on the multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance. Eleven key factors to inform decisions based on scaling scientific evidence and the achievability of quantifying the factors were identified. Factors important to resistance and recovery, which are important components of resilience, were not strongly related, and should be assessed independently. The abundance of resistant (heat-tolerant coral species and past temperature variability were perceived to provide the greatest resistance to climate change, while coral recruitment rates, and macroalgae abundance were most influential in the recovery process. Based on the 11 key factors, we tested an evidence-based framework for climate change resilience in an Indonesian marine protected area. The results suggest our evidence-weighted framework improved upon existing un-weighted methods in terms of characterizing resilience and distinguishing priority sites. The evaluation supports the concept that, despite high ecological complexity, relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics. This is the first rigorous assessment of factors promoting coral reef resilience based on their perceived importance, empirical evidence, and feasibility of measurement. There were few differences between scientists' perceptions of factor importance and the scientific evidence found in journal publications but more before and after impact studies will be required to fully test the validity of all the factors. The methods here will

  1. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Tim R; Donner, Simon D; Maynard, Jeffrey A; MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Baker, Andrew C; Alemu I, Jahson B; Beger, Maria; Campbell, Stuart J; Darling, Emily S; Eakin, C Mark; Heron, Scott F; Jupiter, Stacy D; Lundquist, Carolyn J; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Paddack, Michelle J; Selig, Elizabeth R; van Woesik, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Managing coral reefs for resilience to climate change is a popular concept but has been difficult to implement because the empirical scientific evidence has either not been evaluated or is sometimes unsupportive of theory, which leads to uncertainty when considering methods and identifying priority reefs. We asked experts and reviewed the scientific literature for guidance on the multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance. Eleven key factors to inform decisions based on scaling scientific evidence and the achievability of quantifying the factors were identified. Factors important to resistance and recovery, which are important components of resilience, were not strongly related, and should be assessed independently. The abundance of resistant (heat-tolerant) coral species and past temperature variability were perceived to provide the greatest resistance to climate change, while coral recruitment rates, and macroalgae abundance were most influential in the recovery process. Based on the 11 key factors, we tested an evidence-based framework for climate change resilience in an Indonesian marine protected area. The results suggest our evidence-weighted framework improved upon existing un-weighted methods in terms of characterizing resilience and distinguishing priority sites. The evaluation supports the concept that, despite high ecological complexity, relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics. This is the first rigorous assessment of factors promoting coral reef resilience based on their perceived importance, empirical evidence, and feasibility of measurement. There were few differences between scientists' perceptions of factor importance and the scientific evidence found in journal publications but more before and after impact studies will be required to fully test the validity of all the factors. The methods here will increase the feasibility

  2. Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Researchers need to assess the psychometric rigour of resilience measuring scales. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator (ARI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure.Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales.Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts.Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.

  3. A Percolation‐Based Approach to Scaling Infiltration and Evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Hunt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimal flow paths obtained from percolation theory provide a powerful tool that can be used to characterize properties associated with flow such as soil hydraulic conductivity, as well as other properties influenced by flow connectivity and topology. A recently proposed scaling theory for vegetation growth appeals to the tortuosity of optimal paths from percolation theory to define the spatio‐temporal scaling of the root radial extent (or, equivalently, plant height. Root radial extent measures the maximum horizontal distance between a plant shoot and the root tips. We apply here the same scaling relationship to unsteady (horizontal flow associated with plant transpiration. The pore‐scale travel time is generated from the maximum flow rate under saturated conditions and a typical pore size. At the field‐scale, the characteristic time is interpreted as the growing season duration, and the characteristic length is derived from the measured evapotranspiration in that period. We show that the two scaling results are equivalent, and they are each in accord with observed vegetation growth limits, as well as with actual limiting transpiration values. While the conceptual approach addresses transpiration, most accessed data are for evapotranspiration. The equivalence of the two scaling approaches suggests that, if horizontal flow is the dominant pathway in plant transpiration, horizontal unsteady flow follows the same scaling relationship as root growth. Then, we propose a corresponding scaling relationship to vertical infiltration, a hypothesis which is amenable to testing using infiltration results of Sharma and co‐authors. This alternate treatment of unsteady vertical flow may be an effective alternative to the commonly applied method based on the diffusion of water over a continuum as governed by Richards’ equation.

  4. Technology-Mediated Learning for Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Majchrzak, Tim; Busch, Peter André

    Resilience is a topic of steadily increasing interest. It particularly gains importance when discussing how communities (e.g. municipalities) can prepare themselves for potential future disruptions. A resilient community will overcome immediate shocks, such as an earthquake, as well as stresses......, such as the successive outbreak of a pandemic. Due to the novelty of the topic, research particularly exists on theoretical aspects of resilience. Targeting learning – and thereby the local population – is a rather new emergence. To effectively reach, involve, and engage citizens, technology can play a key role. Based...... on four actual cases from communities we analyse the impact technology has on learning about resilience. We then scrutinize the effectiveness and propose future steps. Thereby, we seek to provide practical advice to local governments and to enrich the theory at the same time....

  5. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  6. Web-based Visual Analytics for Extreme Scale Climate Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steed, Chad A [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL; Harney, John F [ORNL; Jewell, Brian C [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Smith, Brian E [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Williams, Dean N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Web-based visual analytics framework for democratizing advanced visualization and analysis capabilities pertinent to large-scale earth system simulations. We address significant limitations of present climate data analysis tools such as tightly coupled dependencies, ineffi- cient data movements, complex user interfaces, and static visualizations. Our Web-based visual analytics framework removes critical barriers to the widespread accessibility and adoption of advanced scientific techniques. Using distributed connections to back-end diagnostics, we minimize data movements and leverage HPC platforms. We also mitigate system dependency issues by employing a RESTful interface. Our framework embraces the visual analytics paradigm via new visual navigation techniques for hierarchical parameter spaces, multi-scale representations, and interactive spatio-temporal data mining methods that retain details. Although generalizable to other science domains, the current work focuses on improving exploratory analysis of large-scale Community Land Model (CLM) and Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) simulations.

  7. Information filtering via a scaling-based function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Guang

    2013-01-01

    Finding a universal description of the algorithm optimization is one of the key challenges in personalized recommendation. In this article, for the first time, we introduce a scaling-based algorithm (SCL) independent of recommendation list length based on a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion, by finding out the scaling function for the tunable parameter and object average degree. The optimal value of the tunable parameter can be abstracted from the scaling function, which is heterogeneous for the individual object. Experimental results obtained from three real datasets, Netflix, MovieLens and RYM, show that the SCL is highly accurate in recommendation. More importantly, compared with a number of excellent algorithms, including the mass diffusion method, the original hybrid method, and even an improved version of the hybrid method, the SCL algorithm remarkably promotes the personalized recommendation in three other aspects: solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma, presenting a high novelty, and solving the key challenge of cold start problem.

  8. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  9. Research on the resilience of husbandry economy to snow disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Fang, Yiping

    2017-04-01

    Snow disaster always makes adverse influence on the pastoral economy in alpine area. Resilience theory could efficiently enhance the capacities of resisting disaster and mitigating loss of animal husbandry economy. In order to distinguish the weak parts of existed resilience system and strengthen the construction of disaster mitigating in the source of Changjiang-Yellow River, this paper has developed two methods of comprehensive index and relationship model to measure the resilience from 1980 to 2014. The comprehensive index method is based on the conceptual framework of resilience assessment. And relationship model is derived from the internal relationship between vulnerability and resilience. Through the index system of resilience, this paper also summarizes the mean influencing indicator to husbandry economy resilience. The results show:(1)From time dimension, the resilience of snow disaster in Changjiang-Yellow River is rising with fluctuations. Based on the rate, the changes could be divided into slow(1980-1996) and fast(1997-2014) growing phases. The disaster-mitigating capacity of livestock has been markedly improved; (2)From spatial dimension, the magnitude and frequency of snow disaster change weakly. But the gap of resilience in Changjiang-Yellow River has shrunk in 35 years and the resilience in source of Changjiang is distinctly better than Yellow River; (3)Among all the indicators, snow disaster plays a decisive role in the changes of resilience. The resisting capacity including infrastructure construction makes significant effects on resilience and the reducing measures consisted of income, education and agricultural finance could effectively regulate the level. Key words: husbandry economy; snow disaster; resilience; mitigation

  10. Design of sustainable industrial scale biocatalysis based flax retting process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Gooijer, H. (Henk); Naik, N. (Nirali)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this applied research is to design a sustainable industrial scale enzyme based flax retting process. A systematic approach has been adopted. The screening and selection of enzymes for flax retting has been carried out. Alkaline pectinase has been identified as the most appropriate enzyme

  11. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  12. Conformal-Based Surface Morphing and Multi-Scale Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chun Lam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two algorithms, based on conformal geometry, for the multi-scale representations of geometric shapes and surface morphing. A multi-scale surface representation aims to describe a 3D shape at different levels of geometric detail, which allows analyzing or editing surfaces at the global or local scales effectively. Surface morphing refers to the process of interpolating between two geometric shapes, which has been widely applied to estimate or analyze deformations in computer graphics, computer vision and medical imaging. In this work, we propose two geometric models for surface morphing and multi-scale representation for 3D surfaces. The basic idea is to represent a 3D surface by its mean curvature function, H, and conformal factor function λ, which uniquely determine the geometry of the surface according to Riemann surface theory. Once we have the (λ, H parameterization of the surface, post-processing of the surface can be done directly on the conformal parameter domain. In particular, the problem of multi-scale representations of shapes can be reduced to the signal filtering on the λ and H parameters. On the other hand, the surface morphing problem can be transformed to an interpolation process of two sets of (λ, H parameters. We test the proposed algorithms on 3D human face data and MRI-derived brain surfaces. Experimental results show that our proposed methods can effectively obtain multi-scale surface representations and give natural surface morphing results.

  13. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of a polyvinyl acetate-based resilient liner following various denture base surface pre-treatment methods and immersion in artificial salivary medium: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jacob M; Ganapathy, Dhanraj M; Ariga, Padma

    2012-07-01

    This study was formulated to evaluate and estimate the influence of various denture base resin surface pre-treatments (chemical and mechanical and combinations) upon tensile bond strength between a poly vinyl acetate-based denture liner and a denture base resin. A universal testing machine was used for determining the bond strength of the liner to surface pre-treated acrylic resin blocks. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the t-test (α =.05). This study infers that denture base surface pre-treatment can improve the adhesive tensile bond strength between the liner and denture base specimens. The results of this study infer that chemical, mechanical, and mechano-chemical pre-treatments will have different effects on the bond strength of the acrylic soft resilient liner to the denture base. Among the various methods of pre-treatment of denture base resins, it was inferred that the mechano-chemical pre-treatment method with air-borne particle abrasion followed by monomer application exhibited superior bond strength than other methods with the resilient liner. Hence, this method could be effectively used to improve bond strength between liner and denture base and thus could minimize delamination of liner from the denture base during function.

