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Sample records for residue level mrl

  1. Suitability of the charm HVS and a microbiological multiplate system for detection of residues in raw milk at EU maximum residue levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouws, J.F.M.; Egmond, van H.; Loeffen, G.; Schouten, J.; Keukens, H.; Smulders, I.; Stegeman, H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we assessed the suitability of the Charm HVS and a newly developed microbiological multiplate system as post-screening tests to confirm the presence of residues in raw milk at or near the maximum permissible residue level (MRL). The multiplate system is composed of Bacillus

  2. Determination of the residue levels of nicarbazin and combination nicarbazin-narasin in broiler chickens after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; de Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    The depletion times of the anticoccidial nicarbazin administered individually and of nicarbazin and narasin administered in combination were evaluated by determining the presence and levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, and narasin residues in the muscle tissues of broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was used. The results showed the presence of all anticoccidial residues; however, the DNC levels were higher when the nicarbazin was administered individually than when it was used in association with narasin throughout the experimental period. After six days of withdrawal, the DNC level following nicarbazin administration alone was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) of 200 μg kg-1. However, when the nicarbazin was co-administered with narasin, the concentrations of DNC were lower than the MRL after four days of withdrawal. These results may be justified because the dosage of nicarbazin, when administrated individually, is greater than when it is used in combination with narasin. The levels of narasin were lower than the MRL of 15 μg kg-1 throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that nicarbazin is rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles up to six days of withdrawal since the DNC levels were lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) and the concentrations of narasin were lower than the MRL throughout the evaluation period. PMID:28750013

  3. Determination of the residue levels of nicarbazin and combination nicarbazin-narasin in broiler chickens after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Arina Lopes de; Barreto, Fabiano; Rau, Renata Batista; Silva, Guilherme Resende da; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos; Figueiredo, Tadeu Chaves de; Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio de; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    The depletion times of the anticoccidial nicarbazin administered individually and of nicarbazin and narasin administered in combination were evaluated by determining the presence and levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, and narasin residues in the muscle tissues of broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was used. The results showed the presence of all anticoccidial residues; however, the DNC levels were higher when the nicarbazin was administered individually than when it was used in association with narasin throughout the experimental period. After six days of withdrawal, the DNC level following nicarbazin administration alone was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) of 200 μg kg-1. However, when the nicarbazin was co-administered with narasin, the concentrations of DNC were lower than the MRL after four days of withdrawal. These results may be justified because the dosage of nicarbazin, when administrated individually, is greater than when it is used in combination with narasin. The levels of narasin were lower than the MRL of 15 μg kg-1 throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that nicarbazin is rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles up to six days of withdrawal since the DNC levels were lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) and the concentrations of narasin were lower than the MRL throughout the evaluation period.

  4. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  5. Prolactin Levels Correlate with Abnormal B Cell Maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr Mouse Models of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Like Disease

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    Maria Victoria Legorreta-Haquet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin (PRL plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. We observed that the PRL-receptor is expressed in early bone-marrow B-cell; the expression in lupus-prone mice, which had the highest level of expression in pro-B cells and immature cells, differed from that in wild-type mice. These expression levels did not significantly change in response to hyperprolactinemia; however, populations of pro-B and immature cells from lupus-prone strains showed a decrease in the absolute numbers of cells with high PRL-receptor expression in response to PRL. Because immature self-reactive B cells are constantly being eliminated, we assessed the expression of survival factor BIRC5, which is more highly expressed in both pro-B and immature B-cells in response to PRL and correlates with the onset of disease. These results identify an important role of PRL in the early stages of the B-cell maturation process: PRL may promote the survival of self-reactive clones.

  6. Prolactin Levels Correlate with Abnormal B Cell Maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr Mouse Models of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Like Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta-Haquet, Maria Victoria; Flores-Fernández, Rocio; Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Hernández-González, Rafael; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina

    2013-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity. In this study, our aims were to determine the level of PRL receptor expression during bone-marrow B-cell development and to assess whether the presence of high PRL serum concentrations influences absolute numbers of developing populations and disease outcome in lupus-prone murine models. We observed that the PRL-receptor is expressed in early bone-marrow B-cell; the expression in lupus-prone mice, which had the highest level of expression in pro-B cells and immature cells, differed from that in wild-type mice. These expression levels did not significantly change in response to hyperprolactinemia; however, populations of pro-B and immature cells from lupus-prone strains showed a decrease in the absolute numbers of cells with high PRL-receptor expression in response to PRL. Because immature self-reactive B cells are constantly being eliminated, we assessed the expression of survival factor BIRC5, which is more highly expressed in both pro-B and immature B-cells in response to PRL and correlates with the onset of disease. These results identify an important role of PRL in the early stages of the B-cell maturation process: PRL may promote the survival of self-reactive clones. PMID:24454471

  7. Successful treatment of autoimmune manifestations in MRL/l and MRL/n mice using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscovitch, M.; Rosenmann, E.; Neeman, Z.; Slavin, S.

    1983-02-01

    The autoimmune manifestations of MRL-+/+ (MRL/n) and MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/l) murine models of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were successfully reversed following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) therapy consisting of 8-12 daily fractions of 200 rad. Following radiotherapy the characteristic lymphadenopathy of MRL/l disappeared, proteinuria was 334 mg% compared to a peak of 2272 mg% in untreated controls, and the median survival time was prolonged to 423 days compared to 214 days in untreated mice. The albuminuria of TLI-treated MRL/n mice was 194 mg% compared to 1180 mg% in untreated controls. The survival of treated MRL/n mice was prolonged to a median of 389 as compared to 190 days in untreated controls. The effect of TLI on antiDNA antibodies in both MRL/l and MRL/n was less remarkable. However, the antiDNA activity reached normal levels in most long-living mice. The most impressive finding was complete reversal and/or prevention of the SLE-like glomerulonephritis in MRL/l mice as documented by light and electron microscopy. Immunomanipulation with TLI should be further evaluated as a possible treatment modality in intractable human autoimmune disorders.

  8. MRL Strains Have a BAFFR Mutation without Functional Consequence.

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    Windy R Allman

    Full Text Available It has been shown that B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR is critical for B cell development and survival. In this study, we sought to evaluate the expression and function of BAFFR across multiple stains of mice that vary in their potential to develop systemic autoimmune disease. The inability of a commercial antibody to bind to BAFFR in the autoimmune prone mouse strains, MRL and MRL/Lpr led to the discovery of a mutation in TNFRSF13C gene (encoding BAFFR that resulted in a Pro44Ser substitution in the N-terminus near the BAFF binding site in these strains. To define the biological consequences of mutant BAFFR, we compared the expression and activity of BAFFR in MRL and MRL/Lpr mice to BALB/c, which express the consensus version of TNFRSF13C. B cells from MRL and MRL/Lpr mice expressed mutant BAFFR on surface and were capable of responding to BAFF as exhibited by BAFF-mediated reduction in apoptosis and NF-κB2 activation. Signaling through MAPK ERK1/2 was not significantly induced by BAFF in MRL/Lpr mice; however, MAPK ERK1/2 signaling was intact in MRL mice. The inability of MRL/Lpr B cells to significantly activate ERK1/2 in response to BAFF was due to the high basal activity of the signaling pathway in these cells. In fact, basal activity of ERK1/2 in B cells correlated with the degree of autoimmune susceptibility exhibited by each strain. In addition, aged MRL/Lpr mice with severe autoimmune disease had high BAFF levels, low surface BAFFR, and high basal NF-κB2 activation, a pattern which is attributed to the high frequency of antibody secreting cells. We conclude that P44S BAFFR mutation does not hinder BAFFR function or enhance B cell activity in MRL/Lpr and MRL mice and that other susceptibility loci on the MRL background contributed to the hyperactivity of these cells.

  9. MRL and SuperFine+MRL: new supertree methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Supertree methods combine trees on subsets of the full taxon set together to produce a tree on the entire set of taxa. Of the many supertree methods, the most popular is MRP (Matrix Representation with Parsimony), a method that operates by first encoding the input set of source trees by a large matrix (the "MRP matrix") over {0,1, ?}, and then running maximum parsimony heuristics on the MRP matrix. Experimental studies evaluating MRP in comparison to other supertree methods have established that for large datasets, MRP generally produces trees of equal or greater accuracy than other methods, and can run on larger datasets. A recent development in supertree methods is SuperFine+MRP, a method that combines MRP with a divide-and-conquer approach, and produces more accurate trees in less time than MRP. In this paper we consider a new approach for supertree estimation, called MRL (Matrix Representation with Likelihood). MRL begins with the same MRP matrix, but then analyzes the MRP matrix using heuristics (such as RAxML) for 2-state Maximum Likelihood. Results We compared MRP and SuperFine+MRP with MRL and SuperFine+MRL on simulated and biological datasets. We examined the MRP and MRL scores of each method on a wide range of datasets, as well as the resulting topological accuracy of the trees. Our experimental results show that MRL, coupled with a very good ML heuristic such as RAxML, produced more accurate trees than MRP, and MRL scores were more strongly correlated with topological accuracy than MRP scores. Conclusions SuperFine+MRP, when based upon a good MP heuristic, such as TNT, produces among the best scores for both MRP and MRL, and is generally faster and more topologically accurate than other supertree methods we tested. PMID:22280525

  10. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80......% of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  11. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

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    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  12. Reasoned opinion on the dietary risk assessment for proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs) of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC)

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-01-01

    EFSA was requested by the European Commission to perform a dietary exposure assessment for the proposed temporary maximum residue levels (MRLs) for didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) (0.1 mg/kg, respectively, for all food commodities covered by the EU MRL legislation). Based on the information, EFSA did not identify potential consumer health risks for these proposed MRLs. Thus, the proposed MRLs are considered to be sufficiently protective. However, due to...

  13. The superhealing MRL background improves muscular dystrophy

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    Heydemann Ahlke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice from the MRL or “superhealing” strain have enhanced repair after acute injury to the skin, cornea, and heart. We now tested an admixture of the MRL genome and found that it altered the course of muscle pathology and cardiac function in a chronic disease model of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mice lacking γ-sarcoglycan (Sgcg, a dystrophin-associated protein, develop muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy similar to their human counterparts with limb girdle muscular dystrophy. With disruption of the dystrophin complex, the muscle plasma membrane becomes leaky and muscles develop increased fibrosis. Methods MRL/MpJ mice were bred with Sgcg mice, and cardiac function was measured. Muscles were assessed for fibrosis and membrane leak using measurements of hydroxyproline and Evans blue dye. Quantitative trait locus mapping was conducted using single nucleotide polymorphisms distinct between the two parental strains. Results Introduction of the MRL genome reduced fibrosis but did not alter membrane leak in skeletal muscle of the Sgcg model. The MRL genome was also associated with improved cardiac function with reversal of depressed fractional shortening and the left ventricular ejection fraction. We conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic modifiers and found that a region on chromosome 2 was associated with cardiac, diaphragm muscle and abdominal muscle fibrosis. Conclusions These data are consistent with a model where the MRL genome acts in a dominant manner to suppress fibrosis in this chronic disease setting of heart and muscle disease.

  14. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, S.

    2009-06-01

    the kidney. The level of endrin ketone was higher than endrin aldehyde in all the tissues analyzed. The mean concentration of endrin ketone was 0.347 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of α-endosulfan was 0.140μg /kg wet weight. Endosulfan sulfate was detected at 0.033 μg /kg in the kidney. The mean concentration of gamma-chlordane was 0.020 μg /kg kidney. Methoxychlor was detected at 0.183μg /kg, wet weight in the kidney. The levels of organochlorine pesticides residues detected in all the tissues were below the accepted maximum residue limits (MRL), as adopted by the WHO/FAO Codex Alimentarius Commission.

  15. Sunlight triggers cutaneous lupus through a CSF-1-dependent mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T; Lucas, Julie A; Rabacal, Whitney A; Croker, Byron P; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E Richard; Kelley, Vicki R

    2008-11-15

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø)-mediated mechanism in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Fas(lpr) strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intradermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) mice, but not in lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. UVB incites an increase in Møs, apoptosis in the skin, and CLE in MRL-Fas(lpr), but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Møs that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Fas(lpr) but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, CSF-1 is envisioned as the match and lupus susceptibility as the tinder leading to CLE.

  16. Defects in the peripheral taste structure and function in the MRL/lpr mouse model of autoimmune disease.

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    Agnes Kim

    Full Text Available While our understanding of the molecular and cellular aspects of taste reception and signaling continues to improve, the aberrations in these processes that lead to taste dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Abnormalities in taste can develop in a variety of diseases, including infections and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we used a mouse model of autoimmune disease to investigate the underlying mechanisms of taste disorders. MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr/J (MRL/lpr mice develop a systemic autoimmunity with phenotypic similarities to human systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. Our results show that the taste tissues of MRL/lpr mice exhibit characteristics of inflammation, including infiltration of T lymphocytes and elevated levels of some inflammatory cytokines. Histological studies reveal that the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice are smaller than those of wild-type congenic control (MRL/+/+ mice. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU pulse-chase experiments show that fewer BrdU-labeled cells enter the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice, suggesting an inhibition of taste cell renewal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses show that mRNA levels of several type II taste cell markers are lower in MRL/lpr mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirm a significant reduction in the number of gustducin-positive taste receptor cells in the taste buds of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, MRL/lpr mice exhibit reduced gustatory nerve responses to the bitter compound quinine and the sweet compound saccharin and reduced behavioral responses to bitter, sweet, and umami taste substances compared with controls. In contrast, their responses to salty and sour compounds are comparable to those of control mice in both nerve recording and behavioral experiments. Together, our results suggest that type II taste receptor cells, which are essential for bitter, sweet, and umami taste reception and signaling, are selectively affected in MRL/lpr mice, a model for autoimmune disease with chronic

  17. Multipesticide residue levels in UHT and raw milk samples by GC-μECD after QuEChER extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Sana; Talpur, Farah N; Nizamani, Shafi M; Khaskheli, Abid A; Afridi, H I

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, milk samples including raw and ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk were analyzed for pesticide residue levels, including five pesticides, viz chloripyrifos, endosulfan (α and β), profenofos and bifenthrin by gas chromatography microelectron capture detector (GC-μECD) after extraction by QuEChERS method. Further confirmation of the pesticide residue was done by GC-MS. The pesticide residual level in raw and UHT milk samples (n = 70) was determined in the range of 0.1-30 μg L(-1). All UHT processed milk samples contain pesticide residues within permissible limit set by the World Health Organization (WHO); however, among raw milk samples, chloripyrifos (12 %), α (24 %), and β (14 %) endosulfan were found above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of these four pesticide residues were also calculated as 1.32, 16.16, 5.30, 10.20, and 9.93 μg kg(-1) body weight for chloripyrifos, endosulfan α, profenofos, endosulfan β, and bifenthrin, respectively. It is concluded that the raw milk samples showed higher prevalence of pesticide residues as compared to UHT processed milk. Graphical abstract Determination of pesticide residues in dairy milk by GC-μECD after QuEChERS extraction method.

  18. Sunlight Triggers Cutaneous Lupus through a Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) Dependent Mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Julia; Hsu, Mei-Yu; Byrne, Katelyn T.; Lucas, Julie A.; Rabacal, Whitney A.; Croker, Byron P.; Zong, Xiao-Hua; Stanley, E. Richard; Kelley, Vicki R.

    2008-01-01

    Sunlight (UVB) triggers cutaneous (CLE) and systemic lupus through an unknown mechanism. We tested the hypothesis that UVB triggers CLE through a CSF-1-dependent, macrophage (Mø) -mediated mechanism in MRL-Faslpr mice. By constructing mutant MRL-Faslpr strains expressing varying levels of CSF-1 (high, intermediate, none), and use of an ex-vivo gene transfer to deliver CSF-1 intra-dermally, we determined that CSF-1 induces CLE in lupus-susceptible, MRL-Faslpr mice, but not in lupus-resistant, BALB/c mice. Notably, UVB incites an increase in Mø, apoptosis in the skin and CLE in MRL-Faslpr, but not in CSF-1-deficient MRL-Faslpr mice. Furthermore, UVB did not induce CLE in BALB/c mice. Probing further, UVB stimulates CSF-1 expression by keratinocytes leading to recruitment and activation of Mø that, in turn, release mediators, which induce apoptosis in keratinocytes. Thus, sunlight triggers a CSF-1-dependent, Mø-mediated destructive inflammation in the skin leading to CLE in lupus-susceptible MRL-Faslpr, but not lupus-resistant BALB/c mice. Taken together, we envision CSF-1 as the “match” and lupus-susceptibility as the “tinder” leading to CLE. PMID:18981160

  19. Clinical efficacy of buprenorphine to minimize distress in MRL/lpr mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Julie; Olgun, Selen; Radjavi, Ali; Kaur, Taranjit; Reilly, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    MRL/MpJ-Faslpr (MRL/lpr) mice are an accepted animal model to study human systemic lupus erythematosus. We tested if a commonly used analgesic (buprenorphine hydrochloride) would reduce pain and distress in these mice without impacting the progression of autoimmune disease. Female MRL/lpr mice were randomly separated into four groups. Experimental groups received cyclophosphamide (25 mg/kg i.p. weekly), buprenorphine (0.09 mg/kg/mouse/day via drinking water), or cyclophosphamide + buprenorphine from 11 - 21 weeks of age. Controls received no treatments. Mice were monitored daily by a licensed veterinarian (blinded observer) and assigned a score weekly on parameters associated with pain and distress as well as progression of disease. Proteinuria was measured weekly, and serum anti-dsDNA antibody levels were determined at 11, 15, and 18 weeks of age. At 21 weeks of age, the animals were euthanized and the kidneys and spleens were removed for evaluation. Regardless of the parameter observed, buprenorphine did not significantly decrease distress when compared to the controls. Buprenorphine did not alter the progression of autoimmune disease, based on characteristics of splenic architecture and splenocyte cell profiles, development of lymphadenopathy, or kidney histology as compared to controls. This study indicates that buprenorphine at this dose and route of administration was ineffective in reducing distress associated with disease progression in the MRL/lpr strain. More studies are needed to determine if, at a different dose or route, buprenorphine would be useful as adjunctive therapy in reducing distress in MRL/lpr mice. PMID:17490635

  20. Presence of pesticide residues on produce cultivated in Suriname.

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    Abdoel Wahid, F; Wickliffe, J; Wilson, M; Van Sauers, A; Bond, N; Hawkins, W; Mans, D; Lichtveld, M

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural pesticides are widely used in Suriname, an upper middle-income Caribbean country located in South America. Suriname imported 1.8 million kg of agricultural pesticides in 2015. So far, however, national monitoring of pesticides in crops is absent. Reports from the Netherlands on imported Surinamese produce from 2010 to 2015 consistently showed that samples exceeded plant-specific pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) of the European Union (EU). Consumption of produce containing unsafe levels of pesticide residues can cause neurological disorders, and particularly, pregnant women and children may be vulnerable. This pilot study assessed the presence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed produce items cultivated in Suriname. Thirty-two insecticides (organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, and pyrethroids) and 12 fungicides were evaluated for their levels in nine types of produce. Pesticide residue levels exceeding MRLs in this study regarded cypermethrin (0.32 μg/g) in tomatoes (USA MRL 0.20 μg/g), lambda-cyhalothrin (1.08 μg/g) in Chinese cabbage (USA MRL 0.40 μg/g), endosulfan (0.07 μg/g) in tannia (EU MRL 0.05 μg/g), and lindane (0.02 and 0.03 μg/g, respectively) in tannia (EU MRL 0.01 μg/g). While only a few pesticide residues were detected in this small pilot study, these residues included two widely banned pesticides (endosulfan and lindane). There is a need to address environmental policy gaps. A more comprehensive sampling and analysis of produce from Suriname is warranted to better understand the scope of the problem. Preliminary assessments, using intake rate, hazard quotient, and level of concern showed that it is unlikely that daily consumption of tannia leads to adverse health effects.

  1. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  2. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated pesticide residue levels in the two vegetables commonly eaten in Lagos state Nigeria. The vegetables (Telfairia occidentalis and Celosia argentea) were purchased from six markets (Oyingbo, Mile 12, Mushin, Ajah, Agege and Festac) in Lagos. The pesticide residue levels were determined using gas ...

  3. The Therapeutic Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicine, Lang Chuang Fang Granule, on Lupus-Prone MRL/lpr Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Peng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to severe multiorgan damage. Lang Chuang Fang (LCF is a Chinese herbal medicine that is clinically prescribed for treating SLE. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of LCF granule on lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Female mice were randomly separated into six groups, and LCF treatment groups received LCF granule at the dosage of 0.97 g/kg/d, 1.95 g/kg/d, and 3.90 g/kg/d, respectively. Here, we found that, compared to the MRL/lpr mice, both the spleen coefficient and thymus coefficient were reduced in the LCF granule-treated mice. There was a marked downregulation in CRP and anti-dsDNA autoantibody and an evident upregulation of CH50 in LCF granule-treated mice. LCF granule treatment also obviously reduced the proteinuria, BUN, and SCr levels in MRL/lpr mice at the dosage of 0.97 g/kg/d, 1.95 g/kg/d, and 3.90 g/kg/d, indicating that LCF granule alleviated the renal injury of MRL/lpr mice. Furthermore, LCF granule decreased p65 NF-κB levels and increased Sirt1 and Nrf2 levels in the kidney tissues of MRL/lpr mice, which might elucidate the beneficial effects of LCF on lupus nephritis. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that LCF granule has therapeutic effects on lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice.

  4. Potential demal exposure of florists to fungicide residues on flowers and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, L.; Vleminckx, C.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues potentially expose daily the florists who han-dle cut flowers and possibly could endanger their health. A study was carried out to evaluate the risk for florists exposed to fungicide residues during normal profes-sional tasks. Cotton gloves were distributed to 20 florists (two pairs to each florist)...

  5. [Therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony on lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhao-Xia; Yang, Shao-Feng; Wu, Qi-Fu; Lu, Ying; Chen, Yu-Yao; Nie, Xiao-Li; Jie, Hong-Yu; Qi, Jing-Min; Wang, Fan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on lupus nephritis (LN) in MRL/lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis were randomized into model group and TGP group. The urinary protein content was detected using Coomassie brilliant blue, and the serum levels of IgG anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in the renal pathology were examined microscopically, and the spleen and thymus were weighed to calculate the spleen and thymus indexes. At 15 and 30 days after TGP administration, the urinary protein content in the TGP group was significantly lower than that in the model group (PTGP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA and the weight and index of spleen (PTGP treatment, the urinary protein content and the levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA decreased significantly at 15 and 30 days after TGP administration (PTGP administration, the urinary protein content was significantly lowered in the TGP group as compared to that at 15 days (PTGP can reduce urinary protein content and serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA, and lessen renal pathology in MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis, suggesting its therapeutic effect on lupus nephritis.

  6. Naja naja atra Venom Protects against Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in MRL/lpr Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease and effective therapy for this pathology is currently unavailable. We previously reported that oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV had anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. We speculated that NNAV may have therapeutic effects in MRL/lpr SLE mice. Twelve-week-old MRL/lpr mice received oral administration of NNAV (20, 40, and 80 μg/kg or Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (10 mg/kg daily for 16 weeks. The effects of NNAV on SLE manifestations, including skin erythema, proteinuria, and anxiety-like behaviors, were assessed with visual inspection and Multistix 8 SG strips and open field test, respectively. The pathology of spleen and kidney was examined with H&E staining. The changes in autoimmune antibodies and cytokines were determined with ELISA kits. The results showed that NNAV protected against the manifestation of SLE, including skin erythema and proteinuria. In addition, although no apparent histological change was found in liver and heart in MRL/lpr SLE mice, NNAV reduced the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, NNAV increased serum C3 and reduced concentrations of circulating globulin, anti-dsDNA antibody, and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. NNAV also reduced lymphadenopathy and renal injury. These results suggest that NNAV may have therapeutic values in the treatment of SLE by inhibiting autoimmune responses.

  7. Naja naja atra Venom Protects against Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in MRL/lpr Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiali; Cui, Kui; Kou, Jianqun; Wang, Shuzhi; Xu, Yinli; Ding, Zhihui; Han, Rong; Qin, Zhenghong

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease and effective therapy for this pathology is currently unavailable. We previously reported that oral administration of Naja naja atra venom (NNAV) had anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions. We speculated that NNAV may have therapeutic effects in MRL/lpr SLE mice. Twelve-week-old MRL/lpr mice received oral administration of NNAV (20, 40, and 80 μg/kg) or Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidium (10 mg/kg) daily for 16 weeks. The effects of NNAV on SLE manifestations, including skin erythema, proteinuria, and anxiety-like behaviors, were assessed with visual inspection and Multistix 8 SG strips and open field test, respectively. The pathology of spleen and kidney was examined with H&E staining. The changes in autoimmune antibodies and cytokines were determined with ELISA kits. The results showed that NNAV protected against the manifestation of SLE, including skin erythema and proteinuria. In addition, although no apparent histological change was found in liver and heart in MRL/lpr SLE mice, NNAV reduced the levels of glutamate pyruvate transaminase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, NNAV increased serum C3 and reduced concentrations of circulating globulin, anti-dsDNA antibody, and inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. NNAV also reduced lymphadenopathy and renal injury. These results suggest that NNAV may have therapeutic values in the treatment of SLE by inhibiting autoimmune responses.

  8. Tokamak residual zonal flow level in near-separatrix region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing-Ren, Shi

    2010-01-01

    Residual zonal flow level is calculated for tokamak plasmas in the near-separatrix region of a diverted tokamak. A recently developed method is used to construct an analytic divertor tokamak configuration. It is shown that the residual zonal flow level becomes smaller but still keeps finite near the separatrix because the neoclassical polarisation mostly due to the trapped particles goes larger in this region. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  9. Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from South America – A Nordic project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Karen; Johansen, K.; Holen, B.

    2011-01-01

    % of samples contained pesticide residues at or below MRL, and 8.4% of samples contained pesticide residues above MRL. Thiabendazole, imazalil and chlorpyrifos were the pesticide most frequently found. Thirty-seven pesticides were found with frequencies higher that 1% in the samples. The results emphasize...

  10. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallow, Mustapha F A; Awadh, Dawood G; Albaho, Mohammed S; Devi, Vimala Y; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-07-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC - MS / MS). Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL) were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  11. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha F. A. Jallow

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits (MRL were detected in 21% of the samples and 79% of the samples had no residues of the pesticides surveyed or contained residues below the MRL. Multiple residues were present in 40% of the samples with two to four pesticides, and four samples were contaminated with more than four pesticide residues. Of the pesticides investigated, 16 were detected, of which imidacloprid, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, malathion, acetamiprid, monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, and diazinon exceeded their MRLs. Aldrin, an organochlorine pesticide, was detected in one apple sample, with residues below the MRL. The results indicate the occurrence of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait, and pointed to an urgent need to develop comprehensive intervention measures to reduce the potential health risk to consumers. The need for the regular monitoring of pesticide residues and the sensitization of farmers to better pesticide safety practices, especially the need to adhere to recommended pre-harvest intervals is recommended.

  12. Determination of dichlorvos residue levels in vegetables sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To ensure maximum yield they apply various types of pesticides to control pests and diseases that attack these vegetables. Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agriculture for the control of various insect pests mainly in developing countries. The purpose of the study was to determine the residual levels of the ...

  13. Severe Tissue Trauma Triggers the Autoimmune State Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the MRL/++ Lupus-Prone Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    progression of renal disease in lupus -prone mice. Following sham- treatment and burn injury, we monitored urine protein levels on a weekly basis as an...glomerulonephritis, membranous nephropathy, and lupus nephritis . Kidney Int 1997; 51: 270-276. 61 Bijl M, Dijstelbloem HM, Oost WW, et al. IgG subclass... Lupus (2009) 18, 318-331 http://lup.sagepub.com PAPER Severe tissue trauma triggers the autoimmune state systemic lupus erythematosus in the MRL

  14. Toll-like receptor 9 suppresses lupus disease in Fas-sufficient MRL Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Nickerson

    Full Text Available Genetic deficiency in TLR9 accelerates pathogenesis in the spontaneous polygenic MRL.Faslpr murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus, despite the absence of anti-nucleosome autoantibodies. However, it could be argued that this result was dependent on Fas-deficiency rather than lupus-promoting genes in the MRL genetic background. Here we report the effects of TLR9 deficiency on autoimmune disease independent of the lpr mutation in Fas by characterizing Tlr9-/- and Tlr9+/+ mice on the Fas-intact MRL/+ genetic background. By 30 weeks of age, Tlr9-deficient MRL/+ had more severe renal disease, increased T cell activation, and higher titers of anti-Sm and anti-RNA autoantibodies than Tlr9-intact animals, as had been the case in the MRL.Faslpr model. In addition, Tlr9-deficient MRL/+ mice had increased numbers of germinal center phenotype B cells and an increase in splenic neutrophils and conventional dendritic cell populations. Thus, the disease accelerating effects of Tlr9 deficiency are separable from those mediated by the Fas mutation in the lupus-prone MRL genetic background. Nonetheless, disease acceleration in Tlr9-deficient MRL/+ mice was phenotypically distinct from that in Fas-deficient counterparts, which has important implications.

  15. Determination of 86 Pesticide Residues in Leafy Vegetables using gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    , M. T. Selim; , I. Al-Dossary

    2016-01-01

    A multiresidue method is described for detection and determination of 86 compounds of pesticide residues which commonly used in the pest control programs for crop protection. Good sensitivity and selectivity of the method are obtained with limits of quantiŞcation 0.01 mg/kg in almost all cases. The method was applied very satisfactorily to routine analysis as a complement to traditional GC-MS method and Şnally, limit of detection were also 10-20 times lower than maximum residue levels (MRL) e...

  16. Wound trauma mediated inflammatory signaling attenuates a tissue regenerative response in MRL/MpJ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster Eric A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe trauma can induce pathophysiological responses that have marked inflammatory components. The development of systemic inflammation following severe thermal injury has been implicated in immune dysfunction, delayed wound healing, multi-system organ failure and increased mortality. Methods In this study, we examined the impact of thermal injury-induced systemic inflammation on the healing response of a secondary wound in the MRL/MpJ mouse model, which was anatomically remote from the primary site of trauma, a wound that typically undergoes scarless healing in this specific strain. Ear-hole wounds in MRL/MpJ mice have previously displayed accelerated healing and tissue regeneration in the absence of a secondary insult. Results Severe thermal injury in addition to distal ear-hole wounds induced marked local and systemic inflammatory responses in the lungs and significantly augmented the expression of inflammatory mediators in the ear tissue. By day 14, 61% of the ear-hole wounds from thermally injured mice demonstrated extensive inflammation with marked inflammatory cell infiltration, extensive ulceration, and various level of necrosis to the point where a large percentage (38% had to be euthanized early during the study due to extensive necrosis, inflammation and ear deformation. By day 35, ear-hole wounds in mice not subjected to thermal injury were completely closed, while the ear-hole wounds in thermally injured mice exhibited less inflammation and necrosis and only closed partially (62%. Thermal injury resulted in marked increases in serum levels of IL-6, TNFα, KC (CXCL1, and MIP-2α (CXCL2. Interestingly, attenuated early ear wound healing in the thermally injured mouse resulted in incomplete tissue regeneration in addition to a marked inflammatory response, as evidenced by the histological appearance of the wound and increased transcription of potent inflammatory mediators. Conclusion These findings suggest that the

  17. Simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon under field conditions by GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Di; Zhang, Haizhen; Chen, Yuling; Wang, Fei; Shi, Lihong; Hu, Deyu; Zhang, Kankan

    2017-11-01

    An optimized quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for the simultaneous determination of difenoconazole, trifloxystrobin and its metabolite trifloxystrobin acid residues in watermelon and soil was developed and validated by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile (1% formic acid) and cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane sorbent. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.01 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for all three analytes. The recoveries of the fungicides in watermelon, pulp and soil were 72.32-99.20% for difenoconazole, 74.68-87.72% for trifloxystrobin and 78.59-92.66% for trifloxystrobin acid with relative standard deviations of 1.34-14.04%. The dissipation dynamics of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin in watermelon and soil followed the first-order kinetics with half-lives of 3.2-8.8 days in both locations. The final residue levels of difenoconazole and trifloxystrobin were below 0.1 mg/kg (maximum residue level [MRL] set by China) and 0.2 mg/kg (MRL set by European Union), respectively, in pulp samples collected 14 days after the last application. These results could help Chinese authorities to establish MRL of trifloxystrobin in watermelon and provide guidance for the safe and proper application of both fungicides on watermelon. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Monitoring of Benomyl Residue in Mushroom Marketed in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pesticide residues in environment and food have a negative impact on the health of living organisms. Therefore, this study was carried out for evaluation of benomyl residues in mushroom marketed in Hamadan city in 2014 using spectrophotometry. Materials & Methods: 10 specimens of mushroom were collected from greenhouses and market basket of Hamadan city. After preparation and processing the samples in the laboratory, be-nomyl residues in samples were determined using a spectrophotometric method in 3 replica-tions. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The mean concentration of benomyl residues in samples were 5.90±0.75, 2.10± 0.487, 40.04±1.346, 0.32±0.044, 14.0±0.785, 1.54±0.304, 40.0±0.45, 0.87±0.055, 0.66± 0.032 and 49.60±0.303 µg kg-1 and more than the maximum residue limit (MRL provided by the World Health Organization (10 ppb. The results of the comparison of the mean concentration of pesticide residues among samples revealed significant differences in most of the samples (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that mean concentrations of benomyl residues in mushroom samples were exceeding that of the MRL. Therefore, it is essential to impart proper education to the farming community about hazards involved in the overuse of toxic pesticides. Also, codification of laws and their enforcement and implementation of programs for the regular periodic monitoring of pesticide residues in foodstuffs especially in vegetables cultivated un-der greenhouse conditions at the national level to protect consumers’ health are recom-mended.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 137-143

  19. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P

    2013-05-01

    The Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects β-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To assess the Charm MRL BLTET test for the detection of β-lactams and tetracyclines in milk of small ruminants, an evaluation study was performed at Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Animal of Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). The test specificity and detection capability (CCβ) were studied following Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Specificity results obtained in this study were optimal for individual milk free of antimicrobials from ewes (99.2% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) and goats (97.9% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) along the entire lactation period regardless of whether the results were visually or instrumentally interpreted. Moreover, no positive results were obtained when a relatively high concentration of different substances belonging to antimicrobial families other than β-lactams and tetracyclines were present in ewe and goat milk. For both types of milk, the CCβ calculated was lower or equal to EU-MRL for amoxicillin (4 µg/kg), ampicillin (4 µg/kg), benzylpenicillin (≤ 2 µg/kg), dicloxacillin (30 µg/kg), oxacillin (30 µg/kg), cefacetrile (≤ 63 µg/kg), cefalonium (≤ 10 µg/kg), cefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), desacetylcefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), cefazolin (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefoperazone (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefquinome (20 µg/kg), ceftiofur (≤ 50 µg/kg), desfuroylceftiofur (≤ 50µg/kg), and cephalexin (≤ 50 µg/kg). However, this test could neither detect cloxacillin nor nafcillin at or below EU-MRL (CCβ >30 µg/kg). The

  20. Validation of the betaeta-s.t.a.r. 1 + 1 for rapid screening of residues of beta-lactam antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybroeck, W; Ooghe, S; De Brabander, H F; Daeseleire, E

    2010-08-01

    The 2-min protocol (1 + 1) for the betaeta-s.t.a.r. (manufactured by Neogen Corporation, Lansing, MI, USA) was validated at the Technology and Food Science Unit of the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The test was very selective for the group of beta-lactam compounds: the only interference found was by clavulanic acid at 2500 microg kg(-1) and above. The modified protocol (betaeta-s.t.a.r. 1 + 1) detected all beta-lactams with a maximum residue limit (MRL) in milk, but not all these compounds were detected at their respective MRL. The detection of cefalexin (detection capability = 6000 microg kg(-1); MRL = 100 microg kg(-1)) and penethamate (detection capability = 80 microg kg(-1); MRL = 4 microg kg(-1)) was especially poor, and also ceftiofur was only detected from 500 microg kg(-1) (MRL = 100 microg kg(-1)). The repeatability of the reader and of the test was very good. The test was very robust: test results were not significantly influenced by small changes in the test protocol, by the milk composition or by the type of milk. The test was also suitable to test the milk of animal species other than cow. Favourable results were obtained in testing monitoring samples, in two national ring trials, and in an international proficiency test. The betaeta-s.t.a.r. 1 + 1 is a very fast, simple, and reliable test that could be used at the farm level to prevent tanker milk contamination by beta-lactams.

  1. Validation of the βeta-s.t.a.r. 1 + 1 for rapid screening of residues of β-lactam antibiotics in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reybroeck, W.; Ooghe, S.; De Brabander, H.F.; Daeseleire, E.