  14. Comparative evaluation of tensile bond strength of a polyvinyl acetate-based resilient liner following various denture base surface pre-treatment methods and immersion in artificial salivary medium: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This study was formulated to evaluate and estimate the influence of various denture base resin surface pre-treatments (chemical and mechanical and combinations upon tensile bond strength between a poly vinyl acetate-based denture liner and a denture base resin. Materials and Methods: A universal testing machine was used for determining the bond strength of the liner to surface pre-treated acrylic resin blocks. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the t-test (α =.05. Results: This study infers that denture base surface pre-treatment can improve the adhesive tensile bond strength between the liner and denture base specimens. The results of this study infer that chemical, mechanical, and mechano-chemical pre-treatments will have different effects on the bond strength of the acrylic soft resilient liner to the denture base. Conclusion: Among the various methods of pre-treatment of denture base resins, it was inferred that the mechano-chemical pre-treatment method with air-borne particle abrasion followed by monomer application exhibited superior bond strength than other methods with the resilient liner. Hence, this method could be effectively used to improve bond strength between liner and denture base and thus could minimize delamination of liner from the denture base during function.

  15. Does Resilience Mediate Carer Distress After Head and Neck Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Grahame K; Dall'Armi, Luci; Roydhouse, Jessica K; Forstner, Dion; Daher, Maysaa; Simpson, Teresa; White, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Caring for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) can have significant negative psychological and practical impact; however, some carers seem able to cope effectively. Little research has investigated this resilience among carers. The objective of this study was to investigate the resilience levels among carers of patients with HNC. Carers (n = 51) from 2 cancer services in New South Wales completed the Resilience Scale (RS), the Head and Neck Information Needs Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale cutoff scores (>8) were used to classify carers with clinically significant levels of anxiety or depression. The majority of carers (67% [34/51]) reported moderately high to high resilience. Rates of anxiety and depression among carers were 27.4% and 9.8%, respectively. Higher resilience scores were significantly correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores, as well as increasing age. Resilience Scale scores were independent of the severity of the HNC. There were no significant correlations between RS scores and Head and Neck Information Needs Questionnaire scores. Finally, increasing RS scores were associated with a decreasing probability of possible anxiety or depression. These results indicate that higher resilience in carers of HNC patients was associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further investigation into the relationship between resilience and carer psychological wellbeing is warranted. If further evidence supports the findings of this study, then investigating ways to build resilience will be an important clinical option for reducing carer morbidity associated with anxiety and depression. The RS could be used to assess resilience levels among carers of HNC patients.

  16. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  17. Globalization impacts on local commons: multiscale strategies for socioeconomic and ecological resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy O. Randhir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization can have substantial impact on local commons byreducing sustainability of ecosystems and their vital services. Without effectivelocal institutions, these resources are at high risk of exploitation, especially tofeed global markets. This study proposes a multiscale ecosystem framework(MEF that incorporates information on ecosystem components, socioeconomicprocesses, and their interactions. This includes inter and intra commoninteractions and multi-scale processes to evaluate inter and intra scale changesin socioeconomic and ecological processes of commons. Local participationand multi-disciplinary information are critical in achieving sustainability. Usinga global dataset of selected indicators, a general decline is observable in localcommons that face globalization. The need for increasing resilience of commonsthrough multi-scale adaptation strategies can inform decisions at the national,state and local levels. Increased resilience through ecosystem-based approach canminimize impacts of globalization using information on multiattribute processes,equity considerations, development of robust institutions, and effective strategiesfor adaptation.

  18. Resilience in ecotoxicology: Toward a multiple equilibrium concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Schulz, Ralf; Schäfer, Ralf B; Allen, Craig R; Angeler, David G

    2017-10-01

    The term resilience describes stress-response patterns across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly define resilience based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used to describe the ability of organisms to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), which is termed the rate of recovery. By contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change, that is, when ecosystems reorganize into a new regime following disturbance. Under this new regime, structural and functional aspects change considerably relative to the previous regime, without recovery. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. In the present study, we argue that both definitions and uses are appropriate in ecotoxicology, and although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We discuss resilience concepts in ecotoxicology, where the prevailing view of resilience is engineering resilience from chemical stress. Ecological resilience may also be useful for describing systemic ecological changes because of chemical stress. We present quantitative methods that allow ecotoxicologists and risk managers to assess whether an ecosystem faces an impending regime shift or whether it has already undergone such a shift. We contend that engineering and ecological resilience help to distinguish ecotoxicological responses to chemical stressors mechanistically and thus have implications for theory, policy, and application. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2574-2580. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Clinical correlates of resilience factors in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Kelsey T; Lavretsky, Helen; Paholpak, Pattharee; Vlasova, Roza M; Roman, Michael; St Cyr, Natalie; Siddarth, Prabha

    2018-01-16

    Traditional perspectives conceptualize resilience as a trait and depression as resulting from resilience deficiency. However, research indicates that resilience varies substantially even among adults who are clinically depressed, as well as across the lifespan of an individual. Few studies have investigated resilience in depression, and even fewer have examined resilience in depressed older adults. Three hundred thirty-seven adults ≥60 years with major depressive disorder completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and measures of mental health, quality of life (QOL), and medical comorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Correlations and general linear models were used to examine associations between resilience and other variables. The rotated component matrix indicated a four-factor model. Sorting of items by highest factor loading revealed constructs associated with (1) grit, (2) active coping self-efficacy, (3) accommodative coping self-efficacy, and (4) spirituality. Resilience was significantly correlated with increased age, lower cognitive functioning, greater cerebrovascular risk, and greater medical comorbidity. Resilience was negatively associated with mental health symptoms (depression, apathy, and anxiety) and positively associated with QOL. The final optimal model identified less depression, less apathy, greater medical comorbidity, higher QOL, and minority (non-White) race as factors that significantly explained variability in resilience. Resilience was significantly associated with a range of mental health constructs in a sample of older adults with depression. Future clinical trials and dismantling studies may help determine whether interventions targeting grit, active coping, accommodative coping, and spirituality can increase resilience and help prevent and treat depression in older adults.

  20. Maximum length scale in density based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this work is on two new techniques for imposing maximum length scale in topology optimization. Restrictions on the maximum length scale provide designers with full control over the optimized structure and open possibilities to tailor the optimized design for broader range...... of manufacturing processes by fulfilling the associated technological constraints. One of the proposed methods is based on combination of several filters and builds on top of the classical density filtering which can be viewed as a low pass filter applied to the design parametrization. The main idea...

  1. Competent to Cope, Worthy of Happiness? How the Duality of Self-Esteem Can Inform a Resilience-Based Classroom Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Daniel, Brigid

    2007-01-01

    This article considers links between self-esteem and resilience, and suggests implications for teachers and schools. A two-dimensional model of self-esteem is employed as a theoretical framework to revisit a range of factors frequently associated with internal resilience. It is argued that because of the way in which self-referent characteristics…

  2. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  3. Breaking Resilience for a Sustainable Future: Thoughts for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Glaser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Strong resilience of a system usually enables the protection of a status quo. Most resilience studies assume that resilience-building is the central objective of sustainability work. Even though transformation has become a central theme in development and social-ecological debates, questions surrounding the weakening resilience of undesired system states are rarely analyzed. We suggest that resilience studies not only serve to protect systems and feedbacks we want to maintain, but may also help to understand and overcome chronic, undesirable,—and thus wicked—resilience. This contribution focuses on reef fisheries in the Spermonde Island Archipelago in Indonesia, based on social and ecological studies between 2004 and 2016. We identify a number of interlocking wickedly resilient vicious cycles as predominant drivers of the impoverishment of fishing households and the overexploited, polluted and degraded state of the coral reefs that fishers' livelihoods depend on. We argue that, more often than not in the Anthropocene, breaking resilience has a central role in the pursuit of sustainable human-nature relations. Therefore, the link between the resilience and the transformation debates needs to be much more explicitly made. Breaking interlocking, wicked resilience at multiple levels is needed to move toward sustainable human-nature relations from the local to the global level. There are lacunae in debate, literature, and research practice as to when, where and how wicked resilience might need to be weakened. A more complete resilience lens is particularly needed under Anthropocene conditions to support the unmaking of chronically resilient, anthropogenic systems.

  4. The geomorphology of wetlands in drylands: Resilience, nonresilience, or …?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth, Stephen

    2018-03-01

    Over the last decade, much attention has focused on wetland resilience to disturbances such as extreme weather events, longer climate change, and human activities. In geomorphology and cognate disciplines, resilience is defined in various ways and has physical and socioeconomic dimensions but commonly is taken to mean the ability of a system to (A) withstand disturbance, (B) recover from disturbance, or (C) adapt and evolve in response to disturbance to a more desirable (e.g., stable) configuration. Most studies of wetland resilience have tended to focus on the more-or-less permanently saturated humid region wetlands, but whether the findings can be readily transferred to wetlands in drylands remains unclear. Given the natural climatic variability and overall strong moisture deficit characteristic of drylands, are such wetlands likely to be more resilient or less resilient? Focusing on wetlands in the South African drylands, this paper uses existing geomorphological, sedimentological, and geochronological data sets to provide the spatial (up to 50 km2) and temporal (late Quaternary) framework for an assessment of geomorphological resilience. Some wetlands have been highly resilient to environmental (especially climate) change, but others have been nonresilient with marked transformations in channel-floodplain structure and process connectivity having been driven by natural factors (e.g., local base-level fall, drought) or human activities (e.g., channel excavation, floodplain drainage). Key issues related to the assessment of wetland resilience include channel-floodplain dynamics in relation to geomorphological thresholds, wetland geomorphological 'life cycles', and the relative roles of natural and human activities. These issues raise challenges for the involvement of geomorphologists in the practical application of the resilience concept in wetland management. A key consideration is how geomorphological resilience interfaces with other dimensions of resilience

  5. Designing a spatial decision-support system to improve urban resilience to floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzlef, Charlotte; Ganz, François; Becue, Vincent; Serre, Damien