    2010-01-01

    The 2-min protocol (1 + 1) for the βeta-s.t.a.r. (manufactured by Neogen Corporation, Lansing, MI, USA) was validated at the Technology and Food Science Unit of the Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The test was very selective for the group of β-lactam compounds: the only interference found was by clavulanic acid at 2500 μg kg−1 and above. The modified protocol (βeta-s.t.a.r. 1 + 1) detected all β-lactams with a maximum residue limit (MRL) in milk, but not all these compounds were detected at their respective MRL. The detection of cefalexin (detection capability = 6000 μg kg−1; MRL = 100 μg kg−1) and penethamate (detection capability = 80 μg kg−1; MRL = 4 μg kg−1) was especially poor, and also ceftiofur was only detected from 500 μg kg−1 (MRL = 100 μg kg−1). The repeatability of the reader and of the test was very good. The test was very robust: test results were not significantly influenced by small changes in the test protocol, by the milk composition or by the type of milk. The test was also suitable to test the milk of animal species other than cow. Favourable results were obtained in testing monitoring samples, in two national ring trials, and in an international proficiency test. The βeta-s.t.a.r. 1 + 1 is a very fast, simple, and reliable test that could be used at the farm level to prevent tanker milk contamination by β-lactams. PMID:20512709

  2. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2013-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usi...

  3. Predicting the residual aluminum level in water treatment process

    OpenAIRE

    J. Tomperi; M. Pelo; K. Leiviskä

    2012-01-01

    In water treatment processes, aluminum salts are widely used as coagulation chemical. High dose of aluminum has been proved to be at least a minor health risk and some evidence points out that aluminum could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease thus it is important to minimize the amount of residual aluminum in drinking water and water used at food industry. In this study, the data of a water treatment plant (WTP) was analyzed and the residual aluminum in drinking water was predicted usin...

  4. EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF DIAGNOSTIC SCREENING TESTS FOR DETECTION OF RESIDUES OF BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS IN RAW COW'S MILK (Excerpt from the Thesis for MSc Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muris Begagić

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the questionnaire that is conducted amongthe end-users in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it has been proved that SNAPBeta-lactam, ROSA MRL beta-lactam and BRT MRL are the most commonly usedscreening tests for the detection of beta-lactam antibiotics in raw cow’s milk.  With regard to maximum residue limit of 4 ppbfor penicillin in milk, after the testing of samples with knownconcentration of penicillin of 0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb, diagnostic specificityrate of 52% for SNAP, 24% for ROSA MRL and 20% for BRT MRL test has been determined. Testing of individualsamples obtained from the cows not treated with an antibiotic indicated nofalse positive readings for SNAP and ROSA MRL tests, whereas BRT MRL testshowed 19 (63,33% false positive readings. By testing the samples of intramammarypenicillin-treated cows obtained within the withdrawal period, no falsenegative results were recorded. The first and the second day after the withdrawalperiod SNAP test indicated 2 (20%, and ROSA MRL test 4 (40% false positiveresults. BRT MRL test showed 8 (80% false positive readings on the first andthe second day, but 6 (60% on the third day after the withdrawal period. By testing the samples ofintramuscularly penicillin-treated cows during the withdrawal period, SNAP testrecorded 7 (23,33% and ROSA MRL 5 (16,66% false negative results, whereas BRTMRL test did not record false negative readings. Key words: residues,beta-lactams, screening test

  5. [Contamination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Fresh Vegetables and Related Health Risk Assessment in Changchun, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Liu, Jing-shuang; Wang, Qi-cun; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Yang

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the concentrations of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) in fresh vegetables. A total of Z14 samples from seven types of vegetables were collected from the suburb in Changchun City. The OPs were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). Target hazard quotients (THQ) were applied to estimate the potential health risk to inhabitants. Results showed that OPs concentrations exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in more than 23. 4% samples, and were not detected in only 7. 9% samples. Detection rates of OPs was as follow in the decreased order: diazinon (82. 2%) > phorate (45. 8%) > dimethoate (29. 4%) > parathion-methyl (27. 6%) > omethoate (23. 8%) > dichlorvos (22. 9%) > fenitrothion (21%) > fenthion (18. 7%) > parathion (18. 2%) > methamidophos (17. 3%) > malathion (12. 1%). The percentages above MRL for leaves were higher than for non-leafy vegetables. The order of percentages of OPs above MRL was as follows: green onion (82. 5%) > radish (37. 5%) > red pepper (17. 2%) > Chinese vegetable (14. 3%) > cucumber (3. 2%) > eggplant (2. 9%) > tomato (0%). 49. 5% vegetables samples showed more than one OP. The average target hazard quotients (ave THQ) were all less than one and the average Hazard Index (ave HI) was 0. 462, so that inhabitants who expose average OP levels may not experience adverse health effects.

  6. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  7. Genomic analysis of the appearance of ovarian mast cells in neonatal MRL/MpJ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppei Nakamura

    Full Text Available In MRL/MpJ mice, ovarian mast cells (OMCs are more abundant than in other mouse strains, and tend to distribute beneath the ovarian surface epithelium at birth. This study investigated the factors regulating the appearance of neonatal OMCs in progeny of the cross between MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6N strains. F1 neonates had less than half the number of OMCs than MRL/MpJ. Interestingly, MRLB6F1 had more neonatal OMCs than B6MRLF1, although they were distributed over comparable areas. Furthermore, in MRL/MpJ fetuses for which parturition was delayed until embryonic day 21.5, the number of OMCs was significantly higher than in age-matched controls at postnatal day 2. These results suggest that the number of OMCs was influenced by the environmental factors during pregnancy. Quantitative trait locus analysis using N2 backcross progeny revealed two significant loci on chromosome 8: D8Mit343-D8Mit312 for the number of OMCs and D8Mit86-D8Mit89 for their distribution, designated as mast cell in the ovary of MRL/MpJ 1 (mcom1 and mcom2, respectively. Among MC migration-associated genes, ovarian expression of chemokine (C-C motif ligand 17 at mcom1 locus was significantly higher in MRL/MpJ than in C57BL/6N, and positively correlated with the expression of OMC marker genes. These results indicate that the appearance of neonatal OMCs in MRL/MpJ is controlled by environmental factors and filial genetic factors, and that the abundance and distribution of OMCs are regulated by independent filial genetic elements.

  8. Genomic Analysis of the Appearance of Ovarian Mast Cells in Neonatal MRL/MpJ Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Teppei; Sakata, Yuko; Otsuka-Kanazawa, Saori; Ichii, Osamu; Chihara, Masataka; Nagasaki, Ken-ichi; Namiki, Yuka; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In MRL/MpJ mice, ovarian mast cells (OMCs) are more abundant than in other mouse strains, and tend to distribute beneath the ovarian surface epithelium at birth. This study investigated the factors regulating the appearance of neonatal OMCs in progeny of the cross between MRL/MpJ and C57BL/6N strains. F1 neonates had less than half the number of OMCs than MRL/MpJ. Interestingly, MRLB6F1 had more neonatal OMCs than B6MRLF1, although they were distributed over comparable areas. Furthermore, in MRL/MpJ fetuses for which parturition was delayed until embryonic day 21.5, the number of OMCs was significantly higher than in age-matched controls at postnatal day 2. These results suggest that the number of OMCs was influenced by the environmental factors during pregnancy. Quantitative trait locus analysis using N2 backcross progeny revealed two significant loci on chromosome 8: D8Mit343–D8Mit312 for the number of OMCs and D8Mit86–D8Mit89 for their distribution, designated as mast cell in the ovary of MRL/MpJ 1 (mcom1) and mcom2, respectively. Among MC migration-associated genes, ovarian expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 at mcom1 locus was significantly higher in MRL/MpJ than in C57BL/6N, and positively correlated with the expression of OMC marker genes. These results indicate that the appearance of neonatal OMCs in MRL/MpJ is controlled by environmental factors and filial genetic factors, and that the abundance and distribution of OMCs are regulated by independent filial genetic elements. PMID:24956472

  9. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzic, Nihad; Begagic, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlovic, Muhamed

    2014-08-27

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow's milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level - MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  10. Effect of household and industrial processing on levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnechère, Aurore; Hanot, Vincent; Bragard, Claude; Bedoret, Thomas; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated by two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peels, the most concentrated formulations were applied pursuant to Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for ...

  11. Differential immune responses to albumin adducts of reactive intermediates of trichloroethene in MRL+/+ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ping; Koenig, Rolf; Khan, M. Firoze; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Ansari, G.A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) is an industrial degreasing solvent and widespread environmental contaminant. Exposure to TCE is associated with autoimmunity. The mode of action of TCE is via its oxidative metabolism, and most likely, immunotoxicity is mediated via haptenization of macromolecules and subsequent induction of immune responses. To better understand the role of protein haptenization through TCE metabolism, we immunized MRL+/+ mice with albumin adducts of various TCE reactive intermediates. Serum immunoglobulins and cytokine levels were measured to determine immune responses against haptenized albumin. We found antigen-specific IgG responses of the IgG subtypes IgG 1 , IgG 2a , and IgG 2b , with IgG 1 predominating. Serum levels of G-CSF were increased in immunized mice, suggesting macrophage activation. Liver histology revealed lymphocyte infiltration in the lobules and the portal area following immunization with formyl-albumin. Our findings suggest that proteins haptenized by metabolites of TCE may act as neo-antigens that can induce humoral immune responses and T cell-mediated hepatitis

  12. Validation of QuEChERS method for the determination of some pesticide residues in two apple varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiryaki, Osman

    2016-10-02

    This study was undertaken to validate the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" (QuEChERS) method using Golden Delicious and Starking Delicious apple matrices spiked at 0.1 maximum residue limit (MRL), 1.0 MRL and 10 MRL levels of the four pesticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, indoxacarb and imidacloprid). For the extraction and cleanup, original QuEChERS method was followed, then the samples were subjected to liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for chromatographic analyses. According to t test, matrix effect was not significant for chlorpyrifos in both sample matrices, but it was significant for dimethoate, indoxacarb and imidacloprid in both sample matrices. Thus, matrix-matched calibration (MC) was used to compensate matrix effect and quantifications were carried out by using MC. The overall recovery of the method was 90.15% with a relative standard deviation of 13.27% (n = 330). Estimated method detection limit of analytes blew the MRLs. Some other parameters of the method validation, such as recovery, precision, accuracy and linearity were found to be within the required ranges.

  13. Susceptible cytotoxicity to ultraviolet B light in fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from autoimmune-prone MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, F.; Lyon, M.B.; Norris, D.A. (Univ. of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/l) mouse is an autoimmune model of spontaneous lupus erythematosus (LE), in addition to lupus nephritis. In order to better understand the mechanisms of photosensitivity in LE, in vitro photocytotoxicity was examined by using fibroblasts and keratinocytes cultured from MRL/l mice, control MRL/Mp- +/+ (MRL/n) mice, and normal BALB/c mice. A colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay were used for determination of cytotoxicity. Fibroblasts cultured from newborn MRL/l mice showed higher susceptibility to single ultraviolet light B (UVB) light irradiation at a dose of 100-500 mJ than those from MRL/n, F1 hybrid of (MRL/l x MRL/n mice), and BALB/c mice. However, the susceptibility to UVB was not observed in young (1-month-old) and adult (4-month-old) MRL/l mice. UVA light irradiation was not cytotoxic. Keratinocytes cultured from MRL mice showed lower cytotoxicity to UVB irradiation than fibroblasts cultured. However, keratinocytes from newborn MRL/l mice showed higher cytotoxicity to 50 mJ UVB irradiation than cells from MRL/n mice. Syngeneic or allogeneic sera augmented UVB-induced cytotoxicity of fibroblasts cultured. UVB irradiation of spleen cells induced no significant difference of cytotoxicity between MRL/l and MRL/n mice. Based on the results of F1 hybrid of (MRL/l x MRL/n) mice, the susceptibility seemed to be associated with autoimmune traits and to be regulated by genetical background.

  14. Morphogenic and structural traits of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu under different nitrogen levels and residues heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Clarete Junqueira de Sales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of leaf appearance, leaf elongation rate, number of green leaves, length of blade and stem of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu under different nitrogen levels and two residue heights. A randomized block design was used in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, four doses of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 kg N ha-1 year-1 and two residue heights (5 and 15 cm. There was significant interaction between residue height and nitrogen levels for leaf appearance rate (P> 0.05 of signal grass, which was influenced negatively and linearly (P 0.05 between the levels of nitrogen x residue height on the number of green leaves. The dosage that provided the highest stalk in the residue height of 5 cm was of 271.5 kg N ha -1. An increase of 0.0745 cm tiller -1 day-1 for 1 kg of N ha -1 applied to height of 15 cm of residue was observed. Nitrogen fertilization contributes positively to growth and development of rates of appearance and leaf extension. The management of pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 5 cm of residue and fertilization with 100 kg N ha -1 provided better answer morphogenic traits.

  15. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liuwei; Ge, Jing; Liu, Fengmao; Jiang, Naiwen

    2014-05-01

    The residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans during storage and processing were investigated. Soybeans were treated with chlorpyrifos aqueous solution and placed in a sealed plastic container. The residue of chlorpyrifos was determined in soybeans at six time points within 0 and 112days during storage and oil processing of the soybeans was conducted. The analysis of the residues of chlorpyrifos was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results show that the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in soybeans is about 62% during the storage period. Moreover, the carryover of the residues from soybeans into oil is found to be related to the processing methods. Processing factor, which is defined as the ratio of chlorpyrifos residue concentration in oil sample to that in the soybean samples, was 11 and 0.25 after cold and hot pressing, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. LC-MS/MS determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachniuk, Anna; Szmagara, Agnieszka; Czeczko, Renata; Fornal, Emilia

    2017-07-03

    The aim of the research is to evaluate pesticide residue contamination of fresh and frozen fruits and vegetables, agricultural raw material, purchased from Polish farmers for production of frozen fruits and vegetables, and the estimation of the multiresidue method effectiveness expressed as the proportion of pesticides detected in food samples to the total number of pesticides analyzed by multiresidue methods. A total of 144 samples (of black currants, red currants, raspberries, cherries, strawberries, blackberries, cauliflowers and broccoli) were analyzed using LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 60 pesticides. QuEChERS extraction, matrix-matched calibration and dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method were used. Residues of 15 compounds, mainly fungicides and insecticides, were detected in 46 samples. The percentage of samples with residues above the maximum residue levels (MRL) was 15%, whereas samples with residues below MRL were 17%. A total of 13 samples contained more than one pesticide residue. Pesticide residues were detected most often in samples of black currants (50%), broccoli (36.4%), raspberries (29%) and red currants (21.8%). The most frequently detected pesticides were carbendazim and acetamiprid. The proportion of pesticides detected during our study to the total number of analyzed pesticides amounted to 25%. It was compared to literature findings. For three fourth of multiresidue methods, the proportion was below 50% for methods developed for the analysis of less than 100 pesticides, and below 30% for methods developed for the analysis of more than 100 pesticides. It appears that a lot of efforts and means is lost on pesticides never or rarely detected in examined samples. The workload and cost effectiveness of the development and application of multiresidue methods along with the range of pesticides covered by the method should be carefully and thoroughly considered anytime when a new method or workflow is developed. Including non

  17. Moxidectin residues in tissues of lambs submitted to three endoparasite control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Angela Machado; Gilaverte, Susana; Bianchi, Michele Dell; da Silva, Claudio José Araujo; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Monteiro, Alda Lucia Gomes

    2017-10-01

    The indiscriminate and continuous use of anthelmintic drugs has promoted the selection of resistant parasites population, the presence of drug residues in food products, and heavy environmental contamination. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of antiparasitic drug residues in 42-days old lamb serum and tissues, submitted to three endoparasite control programs: preventive treatment (PT) using moxidectin (MOX) at every 28days; selective treatment (FEC) using MOX when fecal egg count was greater than or equal to 700; and selective treatment (FMC), using MOX when FAMACHA/FMC score was 3 and above. For this purpose, MOX residues were quantified in serum, muscle, fat, liver and kidney. Lambs were slaughtered when reaching 30kg of body weight, and after a 28-day MOX withdrawal period. Before slaughter, blood was collected to determine the concentration of MOX in serum. Tissues and organ samples were collected at slaughter. The quantitation of MOX residues was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). From the 756 tissue samples analyzed, only one sample of fat from the PT group showed residue levels (586.3μg/kg) above the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 500μg/kg. No treated lambs presented traces of MOX residues in fat and liver, suggesting possible environmental contamination. In conclusion, all weaned lambs, produced in continuous grazing and subjected to gastrointestinal parasite control programs via selective (FEC and FMC) or preventive (PT) treatment, displayed a low risk (residues above the MRL in muscle, fat, kidney, and liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organophosphate Pesticide Residues in Okra and Brinjal Grown in Peri-Urban Environment of Big Cities of Punjab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M.A.; Zaman, M.; Anjum, F.M.; Asghar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Peri urban farming system is main supplier of vegetables to urban population and organophosphate pesticides exposure due to consumption of okra and brinjal to urban population has been estimated in this study. Okra and brinjal samples (90 samples for each vegetable) were collected from peri-urban farming area of Faisalabad, Multan and Gujranwala and were analysed by GC-ECD for quantification of chlorpyrifos, profenophos and triazophos residues. Data were statistically analyzed to calculate, mean and standard deviation. Quantification of pesticides residues revealed that 85 (47.22 percentage) samples were contaminated and 15 (8.33 percentage of total samples and 17.64 percentage of contaminated) samples showed residues value higher than MRL'S. Out of 85 contaminated samples 27 (31.76 percentage) samples were contaminated with chlorpyrifos, 30 (35.29 percentage) samples with profenofos and 29 (34.11) were contaminated with triazophos. The mean concentration of chlorpyrifos in okra was 0.192 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.197 mg Kg-1. The mean concentration for profenofos in okra was 0.02 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.035 mg Kg-1. Similarly mean concentration for triazophos in okra was 0.009 mg Kg-1 and brinjal 0.01 mg Kg-1. Overall, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 6.66 percentage samples of brinjal contaminated with chlorpyrifos exceeded EU MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Okra samples were found contaminated at frequency of 4.44 percentage and brinjal samples at frequency of 5.56 percentage with higher profenofos residues level than MRL of 0.05 mg kg-1. Approximately, 6.67 percentage samples of okra and 5.6 percentage samples of brinjal had profenofos residue level above MRL of 0.01 mg kg-1. This study may be helpful for building database regarding regional exposure of urban population and facilitate in estimation of possible risk to their health in our daily life. (author)