    2017-04-01

    Since Hurricane Katrina (2005), the scientific-political-urban attention is focusing on urban resilience to floods. To prevent the recurrence of such a deadly and costly event ( 82 billion, Serre et al, 2014), experts began to question pre- and post- disaster management. Until now, managers and urban planners have been working on flood risk, according to the paradigm of prevention. However, following Katrina, a new approach was gradually integrated and the concept of resilience applied to urban areas (Serre, 2011). The resilience concept, used in ecology and defined by Holling (1973), refers to the ability of a system to keep its own variables despite changes and analyses the capacity of an (eco)system to tolerate disturbances without changing its state. To link it with flood risk management, this concept takes more into account water and would lead to technical, architectural, social, urban and political innovation (Serre et al, 2016). However, despite 12 years after Katrina, very few concrete actions have been made (Barroca and Serre, 2013). Based on this argument, and several abortive studies, we wish to re-address the operationalization of resilience by redefining its objectives and expectations. While in Europe some studies have been done to build up vulnerability indicators (Barroca et al, 2006; Opach et al, 2016; Wiréhn et al, 2016), few still talk about resilience. When some do (Folke et al, 2010; Lhomme et al, 2011; Nguyen et al, 2013; Suarez et al, 2016), they mainly speak about technical resilience without integrating social resilience. Our objective is thus to imagine a system facilitating the understanding of this concept, its integration in management and development policies. We started on the methodology of information systems, organized system for collection, organization, storage and communication of information, and more precisely on observatories, information systems using the methodology of observation. These last years, we assist to an

  6. Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index (CRSI) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Climate Resilience Screening Index is being developed that is applicable at multiple scales for the United States. Those scales include national, state, county and community. The index will be applied at the first three scales and at selected communities. The index was developed in order to explicitly include domains, indicators and metrics addressing environmental, economic and societal aspects of climate resilience. In addition, the index uses indicators and metrics that assess ecosystem, economic, governance and social services at these scales. Finally, we are developing forecasting approaches that can relate intended changes in services and governance to likely levels of changes in the resiliency of communities to climate change impacts. The present challenge is the incorporation of the index, its relationships to governance and the developing forecasting tools into Federal decision-making across US government and into state/county/community decision-making across the US. This is a slower and more tedious process than the slow process of technical acceptance of the index and its relation to climate change Development of a Climate Resilience Screening Index and its potential for application. Will permit comparison of the resilience of varying communities to climate impacts and through its use permit improvement of resilience of environmental, economic, social and governance attributes of resilience. OAR, OW, OSC, and Regions.

  7. Resilience Theory and Praxis: a Critical Framework for Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Laboy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of resilience as a goal of architectural practice presents a new challenge in architects’ responsibility to health, safety, welfare and poetic expression of human-building interaction. With roots in disaster response, resilience in the building industry emphasizes the preservation and rapid restoration of the physical environment’s normal function in the face of shocks and disturbances of limited duration. The focus on maintaining function, and/or rapidly returning to the status quo ante necessarily affords a narrow understanding of architecture and a limited view of the concept of resilience. While useful at certain scales of time and inquiry, this so-called engineering resilience approach is only one among many within the broad discourse across diverse disciplines such as psychology, economics, and ecology.  Drawing on the academic and professional literature of resilience outside the discipline, this paper explores the multiple competing frameworks represented, considers their influences and implications for architecture and the built environment at multiple scales, and examines the overlaps with existing discourse on change, architecture and time. The analysis of alternative concepts enables a critical perspective to move beyond the circumscribed, functionalist approach afforded by engineering resilience currently guiding architecture practice, towards a framework of social- ecological resilience that can fully embrace the richness of architecture, and results in a necessary and clear theoretical basis for the resilience of architecture over time in a climate of increasing uncertainty.

  8. Proceedings of the third resilience engineering symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Pieri, Francois; Rigaud, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The proceeding from Third Resilience Engineering Symposium collects the papers presented on October 28-30, 2008, in Antibes-Juan-les-Pins, France. The Symposium provided a much appreciated forum for people working within the area of Resilience Engineering to become updated with the latest scientific achievements as well as more practical oriented applications, and exchange views and idea within the area. Resilience Engineering represents a new way of thinking about safety that has already given rise to several practical applications. In contrast to established risk management approaches that are based on hindsight and emphasise error tabulation and calculation of failure probabilities, Resilience Engineering looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to create processes that are robust yet flexible, to monitor and revise risk models, and to use resources pro-actively in the face of disruptions or ongoing production and economic pressures. In Resilience Engineering failures do not stand for a breakdown or malfunctioning of normal system functions, but rather represent the converse of the adaptations necessary to cope with the real world complexity. Individuals and organisations must always adjust their performance to the current conditions; and because resources and time are finite it is inevitable that such adjustments are approximate. Success has been ascribed to the ability of groups, individuals, and organisations to anticipate the changing shape of risk before damage occurs; failure is simply the temporary or permanent absence of that. Three papers were selected for INIS, these are: - Resilience and Brittleness in a Nuclear Emergency Response Simulation: Focusing on Team Coordination Activity (Costa, W.S. et al.); - Resilience and the Training of Nuclear Operators - A View from the Shop Floor (Hildebrandt, M. et al.); and - Complexity of Resilient Power Distribution Networks (May, M.)

  9. 'Something for something': the importance of talking about transactional sex with youth in South Africa using a resilience-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Ingrid; Swartz, Sharlene

    2014-01-01

    Transactional sex is a common feature of sexual relationships in South Africa but has severe health implications for those who engage in it. This paper presents perspectives on transactional sex based on interviews and focus group discussions with young people in Gauteng and Limpopo, South Africa. The discussions were part of an evaluation of a peer education programme promoting HIV prevention called Vhutshilo, aimed at 14-16 year olds. The session on transactional sex entitled 'Something for Something' evoked strong responses from youth. Youth recognised transactional sex as a common phenomenon in their communities and associated it with many risks. However, when comparing young people's qualitative responses to the impact of the session as measured by the quantitative impact survey, no significant differences were discernible between youth in the programme and those in a control group who were not exposed to the session. Further analysis showed that the content of the session was limited to the negative consequences and health risks of transactional sex and focused mostly on the adverse contexts in South Africa that force youth into such relationships. The session did little to situate transactional relationships within the everyday realities of sexual decision making and youth values of peer status and consumerism. We argue that the session's findings reveal a narrow understanding of the dynamic contexts under which transactional sex occurs and fails to take into account the resilience of youth to make choices of whether or not to engage in such relationships, and how they can engage in these types of relationships safely. We conclude that HIV prevention curriculums need to leverage youth resilience and protective skills within the confines of difficult economic and social circumstances to allow them to successfully navigate safer sexual relationships.

  10. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, Mike; Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Caballero-Gil, Pino

    2017-07-04

    The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT), and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I) to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II) to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of "simulatenous" presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP) are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  11. An RFID-Based Smart Structure for the Supply Chain: Resilient Scanning Proofs and Ownership Transfer with Positive Secrecy Capacity Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Burmester

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security published in 2012 by the White House identifies two primary goals for strengthening global supply chains: first, to promote the efficient and secure movement of goods, and second to foster a resilient supply chain. The Internet of Things (IoT, and in particular Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology, can be used to realize these goals. For product identification, tracking and real-time awareness, RFID tags are attached to goods. As tagged goods move along the supply chain from the suppliers to the manufacturers, and then on to the retailers until eventually they reach the customers, two major security challenges can be identified: (I to protect the shipment of goods that are controlled by potentially untrusted carriers; and (II to secure the transfer of ownership at each stage of the chain. For the former, grouping proofs in which the tags of the scanned goods generate a proof of “simulatenous” presence can be employed, while for the latter, ownership transfer protocols (OTP are used. This paper describes enhanced security solutions for both challenges. We first extend earlier work on grouping proofs and group codes to capture resilient group scanning with untrusted readers; then, we describe a modified version of a recently published OTP based on channels with positive secrecy capacity adapted to be implemented on common RFID systems in the supply chain. The proposed solutions take into account the limitations of low cost tags employed in the supply chain, which are only required to generate pseudorandom numbers and compute one-way hash functions.

  12. Landscape diversity and the resilience of agricultural returns: a portfolio analysis of land-use patterns and economic returns from lowland agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abson David J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Conventional agriculture is increasingly based on highly specialized, highly productive farms. It has been suggested that 1 this specialization leads to farms that lack resilience to changing market and environmental conditions; and 2 that by decreasing agricultural diversity, the resilience of the farming system also decreases. Methods We used agricultural gross margin (GM forecasts from 1966 to 2010 and remote sensing data from agricultural landscapes in the lowland UK, in conjunction with modern portfolio theory, to test the hypothesis that decreasing land-use diversity results in landscapes that provide higher, but more volatile, economic returns. We considered the role of spatial scale on the expected levels of volatility and resilience of agricultural returns. Results We found that: 1 there was a strong linear trade-off between expected GMs and the expected volatility of those GMs in real lowland agricultural landscapes in the UK; 2 land-use diversification was negatively correlated with expected GMs from agriculture, and positively correlated with decreasing expected volatility in GMs; 3 the resilience of agricultural returns was positively correlated with the diversity of agricultural land use, and the resilience of agricultural returns rose quickly with increased land-holding size at small spatial extents, but this effect diminished after landholdings reached 12,000 hectares. Conclusions Land-use diversity may have an important role in ensuring resilient agricultural returns in the face of uncertain market and environmental conditions, and land-holding size plays a pivotal role in determining the relationships between resilience and returns at a landscape scale. Creating finer-grained land-use patterns based on pre-existing local land uses may increase the resilience of individual farms, while maintaining aggregate yield across landscapes.

  13. Developing an economical and reliable test for measuring the resilient modulus and Poisson's ratio of subgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The resilient modulus and Poissons ratio of base and sublayers in highway use are : important parameters in design and quality control process. The currently used techniques : include CBR (California Bearing Ratio) test, resilient modulus test,...

  14. Incorporating the Rule of Law in Resiliency Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, John R.; Lewis, Paul; Martinez-Moyano, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, the United Nations (UN) World Conference on Disaster Reduction convened in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan, with the goal of developing a 10-year strategy to guide countries in fostering resiliency to natural disasters.1 The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) established five priorities to enhance community resiliency, emphasizing improvements in the rule of law as it relates to communities’ governing systems. The end of the first 10-year period of the HFA presents an opportunity for policymakers to examine how the rule of law could be incorporated in the analyses of progress toward the resiliency goals articulated in the HFA priorities. This paper discusses the relationship between the rule of law and resiliency, presents a case study of how the rule of law could be analyzed in the context of community resiliency based on the HFA priorities, and proposes a model of how the rule of law supports the community system activities necessary to achieve the resiliency enhancements described in the HFA.

  15. Exploration of resilience assessments for natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Jacomo, Anna; Han, Dawei; Champneys, Alan

    2017-04-01

    measures of resilience are hazard dependent, and require hazard information. In those cases, the type of hazard information required varies from long term information such as the general probability of occurrence of a particular hazard, to short term information such as the observed damage following a specific earthquake occurrence. The required information also varies from national scale, such as census data, to local scale, such as stakeholder perceptions of a threat. This is shown through examples of resilience assessments, along with a discussion of their ability to inform decision making.

  16. Using large-scale flow experiments to rehabilitate Colorado River ecosystem function in Grand Canyon: Basis for an adaptive climate-resilient strategy: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Pine, William E.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Jain, Shaleen; Pulwarty, Roger S.; Miller, Kathleen; Hamlet, Alan F.; Kenney, Douglas S.; Redmond, Kelly T.

    2016-01-01

    system-wide reduction in trout from 2000-06, possibly due to several years of natural reproduction under limited food supply. Uncertainties about dam operations and ecosystem responses remain, including how native and nonnative fish will interact and respond to possible increased river temperatures under drier basin conditions. Ongoing assessment of operating policies by the AMP’s diverse stakeholders represents a major commitment to the river’s valued resources, while surprise learning opportunities can also help identify a resilient climate-change strategy for co-managing nonnative and endangered native fish, sandbar habitats and other river resources in a region with already complex and ever-increasing water demands.

  17. Formal aspects of resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Maria Drigă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience has represented during the recent years a leading concern both in Romania, within the European Union and worldwide. Specialists in economics, management, finance, legal sciences, political sciences, sociology, psychology, grant a particular interest to this concept. Multidisciplinary research of resilience has materialized throughout the time in multiple conceptualizations and theorizing, but without being a consensus between specialists in terms of content, specificity and scope. Through this paper it is intended to clarify the concept of resilience, achieving an exploration of the evolution of this concept in ecological, social and economic environment. At the same time, the paper presents aspects of feedback mechanisms and proposes a formalization of resilience using the logic and mathematical analysis.

  18. Urgent Biophilia: Human-Nature Interactions and Biological Attractions in Disaster Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Tidball

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution builds upon contemporary work on principles of biological attraction as well as earlier work on biophilia while synthesizing literatures on restorative environments, community-based ecological restoration, and both community and social-ecological disaster resilience. It suggests that when humans, faced with a disaster, as individuals and as communities and populations, seek engagement with nature to further their efforts to summon and demonstrate resilience in the face of a crisis, they exemplify an urgent biophilia. This urgent biophilia represents an important set of human-nature interactions in SES characterized by hazard, disaster, or vulnerability, often appearing in the 'backloop' of the adaptive cycle. The relationships that human-nature interactions have to other components within interdependent systems at many different scales may be one critical source of resilience in disaster and related contexts. In other words, the affinity we humans have for the rest of nature, the process of remembering that attraction, and the urge to express it through creation of restorative environments, which may also restore or increase ecological function, may confer resilience across multiple scales. In making this argument, the paper also represents a novel contribution to further theorizing alternatives to anthropocentric understandings of human-nature relations, and strongly makes the case for humans as part of, not separate from, ecosystems.

  19. Resilient Diffusive Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS TRUSTEES OF DARTMOUTH COLLEGE FEBRUARY 2017 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...To) SEP 2011 – SEP 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RESILIENT DIFFUSIVE CLOUDS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-11-2-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM...diversified virtual machines. The concepts lead to a view of cloud computing in which vulnerabilities are different at every host, attackers cannot

  20. Resilience and reworking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Mads Martinus; Fold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    of this article is to shed light on the agency of individual workers involved in rapid industrialization processes. In this endeavor we draw inspiration from recent contributions that have integrated Cindi Katz's threefold categorization of agency as reworking, resilience and resistance. In combination...... and resilience can be conceptualized as transformative trajectories - workers’ situated knowledge and practices evolve and change over time and is conditioned by the specific labor market contexts through which the individual moves....

  1. Adaptive Planning for Resilient Coastal Waterfronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christiaan van Veelen

    2016-11-01

    The method follows three basic steps: (1 assessing the spatial and timely synchronisation of adaptation measures with planned urban development projects and public and private infrastructure maintenance investments; (2 assessing the institutional and financial barriers to be removed in order to mainstream climate adaptation measures in these urban development processes, and (3 assessing what opportunities derived from urban development are able to ‘break through’ the path dependencies that lock-in more sustainable adaptive paths. The method is based on mapping all planned spatial investments in brownfield development, urban renovation, and maintenance projects of public and private infrastructure and assets and by assessing the effectiveness of prevailing policies. Using design research, new opportunities for adaptation are explored and assessed. The urban dynamics based adaptation pathways method is tested at two waterfront areas in Rotterdam (Feijenoord and New York (Red Hook. Both cases show that identifying intervention opportunities and potential transitional interventions is helpful in selecting and assessing adaptive pathways. Moreover, it helps to identify legal or financial arrangements that are needed to unlock the potential of adaptation paths. One of the key findings of the case study research is that in high density urban conditions there is limited potential to build resilience from household redevelopment or renovation, even when new complementary policies and regulative instruments that support buildinglevel resilience would be developed. District-wide flood protection is effective in terms of flood risk, but requires large-scale transformations of the waterfront zone to seize opportunities to develop integrated protection at low costs. This strategy, however, needs new governance structures and financial arrangements to redistribute costs and benefits fairly among stakeholders.

  2. Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystem Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Tom H; Heard, Matthew S; Isaac, Nick J B; Roy, David B; Procter, Deborah; Eigenbrod, Felix; Freckleton, Rob; Hector, Andy; Orme, C David L; Petchey, Owen L; Proença, Vânia; Raffaelli, David; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M; Martín-López, Berta; Woodcock, Ben A; Bullock, James M

    2015-11-01

    Accelerating rates of environmental change and the continued loss of global biodiversity threaten functions and services delivered by ecosystems. Much ecosystem monitoring and management is focused on the provision of ecosystem functions and services under current environmental conditions, yet this could lead to inappropriate management guidance and undervaluation of the importance of biodiversity. The maintenance of ecosystem functions and services under substantial predicted future environmental change (i.e., their 'resilience') is crucial. Here we identify a range of mechanisms underpinning the resilience of ecosystem functions across three ecological scales. Although potentially less important in the short term, biodiversity, encompassing variation from within species to across landscapes, may be crucial for the longer-term resilience of ecosystem functions and the services that they underpin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of sustainable industrial scale biocatalysis based flax retting process

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, P. (Pramod); Gooijer, H. (Henk); Naik, N. (Nirali)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this applied research is to design a sustainable industrial scale enzyme based flax retting process. A systematic approach has been adopted. The screening and selection of enzymes for flax retting has been carried out. Alkaline pectinase has been identified as the most appropriate enzyme for the flax retting purpose. Optimisation of process parameters has been carried out using alkaline pectinase, non-ionic surfactants and chelating agents in terms of concentration of enzyme and ot...

  4. Seeing the forest for the trees: hybridity and social-ecological symbols, rituals and resilience in postdisaster contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Keith G. Tidball

    2014-01-01

    The role of community-based natural resources management in the form of "greening" after large scale system shocks and surprises is argued to provide multiple benefits via engagement with living elements of social-ecological systems and subsequent enhanced resilience at multiple scales. The importance of so-called social-ecological symbols, especially the potent hybrid symbols of trees and their handling after a disaster is interrogated. The paper explores the notion of hybridity, and appli...

  5. Psychometric properties of the adult resilience indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2013-09-01

    Motivation for the study: Researchers have not previously published the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator. Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional quantitative research design. A sample of 789 young adults participated in the study. Cross-validation allowed the authors to confirm (using the validation sample the validity of the ARI structure they obtained during initial testing (using the calibration sample. They investigated two measurement models (the original factor structure and a one-dimensional factor structure. Main findings: The original factor structure presented the data and the proposed theory better than did the one-dimensional factor structure. The authors found acceptable goodness of fit for the ARI. More specifically, they found invariance (in terms of equal factor loadings,covariances and error variances in the calibration and validation samples. They also found acceptable reliability estimates for each of the eight sub-scales. Practical/managerial implications: The results can help researchers and practitioners interested in measuring resilience in adults to choose a resilience measure and to select an appropriate measure for their populations and contexts. Contribution/value-add: Previous research has clearly shown that reliable and valid resilience measures are necessary. It is also necessary to assess the psychometric properties of the currently available instruments and to publish the findings. This study has helped by examining the psychometric properties of the South African Adult Resilience Indicator.

  6. Effect of finishing and polishing procedures on the gap width between a denture base resin and two long-term, resilient denture liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesun, Igor J; Hodges, James; Lai, Juey H

    2002-03-01

    The junction between a long-term, resilient denture liner and the denture base is difficult to finish and polish due to differences in the hardness of the materials. Gaps tend to form during finishing and polishing procedures. This study measured the junctional gap between 2 long-term, resilient denture liners and a denture base material after different finishing and polishing procedures were performed. The surface smoothness of the 2 liner materials also was evaluated. Molloplast-B and an experimental, heat-polymerized methyl siloxane-resin-based denture liner were processed (according to the manufacturer's instructions) against Lucitone 199 acrylic resin. Control specimens (n = 20) were 2 mm thick and flat. Experimental specimens (n = 64) were fabricated with a raised center section: a 3- x 5- x 15-mm half-cylindrical ridge with a junction at the top of the cylinder between the liner material and acrylic resin. The specimens were finished with 1 of 6 types of burs and polished with different combinations of rubber-impregnated acrylic polishers, pumice, and tin oxide. The finished specimens were examined and photographed with a scanning electron microscope, and the largest gap along the liner/denture base junction on each specimen was measured. Three-way analysis of variance without replication (P<.05) and post-hoc t tests were used to analyze the data and compare groups. RESULTS; Averaged across finishing and polishing techniques, a larger gap was recorded for the experimental liner material (22 microm) than for Molloplast-B (14 microm) (P<.00005). Qualitative evaluation suggested that the experimental liner material polished better than Molloplast-B. The smoothest surfaces were obtained when specimens were finished with fine-tooth cross-cut carbide burs and polished with both pumice and tin oxide. A comparison between polished and unpolished specimens, averaged over materials and finishing techniques, revealed that polishing reduced gap size (P=.015). Within the

  7. ‘We are a community [but] that takes a certain amount of energy’: Exploring shared visions, social action, and resilience in place-based community-led energy initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhill, K.A.; Shirani, F.; Butler, C.; Henwood, K.L.; Groves, C.; Pidgeon, N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We engage with conceptual characteristics of 3 community-led energy case studies. • We examine data from interviews to explore the issues community energy groups face. • Shared visions, social action and social resilience are important to community energy. • Creating and maintaining shared visions, social action and social resilience is extremely challenging. - Abstract: In UK energy policy, community-led energy initiatives are increasingly being imbued with transformative power to facilitate low carbon transitions. The ways that such expectations for communities are manifesting in practice remains, however, relatively poorly understood. In particular, key conceptual developments in unpacking what constitutes ‘community’ that highlight the significance of ‘place’ along with important characteristics, such as shared visions, collective social action, and resilience, have yet to be comprehensively explored in the context of community-led energy initiatives. This paper uses an interpretive stance to engage with these conceptual ideas about community and provides insights into the nature of community and its meaning for developing energy-related initiatives and realising the wider goals of energy policy. The paper draws on data from in-depth qualitative, longitudinal interviews undertaken in two residential communities and one purely workplace-based community, which are engaged in community energy initiatives. We argue that there are difficulties and ambiguities in creating shared visions, achieving social action, and developing resilience that are related to the specificities of community in place, but that all three characteristics are likely to be important for the making of sustainable places