  19. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  20. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  1. Nonparametric Bayesian inference for mean residual life functions in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Valerie; Kottas, Athanasios

    2018-01-19

    Modeling and inference for survival analysis problems typically revolves around different functions related to the survival distribution. Here, we focus on the mean residual life (MRL) function, which provides the expected remaining lifetime given that a subject has survived (i.e. is event-free) up to a particular time. This function is of direct interest in reliability, medical, and actuarial fields. In addition to its practical interpretation, the MRL function characterizes the survival distribution. We develop general Bayesian nonparametric inference for MRL functions built from a Dirichlet process mixture model for the associated survival distribution. The resulting model for the MRL function admits a representation as a mixture of the kernel MRL functions with time-dependent mixture weights. This model structure allows for a wide range of shapes for the MRL function. Particular emphasis is placed on the selection of the mixture kernel, taken to be a gamma distribution, to obtain desirable properties for the MRL function arising from the mixture model. The inference method is illustrated with a data set of two experimental groups and a data set involving right censoring. The supplementary material available at Biostatistics online provides further results on empirical performance of the model, using simulated data examples. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Chronic exposure to trichloroethene causes early onset of SLE-like disease in female MRL +/+ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ping; Koenig, Rolf; Boor, Paul J.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Ansari, G.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) exacerbates the development of autoimmune responses in autoimmune-prone MRL +/+ mice. Although TCE-mediated autoimmune responses are associated with an increase in serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, the underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is not known. To determine the progression of TCE-mediated immunotoxicity, female MRL +/+ mice were chronically exposed to TCE through the drinking water (0.5 mg/ml of TCE) for various periods of time. Serum concentrations of antinuclear antibodies increased after 36 and 48 weeks of TCE exposure. Histopathological analyses showed lymphocyte infiltration in the livers of MRL +/+ mice exposed to TCE for 36 or 48 weeks. Lymphocyte infiltration was also apparent in the pancreas, lungs, and kidneys of mice exposed to TCE for 48 weeks. Immunoglobulin deposits in kidney glomeruli were found after 48 weeks of exposure to TCE. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to TCE promotes inflammation in the liver, pancreas, lungs, and kidneys, which may lead to SLE-like disease in MRL +/+ mice

  3. Accelerating effect of an MRL gene locus on the severity and onset of arthropathy in DBA/1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Mizuki, Shinichi; Kamogawa, Junji; Lu, Ling-Min; Tsubaki, Takahito; Arita, Norimasa; Ono, Masao; Yamamoto, Haruyasu; Nose, Masato

    2005-03-01

    To analyze the influence of the genetic background of an arthritis-prone strain of mice, MRL, on the spontaneous development of arthropathy in DBA/1 mice, which histopathologically resembles enthesopathy in humans, and to clarify the strain-specific gene loci and their interactions that confer susceptibility to arthropathy. MRL, DBA/1, (MRL x DBA/1)F(1), and (MRL x DBA/1)F(2) intercross mice were prepared, and the severity and onset of arthropathy of the ankle joints in individual mice were quantified (0-3 and 0-5 scale, respectively). A genome-wide scan of 271 male F(2) intercross mice with polymorphic microsatellite markers was performed. Only male DBA/1, (MRL x DBA/1)F(1), and (MRL x DBA/1)F(2) mice developed arthropathy. The macroscopic and histopathologic findings of arthropathy in the F(2) mice were similar to those in the parental DBA/1 mice, but the onset was significantly earlier. In the quantitative trait locus analysis of male F(2) mice, 1 susceptibility locus for both the severity and early onset of the disease in the region of an MRL allele, Amd1, was located at marker D10Mit259 (map position 40.0 cM), which was common to 1 of the sialadenitis susceptibility loci in MRL mice, Asm1. Another susceptibility locus for the severity and early onset of arthropathy in the region of a DBA allele, Amd2, was located at D3Mit46 (29.5 cM). These loci manifested an additive effect on the development of arthropathy. Arthropathy in DBA/1 mice is under the control of an allelic combination of gene loci, one of which is common to the locus for sialadenitis in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice.

  4. Methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels at decommissioned nuclear facilities/sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.C.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hoenes, G.R.; Waite, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The ultimate disposition of decommissioned nuclear facilities and their surrrounding sites depends upon the degree and type of residual contamination. Examination of existing guidelines and regulations has led to the conclusion that there is a need for a general method to derive residual radioactive contamination levels that are acceptable for public use of any decommissioned nuclear facility or site. This paper describes a methodology for determining acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels based on the concept of limiting the annual dose to members of the public. It is not the purpose of this paper to recommend or even propose dose limits for the exposure of the public to residual radioactive contamination left at decommissioned nuclear facilities or sites. Unrestricted release of facilities and/or land is based on the premise that the potential annual dose to any member of the public using this property from all possible exposure pathways will not exceed appropriate limits as may be defined by Federal regulatory agencies. For decommissioned land areas, consideration should be given to people living directly on previously contaminated areas, growing crops, grazing food animals and using well water. Mixtures of radionuclides in the residual contamination representative of fuel reprocessing plants, light water reactors and their respective sites are presented. These mixtures are then used to demonstrate the methodology. Example acceptable residual radioactive contamination levels, based on an assumed maximum annual dose of one millirem, are calculated for several selected times following shutdown of a facility. It is concluded that the methodology presented in this paper results in defensible acceptable residual contamination levels that are directly relatable to risk assessment with the proviso that an acceptable limit to the maximum annual dose will be established. (author)

  5. Morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Duvalois, Willem; Webb, Rutger; Koeberg, Mattijs

    2009-04-15

    Post explosion residues (PER) are residues from pyrotechnic compositions or explosives that are generated during an explosion. In the recent past SEM/EDX was used several times to analyze PER from pyrotechnic compositions. The results from these studies suggest that there might be a difference in morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement. Also because of general thermodynamic principles it is believed that at higher levels of confinement the final pressure and temperature during the explosion is probably (but not necessarily) higher, eventually resulting in smaller and more spherical particles and a more homogeneous elemental composition. If there is a relation between morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues and the level of confinement at which these are formed, it would be possible to draw conclusions about the conditions at which pyrotechnic residues were formed and the kind and construction of the device used. This may aid forensic scientists not only in the determination of the original explosive composition, but also of the explosive device. To perform controlled experiments with pyrotechnic charges at, at least, two pre-set levels of confinement a test vessel was built by TNO Defence, Security and Safety. For this study, three different flash powder compositions and black powder were selected. The generated residues were sampled on collecting plates and Nucleopore filters connected to a pump system in the immediate vicinity of the venting area for further analyses by SEM/EDX and XRD. From the results it follows that in the pressure range studied, the level of confinement seems to have a minor effect on the features of the generated residue particles. Because passive sampling by means of collector plates seemed doubtful and because the number of experiments had to be limited it is impossible to draw definitive conclusions. In addition to the level of confinement several other variables may affect

  6. Residue levels and dissipation behaviors for trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango fruit and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-03-01

    An evaluation of residue levels of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole was carried out on mango fruits after treatments with the combined formulation, trifloxystrobin (25 % w/w) and tebuconazole (50 % w/w), at standard and double doses of 250 + 500 and 500 + 1000 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. Extraction and purification of the mango fruit samples were carried out by the QuEChERS method after validating the analytical parameters. Determination of the fungicides was carried out by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) for both fungicides were 0.015 μg mL(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residue levels of trifloxystrobin for standard and double-dose treatments were 0.492 and 0.901 mg kg(-1) and for tebuconazole were 0.535 and 1.124 mg kg(-1), respectively. A faster dissipation of tebuconazole in mango fruit was observed compared with that for tebuconazole. Dissipation of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole in mango followed first-order kinetics, and the half-lives were 9 and 6 days, respectively. The preharvest intervals (PHI), the time taken for the combined residues of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole to dissipate to their permissible levels (maximum residue limits), were 14 and 20 days for standard and double doses, respectively. At harvest, mature mango fruit and soil were free from fungicide residues.

  7. TRICHLOROETHYLENE ACCELERATES AN AUTOIMMUNE RESPONSE IN ASSOCIATION WITH TH1 T-CELL ACTIVATION IN MRL+/+ MICE. (R826409)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractTrichloroethylene (1,1,2-trichloroethene) is a major environmental contaminant. There is increasing evidence relating exposure to trichloroethylene with autoimmunity. To investigate potential mechanisms, we treated the autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice with trichlo...

  8. Levels and distribution of pesticide residues in soil and sediments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the types, levels and distribution of pesticide residues in Eastern Lake Tanganyika basin in Tanzania. Water, soil and sediments samples were collected from various sites in Kigoma region. Analyses of cleaned sample extracts were performed using gas chromatographyelectron ...

  9. Validation of HPLC method of analysis of tetracycline residues in eggs and broiler meat and its application to a feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ruyck, H; De Ridder, H; Van Renterghem, R; Van Wambeke, F

    1999-02-01

    HPLC with ion-pairing chromatography and diodearray detection at 355 nm was used to determine tetracycline antibiotics in eggs and broiler meat. The analytical methods were optimized and validated. The mean recovery values for oxytetracycline for eggs and for tetracycline for breast meat were 76%. The within-day precision ranged from 8.0 to 11.8% for oxytetracycline in eggs and from 6.1 to 15.5% for tetracycline in breast meat. The between-day precision was 4.8% and 5.0% respectively for oxytetracycline in eggs and tetracycline in breast meat. The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation for oxytetracycline in eggs were 2.2 and 13.0 ng/g respectively. These limits for tetracycline in breast meat were 10.5 and 20.9 ng/g respectively. Residue values of tetracycline antibiotics in eggs and broiler meat were determined after oral administration of medicated feed. Medicated feed with 840 mg/kg oxytetracycline was provided to laying hens for seven successive days. Two days after the administration was stopped, the mean oxytetracycline residue value in the eggs was already lower than the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL)-level and reached 118 ng/g. Broilers were supplied with medicated feed containing 480 mg/kg tetracycline for seven successive days. Four days after the administration was stopped, the mean tetracycline residue value in breast meat decreased below the MRL and was 86 ng/g.

  10. Effects of prolonged treatment with memantine in the MRL model of CNS lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinko, Katarina; Parsons, Tiffany; Lerch, Jason P; Sled, John G; Sakic, Boris

    2012-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations and brain atrophy of unknown etiology are common and severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). An autoantibody that binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR2 has been proposed as a key factor in the etiology of central nervous system (CNS) SLE. This hypothesis was supported by evidence suggesting memantine (MEM), an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, prevents behavioral dysfunction and brain pathology in healthy mice immunized with a peptide similar to an epitope on the NR2 receptor. Given that SLE is a chronic condition, we presently examine the effects of MEM in MRL/lpr mice, which develop behavioral deficits alongside SLE-like disease. A broad behavioral battery and 7-Tesla MRI were used to examine whether prolonged treatment with MEM (~25 mg/kg b.w. in drinking water) prevents CNS involvement in this spontaneous model of SLE. Although MEM increased novel object exploration in MRL/lpr mice, it did not show other beneficial, substrain-specific effects. Conversely, MEM was detrimental to spontaneous activity in control MRL +/+ mice and had a negative effect on body mass gain. Similarly, MRI revealed comparable increases in the volume of periventricular structures in MEM-treated groups. Sustained exposure to MEM affects body growth, brain morphology, and behavior primarily by pharmacological, and not autoimmunity-dependant mechanisms. Substrain-specific improvement in exploratory behavior of MEM-treated MRL/lpr mice may indicate that the NMDA system is merely a constituent of a complex pathogenenic cascade. However, it was evident that chronic administration of MEM is unable to completely prevent the development of a CNS SLE-like syndrome.

  11. Preservation properties for the discrete mean residual life ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Al-Babtain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove several preservation properties of stochastic comparisons based on the discrete mean residual life ordering d-MRL under the reliability operations of convolutions, mixtures. Fi…nally we introduce a discrete renewal process application

  12. Effect of the Leveling Conditions on Residual Stress Evolution of Hot Rolled High Strength Steels for Cold Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keecheol; Oh, Kyungsuk

    2017-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of leveling conditions on residual stress evolution during the leveling process of hot rolled high strength steels, the in-plane residual stresses of sheet processed under controlled conditions at skin-pass mill and levelers were measured by cutting method. The residual stress was localized near the edge of sheet. As the thickness of sheet was increased, the residual stress occurred region was expanded. The magnitude of residual stress within the sheet was reduced as increasing the deformation occurred during the leveling process. But the residual stress itself was not removed completely. The magnitude of camber occurred at cut plate was able to be predicted by the residual stress distribution. A numerical algorithm was developed for analysing the effect of leveling conditions on residual stress. It was able to implement the effect of plastic deformation in leveling, tension, work roll bending, and initial state of sheet (residual stress and curl distribution). The validity of simulated results was verified from comparison with the experimentally measured residual stress and curl in a sheet.

  13. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pheme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  14. Microbial screening for quinolones residues in cow milk by bio-optical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appicciafuoco, Brunella; Dragone, Roberto; Frazzoli, Chiara; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Alberto; Ferrini, Anna Maria

    2015-03-15

    The use of antibiotics on lactating cows should be monitored for the possible risk of milk contamination with residues. Accordingly, Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are established by the European Commission to guarantee consumers safety. As pointed out by Dec 2002/657/EC, screening is the first step in the strategy for antibiotic residue control, thus playing a key role in the whole control procedure. However, current routine screening methods applied in milk chain still fail to detect residues of quinolones at concentrations of interest. This paper reports the findings of a new bio-optical method for the screening of quinolones residues in bovine milk, based on E. coli ATCC 11303 growth inhibition. The effect of blank and spiked cow milk samples (aliquots equivalents to 0.8%, v/v) is evaluated in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHb) and MHb enriched with MgSO4 2% (MHb-Mg) inoculated with the test strain at the concentration of 10(4)CFU/mL. The presence of quinolones inhibits the cellular growth in MHb, while this effect is neutralized in MHb-Mg allowing both detection and presumptive identification of quinolones. Growth of the test strain is monitored at 37 °C in a Bioscreen C automated system, and Optical Density (OD) at 600 nm is recorded every 10 min after shaking for 10s. Growth curves (OD vs. time) of E. coli ATCC 11303 are assessed in milk samples, with and without quinolones, and their differences in terms of ΔOD (ΔOD600nm=ODMHb-Mg-ODMHb) are calculated. The presence of quinolones is detected by the cellular growth inhibition (OD vs time, none increase in the value OD) and presumptively identified through the increase of the slope of ΔOD600nm curve (ΔOD vs. time), after about 3h of incubation. The detection limit for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin is at the level of MRL, for marbofloxacin is at 2-fold the MRL whereas for danofloxacin is at 4-fold the MRL. Although the sensitivity of the method could be further improved and the procedure automated, it is a

  15. Evaluation of the Presence and Levels of Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Sulfaquinoxaline and Oxytetracycline in Broiler Chickens after Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia dos Santos Rossi; Lana, Ângela Maria Quintão; Lara, Leonardo José Camargos

    2016-01-01

    The depletion times of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin as well as sulfaquinoxaline and oxytetracycline were evaluated in broiler chickens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment. The presence and residue levels of these drugs in muscle tissue were evaluated using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method that was validated in this work. The results showed the presence of all antimicrobial residues; however, the presence of residues at concentrations higher than the drugs’ maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 μg kg-1 was found only during the treatment period for oxytetracycline and until two days after discontinuation of the medication for enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sulfaquinoxaline. It was concluded that the residues of all antimicrobials were rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles; after four days of withdrawal, the levels were lower than the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method for the studied analytes. PMID:27846314

  16. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kevin Y; Kim, Philip M; McDermott, Drew; Gerstein, Mark

    2009-08-05

    Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1) Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2) Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3) Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up opportunities for further research. The software

  17. Multi-level learning: improving the prediction of protein, domain and residue interactions by allowing information flow between levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Drew

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins interact through specific binding interfaces that contain many residues in domains. Protein interactions thus occur on three different levels of a concept hierarchy: whole-proteins, domains, and residues. Each level offers a distinct and complementary set of features for computationally predicting interactions, including functional genomic features of whole proteins, evolutionary features of domain families and physical-chemical features of individual residues. The predictions at each level could benefit from using the features at all three levels. However, it is not trivial as the features are provided at different granularity. Results To link up the predictions at the three levels, we propose a multi-level machine-learning framework that allows for explicit information flow between the levels. We demonstrate, using representative yeast interaction networks, that our algorithm is able to utilize complementary feature sets to make more accurate predictions at the three levels than when the three problems are approached independently. To facilitate application of our multi-level learning framework, we discuss three key aspects of multi-level learning and the corresponding design choices that we have made in the implementation of a concrete learning algorithm. 1 Architecture of information flow: we show the greater flexibility of bidirectional flow over independent levels and unidirectional flow; 2 Coupling mechanism of the different levels: We show how this can be accomplished via augmenting the training sets at each level, and discuss the prevention of error propagation between different levels by means of soft coupling; 3 Sparseness of data: We show that the multi-level framework compounds data sparsity issues, and discuss how this can be dealt with by building local models in information-rich parts of the data. Our proof-of-concept learning algorithm demonstrates the advantage of combining levels, and opens up

  18. A residue level protein-protein interaction model in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueyu

    2014-03-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficients B2 are directly related to the solubility of protein molecules in electrolyte solutions and can be useful to narrow down the search parameter space of protein crystallization conditions. Using a residue level model of protein-protein interaction in electrolyte solutions B2 of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and lysozyme in various solution conditions such as salt concentration, pH and temperature are calculated using an extended Fast Multipole Methods in combination with the boundary element formulation. Overall, the calculated B2 are well correlated with the experimental observations for various solution conditions. In combination with our previous work on the binding affinity calculations of protein complexes it is demonstrated that our residue level model can be used as a reliable model to describe protein-protein interaction in solutions.