  8. Association between depression and resilience in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermelinger Ávila, Maria Priscila; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether resilience is associated with depressive symptoms in geriatric populations. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed (up to March 2015) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis recommendations on three databases (PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science) with no language restrictions, using a Boolean expression. For inclusion in the study, articles had to assess the older population (60 years or older), assess both depressive and resilience symptoms, and investigate the association between these two variables. Articles not employing validated resilience and depression scales or assessing populations younger than 60 years were excluded. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. A total of 1094 articles were retrieved from the three databases, 367 of which were duplicates and therefore excluded, giving 727 articles for analysis. Of these articles, seven met the eligibility criteria. All of the included articles were observational and cross-sectional, found an inverse relationship between depression and resilience, and were conducted in three countries: the USA, China, and Belgium. A moderate inverse correlation was found on the meta-analysis (r = -0.35, 95% confidence interval: -0.41 to -0.28). Few studies were found on this subject in the older population. An association between greater resilience and less depressive symptomatology was identified, albeit based on cross-sectional studies. These results highlight the need for further studies in the area and the importance of fostering the use of interventions to promote resilience in older adults as a means of preventing and managing depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Information filtering via a scaling-based function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Qiu

    Full Text Available Finding a universal description of the algorithm optimization is one of the key challenges in personalized recommendation. In this article, for the first time, we introduce a scaling-based algorithm (SCL independent of recommendation list length based on a hybrid algorithm of heat conduction and mass diffusion, by finding out the scaling function for the tunable parameter and object average degree. The optimal value of the tunable parameter can be abstracted from the scaling function, which is heterogeneous for the individual object. Experimental results obtained from three real datasets, Netflix, MovieLens and RYM, show that the SCL is highly accurate in recommendation. More importantly, compared with a number of excellent algorithms, including the mass diffusion method, the original hybrid method, and even an improved version of the hybrid method, the SCL algorithm remarkably promotes the personalized recommendation in three other aspects: solving the accuracy-diversity dilemma, presenting a high novelty, and solving the key challenge of cold start problem.

  10. The 'Functional Landscape Approach': Building a socio-ecological evidence base for its contribution to adaptation and resilience in wetland catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie, Rachael; Dixon, Alan

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable land management is increasingly taking a landscape approach to advocate simultaneously for local and multiple stakeholder-negotiated development and environmental objectives. Landscape approaches advance earlier frameworks that failed to acknowledge or reconcile either biodiversity or societal trade-offs, and that often tended toward externally-derived or imposed management interventions. Most recently, the management of land to balance biodiversity, food security and ecosystem services outcomes has been informed by socio-ecological systems thinking that seeks to promote an interdisciplinary understanding of any given 'landscape' where environmental and social factors continually interact in complex, adaptive and resilient ways. Reflecting these concepts, and integrating local and external scientific knowledge, the Functional Landscape Approach (FLA) was developed by Wetland Action, focussing on wetland systems in rural sub-Saharan Africa to contribute to environmentally sensitive and climate resilient strategies for safeguarding essential ecosystem services and improving livelihoods and well-being. In particular, the FLA stresses the ways in which land productivity can be improved through supporting, strengthening or re-establishing functional linkages between wetlands and their catchments and provides a basis for local identification of specific interventions to improve the sustainability of land use. Crucially, it also emphasises the need for community-based institutional support and the importance of incentives through market linkages and value-chain development. In this paper we will describe our experiences of developing and implementing the FLA in Ethiopia, Zambia and Malawi over the past two decades. Drawing on successful and less-successful elements of participatory planning, monitoring and evaluation, and the facilitation of long-term sustainable benefits, we will discuss some of the accomplishments and challenges that can be associated with

  11. Building community resilience to climate change through public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajayo, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    Nillumbik Shire Council, in partnership with La Trobe University, used the Municipal Public Health Planning process to develop an approach for building the resilience of local communities to climate-related stressors. The objective was to define an approach for building community resilience to climate change and to integrate this approach with the 'Environments for Health' framework. Key published papers and reports by leading experts the field were reviewed. Literature was selected based on its relevance to the subjects of community resilience and climate change and was derived from local and international publications, the vast majority published within the past two decades. Review of literature on community resilience revealed that four principal resource sets contribute to the capacity of communities to adapt in times of stress, these being: economic development; social capital; information and communication; and community competence. On the strength of findings, a framework for building each resilience resource set within each of the Environments for Health was constructed. This paper introduces the newly constructed 'Community Resilience Framework', which describes how each one of the four resilience resource sets can be developed within social, built, natural and economic environments. The Community Resilience Framework defines an approach for simultaneously creating supportive environments for health and increasing community capacity for adaptation to climate-related stressors. As such, it can be used by Municipal Public Health Planners as a guide in building community resilience to climate change.

  12. From academic to applied: Operationalising resilience in river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Melissa; Thoms, Martin C.

    2018-03-01

    The concept of resilience acknowledges the ability of societies to live and develop with dynamic environments. Given the recognition of the need to prepare for anticipated and unanticipated shocks, applications of resilience are increasing as the guiding principle of public policy and programs in areas such as disaster management, urban planning, natural resource management, and climate change adaptation. River science is an area in which the adoption of resilience is increasing, leading to the proposition that resilience may become a guiding principle of river policy and programs. Debate about the role of resilience in rivers is part of the scientific method, but disciplinary disunity about the ways to approach resilience application in policy and programs may leave river science out of the policy process. We propose six elements that need to be considered in the design and implementation of resilience-based river policy and programs: rivers as social-ecological systems; the science-policy interface; principles, capacities, and characteristics of resilience; cogeneration of knowledge; adaptive management; and the state of the science of resilience.

  13. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI Excel database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  14. Resilience Indicator Summaries and Resilience Scores CNMI JPEG Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Maps of relative classifications (low to high) for six resilience indicators and two anthropogenic stressors and a map of final relative resilience scores for 78...

  15. Is deciduousness a key to climate resilience among iconic California savanna oak species? Relating phenological habits to seasonal indicators of tree physiological and water stress across field, hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multispectral and thermal image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Caylor, K. K.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Greenberger, R. N.; Estes, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    In California (CA) savannas, oak trees (genus Quercus) play keystone roles in water and nutrient cycling, support biodiversity and many land-use activities. Declines in oak basal area of up to 25% from the 1930s-2000s, which have occurred alongside climate trends such as increasing variability of rainfall and prevalence of hotter droughts, threaten the services and ecological functions these trees provide. It is particularly unclear how climate relates to productivity and stress across oak species. Past work has found that seedling recruitment has varied inversely with "deciduousness." That is, evergreen oaks (e.g. Quercus agrifola. Coast Live Oak) are reproducing more successfully than drought-deciduous (e.g. Quercus douglassi, Blue Oak), which in turn are more successful than fully deciduous species (e.g. Quercus lobata, Valley Oak). However, there is poor understanding of how these ecological trends by species, corresponding with phenological habit, relate to physiological and ecohydrological processes such as carbon assimilation, water or nutrient use efficiency in mature tree stands. This limits predictive capability for which species will be most resilient to harsher future growing conditions, and, how to monitor stress and productivity in long-lived mature oak communities across landscapes via tools including remotely sensed data. This project explores how ecophysiological variables (e.g. stomatal conductance) relate to phenological habits across three oak species (Coast Live, Blue and Valley) over a seasonal dry-down period in Santa Barbara County, CA. Our goal is to probe if deciduousness is a key to resilience in productivity and water stress across iconic oak species. We test relationships between leaf and canopy-level field data, and indicators from multiple new sources of remotely sensed data, including ground hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multi-spectral and thermal image data, as means of monitoring tree physiological and water stress from scales

  16. Resilience evolution of medical students during the undergraduate period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Martinez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Method: This is a descriptive study to identify the degree of resilience in medical students at Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo, compare the resilience of different years of undergraduation and relate and compare the degree of resilience to demographic and socioeconomic status. Results: The study population has an average age of 21.68, single 270 (98.18%, caucasians 240 (87.27%, household income of more than 20 minimum wages (34.54%. In resilience general index it was obtained an average of 114 (SD=14.05. There was no significant difference between the scores obtained on the scale during graduation years. It was observed a predominance of moderate resilience in all years of the course and in the total sample. Resilience in medical students, it is shown as an individual characteristic and does not keep relations with gender, age, sexual orientation, race or housing conditions in the various years of the course. Conclusion: It was concluded that there is a predominance of moderate resilience among the medical students. There was no correlation between resilience and familiar income

  17. [Mental disorders in German soldiers after deployment - impact of personal values and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Firnkes, Susanne; Kowalski, Jens; Backus, Johannes; Alliger-Horn, Christina; Willmund, Gerd; Hellenthal, Andrea; Bauer, Amanda; Petermann, Franz; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Soldiers are at increased risk of developing mental health disorders after military deployment. The impact of personal values on psychological symptomatology based on an empirical working model has not yet been studied in a military environment. 117 German Armed Forces soldiers completed the Portrait-Values-Questionnaire (PVQ), the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ) and the Resilience-Scale (RS-11) after their deployment to Afghanistan. In the regression analyses the values hedonism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction and universalism had a differential significant impact on depression, anxiety and somatoform symptoms of the PHQ. The RS-11 sum scale values were negatively correlated with symptomatology. Personal values and resilience seem to be associated with psychological symptomatology in soldiers after military deployment. The results can contribute to the further development of both preventive and therapeutic approaches. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Examples of disorders that ...

  19. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable, and the ......Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  20. Ultra-thin and strong formvar-based membranes with controlled porosity for micro- and nano-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchter, Eric; Marquez, Justin; Stevens, Garrison; Silva, Rebecca; Mcculloch, Quinn; Guengerich, Quintessa; Blair, Andrew; Litchfield, Sebastian; Li, Nan; Sheehan, Chris; Chamberlin, Rebecca; Yarbro, Stephen L.; Dervishi, Enkeleda

    2018-05-01

    We present a methodology for developing ultra-thin and strong formvar-based membranes with controlled morphologies. Formvar is a thin hydrophilic and oleophilic polymer inert to most chemicals and resistant to radiation. The formvar-based membranes are viable materials as support structures in micro- and macro-scale systems depending on thinness and porosity control. Tunable sub-micron thick porous membranes with 20%–65% porosity were synthesized by controlling the ratios of formvar, glycerol, and chloroform. This synthesis process does not require complex separation or handling methods and allows for the production of strong, thin, and porous formvar-based membranes. An expansive array of these membrane characterizations including chemical compatibility, mechanical responses, wettability, as well as the mathematical simulations as a function of porosity has been presented. The wide range of chemical compatibility allows for membrane applications in various environments, where other polymers would not be suitable. Our formvar-based membranes were found to have an elastic modulus of 7.8 GPa, a surface free energy of 50 mN m‑1 and an average thickness of 125 nm. Stochastic model simulations indicate that formvar with the porosity of ∼50% is the optimal membrane formulation, allowing the most material transfer across the membrane while also withstanding the highest simulated pressure loadings before tearing. Development of novel, resilient and versatile membranes with controlled porosity offers a wide range of exciting applications in the fields of nanoscience, microfluidics, and MEMS.

  1. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Conceptualizing and Re-Evaluating Resilience across Levels of Risk, Time, and Domains of Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt-Adriance, Ella; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines potential theoretical constraints on resilience across levels of risk, time, and domain of outcome. Studies of resilience are reviewed as they relate to the prevalence of resilience across levels of risk (e.g., single life events vs. cumulative risk), time, and domains of adjustment. Based on a thorough review of pertinent…

  3. FPGA Based Low Power ROM Design Using Capacitance Scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansal, Meenakshi; Bansal, Neha; Saini, Rishita

    2015-01-01

    An ideal capacitor will not dissipate any power, but a real capacitor wil l have some power dissipation. In this work, we are going to design capacitance scaling based low power ROM design. In order to test the compatibility of this ROM design with latest i7 Processor, we are operating this ROM w...... in I/O Power, saving of 0.2% occur in Leakage Power, there will be a saving of 11.54% occur in Total Power. This design is implemented on Virtex-5 FPGA using Xilinx ISE and Verilog....

  4. Length scale and manufacturability in density-based topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Since its original introduction in structural design, density-based topology optimization has been applied to a number of other fields such as microelectromechanical systems, photonics, acoustics and fluid mechanics. The methodology has been well accepted in industrial design processes where it can...... performance and in many cases can completely destroy the optimality of the solution. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review recent advancements in obtaining manufacturable topology-optimized designs. The focus is on methods for imposing minimum and maximum length scales, and ensuring manufacturable...

  5. Entirely renewable energy-based electricity supply system (small scale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a system comprising of a renewable source of energy and an energy storage device to smooth the power fluctuations. In order to investigate the performance of the system, an exact mathematical model for the system has been developed. Because of non-linearity of the mathematical model a computational method is used for performance investigation of the system. The objective of the paper is to present an entirely renewable energy based electricity supply system (small scale), to suggest the mathematical model of the system and computational method to analyze the performance of the system.

  6. Crater ejecta scaling laws: fundamental forms based on dimensional analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housen, K.R.; Schmidt, R.M.; Holsapple, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    A model of crater ejecta is constructed using dimensional analysis and a recently developed theory of energy and momentum coupling in cratering events. General relations are derived that provide a rationale for scaling laboratory measurements of ejecta to larger events. Specific expressions are presented for ejection velocities and ejecta blanket profiles in two limiting regimes of crater formation: the so-called gravity and strength regimes. In the gravity regime, ejectra velocities at geometrically similar launch points within craters vary as the square root of the product of crater radius and gravity. This relation implies geometric similarity of ejecta blankets. That is, the thickness of an ejecta blanket as a function of distance from the crater center is the same for all sizes of craters if the thickness and range are expressed in terms of crater radii. In the strength regime, ejecta velocities are independent of crater size. Consequently, ejecta blankets are not geometrically similar in this regime. For points away from the crater rim the expressions for ejecta velocities and thickness take the form of power laws. The exponents in these power laws are functions of an exponent, α, that appears in crater radius scaling relations. Thus experimental studies of the dependence of crater radius on impact conditions determine scaling relations for ejecta. Predicted ejection velocities and ejecta-blanket profiles, based on measured values of α, are compared to existing measurements of velocities and debris profiles

  7. Family Resilience in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; Beckett, Megan K.; Bowling, Kirby; Golinelli, Daniela; Fisher, Michael P.; Martin, Laurie T.; Meredith, Lisa S.; Osilla, Karen Chan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Military life presents a variety of challenges to military families, including frequent separations and relocations as well as the risks that service members face during deployment; however, many families successfully navigate these challenges. Despite a recent emphasis on family resilience, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) does not have a standard and universally accepted definition of family resilience. A standard definition is a necessary for DoD to more effectively assess its efforts to sustain and improve family resilience. RAND authors reviewed the literature on family resilience and, in this study, recommend a definition that could be used DoD-wide. The authors also reviewed DoD policies related to family resilience, reviewed models that describe family resilience and identified key family resilience factors, and developed several recommendations for how family-resilience programs and policies could be managed across DoD. PMID:28083409

  8. Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P): An intervention for caregivers of youth with serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Klein, Victoria; Eaton, Lauren; Wharton, Claire; McCauley, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2017-09-01

    It is well-known that parental stress and coping impacts the well-being of children with serious illness. The current study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and satisfaction of a novel resilience promoting intervention, the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents (PRISM-P) among parents of adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes or cancer. Secondary analyses explored the effect of the PRISM-P on parent-reported resilience and distress. The PRISM-P includes 4 short skills-based modules, delivered in either 2 or 4 separate, individual sessions. English-speaking parents of adolescents with cancer or Type 1 diabetes were eligible. Feasibility was conservatively defined as a completion rate of 80%; satisfaction was qualitatively evaluated based upon parent feedback regarding intervention content, timing, and format. Resilience and distress were assessed pre- and postintervention with the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale and the Kessler-6 Psychological Distress Scale. Twelve of 24 caregivers of youth with diabetes (50%) and 13 of 15 caregivers of youth with cancer (87%) agreed to participate. Nine of 12 (75%) and 9 of 13 (64%) completed all PRISM-P modules, respectively. Among those who completed the intervention, qualitative satisfaction was high. Parent-reported resilience and distress scores improved after the intervention. Effect sizes for both groups indicated a moderate intervention effect. Ultimately, the PRISM-P intervention was well accepted and impactful among parents who completed it. However, attrition rates were higher than anticipated, suggesting alternative or less time-intensive formats may be more feasible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Resilience and Its Contributing Factors in Adolescents in Long-Term Residential Care Facilities Affiliated to Tehran Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is a quality that affects an individual’s ability to cope with tension. The present study was conducted to determine resilience and its contributing factors in high-risk adolescents living in residential care facilities affiliated to Tehran Welfare Organization in order to help develop effective preventive measures for them. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted on 223 adolescents living in 15differentgovernmental residential care centers in 2014. Participants were selected through convenience sampling. The data required were collected via the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale with content validity (S-CVI=0.92 and a reliability of α=0.77 and r=0.83 (P<0.001. The data obtained were analyzed in SPSS-20 using descriptive and inferential statistics including Chi-square test, independent t-test and ANOVA. Results: The adolescents’ mean score of resilience was 84.41±11.01. The level of resilience was moderate in 46.2% of the participants and was significantly higher in the female than in the male adolescents (P=0.006; moreover, the score obtained was lower in primary school children as compared to middle school and high school students (P<0.001. Conclusion: Directors of care facilities and residential care personnel should adopt preventive resilience-based strategies in order to optimize resilience among adolescents, particularly the male. It is important to provide a basis to prevent adolescents’ academic failure and place a stronger value on education than the past.

  10. The effects of mother-child mediated learning strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuriel, David; Shomron, Vered

    2018-03-24

    The theoretical framework of the current study is based on mediated learning experience (MLE) theory, which is similar to the scaffolding concept. The main question of the current study was to what extent mother-child MLE strategies affect psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability of boys with learning disability (LD). Secondary questions were to what extent the home environment, severity of boy's LD, and mother's attitude towards her child's LD affect her MLE strategies and consequently the child's psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. The main objectives of this study were the following: (a) to investigate the effects of mother-child MLE strategies on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability among 7- to 10-year-old boys with LD, (b) to study the causal effects of distal factors (i.e., socio-economic status [SES], home environment, severity of child's LD, mother's attitude towards LD) and proximal factors (i.e., MLE strategies) on psychological resilience and cognitive modifiability. A sample of mother-child dyads (n = 100) were videotaped during a short teaching interaction. All children were boys diagnosed as children with LD. The interaction was analysed for MLE strategies by the Observation of Mediation Interaction scale. Children were administered psychological resilience tests and their cognitive modifiability was measured by dynamic assessment using the Analogies subtest from the Cognitive Modifiability Battery. Home environment was rated by the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), and mothers answered a questionnaire of attitudes towards child's LD. The findings showed that mother-child MLE strategies, HOME, and socio-economic level contributed significantly to prediction of psychological resilience (78%) and cognitive modifiability (51%). Psychological resilience was positively correlated with cognitive modifiability (Rc = 0.67). Structural equation modelling analysis supported, in general

  11. Mediterranean-type diet is associated with higher psychological resilience in a general adult population: findings from the Moli-sani study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, M; Di Castelnuovo, A; Costanzo, S; Pounis, G; Persichillo, M; Cerletti, C; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2018-01-01

    Psychological resilience is a measure of stress coping ability and has been associated with favourable health outcomes. While evidence on the relationship of dietary habits with a number of psychosocial conditions is available, there is lack of studies on their association with psychological resilience in a general adult population. Cross-sectional analysis on 10 812 subjects recruited within the cohort of the Moli-sani study (2005-2010). Psychological resilience was measured by the 25-item Connor-Davidson Psychological Resilience Scale. Food intake was recorded by the EPIC food frequency questionnaire and adherence to Mediterranean diet was appraised by both a Greek Mediterranean diet score and an Italian Mediterranean Index. Empirically derived dietary patterns were obtained by principal factor analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis (95%CI) was used to test the association between dietary scores and psychological resilience. Higher adherence to Mediterranean-type diets or consumption of a vegetable-based dietary pattern (obtained from principal factor analysis) were positively associated with psychological resilience (β=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19-0.66, β=0.92; 0.69-1.16, and β=1.18; 0.93-1.44, for Greek Mediterranean diet score, Italian Mediterranean Index and the 'Olive oil and vegetables pattern', respectively). Dietary polyphenol or antioxidant intakes and greater variety in fruit and vegetable consumption were also positively associated with psychological resilience, while the associations with Western-like diets were weak. In conclusion, Mediterranean diet, vegetable-based dietary patterns and better diet quality were all positively associated with higher psychological resilience, whereas Western-type diets were not.