  19. Correlation between residual level of DNA double-strand breaks and the radiosensitivity of cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jianxiang; Sun Weijian; Sui Jianli; Zhou Pingkun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To understand the variation of the DNA double-strand break rejoining capacity among different cultured cancer cell lines and the primary cancer cells from brain cancer patients, and to explore the predictor of radiotherapy responses of cancers. Methods: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were induced by 60 Co γ-irradiation. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the initial production and rejoining of DNA DSBs. Radiosensitivity was determined by in vitro assay of clonogenic-forming capacity. Results: A wide variation of radiosensitivity, e.g. the survival parameter of Do varied from 0.65 to 2.15 Gy, was displayed among the eight cell lines derived from different type of cancers. Although differential level of initial DNA DSBs induced by 20 Gy γ-rays was observed among various cell lines, it was not correlated with the radiosensitivity. The deficiency of DNA DSB rejoining in radiosensitive cell lines was shown either in the early rapid-rejoining phase (SX-10 cells) or in the late slow-rejoining phase (A2780 cells). A significant relationship was observed between the residual level of DNA DSBs measured at 2 h post-20 Gy irradiation and the cellular radiosensitivity (D 0 or SF 2 ). The kinetic curves of rejoining DNA DSBs in the primary human brain tumor cells indicated a variation on DSB rejoining capacity among different individual tumor. The residual level of DNA DSBs after 2 h of rejoining post 20 Gy irradiation in primary human brain tumor cells is compatible to the results obtained in vitro culture cancer cell lines. Conclusions: The residual level of DNA DSBs is correlated with radioresistance of cancer cells, and the residual DNA damage is a useful parameter in predicting the response of tumor tissue to radiotherapy. (authors)

  20. Screening of antibiotics and chemical analysis of penicillin residue in fresh milk and traditional dairy products in Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Olufemi Olatoye

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production. This study was aimed at determining antibiotic residue contamination and the level of penicillin in dairy products from Fulani cattle herds in Oyo State. Materials and Methods: The presence of antibiotic residues in 328 samples of fresh milk, 180 local cheese (wara, and 90 fermented milk (nono from Southwest, Nigeria were determined using Premi® test kit (R-Biopharm AG, Germany followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of penicillin-G residue. Results: Antibiotic residues were obtained in 40.8%, 24.4% and 62.3% fresh milk, wara and nono, respectively. Penicillin-G residue was also detected in 41.1% fresh milk, 40.2% nono and 24.4% wara at mean concentrations of 15.22±0.61, 8.24±0.50 and 7.6±0.60 μg/L with 39.3%, 36.7% and 21.1%, respectively, containing penicillin residue above recommended Codex maximum residue limit (MRL of 5 μg/L in dairy. There was no significant difference between the mean penicillin residues in all the dairy products in this study. Conclusion: The results are of food safety concern since the bulk of the samples and substantial quantities of dairy products in Oyo state contained violative levels of antibiotic residues including penicillin residues in concentrations above the MRL. This could be due to indiscriminate and unregulated administration of antibiotics to dairy cattle. Regulatory control of antibiotic use, rapid screening of milk and dairy farmers

  1. Cyanide residue levels in extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnat, M; Nelson, D L

    1979-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) residue levels were determined in samples of extracted honey, comb honey and was cappings at 1 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr intervals after destroying the bees in honey bee colonies with normal (ca. 8.5 g) and twice normal (ca. 17 g) doses of CyanogasR A-dust. Applications of CyanogasR A-dust, administered by means of a dust pump at normal and twice normal doses, gave an average residue of 0.01 and 0.04 microgram CN/g of extracted honey, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g of comb honey and 0.04 and 0.06 microgram CN/g of wax cappings, respectively. When the CyanogasR A-dust (ca. 17 g) was placed on a tray and placed on the bottom board of the hive, the average residue levels for extracted honey, comb honey and wax cappings were less than 0.004, 0.01 and 0.02 microgram CN/g, respectively. Random honey samples from beekeepers, who used CyanogasR to destroy bees, had a median level of 0.031 microgram CN/g, whereas honey from a packing plant and other commercial samples contained less than 0.004--0.026, median less than 0.004 microgram CN/g. Based on residue data from this study, the temporary registration for CyanogasR, to kill honey bees after crop removal, was revised to a full registration in May 1977.

  2. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  3. Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.

  4. Residual energy level based clustering routing protocol for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xu; Zhong, Fangming; Chen, Zhikui; Yang, Deli

    2015-12-01

    The wireless sensor networks, which nodes prone to premature death, with unbalanced energy consumption and a short life time, influenced the promotion and application of this technology in internet of things in agriculture. This paper proposes a clustering routing protocol based on the residual energy level (RELCP). RELCP includes three stages: the selection of cluster head, establishment of cluster and data transmission. RELCP considers the remaining energy level and distance to base station, while election of cluster head nodes and data transmitting. Simulation results demonstrate that the protocol can efficiently balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  5. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Sawada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus. Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation.

  6. Residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreases unsaturated fatty acid level in sake yeast during alcoholic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Kazutaka

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen, a key nutrient in alcoholic fermentation, is rapidly depleted during this process. Several pathways of oxygen utilization have been reported in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during alcoholic fermentation, namely synthesis of unsaturated fatty acid, sterols and heme, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, the interaction between these pathways has not been investigated. In this study, we showed that the major proportion of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids in sake fermentation mash is derived from the sake yeast rather than from rice or koji (rice fermented with Aspergillus). Additionally, during alcoholic fermentation, inhibition of the residual mitochondrial activity of sake yeast increases the levels of unsaturated fatty acids of ester-linked lipids. These findings indicate that the residual activity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reduces molecular oxygen levels and decreases the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, thereby increasing the synthesis of estery flavors by sake yeast. This is the first report of a novel link between residual mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids by the brewery yeast during alcoholic fermentation. PMID:26839744

  7. ELISA validation and determination of cut-off level for chloramphenicol residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki Bogumił

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units was established. Detection capability (CCβ was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.

  8. A comparative study of allowable pesticide residue levels on produce in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neff Roni A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The U.S. imports a substantial and increasing portion of its fruits and vegetables. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration currently inspects less than one percent of import shipments. While countries exporting to the U.S. are expected to comply with U.S. tolerances, including allowable pesticide residue levels, there is a low rate of import inspections and few other incentives for compliance. Methods This analysis estimates the quantity of excess pesticide residue that could enter the U.S. if exporters followed originating country requirements but not U.S. pesticide tolerances, for the top 20 imported produce items based on quantities imported and U.S. consumption levels. Pesticide health effects data are also shown. Results The model estimates that for the identified items, 120 439 kg of pesticides in excess of U.S. tolerances could potentially be imported to the U.S., in cases where U.S. regulations are more protective than those of originating countries. This figure is in addition to residues allowed on domestic produce. In the modeling, the top produce item, market, and pesticide of concern were oranges, Chile, and Zeta-Cypermethrin. Pesticides in this review are associated with health effects on 13 body systems, and some are associated with carcinogenic effects. Conclusions There is a critical information gap regarding pesticide residues on produce imported to the U.S. Without a more thorough sampling program, it is not possible accurately to characterize risks introduced by produce importation. The scenario presented herein relies on assumptions, and should be considered illustrative. The analysis highlights the need for additional investigation and resources for monitoring, enforcement, and other interventions, to improve import food safety and reduce pesticide exposures in originating countries.

  9. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

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    Nihad Fejzic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx, Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb. In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR. Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  10. A method to determine residue levels of persistent organochlorine pesticides in human milk from Indonesian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Emma R; Holden, Alexis J; Shaw, Ian C

    2003-01-01

    A method has been developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in human milk using solvent extraction, Florisil solid phase extraction clean-up and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The recovery of analytes from spiked milk samples was in the range 53 +/- 1% to 109 +/- 7% (n = 9). A small number of samples were obtained from women in a rural and an urban area of Indonesia and analysed using the developed method. The results are reported on a milk fat basis. All samples contained detectable residues of p,p'-DDT (urban mean 0.11 +/- 0.18 mgkg(-1) (n = 5), rural mean 0.07 +/- 0.03 mg kg(-1) (n = 5)) and p,p'-DDE (urban mean 0.05 +/- 0.04 m kg(-1) (n = 5), rural mean 0.76 +/- 1.46 mg kg(-1) (n = 5)). Residues of HCB, betaHCH, alpha-endosulfan and dieldrin were also detected in some samples. There was no significant difference (at the 95% confidence level) in levels of pesticides between urban and rural areas. The levels of organochlorine pesticides in milk from Indonesian women were lower than those reported from Indonesian women exposed to DDT through malaria eradication schemes and were similar to levels reported from UK and Japan.

  11. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues from commodities alleged to contain the highest contamination levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Carl K; Katz, Josh M

    2011-01-01

    Probabilistic techniques were used to characterize dietary exposure of consumers to pesticides found in twelve commodities implicated as having the greatest potential for pesticide residue contamination by a United States-based environmental advocacy group. Estimates of exposures were derived for the ten most frequently detected pesticide residues on each of the twelve commodities based upon residue findings from the United States Department of Agriculture's Pesticide Data Program. All pesticide exposure estimates were well below established chronic reference doses (RfDs). Only one of the 120 exposure estimates exceeded 1% of the RfD (methamidophos on bell peppers at 2% of the RfD), and only seven exposure estimates (5.8 percent) exceeded 0.1% of the RfD. Three quarters of the pesticide/commodity combinations demonstrated exposure estimates below 0.01% of the RfD (corresponding to exposures one million times below chronic No Observable Adverse Effect Levels from animal toxicology studies), and 40.8% had exposure estimates below 0.001% of the RfD. It is concluded that (1) exposures to the most commonly detected pesticides on the twelve commodities pose negligible risks to consumers, (2) substitution of organic forms of the twelve commodities for conventional forms does not result in any appreciable reduction of consumer risks, and (3) the methodology used by the environmental advocacy group to rank commodities with respect to pesticide risks lacks scientific credibility.

  12. Persistence of α-cypermethrin residues in milk of lactating donkeys (Equus asinus) using UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirollo, Claudia; Radovnikovic, Anita; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Marrone, Raffaele; Pepe, Tiziana; Danaher, Martin; Anastasio, Aniello

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the persistence of residues of the pyrethroid insecticide α-cypermethrin (ACYP) in the milk of lactating donkeys following pour-on treatment. Milk was collected from animals (n = 7) before the treatment and at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 h post-treatment. The last sampling was taken 7 days post-treatment (168 h). Milk samples were analysed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The analytical method was validated following requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. All samples showed levels of ACYP below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 20 μg kg(-1) established for bovine milk (Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010). The results demonstrate that there is minimal partitioning of ACYP into milk in lactating donkeys from pour-on treatment.

  13. Residual ground-water levels of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid perturb chemosensing of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Hannah; Floyd, Kieran G; Burnell, Daniel; Hancock, John T; Allainguillaume, Joel; Ladomery, Michael R; Wilson, Ian D

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the neurological effects of residual ground-water levels of thiacloprid on the non-target organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Nematodes treated with thiacloprid showed a dose-dependent and significantly increased twitch response at concentrations above 50 ng mL -1 that disabled their forward locomotion in liquid culture. In comparison with untreated controls, 10 ng mL -1 thiacloprid perturbed the chemosensory ability of C. elegans such that the nematodes no longer demonstrated positive chemotaxis towards a NaCl chemo-attractant, reducing their chemotaxis index from +0.48 to near to zero. Nematodes also exhibited a locomotion characteristic of those devoid of chemo-attraction, making significantly more pirouetting turns of ≥90° than the untreated controls. Compared to the untreated controls, expression of the endocytosis-associated gene, Rab-10, was also increased in C. elegans that had developed to adulthood in the presence of 10 ng mL -1 thiacloprid, suggesting their active engagement in increased recycling of affected cellular components, such as their nAChRs. Thus, even residual, low levels of this less potent neonicotinoid that may be found in field ground-water had measurable effects on a beneficial soil organism which may have environmental and ecological implications that are currently poorly understood.

  14. Occurrence and spatial distribution of pesticide residues in butter and ghee (clarified butter fat) in Punjab (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, J S; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Kaur, Prabhjit

    2016-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to monitor organochlorine, organophosphate, and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in butter (n = 55) and ghee (n = 56) samples collected from three different regions of Punjab. The estimation of pesticide residues was done by multiple residue analytical technique using gas chromatography equipped with GC-ECD and GC-FTD. The confirmation of residues was done on gas chromatography mass spectrometry in both selective ion monitoring (SIM) and scan mode. Results indicated the presence of hexacholorocyclohexane (HCH) and p,p' DDE as predominant contaminant in both butter and ghee. Residues of HCH were detected in 25 and 23% samples of butter and ghee, respectively, while residues of p,p' DDE were recorded in 29 and 25% of butter and ghee samples, respectively. None of the butter and ghee sample violated the MRL values of 200 ng g(-1) for HCH and 1250 ng g(-1) for dichorodiphenyl tricholorethane (DDT). The presence of endosulfan, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin, and chlorpyrifos were observed in a few butter and ghee samples at traces. The spatial variation for comparative occurrence of pesticide residues indicated higher levels in the south-western region of Punjab. Additionally, the temporal variation indicated the significant reduction of HCH and DDT levels in butter and ghee in Punjab.

  15. Evaluation of Antibiotic Residues in Raw Meat Using Different Analytical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramatla, Tsepo; Ngoma, Lubanza; Adetunji, Modupeade; Mwanza, Mulunda

    2017-12-07

    Antibiotic residue in meat is a serious public health concern due to its harmful effects on consumer health. This study aimed at estimating the residue levels of four commonly used antibiotics in meat samples using three analytical methods (ELISA, TLC and HPLC). A total of 150 samples of raw meat from sales points were analysed for ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulphanilamide residues. Overall, ELISA analysis showed that 56, 34, 18, and 25.3% of the samples tested positive for ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulphanilamide and tetracycline residues respectively while TLC and HPLC detected 21.4, 29.4, 92.5, and 14.6%, and 8.3, 41.1, 88.8, and 14.6% of the samples as containing the residues, with ciprofloxacin and sulphanilamide having the lowest and highest occurrence, respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of antibiotic residues were in the ranges of 19.8-92.8, 26.6-489.1, 14.2-1280.8, and 42.6-355.6 μg/kg with ELISA, while HPLC detected concentration ranges of 20.7-82.1, 41.8-320.8, 65.2-952.2 and 32.8-95.6 μg/kg for sulphanilamide, tetracycline, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Mean ciprofloxacin and streptomycin residue levels were above the Codex/SA MRL recommended limit, while 3% of the samples contained multidrug residues. Although some of the mean residues levels were below the permissible limits, the co-occurrence of multidrug residues in some of the samples calls for concern.

  16. Control of postharvest diseases of fruit by heat and fungicides: efficacy, residue levels, and residue persistence. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2011-08-24

    Extensive research has been done in recent years to reduce the heavy dependence on chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases and disorders of horticultural crops. Alternative strategies were based on improved cultural practices, biological control, plant-defense promoters, and physical treatments such as UV illumination, radiofrequency treatment, heat therapy, and storage technologies. Among these, postharvest heat treatments such as hot water dips, short hot water rinsing and brushing, and hot air conditioning have reduced rot development and enhanced fruit resistance to chilling injury in sensitive cultivars while retaining fruit quality during cold storage and shelf life. Additive or synergistic increases in effectiveness were observed by integrating heat therapy with various chemical compounds, thus leading to significant reductions in the application of active ingredients to protect produce from decay. This paper highlights the knowledge on this topic with emphasis on heat therapy effects and factors affecting the uptake, persistence, and performance of fungicide residues when they are applied in combination with hot water.

  17. The difference of acrylic resin residual monomer levels with various polymerization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After polymerization process, heat cured acrylic resin denture base actually still contains residual monomers that can become potential irritants later in oral cavity. Polymerization process is essential to obtain acrylic resin which can meet the requirements of the biocompatible and good physical properties. To meet the requirements, there are several methods of polymerization process used. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences of the residual monomer levels of acrylic resin processed by various polymerization methods. Methods: Acrylic resin powder and liquid were mixed based on the rules of factory, and sample was made with size of 30 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm and then polymerized by using microwave at 70° C for 24 hours based on the methods of Japan Industrial Standard (JIS. Each group of samples was cut with weight of ± 0.2 g, dissolved in 5 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in test tubes, and then stored at ± 5° C for four days. Residual monomer level was conducted by using gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Data obtained were then analyzed by using One-Way ANOVA test with p < 0.05. Results: After the level of polymerizing residual monomer with JIS method was compared to that at 70° C for 24 hours using microwave, it is known that there were significant differences (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The highest level of residual monomer of acrylic resin was that polymerized at 70° C for 24 hours.Latar belakang: Basis gigi tiruan yang berbahan dasar resin akrilik jenis heat cured setelah proses polimerisasi selesai masih mengandung monomer sisa yang berpotensi sebagai bahan iritan dalam rongga mulut. Proses polimerisasi sangat penting untuk mendapatkan resin akrilik yang memenuhi persyaratan biokompatibilitas dan fisik yang baik. Untuk persyaratan tersebut digunakan berbagai macam proses polimerisasi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar monomer sisa resin akrilik yang diproses dengan metode

  18. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valdovinos-Flores

    Full Text Available In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg.

  19. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras-Ramírez, María Elena; Lara-Álvarez, Carlos; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg).

  20. Boron and Coumaphos Residues in Hive Materials Following Treatments for the Control of Aethina tumida Murray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos-Flores, Cesar; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Heras–Ramírez, María Elena; Dorantes-Ugalde, José Antonio; Saldaña-Loza, Luz María

    2016-01-01

    In the search of alternatives for controlling Aethina tumida Murray, we recently proposed the BAA trap which uses boric acid and an attractant which mimics the process of fermentation caused by Kodamaea ohmeri in the hive. This yeast is excreted in the feces of A. tumida causing the fermentation of pollen and honey of infested hives and releasing compounds that function as aggregation pheromones to A. tumida. Since the boron is the toxic element in boric acid, the aim of this article is to assess the amount of boron residues in honey and beeswax from hives treated with the BAA trap. For this aim, the amount of bioaccumulated boron in products of untreated hives was first determined and then compared with the amount of boron of products from hives treated with the BAA trap in two distinct climatic and soil conditions. The study was conducted in the cities of Padilla, Tamaulipas, and Valladolid, Yucatan (Mexico) from August 2014 to March 2015. The quantity of boron in honey was significantly less in Yucatan than in Tamaulipas; this agrees with the boron deficiency among Luvisol and Leptosol soils found in Yucatan compared to the Vertisol soil found in Tamaulipas. In fact, the honey from Yucatan has lower boron levels than those reported in the literature. The BAA treatment was applied for four months, results show that the BAA trap does not have any residual effect in either honey or wax; i.e., there is no significant difference in boron content before and after treatment. On the other hand, the organophosphate pesticide coumaphos was found in 100% of wax samples and in 64% of honey samples collected from Yucatan. The concentration of coumaphos in honey ranges from 0.005 to 0.040 mg/kg, which are below Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) allowed in the European Union (0.1 mg/kg) but 7.14% of samples exceeded the MRL allowed in Canada (0.02 mg/kg). PMID:27092938

  1. Pesticide residues in cauliflower, eggplant, endive, lettuce, pepper, potato and wheat of the slovene origin found in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baša-Česnik, Helena; Velikonja-Bolta, Spela; Gregorčič, Ana

    2010-12-01

    In the year 2009, 170 cauliflower, eggplant, endive, lettuce, pepper, potato and wheat samples from Slovene producers were analysed for pesticide residues. The samples were analysed for the presence of 214 different active compounds using three analytical methods. MRL exceedances have not been observed, which is better than the results obtained from the monitoring of pesticide residues in the products of plant origin in the European Union, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein for the years 2004 to 2006. We have observed that MRL exceedances in Slovenia have been reduced in recent times. We assume that the farmers have learned how to use PPP safely in accordance with good agricultural practice.

  2. Control levels for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support joint efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232); by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop radiological control criteria for the recycle and reuse of scrap materials and equipment that contain residual radioactive contamination. The initial radiological control levels are the concentrations in or on materials considered for recycle or reuse that meet the individual (human) or industrial (electronics/film) dose criteria. The analysis identifies relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and methods to determine possible non-health-related impacts from residual radioactive contamination in materials considered for recycle or reuse. The generic methodology and scenarios described here provide a basic framework for numerically deriving radiological control criteria for recycle or reuse. These will be adequately conservative for most situations

  3. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species.

  4. Levels of pesticides residues in the White Nile water in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesser, Gibreel A A; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed Mohammed Ali; Tagelseed, Mirghani; Laing, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Twenty-two commonly used pesticides were monitored during autumn, winter, and summer of 2004-2005 in 27 water samples from three sites along the White Nile in Sudan (former Sudan). Sites were selected to reflect pesticides gathered from drainage canals in central Sudan and from upstream sources. Collected samples were extracted and subjected to gas chromatographic analysis. Pesticides levels were measured in nanograms per liter. Pesticides residues were detected in 96 % of the samples with a total residue burden of 4132.6 ng L(-1), and an overall mean concentration and range of 50.99 and not detected-1570 ng L(-1), respectively. Ororganochlorines were the most frequently detected contaminants, which were found in 70 % of the samples, causing a total burden of 2852.8 ng L(-1), followed by pyrethroids 15 % of the samples, with a total burden of 926.5 ng L(-1). The tested herbicides were detected in ˂4 % of the samples with a total burden of 353.3 ng L(-1), while organophosphorus levels were below the detection limit. The most frequent contaminants were the following: heptachlor and its epoxide (52 % of samples), followed by DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes) (DDT and DDE, in 19 % of the samples), cypermethrin and fenvalerate (in 11 % of the samples), and pendimethalin (in oxyfluorfen were not detected in the analyzed samples. Generally, levels were least in autumn, and followed by summer and winter. Sources of contamination might include agricultural lands in central Sudan and upstream sources. Both recent and old contaminations were indicated.

  5. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters.

  6. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end......Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated...... dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue.PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g-1, being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent...

  7. Mercury Levels In Fly Ash And Apc Residue From Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Before And After Electrodialytic Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8 to 10 h. The original residues and the treated material were analysed for mercury (Hg......) in order to assess the influence of the electrodialytic treatment on the concentrations of this element. Mercury levels varied with the MSWI residue, ranging from 0.41 mg kg−1 in FA sample from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) to 8.38 mg kg−1 in MSWI residues from a semi-dry system with lime and activated...... carbon. Two distinct behaviours were observed for mercury as a result of the electrodialytic treatment. This element became enriched in the MSWI residues from the semi-dry system with activated carbon, whereas it decreased in ESP’s and cyclone’s FA. This work presents for the first time information about...

  8. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow’s milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzić, Nihad; Begagić, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlović, Muhamed

    2014-01-01

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis. Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test (Charm Sciences) and Inhibition MRL test (A&M). Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues. PMID:25172975

  9. The oral mucosa of the MRL/I mouse: a synoptic picture of systemic autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, J; Deslauriers, N

    1991-07-01

    The oral manifestations of systemic autoimmunity were investigated in a kinetic study of the MRL/1 mouse. Lesions in the epithelium, connective tissue and minor salivary glands were characterized in serial sections of the soft palate and the cheeks with respect to 1) the type of inflammatory cells present, 2) the presence and type of vasculitis, 3) the presence of necrosis, 4) the occurrence of deposits. By the age of 16 wk, 100% of our animals had developed mild to severe lesions in at least one compartment of the mucosa. Between 16 and 32 wk of age, pathologic manifestations affected the epithelial and subepithelial tissues, the striated muscle tissue, the vascular system and, much less frequently, the minor salivary gland network.

  10. Derivation of residual radionuclide inventory guidelines for implace closure of high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L.; Yuan, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Residual radionuclide inventory guidelines were derived for the high-level waste tanks at a vitrification facility. The decommissioning scenario assumed for this derivation was that the tanks were to be stabilized at the present locations and the site is released for unrestricted use following a 100-year institutional control period. It was assumed that loss of institutional control would occur at 100-years following tank closure. The derivation of the residual radionuclide inventory guidelines was based on the requirement that the effective dose equivalent (EDE) to a hypothetical individual who lives in the vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 0.15 mSv/yr off-site and 5 mSv/yr on-site following closure of the tanks. The RESRAD computer code, modified for exposure scenarios specific for the site, was used for this evaluation. The results of the derivation indicate that the allowable off-site dose limit will not be exceeded. The estimated potential doses to individuals using water offsite from a creek are negligibly small fractions of the 0.15 mSv/yr allowable dose limit. With an assumed 3% heel remaining in the tanks, the estimated peak dose rate for the future offsite water user is about 0.00025 mSv/yr. The residual radionuclide inventory guidelines derived based on potential doses to the on-site resident farmer indicate that, with the exception of Tc-99 and C-14, a 3% heel remaining in the tanks would not result in doses exceeding the 5 mSv/yr allowable dose limit. For this on-site exposure scenario, the peak dose rates occur at about 2000 years after tank closure. The peak dose rate is calculated to be 25 mSv/yr, with greater than 99% produced by four radionuclides: C-14, Tc-99, Np-237, and Am-241. Ingestion of contaminated vegetation contributes most (90%) of the peak dose. Since the inventories used for the derivation are mostly estimated from fuel depletion calculations. There is a need to determine further the actual inventories of these

  11. Empirical likelihood based detection procedure for change point in mean residual life functions under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Ning, Wei; Gupta, Arjun K

    2016-05-01

    The mean residual life (MRL) function is one of the basic parameters of interest in survival analysis that describes the expected remaining time of an individual after a certain age. The study of changes in the MRL function is practical and interesting because it may help us to identify some factors such as age and gender that may influence the remaining lifetimes of patients after receiving a certain surgery. In this paper, we propose a detection procedure based on the empirical likelihood for the changes in MRL functions with right censored data. Two real examples are also given: Veterans' administration lung cancer study and Stanford heart transplant to illustrate the detecting procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. An additive-multiplicative mean residual life model for right-censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingheng; He, Haijin; Song, Xinyuan; Sun, Liuquan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies have focused on determining the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the mortality in different cohorts. In this article, we propose an additive-multiplicative mean residual life (MRL) model to assess the effects of BMI and other risk factors on the MRL function of survival time in a cohort of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. The proposed model can simultaneously manage additive and multiplicative risk factors and provide a comprehensible interpretation of their effects on the MRL function of interest. We develop an estimation procedure through pseudo partial score equations to obtain parameter estimates. We establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators and conduct simulations to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The application of the procedure to a study on the life expectancy of type 2 diabetic patients reveals new insights into the extension of the life expectancy of such patients. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Anti-high Mobility Group Box 1 Antibody Ameliorates Albuminuria in MRL/lpr Lupus-Prone Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Watanabe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the efficacy of a neutralizing anti-high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 monoclonal antibody in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. The anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (5 mg/kg weight or class-matched control immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a was administered intravenously twice a week for 4–15 weeks. Urine albumin was monitored, and histological evaluation of the kidneys was conducted at 16 weeks. Lymphadenopathies were evaluated by 1-(2′-deoxy-2′-[18F]fluoro-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([18F]FAC positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT at 12 weeks. Following 4-week treatment, [18F]FAC-PET/CT showed similar accumulation in cervical and axillary lymph nodes at 12 weeks of age. However, anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody sufficiently inhibited the increase in albuminuria compared to an isotype control following 15-week treatment. Complement deposition was also improved; however, there were no significant differences in IgG deposition and renal pathological scores between the two groups. Anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA antibody titers and cytokine and chemokine levels were also unaltered. Although there were no significant differences in glomerular macrophage infiltration, neutrophil infiltration was significantly decreased by the anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody. Antagonizing HMGB1 treatment suppressed HMGB1 translocation from nuclei in the kidney and suppressed neutrophil extracellular traps. The anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody demonstrated therapeutic potential against albuminuria in lupus nephritis by inhibiting neutrophil recruitment and neutrophil extracellular traps.

  14. Determination of an acceptable assimilable organic carbon (AOC) level for biological stability in water distribution systems with minimized chlorine residual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Kawano, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in minimizing the chlorine residual in Japan because of increasing complaints about a chlorinous odor in drinking water. However, minimizing the chlorine residual causes the microbiological water quality to deteriorate, and stricter control of biodegradable organics in finished water is thus needed to maintain biological stability during water distribution. In this investigation, an acceptable level of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) for biologically stable water with minimized chlorine residual was determined based on the relationship between AOC, the chlorine residual, and bacterial regrowth. In order to prepare water samples containing lower AOC, the fractions of AOC and biodegradable organic matter (BOM) in tap water samples were reduced by converting into biomass after thermal hydrolysis of BOM at alkaline conditions. The batch-mode incubations at different conditions of AOC and chlorine residual were carried out at 20 °C, and the presence or absence of bacterial regrowth was determined. The determined curve for biologically stable water indicated that the acceptable AOC was 10.9 μg C/L at a minimized chlorine residual (0.05 mg Cl(2)/L). This result indicated that AOC removal during current water treatment processes in Japan should be significantly enhanced prior to minimization of the chlorine residual in water distribution.

  15. The residuals analysis project: Evaluating disposal options for treated mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Gruebel, M.M.; Case, J.T.; Letourneau, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    For almost four years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its Federal Facility Compliance Act Disposal Workgroup has been working with state regulators and governors' offices to develop an acceptable configuration for disposal of its mixed low-level waste (MLLW). These interactions have resulted in screening the universe of potential disposal sites from 49 to 15 and conducting ''performance evaluations'' for those fifteen sites to estimate their technical capabilities for disposal of MLLW. In the residuals analysis project, we estimated the volume of DOE's MLLW that will require disposal after treatment and the concentrations of radionuclides in the treated waste. We then compared the radionuclide concentrations with the disposal limits determined in the performance evaluation project for each of the fifteen sites. The results are a scoping-level estimate of the required volumetric capacity for MLLW disposal and the identification of waste streams that may pose problems for disposal based on current treatment plans. The analysis provides technical information for continued discussions between the DOE and affected States about disposal of MLLW and systematic input to waste treatment developers on disposal issues

  16. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 2. A summary of example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper contains a description of the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm 2 ) and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are discussed for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement for a selected annual dose limit. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste. 6 references, 1 figures, 4 tables

  17. Morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, E.; Duvalois, W.; Webb, R.; Koeberg, M.

    2009-01-01

    Post explosion residues (PER) are residues from pyrotechnic compositions or explosives that are generated during an explosion. In the recent past SEM/EDX was used several times to analyze PER from pyrotechnic compositions. The results from these studies suggest that there might be a difference in

  18. Levels of pesticide residues in irrigation effluent from tomato fields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticide residues lindane, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan sulphate were detected in water from the spring source, within field and return channel of vegetable farms in Ngarenanyuki, Tanzania. Extraction of the pesticide residues were conducted by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method. The detection and concentrations of ...

  19. Method for Reduction of Pesticide Residue Levels in Raspberry and Blackcurrant Based on Utilization of Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balawejder Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The method for the reduction of pesticide residues in soft fruits based on utilization of ozone was proposed. The procedure allows for effective reduction of boscalid residues by 38% in raspberries, and about 58% thiram in blackcurrants. Furthermore, it can be used on an industrial scale.

  20. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RESIDU PESTISIDA PADA SAYURAN KUBIS (Brassica oleracea L. DAN KACANG PANJANG ( Vigna sinensis L. YANG DIPASARKAN DI PASAR BADUNG DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Agung Sudewa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides residue of organophosphate and carbamate i.e. diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril and BPMC were tested on cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. and long bean (Vigna sinensis L.. The purpose of this study was to know the level of pesticides residue remaining on cabbage and long bean marketed in Badung Market, Denpasar.The samples were determined proportionally based on purposive sampling method. The proportion of sample was 10% of the total cabbage and snake bean sold in Badung market.Result of present study showed that residue of insecticides such as diazinon, chlorpyriphos, fentoate, carbaril, and BPMC remaining on the head of cabbage and snake bean marketed in Badung market was affected by the frequencies of their use in the field, in which chlorpyriphos was used by 60-65% of the farmers and carbaril by 40% of the farmers. Their residues on cabbage anf snake bean were 0.525 ppm and 1.296 ppm for chlorpyriphos (organophosphate; 0.303 ppm and 0.471 ppm for carbaril (carbamate. These result suggested that residue of chlorpyriphos on cabbage and snake bean were higher than MRL (Maximum Residue Limit for vegetable crops, i.e. 0.5 ppm.

  2. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches

  3. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haron, S. H., E-mail: ismail@ukm.edu.my; Ismail, B. S., E-mail: sthumaira@yahoo.com [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively.

  4. Comparison pesticide residue levels in the surface of Bertam River in Cameron Highlands, Pahang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haron, S. H.; Ismail, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in the surface water of Bertam River in the agricultural areas of Cameron Highlands in Pahang, Malaysia was monitored from May to October 2014. The sampling sites were located at 10 sampling points along the Bertam River in the vegetable planting areas. The extraction method of the pesticide (organophosphate/pyrethroid) from the river samples used solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography (with electron capture detector, ECD). Insecticides, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos were found in the surface water of Bertam River. High level concentrations of those insecticides in the river were observed during the period from May to October 2014, a period which included both seasons (wet and dry seasons). The highest concentration of 2.66 µg/mL and 1.23 µg/mL of cypermethrin was observed during the wet and dry seasons respectively. This could be due to the frequent usage of the above-mentioned insecticides coupled with contamination that could have originated from the application sites. Meanwhile, the lowest concentration detected in the surface water was chlorpyrifos (0.11 µg/mL and 0.17 µg/mL) during the dry and wet seasons, respectively

  5. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Soldat, J.K.

    1983-09-01

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

  6. Health assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) residues in food

    OpenAIRE

    German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

    2012-01-01

    On the occasion of quality controls in food business and during official food surveillance, didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) residues in excess of the currently applicable MRL of 0.01 mg/kg were detected in food. DDAC is a quaternary ammonium compound belonging to the group of cationic surfactants. It is used in disinfectants and detergents. DDAC is both a biocide and a pesticide active substance. In addition, DDAC is contained in products used as plant strengtheners. The avai...

  7. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Meijer, T.; Vinyeta, E.; Klis, van der J.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were

  8. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in butter samples collected from the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Abdurrahman; Dervisoglu, Muhammed; Guvenc, Dilek; Gul, Osman; Yazici, Fehmi; Atmaca, Enes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of 9 organochlorine compounds (aldrin, hexachlorobenzene, 2,4-DDE, 4,4-DDE, 2,4-DDT, 4,4-DDT, and α-, β-, and γ-HCH) in butter samples collected in the Eastern, Middle and Western Black Sea Regions of Turkey between October 2009 and June 2010. The liquid-liquid extraction method was used to extract the organochlorine compounds from the samples and the measurements were performed by using a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector system. DDT metabolites, aldrin, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and α-, and γ-HCH were not detected in the samples but β-HCH was detected in 3 of a total of 88 samples. In the first period, only one sample from the West Black Sea Region was β-HCH positive (0.014 mg kg(-1)). The other β-HCH positive samples collected in Middle and West Black Sea Regions in the second period had a concentration of 0.066 and 0.019 mg kg(-1), respectively. All concentrations of the detected compounds exceeded the legal limits of 0.003 mg kg(-1) for β-HCH, as prescribed by the Turkish Food Codex, and therefore pose a potential health risk for consumers. The contamination detected is most likely due to the past usage of β-HCH in agriculture and its long term persistence in the environment. These results strongly suggest that further research should be focused on the detection of pesticide residues in agricultural areas across the nation.

  9. The impact of seasonal variation on organochlorine pesticide residues in buffalo and cow milk of selected dairy farms from Faisalabad region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Wasim; Shamoon, Muhammad; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Asim, Muhammad; Chaudhry, Abdul Shakoor

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred milk samples from 20 randomly selected dairy farms were screened for the incidence of organochlorine pesticide residues to evaluate the safety of milk in Faisalabad region. The results revealed that overall buffalo milk samples in winter (85 %) and in summer (78 %) were more contaminated as compared to cow milk samples 83 and 75 % in respective seasons. The residues of cyhalothrin were found only in summer season in milk of both species. Permethrin residues were detected at higher levels than perfinofos while DDT and methamedophos were found undetectable. The mean levels of permethrin were 0.042 and 0.033 mg kg -1 in buffalo milk samples and 0.045 and 0.043 mg kg -1 in cow milk in winter and summer season, respectively. Perfinofos residues were found to be the least contaminated pesticides with mean values of 0.0006 and 0.0013 mg kg -1 , respectively in winter season, and 0.004 and 0.0025 mg kg -1 in summer season. All analysed pesticide residues in milk samples in both seasons were below the maximum residual limit (MRL) values as described by European Union (EU) but milk samples contaminated with α, β-endosulfan and endosulphate exceeded their respective Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) established MRLs both in winter and summer.

  10. Effect of household and industrial processing on the levels of pesticide residues and degradation products in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, A; Hanot, V; Bragard, C; Bedoret, T; van Loco, J

    2012-01-01

    Two varieties of melons (Cucumis melo) were treated with two fungicides (carbendazim and maneb) and four insecticides (acetamiprid, cyromazin, imazalil and thiamethoxam) to quantify the effect of household processing on the pesticide residues. To ensure sufficiently high levels of residues in flesh and peel, the most concentrated formulations were applied observing good agricultural practice. The peeling step decreased the concentration of pesticide residues for maneb, imazalil and acetamiprid by more than 90%. Cyromazin, carbendazim and thiamethoxam were reduced by approximately 50%. The reduction of the pesticides could not be fully explained by the systemic character of the pesticides. However, the agricultural practices (time of application), solubility and mode of action (systemic versus contact pesticide) of the pesticides could be used to explain the difference in processing factors for the studied pesticides. Degradation products (melamine and ethylenethiourea) were also investigated in this study, but were not detected.