  12. The mediating role of resilience in the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among Chinese medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Wang, XiaoXi; Bian, YuGe; Wang, Lie

    2015-02-13

    The psychological distress of medical students has been widely acknowledged. However, few studies focused on positive well-being among medical students. The purpose of this study was to investigate related demographic factors of life satisfaction among Chinese medical students, to examine the relationship between stress and life satisfaction among this group of people, and to explore the mediating role of resilience in this relationship. This multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. Self-reported questionnaires consisting of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS-14), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), as well as demographic section were distributed to students at four medical colleges and universities in Liaoning province, China. A total of 2925 students (effective response rate: 83.6%) became our subjects. Hierarchical linear regression models were used to explore the mediating role of resilience. Among the demographic factors, life satisfaction was significantly different in gender (P = 0.001) and study programs (P life satisfaction (r = -0.35, P life satisfaction (β = -0.34, P life satisfaction among Chinese medical students. Both stress and resilience played a big role in life satisfaction among Chinese medical students. Besides reducing perceived stress, the university authorities should adopt evidence-based intervention strategies to enhance their resilience in order to promote life satisfaction among the students.

  13. Restoring composition and structure in Southwestern frequent-fire forests: A science-based framework for improving ecosystem resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; James A. Youtz; Tessa Nicolet; Megan S. Matonis; Patrick L. Jackson; Donald G. DeLorenzo; Andrew D. Graves

    2013-01-01

    Ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer forests in the Southwest United States are experiencing, or have become increasingly susceptible to, large-scale severe wildfire, insect, and disease episodes resulting in altered plant and animal demographics, reduced productivity and biodiversity, and impaired ecosystem processes and functions. We present a management framework...

  14. Resilience in IMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamyod, Chayapol; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2012-01-01

    Reliability evaluation of systems has been widely researched for improving system resilience especially in designing processes of a complex system. The convergence of different access networks is possible via IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) for development toward Next Generation Networks (NGNs......) and supporting always on services. Therefore, not only Quality of Service (QoS) but also resilience is required. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate and analyze end-to-end reliability of the IMS system using a model proposed as a combination of Reliability Block Diagram (RBD) and Markov Reward Models (MRMs......). The resilience of the IMS architecture is studied by applying 1:1 redundancy at different communication scenarios between end users within and across communication domains. The model analysis provides useful reliability characteristics of the system and can be further applied for system design processes....

  15. Resilience in adolescents with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIBASHI, Akiko; UEDA, Reiko

    2003-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer experience multiple stressors, evertheless some function well or are "resilient." Focusing on resilience in childhood cancer patients and understanding why and how resilience develops during the cancer experience is of great value . This knowledge may provide information to health care professionals to facilitate intervention for promoting resilience and improving quality of life in adolescents with cancer . The purpose of thisarticle is to review the lite...

  16. From community resilience towards urban resilience : Exploring the grassroot initiatives' role in cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.A.; Van Timmeren, A.; Crul, M.R.M.; Brezet, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and resource scarcity effects pose challenges by themselves. In the context of the complexity of cities, these challenges become wicked and ill-defined as e.g. socialeconomic issues are added. To face these challenges, a city’s resilience on multiple scales has to enable it to both

  17. Could the acid-base status of Antarctic sea urchins indicate a better-than-expected resilience to near-future ocean acidification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; De Ridder, Chantal; David, Bruno; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration alters the chemistry of the oceans towards more acidic conditions. Polar oceans are particularly affected due to their low temperature, low carbonate content and mixing patterns, for instance upwellings. Calcifying organisms are expected to be highly impacted by the decrease in the oceans' pH and carbonate ions concentration. In particular, sea urchins, members of the phylum Echinodermata, are hypothesized to be at risk due to their high-magnesium calcite skeleton. However, tolerance to ocean acidification in metazoans is first linked to acid-base regulation capacities of the extracellular fluids. No information on this is available to date for Antarctic echinoderms and inference from temperate and tropical studies needs support. In this study, we investigated the acid-base status of 9 species of sea urchins (3 cidaroids, 2 regular euechinoids and 4 irregular echinoids). It appears that Antarctic regular euechinoids seem equipped with similar acid-base regulation systems as tropical and temperate regular euechinoids but could rely on more passive ion transfer systems, minimizing energy requirements. Cidaroids have an acid-base status similar to that of tropical cidaroids. Therefore Antarctic cidaroids will most probably not be affected by decreasing seawater pH, the pH drop linked to ocean acidification being negligible in comparison of the naturally low pH of the coelomic fluid. Irregular echinoids might not suffer from reduced seawater pH if acidosis of the coelomic fluid pH does not occur but more data on their acid-base regulation are needed. Combining these results with the resilience of Antarctic sea urchin larvae strongly suggests that these organisms might not be the expected victims of ocean acidification. However, data on the impact of other global stressors such as temperature and of the combination of the different stressors needs to be acquired to assess the sensitivity of these organisms to global

  18. A REGION-BASED MULTI-SCALE APPROACH FOR OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kavzoglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the last two decades, object-based image analysis (OBIA considering objects (i.e. groups of pixels instead of pixels has gained popularity and attracted increasing interest. The most important stage of the OBIA is image segmentation that groups spectrally similar adjacent pixels considering not only the spectral features but also spatial and textural features. Although there are several parameters (scale, shape, compactness and band weights to be set by the analyst, scale parameter stands out the most important parameter in segmentation process. Estimating optimal scale parameter is crucially important to increase the classification accuracy that depends on image resolution, image object size and characteristics of the study area. In this study, two scale-selection strategies were implemented in the image segmentation process using pan-sharped Qickbird-2 image. The first strategy estimates optimal scale parameters for the eight sub-regions. For this purpose, the local variance/rate of change (LV-RoC graphs produced by the ESP-2 tool were analysed to determine fine, moderate and coarse scales for each region. In the second strategy, the image was segmented using the three candidate scale values (fine, moderate, coarse determined from the LV-RoC graph calculated for whole image. The nearest neighbour classifier was applied in all segmentation experiments and equal number of pixels was randomly selected to calculate accuracy metrics (overall accuracy and kappa coefficient. Comparison of region-based and image-based segmentation was carried out on the classified images and found that region-based multi-scale OBIA produced significantly more accurate results than image-based single-scale OBIA. The difference in classification accuracy reached to 10% in terms of overall accuracy.

  19. Evaluating Application Resilience with XRay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Sui [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Bronevetsky, Greg [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Li, Bin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Casas-Guix, Marc [Barcelona Supercomputing Center (Spain); Peng, Lu [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    The rising count and shrinking feature size of transistors within modern computers is making them increasingly vulnerable to various types of soft faults. This problem is especially acute in high-performance computing (HPC) systems used for scientific computing, because these systems include many thousands of compute cores and nodes, all of which may be utilized in a single large-scale run. The increasing vulnerability of HPC applications to errors induced by soft faults is motivating extensive work on techniques to make these applications more resiilent to such faults, ranging from generic techniques such as replication or checkpoint/restart to algorithmspecific error detection and tolerance techniques. Effective use of such techniques requires a detailed understanding of how a given application is affected by soft faults to ensure that (i) efforts to improve application resilience are spent in the code regions most vulnerable to faults and (ii) the appropriate resilience technique is applied to each code region. This paper presents XRay, a tool to view the application vulnerability to soft errors, and illustrates how XRay can be used in the context of a representative application. In addition to providing actionable insights into application behavior XRay automatically selects the number of fault injection experiments required to provide an informative view of application behavior, ensuring that the information is statistically well-grounded without performing unnecessary experiments.

  20. The relationship between personality and coping style according to the mediating role of resilience in patients with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masomeh Esmaeili

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: This study tries to explain the role of mediator between personality characteristics and coping styles is resiliency. Material & Methods: The study population consisted of all patients is a member of the MS Society of Shiraz who were selected by convenience sampling. 3 tests were used to collect data: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, NEO Five-Factor personality inventory questionnaire Folkman and Lazarus coping strategies. Analysis of data obtained using SPSS (version 21 software and using Pearson correlation and regression analysis was performed. Results: High neuroticism in MS patients reduce resiliency (r=-0.279. Also people with MS deal with emotional problems just behave. Emotional coping style (p=0.023 & b=0.429 and the personality trait of neuroticism (p=0.046 & b=0.388 are able to predict Resiliency. Conclusion: Based on these findings, in addition to informing the people affected by psychological training, effective in reducing neuroticism, anxiety and consequently raise the level of resiliency.

  1. What are the essential features of resilience for informal caregivers of people living with dementia? A Delphi consensus examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joling, Karlijn J; Windle, Gill; Dröes, Rose-Marie; Huisman, Martijn; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Woods, Robert T

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have examined what might enable or prevent resilience in carers of people with dementia. Consequently, there are limited insights as to how it should be understood, defined and measured. This creates challenges for research, and also practice in terms of how it might best be promoted. This study aimed to address these limitations and add new insights, identifying the essential features of resilience in dementia caregiving. A Delphi consensus study was conducted, consulting a multi-disciplinary panel of informal caregivers and experts with relevant professional expertise. Panellists rated the relevance of various statements addressing essential components of resilience; 'adversity' and 'successful caregiving' on a 5-point Likert scale. Based on the median and Inter Quartile Range, the most relevant statements with moderate consensus were proposed in Round 2 in which panellists selected up to five statements in order of importance. Moderate consensus was reached for all statements after two rounds. Patients' behavioural problems and feeling competent as a caregiver were selected by both caregivers and professionals as essential resilience features. Caregivers also emphasized the importance of social support, the quality of the relationship with their relative and enjoying spending time together. Professionals considered coping skills, experiencing positive aspects of caregiving, and a good quality of life of caregivers most relevant. The essential elements of resilience selected from multiple stakeholder perspectives can be used to select appropriate outcomes for intervention studies and give guidance to policy to support caregivers more effectively and better tailored to their needs.

  2. Self-esteem and resilience : The connection with risky behavior among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Orosova, Olga; Gajdosova, Beata; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    The aim was to explore the association of self-esteem and resilience with smoking and cannabis use among adolescents, separately for gender. A sample of 3694 adolescents (mean age 14.3 years) from elementary schools in Slovakia filled out the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale, the Resiliency scale and

  3. Biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghorbani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a biomedical device prototype based on small scale hydrodynamic cavitation. The application of small scale hydrodynamic cavitation and its integration to a biomedical device prototype is offered as an important alternative to other techniques, such as ultrasound therapy, and thus constitutes a local, cheap, and energy-efficient solution, for urinary stone therapy and abnormal tissue ablation (e.g., benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH. The destructive nature of bubbly, cavitating, flows was exploited, and the potential of the prototype was assessed and characterized. Bubbles generated in a small flow restrictive element (micro-orifice based on hydrodynamic cavitation were utilized for this purpose. The small bubbly, cavitating, flow generator (micro-orifice was fitted to a small flexible probe, which was actuated with a micromanipulator using fine control. This probe also houses an imaging device for visualization so that the emerging cavitating flow could be locally targeted to the desired spot. In this study, the feasibility of this alternative treatment method and its integration to a device prototype were successfully accomplished.