  11. Atomic Level Cleaning of Poly Methyl Methacrylate Residues from the Graphene Surface Using Radiolized Water at High Temperatures (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0321 ATOMIC LEVEL CLEANING OF POLY-METHYL- METHACRYLATE RESIDUES FROM THE GRAPHENE SURFACE USING RADIOLIZED WATER AT...COVERED (From - To) 9 March 2017 Interim 8 September 2014 – 9 February 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ATOMIC LEVEL CLEANING OF POLY-METHYL- METHACRYLATE...graphene surfaces and can only provide atomically clean graphene surfaces in areas as large as ˜10-4 µm2. Here, we transfer CVD-grown graphene using

  12. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80...

  13. Prediction of hydrodynamic and other solution properties of rigid proteins from atomic- and residue-level models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A; Amorós, D; García de la Torre, J

    2011-08-17

    Here we extend the ability to predict hydrodynamic coefficients and other solution properties of rigid macromolecular structures from atomic-level structures, implemented in the computer program HYDROPRO, to models with lower, residue-level resolution. Whereas in the former case there is one bead per nonhydrogen atom, the latter contains one bead per amino acid (or nucleotide) residue, thus allowing calculations when atomic resolution is not available or coarse-grained models are preferred. We parameterized the effective hydrodynamic radius of the elements in the atomic- and residue-level models using a very large set of experimental data for translational and rotational coefficients (intrinsic viscosity and radius of gyration) for >50 proteins. We also extended the calculations to very large proteins and macromolecular complexes, such as the whole 70S ribosome. We show that with proper parameterization, the two levels of resolution yield similar and rather good agreement with experimental data. The new version of HYDROPRO, in addition to considering various computational and modeling schemes, is far more efficient computationally and can be handled with the use of a graphical interface. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture.

  15. ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals; ENTRIA 2014. Memorandum zur Entsorgung hochradioaktiver Reststoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Walther, Clemens; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Niedersaechsische Technische Hochschule, Braunschweig, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Hannover (Germany); and others

    2014-04-30

    The memorandum on the disposal of high-level radioactive residuals covers the following issues: description of the problem: a ''wicked problem'', risks and NIMBY, the site selection law, international boundary conditions; disposal strategy and types of facilities: safety and reversibility, long-term surface storage, deep storage; risk and safety; procedural justice and the site selection process; social innovations and the requirement of long-term institutions; conclusion - central stress fields.

  16. Rapid screening of multiple antibiotic residues in milk using disposable amperometric magnetosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzuelo, F; Ruiz-Valdepeñas Montiel, V; Campuzano, S; Gamella, M; Torrente-Rodríguez, R M; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-04-11

    Disposable amperometric magnetosensors, involving a mixture of modified-magnetic beads (MBs), for the multiplex screening of cephalosporins (CPHs), sulfonamides (SAs) and tetracyclines (TCs) antibiotic residues in milk are reported for the first time in this work. The multiplexed detection relies on the use of a mixture of target specific modified magnetic beads (MBs) and application of direct competitive assays using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled tracers. The amperometric responses measured at -0.20 V vs. the Ag pseudo-reference electrode of screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) upon the addition of H2O2 in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) as redox mediator, were used to monitor the extent of the different affinity reactions. The developed methodology, involving a simple and short pretreatment, allowed discrimination between no contaminated UHT and raw milk samples and samples containing antibiotic residues at the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The usefulness of the multiplexed magnetosensor was demonstrated by analyzing spiked milk samples in only 5 min. The results demonstrated that a clear discrimination of milk samples contaminated with antibiotics at their MRL level or their mixtures, allowing the identification of milk not complying with current legislation. These features make the developed methodology a promising alternative in the development of user-friendly devices for on-site analysis to ensure quality control for dairy products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Residues levels of organochlorine pesticide in cow's milk from industrial farms in Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Schettino, Beatriz; Ramirez, Maria L; Perez, Jose J

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out from 2008 to 2010 to determine the concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticide residues (OPRs) from Tizayuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Organochlorine residue determinations were made from milk fat, using chromatographic cleanup and analysis by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. The OPR concentrations found were from below the detection limit (DL) to 0.91 ng g(-1) in 2008, DL to 0.38 ng g(-1) in 2009 and DL to 0.59 ng g(-1) in 2010. In general concentrations of organochlorine pesticides were higher in the wet season (3.37 ng g(-1) and 4.79 ng g(-1)) than the dry season (1.92 ng g(-1) and 2.71 ng g(-1)) for 2009 and 2010, due to control of pests in the pasture and sheds. According to Codex Alimentarius regulations, individual pesticides did not exceed the permissible limits, which for example were 10 μg kg(-)1 for alpha hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and endosulfan I, 20 μg kg(-1) for p,p'-DDT, and 6 μg kg(-1) for dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor. A reduction of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in cow's milk was noted, indicating that the Mexican government has achieved reduction or elimination of some organochlorine pesticides in response to global agreements on persistent organic pollutants.

  19. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs

  20. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Usha; Sandhu, Kulwant Singh

    2014-02-01

    Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. The pesticide residues, left to variable extent in the food materials after harvesting, are beyond the control of consumer and have deleterious effect on human health. The presence of pesticide residues is a major bottleneck in the international trade of food commodities. The localization of pesticides in foods varies with the nature of pesticide molecule, type and portion of food material and environmental factors. The food crops treated with pesticides invariably contain unpredictable amount of these chemicals, therefore, it becomes imperative to find out some alternatives for decontamination of foods. The washing with water or soaking in solutions of salt and some chemicals e.g. chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, ozone, acetic acid, hydroxy peracetic acid, iprodione and detergents are reported to be highly effective in reducing the level of pesticides. Preparatory steps like peeling, trimming etc. remove the residues from outer portions. Various thermal processing treatments like pasteurization, blanching, boiling, cooking, steaming, canning, scrambling etc. have been found valuable in degradation of various pesticides depending upon the type of pesticide and length of treatment. Preservation techniques like drying or dehydration and concentration increase the pesticide content many folds due to concentration effect. Many other techniques like refining, fermentation and curing have been reported to affect the pesticide level in foods to varied extent. Milling, baking, wine making, malting and brewing resulted in lowering of pesticide residue level in the end products. Post harvest treatments and cold storage have also been found effective. Many of the decontamination techniques bring down the concentration of pesticides below MRL. However, the diminution effect depends upon the initial concentration at the time of harvest, substrate/food and type of

  1. Polyethylene encapsulation of molten salt oxidation mixed low-level radioactive salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Grimmett, D.L.; Gay, R.L.; Newman, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    A limited scope treatability study was conducted for polyethylene encapsulation of salt residues generated by a Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) technology demonstration at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), operated by Rockwell International for the US Department of Energy (DOE). During 1992 and 1993, ETEC performed a demonstration with a prototype MSO unit and treated approximately 50 gallons of mixed waste comprised of radioactively contaminated oils produced by hot cell operations. A sample of the mixed waste contaminated spent salt was used during the BNL polyethylene encapsulation treatability study. A nominal waste loading of 50 wt % was successfully processed and waste form test specimens were made for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing. The encapsulated product was compared with base-line TCLP results for total chromium and was found to be well within allowable EPA guidelines

  2. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant from MRL/MpJ Super-Healer Mice Does Not Improve Articular Cartilage Repair in the C57Bl/6 Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Leonard

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage has been the focus of multiple strategies to improve its regenerative/ repair capacity. The Murphy Roths Large (MRL/MpJ "super-healer" mouse demonstrates an unusual enhanced regenerative capacity in many tissues and provides an opportunity to further study endogenous cartilage repair. The objective of this study was to test whether the super-healer phenotype could be transferred from MRL/MpJ to non-healer C57Bl/6 mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplant.The healing of 2mm ear punches and full thickness cartilage defects was measured 4 and 8 weeks after injury in control C57Bl/6 and MRL/MpJ "super-healer" mice, and in radiation chimeras reconstituted with bone marrow from the other mouse strain. Healing was assessed using ear hole diameter measurement, a 14 point histological scoring scale for the cartilage defect and an adapted version of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scale for assessment of osteoarthritis in mouse knee joints.Normal and chimeric MRL mice showed significantly better healing of articular cartilage and ear wounds along with less severe signs of osteoarthritis after cartilage injury than the control strain. Contrary to our hypothesis, however, bone marrow transplant from MRL mice did not confer improved healing on the C57Bl/6 chimeras, either in regards to ear wound healing or cartilage repair.The elusive cellular basis for the MRL regenerative phenotype still requires additional study and may possibly be dependent on additional cell types external to the bone marrow.

  3. Simple and rapid analysis of residual aminopolyether (K222) levels in [18F]-labeled imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaolan; Liao Wenjie; Tang Ganghua

    2008-01-01

    Aminopolyether (K222) is a commonly used catalyst in the routine preparation of [ 18 F]-labeled tracers as PET imaging agents. Determination of residual K222 levels in [ 18 F]-labeled radiopharmaceuticals is a quality control criterion required before they can be released for human use. However, there is no simple and rapid method for the determination of K222 levels. A universal iodine-vapor TLC stain method was developed for the semiquantitative analysis of K222 levels in [ 18 F]-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in this study. Compared with the spectrophotometry and the potassium permanganate TLC stain approach, the iodine-vapor TLC stain method is simple, rapid, accurate and reliable. It can be used as a routine method for the determination of K222 levels. (authors)

  4. 4SC-101, a novel small molecule dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor, suppresses systemic lupus erythematosus in MRL-(Fas)lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Onkar P; Sayyed, Sufyan G; Kantner, Claudia; Ryu, Mi; Schnurr, Max; Sárdy, Miklós; Leban, Johann; Jankowsky, Ruediger; Ammendola, Aldo; Doblhofer, Robert; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2010-06-01

    Immunosuppressive treatments of systemic lupus (SLE) remain associated with significant toxicities; hence, compounds with better toxicity profiles are needed. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibition with leflunomide has proven to be effective in autoimmune diseases including SLE, but leflunomide can cause a variety of side effects. We hypothesized that 4SC-101, a novel DHODH inhibitor with a more favorable toxicity profile, would be as effective as high-dose cyclophosphamide (CYC) in controlling experimental SLE of female MRL(Fas)lpr mice. Daily oral gavage of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg 4SC-101 from 12 to 22 weeks of age was compared with either vehicle or CYC treatment (30 mg/kg/week, i.p.) in terms of efficacy and toxicity. Three hundred milligrams per kilogram 4SC-101 was as effective as CYC in depleting spleen autoreactive T cells, B cells, and plasma cells as well as the respective DNA and RNA serum autoantibodies. This was associated with a comparable amelioration of the renal, dermal, and pulmonary SLE manifestations of MRL(Fas)lpr mice. However, even the highest dose of 4SC-101 had no effect on bone marrow neutrophil counts, which were significantly reduced in CYC-treated mice. Together, the novel DHODH inhibitor 4SC-101 is as effective as high dose CYC in controlling SLE without causing myelosuppression. Hence, DHODH inhibition with 4SC-101 might be suitable to treat active SLE with fewer side effects than CYC.

  5. Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI for two (2 age/weight categories: 1–11years/30 kg for children while 70 kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects and measured at the average, maximum, 50th and 95th percentiles of the measured exposure concentrations (MEC. Total pesticide residues ranged from 2.38 to 3.86 μg/kg (muscle, 3.58 to 6.3 μg/kg (liver, 1.87 to 4.59 μg/kg (kidney and 2.54 to 4.35 μg/kg (tongue. Residual pesticide concentrations in the tissues were in the order: Liver > Tongue > Muscle > Kidney. The concentrations of all the assessed pesticides observed in the tissues were however lower than the recommended maximum residual limits (MRLs. Human health risk estimations for the children showed EDI values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin and dieldrin exceeding threshold values. Non-cancer risk posed to children on consumption of contaminated cattle parts showed HQ values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin and HI values for organochlorines exceeding 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers especially children from consumption of cattle meat from the selected abattoirs.

  6. Residues in the analyst of the patient's symbiotic connection at a somatic level: unrepresented states in the patient and analyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsil, Geraldine

    2018-02-01

    This paper discusses the residues of a somatic countertransference that revealed its meaning several years after apparently successful analytic work had ended. Psychoanalytic and Jungian analytic ideas on primitive communication, dissociation and enactment are explored in the working through of a shared respiratory symptom between patient and analyst. Growth in the analyst was necessary so that the patient's communication at a somatic level could be understood. Bleger's concept that both the patient's and analyst's body are part of the setting was central in the working through. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Residue level description of in vivo self-association of Plasmodium falciparum P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pushpa; Sharma, Shobhona; Hosur, Ramakrishna V

    2014-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum P2 (PfP2) is a ribosomal stalk protein. It also performs extra ribosomal novel functions that seem to be associated with homo oligomerization . Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that the protein has a high tendency to self-associate predominantly into an 8-mer. In vitro Heteronuclear Single Quantum Coherence (HSQC) of the pure recombinant protein (rPfP2) and its in-cell (Escherichia coli) HSQC spectrum has very similar features, indicating that the protein intrinsically, both inside the cell and under in vitro conditions, has similar aggregation tendencies. In view of this, we have characterized here the folding and concomitant self-association of rPfP2, using an in vitro dissociation-association strategy. We observed that the residue stretch, (Met31-Leu44) of the rPfP2, mapping to Met1-Leu14 of PfP2 protein acts as a nucleation site for helix formation and subsequent self-association. Further association appears to be driven by hydrophobic and complimentary electrostatic charge interactions on the surfaces formed. One stretch of rPfP2, (Ile97-Ala116), always remains floppy, and this may serve as "hinge" for protein segmental motions. Based on these, we have proposed a possible model for rPfP2 self-association into an 8-mer.

  8. Residue levels of molinate in rice field soil: their effects on populations of aquatic flora and fauna under recycling and non-recycling practices in the MUDA area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie

    2002-01-01

    A study to evaluate the effects of Molinate residue levels in rice field soil on populations of weed and aquatic fauna in the recycling and the non-recycling areas of Muda was carried out. Molinate residue levels in soil, Simpson Index of Diversity and Importance Value (IV) of weeds, and Sequential Comparison Index of aquatic fauna were measured. No marked variation between the recycled (B 111) and non-recycled (D 111) area was observed for the population parameters and residue levels measured. (Author)

  9. Persistent organochlorine residues in foodstuffs from Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands: contamination levels and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Tanabe, S; Williams, R J; Tatsukawa, R

    1994-08-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), HCH isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and HCB were determined in a wide variety of foodstuffs collected from different locations in Australia, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Elevated levels of PCBs, CHLs, DDTs and dieldrin were detected in most of the foodstuffs of animal origin. Fish samples collected near the coast of Sydney recorded noticeable concentrations of PCBs, CHLs and DDTs. PCB contamination was generally prominent in samples collected in urban areas, whereas organochlorine pesticides were distributed uniformly throughout Australia. The widespread usage of CHLs was evident from the composition of its compounds in various foods while HCHs and DDTs were found to have been used sporadically in space and time. For the most part, residue levels of organochlorines in foodstuffs were below the tolerance limits established by national and international health organizations. The exception was CHLs in some fish samples, which exceeded the maximum residue limits recommended by the National Health and Medical Research Council of the Australian government. Although the number of samples analysed in each class of foods is small for the purpose of estimating human dietary exposure, we tentatively conclude that the dietary intake of PCBs in Australia was higher than those observed in most developed and developing nations, whereas the intake of organochlorine pesticides was higher than in developed nations but lower than in developing countries. Meat products contributed to the higher dietary intakes of most of the organochlorines. The contamination pattern and the residual concentrations of organochlorines in foodstuffs of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands resembled those observed in Australia.

  10. Detection of residues in urine and tissues of sheep treated with trace levels of dietary ractopamine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Shelver, W L; Marx, A

    2016-12-01

    Qualitative assays are sometimes used as the sole basis for detecting drug residues in live animals or in animal products. Such assays have become increasingly sensitive as detection technologies have improved, yet the limitations of such assays to discriminate purposeful and accidental drug exposures remain poorly defined. A study was conducted to determine the ability of a ractopamine lateral flow assay to accurately detect incurred ractopamine residues in contaminated feeds and in sheep fed trace quantities of ractopamine HCl. False positive and negative samples were determined using a quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method. Ractopamine HCl was fed to sheep at 0 (Zero), 1 (Low), 10 (Med), or 100 (High) µg/kg of diet ( = 4 per level, 0.5 kg of feed/d) for 7 consecutive d and urine was collected daily about ∼16 h post exposure. On-site lateral flow assays were able to reliably (0% false negatives) detect 20 μg of ractopamine HCl per kg of feed. Urine from treated sheep tested positive for ractopamine residues by lateral flow assay in 7.4 (Zero), 0 (Low), 82 (Med), and 86% (High) of the urine samples from each group. Parent ractopamine was below the assay limit of quantification (LOQ, 0.7 ng/mL) in all urine samples using LC-MS/MS. After hydrolysis of ractopamine conjugates, total ractopamine (parent + hydrolyzed metabolites) in urine of Low animals was always less than the LOQ, but in 7 of 28 samples were above the limit of detection (LOD, 0.22 ng/mL). In contrast, urine in Med animals contained 1.08 to 9.13 ng/mL of total ractopamine, while urine of High animals contained 4.85-32.82 ng/mL of total ractopamine. Ractopamine is rapidly eliminated; nevertheless, > 80% of urine samples from sheep exposed to 5 µg/d (M) of ractopamine HCl had detectable residues by the screening assay and a 100% of samples had measurable ractopamine using LC-MS/MS methods. Tissue residues of ractopamine were not detected in any of the sheep

  11. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods.

  12. COPRED: prediction of fold, GO molecular function and functional residues at the domain level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Pazos, Florencio

    2013-07-15

    Only recently the first resources devoted to the functional annotation of proteins at the domain level started to appear. The next step is to develop specific methodologies for predicting function at the domain level based on these resources, and to implement them in web servers to be used by the community. In this work, we present COPRED, a web server for the concomitant prediction of fold, molecular function and functional sites at the domain level, based on a methodology for domain molecular function prediction and a resource of domain functional annotations previously developed and benchmarked. COPRED can be freely accessed at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/copred. The interface works in all standard web browsers. WebGL (natively supported by most browsers) is required for the in-line preview and manipulation of protein 3D structures. The website includes a detailed help section and usage examples. pazos@cnb.csic.es.