  4. Introduction 'Governance for Drought Resilience'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Nanny; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Larrue, Corinne; Bressers, Hans; Bressers, Nanny; Larrue, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This book is about governance for drought resilience. But that simple sentence alone might rouse several questions. Because what do we mean with drought, and how does that relate to water scarcity? And what do we mean with resilience, and why is resilience needed for tackling drought? And how does

  5. Resilience, Flexibility and Adaptive Management - - Antidotes for Spurious Certitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Gunderson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a predicate of adaptive environmental assessment and management (AEAM has been a search for flexibility in management institutions, or for resilience in the ecological system prior to structuring actions that are designed for learning. Many of the observed impediments to AEAM occur when there is little or no resilience in the ecological components (e.g., when there is fear of an ecosystem shift to an unwanted stability domain, or when there is a lack of flexibility in the extant power relationships among stakeholders. In these cases, a pragmatic solution is to seek to restore resilience or flexibility rather than to pursue a course of broad-scale, active adaptive management. Restoration of resilience and flexibility may occur through novel assessments or small-scale experiments, or it may occur when an unforeseen policy crisis allows for reformation or restructuring of power relationships among stakeholders.

  6. Building Ecological and Community Resilience and Measuring Success of the Department of Interior Hurricane Sandy Resilience Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. M.; Worman, S. L.; Bennett, R.; Bassow, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Department of the Interior (DOI) partnered with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation (NFWF) to administer an external funding competition to support coastal resilience projects in the region affected by Hurricane Sandy. The projects complement the DOI Bureau-led projects, but are led by state and local governments, universities, non-profits, community groups, tribes, and other non-Federal entities. In total, the Hurricane Sandy Resilience Program invested over $750 million in approximately 180 projects to repair damage and improve the resilience of habitats, communities and infrastructure to future storms and sea level rise. Project activities include waterway connection and opening, living shoreline, marsh restoration, community resilience planning, data/mapping/modeling, and beach and dune restoration. DOI and NFWF initiated a resilience assessment in 2015 to evaluate the impact of this investment. The assessment began by clarifying the program's resilience goals and the development of ecological and socio-economic metrics across the project activities. Using these metrics, the evaluation is assessing the ecological and community outcomes, cost effectiveness of activities, improved scientific understanding, and temporal and spatial scaling of benefits across resilience activities. Recognizing the unique opportunity afforded by the scale and distribution of projects, NFWF and DOI have invested in monitoring through 2024 to better understand how these projects perform over time. This presentation will describe the evaluation questions, approach, long-term monitoring, online metrics portal, and findings to date.

  7. Experimenting for resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter; Dupret, Katia

    Focusing on how an experimental approach to organizing may pave the way for organizational resilience, we explore opportunities and barriers of experimental organizing by following a concrete social experiment in civil society and discuss its adaptability in traditional organizations. The social...... experiment is called Civic Desire. The founders explicitly call for new ways of organizing that can develop social sustainability. We discuss how these experiments may create platforms of new unforeseen goals that organizations may choose to follow. In conclusion we argue for organizational resilience...

  8. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  9. A resilience approach can improve anadromous fish restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, John R.; Wilson, Karen A.; Mather, Martha E.; Snyder, Noah P.

    2016-01-01

    Most anadromous fish populations remain at low levels or are in decline despite substantial investments in restoration. We explore whether a resilience perspective (i.e., a different paradigm for understanding populations, communities, and ecosystems) is a viable alternative framework for anadromous fish restoration. Many life history traits have allowed anadromous fish to thrive in unimpacted ecosystems but have become contemporary curses as anthropogenic effects increase. This contradiction creates a significant conservation challenge but also makes these fish excellent candidates for a resilience approach. A resilience approach recognizes the need to maintain life history, population, and habitat characteristics that increase the ability of a population to withstand and recover from multiple disturbances. To evaluate whether a resilience approach represents a viable strategy for anadromous fish restoration, we review four issues: (1) how resilience theory can inform anadromous fish restoration, (2) how a resilience-based approach is fundamentally different than extant anadromous fish restoration strategies, (3) ecological characteristics that historically benefited anadromous fish persistence, and (4) examples of how human impacts harm anadromous fish and how a resilience approach might produce more successful outcomes. We close by suggesting new research and restoration directions for implementation of a resilience-based approach.

  10. Randomized controlled clinical trial for verifying the effect of silicone-based resilient denture liner on the masticatory function of complete denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Suguru; So, Kunio; Yamamoto, Shirou; Ohno, Yousuke; Shinomiya, Mayako; Ogura, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Kihei

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of permanent silicone-based resilient denture liner (SR) to mandibular complete dentures significantly improves patients' masticatory ability compared to conventional heat-activated acrylic resin (AR). Twenty-eight edentulous patients were randomly placed into 1 of 2 crossover groups (AR-SR/SR-AR) by using a random permuted block within strata method. The AR-SR group received AR denture treatments followed by SR denture treatments. The SR-AR group received treatments in the reverse sequence. The outcomes were classified by matiscatory performance, mandibular movement, electromyographic activity, and maximum occlusal force. No significant differences were observed in any of the baseline characteristic measurements between groups. SR denture wearers exhibited significantly higher masticatory performance than AR denture wearers. SR denture wearers exhibited a longer early-stage occluding period than AR denture wearers. There were no differences in electromyographic activity between the AR and SR groups. There were no significant differences in maximum occlusal force between the AR and SR groups. This study showed that the application of SR to mandibular complete dentures resulted in significant improvements to the patients' masticatory ability compared to AR.

  11. Statistically-Based Comparison of the Removal Efficiencies and Resilience Capacities between Conventional and Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems: A Peak Load Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging global threats, such as climate change, urbanization and water depletion, are driving forces for finding a feasible substitute for low cost-effective conventional activated sludge (AS technology. On the other hand, given their low cost and easy operation, nature-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs and waste stabilization ponds (WSPs appear to be viable options. To examine these systems, a 210-day experiment with 31 days of peak load scenario was performed. Particularly, we conducted a deliberate strategy of experimentation, which includes applying a preliminary study, preliminary models, hypothetical tests and power analysis to compare their removal efficiencies and resilience capacities. In contrast to comparable high removal efficiencies of organic matter—around 90%—both natural systems showed moderate nutrient removal efficiencies, which inferred the necessity for further treatment to ensure their compliance with environmental standards. During the peak period, the pond treatment systems appeared to be the most robust as they indicated a higher strength to withstanding the organic matter and nitrogen shock load and were able to recover within a short period. However, high demand of land—2.5 times larger than that of AS—is a major concern of the applicability of WSPs despite their lower operation and maintenance (O&M costs. It is also worth noting that initial efforts on systematic experimentation appeared to have an essential impact on ensuring statistically and practically meaningful results in this comparison study.

  12. A hybrid framework for assessing socioeconomic drought: Linking climate variability, local resilience, and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Mazdiyasni, Omid; AghaKouchak, Amir

    2015-08-01

    Socioeconomic drought broadly refers to conditions whereby the water supply cannot satisfy the demand. Most previous studies describe droughts based on large-scale meteorological/hydrologic conditions, ignoring the demand and local resilience to cope with climate variability. Reservoirs provide resilience against climatic extremes and play a key role in water supply and demand management. Here we outline a unique multivariate approach as a measure of socioeconomic drought, termed Multivariate Standardized Reliability and Resilience Index (MSRRI). The model combines information on the inflow and reservoir storage relative to the demand. MSRRI combines (I) a "top-down" approach that focuses on processes/phenomena that cannot be simply controlled or altered by decision makers, such as climate change and variability, and (II) a "bottom-up" methodology that represents the local resilience and societal capacity to respond or adapt to droughts. MSRRI is based on a nonparametric multivariate distribution function that links inflow-demand reliability indicator to water storage resilience indicator. These indicators are used to assess socioeconomic drought during the Australian Millennium drought (1998-2010) and the 2011-2014 California drought. The results show that MSRRI is superior to univariate indices because it captures both early onset and persistence of water stress over time. The suggested framework can be applied to both individual reservoirs and a group of reservoirs in a region, and it is consistent with the currently available standardized drought indicators. MSRRI provides complementary information on socioeconomic drought development and recovery based on reservoir storage and demand that cannot be achieved from the commonly used drought indicators.

  13. Toward Modeling the Resistance and Resilience of "Below-ground" Fungal Communities: A Mechanistic and Trait-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth E; Otten, Wilfred; White, Nia A

    2015-01-01

    The role of fungi in shaping ecosystems is well evidenced and there is growing recognition of their importance among scientists and the general public. Establishing and separating the role of key local (soil chemical, biological, and physical properties) and global (climate, dispersal limitation) drivers in fungal community structure and functioning is currently a source of frustration to mycologists. The quest to determine niche processes and environmental characteristics shaping fungal community structure, known to be important for plant and animal communities, is proving difficult, resulting in the acknowledgment that niche neutral processes (climate, dispersal limitations) may dominate. The search for predictable patterns in fungal community structure may have been restricted as the "appropriate" scales at which to measure community structure and characterize the environment have not been fully determined yet, and the focus on taxonomy makes it difficult to link environmental characteristics to fungal traits. While key determinants of microbial community composition have been uncovered for some functional groups, the differential response of functional groups is largely unknown. Before we can truly understand what drives the development of microbial community structure, an understanding of the autecology of major fungal taxa and how they interact with their immediate environment (from the micro- up to kilometer scale) is urgently needed. Furthermore, key information and empirical data is missing at the microscale due to experimental difficulties in mapping this heterogeneous and opaque environment. We therefore present a framework that would help generate this much-needed empirical data and information at the microscale, together with modeling approaches to link the spatial and temporal scales. The latter is important as we propose that there is much to be gained by linking our understanding of fungal community responses across scales, in order to develop

  14. The development of an RDoC-based treatment program for adolescent depression: “Training for Awareness, Resilience, and Action” (TARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henje Blom, Eva; Duncan, Larissa G.; Ho, Tiffany C.; Connolly, Colm G.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.; Chesney, Margaret; Hecht, Frederick M.; Yang, Tony T.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the current leading causes of disability worldwide. Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the onset of depression, with MDD affecting 8–20% of all youth. Traditional treatment methods have not been sufficiently effective to slow the increasing prevalence of adolescent depression. We therefore propose a new model for the treatment of adolescent depression – Training for Awareness,