  13. Effect In Vitro of Antiparasitic Drugs on Microbial Inhibitor Test Responses for Screening Antibiotic Residues in Goat's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, T; Beltrán, M C; Reybroeck, W; Molina, M P

    2015-09-01

    Microbial inhibitor tests are widely used to screen antibiotic residues in milk; however, these tests are nonspecific and may be affected by various substances capable of inhibiting the growth of the test microorganism. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of antiparasitic drugs in goat's milk on the microbial inhibitor test response. Raw antibiotic-free milk from Murciano-Granadina goats was supplemented with eight concentrations of seven antiparasitic substances (albendazole, 10 to 170 mg/kg; closantel, 1 to 140 mg/kg; diclazuril, 8 to 45 mg/kg; febendazole, 10 to 140 mg/kg; levamisole, 40 to 440 mg/kg; diazinon, 8 to 45 mg/kg; and ivermectin, 40 to 200 mg/kg). Twelve replicates for each concentration were analyzed with three microbial inhibitor tests: BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MSC, and Eclipse 100. The results were interpreted visually (negative or positive). Using a logistic regression model, the concentrations of the antiparasitic drugs producing 5% (IC5), 10% (IC10), and 50% (IC50) positive results were determined. In general, the Eclipse 100 test was less sensitive to the effect of antiparasitic substances; the inhibitory concentrations of almost all the drugs assayed were higher than those for other tests. Conversely, the BRT MRL test was most affected, with high levels of interference at lower antiparasitic drug concentrations. Closantel and diazinon interfered with all microbial tests at lower concentrations than did other drugs (IC5 = 1 to 26 and 12 to 20 mg/kg, respectively), and higher concentrations of levamisole and diclazuril (IC5 = 30 to 240 and 50 to 117 mg/kg, respectively) were required to produce 5% positive results. These findings indicate that microbial inhibitor tests can be affected by elevated concentrations of antiparasitic drugs in goat's milk.

  14. High residue levels and the chemical form of mercury in tissues and organs of seabirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.Y.; Murakami, Toru; Saeki, Kazutoshi; Tatsukawa, Ryo [Ehime Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environment Conservation

    1995-12-31

    Total and organic (methyl) mercury in liver, muscle, kidney and feather of 9 species of seabirds were analyzed to determine the levels and their distribution and to clarify the occurrences of high mercury levels and their detoxification process in seabirds. Total mercury levels in liver showed great variations in intra and interspecies, while organic mercury levels were less variable. As compared with species in relatively low mercury levels, the species which accumulated the high concentration of mercury like black-footed albatross exhibited the different distribution of mercury in the body: in total mercury burden, albatross species contained less than 10% in feather and over 50% in liver, while other species contained over 40% in feather and less than 20% in liver. The order of organic mercury concentrations in tissues were as follows: liver > kidney > muscle in seabirds examined, except oldsquaw. The mean percentage of organic mercury in total was 35%, 66%, and 36% in liver, muscle and kidney, respectively, for all the species. The significant negative correlations were found between organic mercury percentage to total mercury and total mercury concentrations in the liver and muscle of black-footed albatross and in the liver of laysan albatross. Furthermore, in liver, muscle, and kidney of all the species, the percentages of organic mercury had a negative trend with an increase of total mercury concentrations. The results suggest that albatross species may be capable for demethylating organic mercury in the tissues (mainly in liver), and for storing the mercury as immobilizable inorganic form in the liver as substitution for delivering organic mercury to other organs. It is noteworthy that the species with high degree of demethylation showed the lower mercury burdens in feather and slow moulting pattern.

  15. Galectin-9 ameliorates clinical severity of MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice by inducing plasma cell apoptosis independently of Tim-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Moritoki

    Full Text Available Galectin-9 ameliorates various murine autoimmune disease models by regulating T cells and macrophages, although it is not known what role it may have in B cells. The present experiment shows that galectin-9 ameliorates a variety of clinical symptoms, such as proteinuria, arthritis, and hematocrit in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. As previously reported, galectin-9 reduces the frequency of Th1, Th17, and activated CD8(+ T cells. Although anti-dsDNA antibody was increased in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice, galectin-9 suppressed anti-dsDNA antibody production, at least partly, by decreasing the number of plasma cells. Galectin-9 seemed to decrease the number of plasma cells by inducing plasma cell apoptosis, and not by suppressing BAFF production. Although about 20% of CD19(-/low CD138(+ plasma cells expressed Tim-3 in MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice, Tim-3 may not be directly involved in the galectin-9-induced apoptosis, because anti-Tim-3 blocking antibody did not block galectin-9-induced apoptosis. This is the first report of plasma cell apoptosis being induced by galectin-9. Collectively, it is likely that galectin-9 attenuates the clinical severity of MRL lupus-prone mice by regulating T cell function and inducing plasma cell apoptosis.

  16. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Romero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone was reached on the 1st day post treatment (260.0 ± 70.1 μg/kg, 112.8 ± 28.7 μg/kg, 152.0 ± 23.6 μg/kg, respectively, decreasing to lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg on the 3rd day post treatment. Milk samples were also analyzed by microbial tests [Brilliant Black Reduction Test (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100], and only one positive result was found for Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100. However, a high occurrence of positive outcomes was obtained for BRT MRL during 6 days post treatment, whereas ABZ residues were not detected from the 4th day post administration, suggesting that factors other than the antiparasitic agent might affect the microbial test response.

  17. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael; Moya, Vicente Javier; Beltrán, María Del Carmen; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2017-04-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone) was reached on the 1 st day post treatment (260.0 ± 70.1 μg/kg, 112.8 ± 28.7 μg/kg, 152.0 ± 23.6 μg/kg, respectively), decreasing to lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) on the 3 rd day post treatment. Milk samples were also analyzed by microbial tests [Brilliant Black Reduction Test (BRT) MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100], and only one positive result was found for Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100. However, a high occurrence of positive outcomes was obtained for BRT MRL during 6 days post treatment, whereas ABZ residues were not detected from the 4 th day post administration, suggesting that factors other than the antiparasitic agent might affect the microbial test response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Fungicide residues in pears, apples and grapes after post harvest treatments by thermonebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompi, V; Donnarumma, L; Rossi, E; Rosati, S

    2005-01-01

    In the context of trials conducted in cold store, in order to investigate efficacy of fruit protection applying agrochemicals, the fate during the storage of two active ingredients (a.i.): pyrimethanil and imazalil, have been studied. The experimental trials were done on eight varieties of apples and pears and two of grapes. Only field use of named pesticides was already authorised on fruits and maximum residue limits (MRL) fixed. In the present biennial experimentation (apples and pears in the first year; grapes in the second one). Two fungicides formulations were applied and treatments have been executed by thermonebulization technique. The storage cell, had a volume of 110 m3 filled up with the fruits until 80% of its capacity. Each fruit variety constituted one thesis of 4 replicates. For each trial, only one treatment was performed at the beginning of conservation period (72 days for pears and apples, and 57 days for grapes). In order to estimate fungicides persistence, residues determinations have been carried out. From results obtained especially on grape, not homogenous residues distribution on treated commodities was observed. For all theses, residue level has not evidenced statistically significant decrement as function of time, behaviour not as observed in field tests. The following average values of residues have been determined: in apples and pears, 0.7 mg/kg of imazalil much lower than 5 mg/kg (RML fixed for field use), and 1.2 mg/kg of pyrimethanil little higher than 1 mg/kg (RML fixed for field use); in grapes 0.5 mg/kg pyrimethanil much lower than 3 mg/kg (RML fixed for field use).

  19. Remission of systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity with regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-35 in Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z; Wong, C K; Dong, J; Chu, M; Jiao, D; Kam, N W; Lam, C W K; Tam, L S

    2015-08-01

    The immunological mechanisms mediated by regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-35 are unclear in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We investigated the frequency of CD4(+) CD25(+) forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) regulatory T (Treg ) and IL-10(+) regulatory B (Breg ) cells and related immunoregulatory mechanisms in a female Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/lpr mouse model of spontaneous lupus-like disease, with or without IL-35 treatment. A remission of histopathology characteristics of lupus flare and nephritis was observed in the MRL/lpr mice upon IL-35 treatment. Accordingly, IL-35 and IL-35 receptor subunits (gp130 and IL-12Rβ2) and cytokines of MRL/lpr and BALB/c mice (normal controls) were measured. The increased anti-inflammatory cytokines and decreased proinflammatory cytokines were possibly associated with the restoration of Treg and Breg frequency in MRL/lpr mice with IL-35 treatment, compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treatment. mRNA expressions of Treg -related FoxP3, IL-35 subunit (p35 and EBI3) and soluble IL-35 receptor subunit (gp130 and IL12Rβ2) in splenic cells were up-regulated significantly in IL-35-treated mice. Compared with the PBS treatment group, IL-35-treated MRL/lpr mice showed an up-regulation of Treg -related genes and the activation of IL-35-related intracellular Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signal pathways, thereby indicating the immunoregulatory role of IL-35 in SLE. These in vivo findings may provide a biochemical basis for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms of IL-35 for the treatment of autoimmune-mediated inflammation. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Comparison of IgM Capture Enzyme- Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using Inhouse method and commercially available MRL kit for serological confirmation of dengue infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapugoda, D.M.; De Silva R, Nilanthi; Abeywickreme, W.; Gunasena, Sunethra; Prithimala, L.D.; Jayawardene, S.L.G.J.; Kumari, Thamara

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of dengue infection is important for the management of the patients. In this study igM capture ELISA using an inhouse method and commercially available kit (MRL diagnostics,USA) was compared to detect diagnostic capability of Inhouse IgM ELISA for provision of diagnostic facilities to the public at an affordable cost. Eighty acute and convalescent serum samples were collected from serologically confirmed dengue patients. Serological confirmation of patients were performed by Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) assay, gold standard assay for dengue on paired serum samples. All collected acute and convalescent sera were tested by IgM ELISA using the inhouse method and MRL kit. Antigen and conjugate for the inhouse IgM method were prepared in the laboratory. A cocktail of four dengue antigens containing 25 Antigen ELISA units of each type was prepared and used as the assay antigen. Conjugate was prepared using a serum sample with high dengue Anti flavi IgG antibody titre conjugated with Horseradish peroxidase. A prospective study of both IgM ELISA assays were performed using 113 acute sera collected from dengue suspected cases. Overall results showed that 46% and 52% acute sera collected from dengue confirmed patients were positive by inhouse ELISA assay and MRL kits respectively. In the prospective study done using acute sera collected from dengue suspected patients showed that 44% and 52% were positive by inhouse ELISA assay and MRL kits. There was no significant difference in positivity between these two assays. (P=0.18). Inhouse IgM ELISA can be used for provision of laboratory diagnosis of dengue virus infection more than 5 days. The assay is 10 times less costly than using MRL kits as assay antigen and conjugate can be prepared easily in the laboratory

  1. [Residual levels of acetochlor in source water and drinking water of China's major cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Fen; Li, Hong-Yan; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2014-05-01

    The concentration levels of acetochlor were investigated in source water and drinking water from 36 major cities in China by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acetochlor detection rate was 66.9% in all the 145 source water samples collected with an average concentration of 33.9 ng L-1. The average removal rate of acetochlor was limited through the drinking water treatment process. The detection concentration of the northeast region was the highest. The concentrations of acetochlor detected in lake were higher than those in river and groundwater as source water. The detection rate and concentration of Liaohe river watershed and the coastal watershed were the highest.

  2. Circulating microRNA levels predict residual beta cell function and glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samandari, Nasim; Mirza, Aashiq H.; Nielsen, Lotte B.

    2017-01-01

    from the Danish Remission Phase Cohort, and profiled for miRNAs. At the same time points, meal-stimulated C-peptide and HbA1c levels were measured and insulin-dose adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c) calculated. miRNAs that at 3 months after diagnosis predicted residual beta cell function and glycaemic control...... in this subgroup were further validated in the remaining cohort (n = 83). Statistical analysis of miRNA prediction for disease progression was performed by multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for age and sex. Results: In the discovery analysis, six miRNAs (hsa-miR-24-3p, hsa-miR-146a-5p, hsa-miR-194-5p...

  3. Allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil from pathway analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyquist, J.E.; Baes, C.F. III.

    1987-01-01

    The uncertainty regarding radionuclide distributions among Remedial Action Program (RAP) sites and long-term decommissioning and closure options for these sites requires a flexible approach capable of handling different levels of contamination, dose limits, and closure scenarios. We identified a commercially available pathway analysis model, DECOM, which had been used previously in support of remedial activities involving contaminated soil at the Savannah River Plant. The DECOM computer code, which estimates concentrations of radionuclides uniformly distributed in soil that correspond to an annual effective dose equivalent, is written in BASIC and runs on an IBM PC or compatible microcomputer. We obtained the latest version of DECOM and modified it to make it more user friendly and applicable to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RAP. Some modifications involved changes in default parameters or changes in models based on approaches used by the EPA in regulating remedial actions for hazardous substances. We created a version of DECOM as a LOTUS spreadsheet, using the same models as the BASIC version of DECOM. We discuss the specific modeling approaches taken, the regulatory framework that guided our efforts, the strengths and limitations of each approach, and areas for improvement. We also demonstrate how the LOTUS version of DECOM can be applied to specific problems that may be encountered during ORNL RAP activities. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Evaluation of the 14C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-01-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  5. Effects of Cholesterol Levels on Mortality in Patients with Long-Term Peritoneal Dialysis Based on Residual Renal Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chung Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dyslipidemia on peritoneal dialysis (PD patients based on the presence of residual renal function (RRF; renal creatinine clearance >2 mL/min/1.73 m2 is unknown. Data from the Taiwan Renal Registry Data System between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed to estimate the association between dyslipidemia and mortality in PD patients. Long-term PD patients (n = 8032 were divided into groups with (RRF; n = 2691, 33.5% and without RRF (non-RRF; n = 5341, 66.5%. The primary outcome was three-year mortality, and multivariate Cox regression was used for survival analysis. After stratifying the total cholesterol (TC level between the first and third years, the hazard ratio for mortality was estimated. In the non-RRF group, TC < 120 mg/dL was associated with independently increased risk of mortality. In the RRF group, low TC was not independently correlated with increased mortality, but TC > 285 mg/dL was associated with increased risk. PD patients with higher level of TC (>200 mg/dL in both first and third years of dialysis had significantly lower risk of mortality. In this nationwide cohort study, PD patients without RRF who had low TC level had the highest mortality, in contrast to those with RRF. Malnutrition in long-term PD patients without RRF is an important issue to be monitored.

  6. Residu Fungisida Tembaga (Cu pada Pucuk Teh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to know copper residue on tea due to blister blight control by copper fungicides. The experiment was done at Pagilaran Tea Plantation, Batang, Pekalongan. Tea plants were sprayed 8 times, with 8 days interval at the dosages of 0. 75, 150, and 300 g/ha respectively. Shoot sample was taken at 8 and 16 days after spraying. The copper residue war analyzed by Atomic Adsorbtion Spectrophotometer at 324 nm. The result showed that the higher dosage of spraying gives higher copper residue. At the dosage of 300 g/ha was detected 23,52 ppm of copper residue at 8 days after spraying. The residue was reduced to 12,96 ppm at 16 days after spraying. At that dosage the blister blight disease intensity reduced by 59,97%. The detected residue of copper fungicides due to blister blight control is not higher than MRL ( 150 ppm.

  7. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  8. Detection of pyridaben residue levels in hot pepper fruit and leaves by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: effect of household processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Choi, Ok-Ja; Rhee, Gyu-Seek; Chang, Moon-Ik; Kim, Heejung; Abid, Morad D N; Shin, Sung Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-07-01

    Following quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) and LC/MS/MS analysis, pyridaben residual levels were determined in unprocessed and processed hot pepper fruit and leaves. The linearities were satisfactory with determination coefficients (R(2)) in excess of 0.995 in processed and unprocessed pepper fruit and leaves. Recoveries at various concentrations were 79.9-105.1% with relative standard deviations ≤15%. The limits of quantitation of 0.003-0.012 mg/kg were very low compared with the maximum residue limits (2-5 mg/kg) set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Republic of Korea. The effects of various household processes, including washing, blanching, frying and drying under different conditions (water volume, blanching time and temperature) on residual concentrations were evaluated. Both washing and blanching (in combination with high water volume and time factor) significantly reduced residue levels in hot pepper fruit and leaves compared with other processes. In sum, the developed method was satisfactory and could be used to accurately detect residues in unprocessed and processed pepper fruit and leaves. It is recommended that pepper fruit/leaves be blanched after washing before being consumed to protect consumers from the negative health effects of detected pesticide residues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  10. Multi-residue method for detecting coccidiostats at carry-over level in feed by HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahaut, Ph; Pierret, G; Ralet, N; Dubois, M; Gillard, N

    2010-06-01

    A multi-residue HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous extraction, detection and confirmation of the 11 coccidiostats referenced by Regulation 2009/8/EC (lasalocid sodium, narasin, salinomycin sodium, monensin sodium, semduramicin sodium, maduramicin ammonium alpha, robenidine hydrochloride, decoquinate, halofuginone hydrobromide, nicarbazin, and diclazuril) in feedstuffs at carry-over level. The sensitivity of the method allows quantification and confirmation for all coccidiostats below target concentration. The method was in-house validated and meets all criteria of European legislation (2002/657/EC). The precision of the method was determined under repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility conditions; RSD(r) and RSD(R) were below the maximum permitted values for every tested concentration. The specificity was checked by analysing representative blank samples and blank samples fortified with potentially interfering substances (benzimidazoles, corticosteroides, triphenylmethane dyes, quinolones, nitrofurans, nitroimidazoles, phenicols); no interference were found. Concerning quantification, a quadratic regression model was fitted to every calibration curve with a regression coefficient r2 above 0.99 on each data set. Finally, the expanded uncertainty U was calculated with data obtained within the laboratory while applying the method during validation and in routine tests.

  11. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning the 115-F and 117-F facilities at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report contains the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for the 115-F and 117-F facilities at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to provide data useful to UNC engineers in conducting safety and cost comparisons for decommissioning alternatives. The ARCL results are based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for three specific modes of future use of the land and facilities. These modes of use are restricted, controlled, and unrestricted. Information on restricted and controlled use is provided to permit a full consideration of decommissioning alternatives. Procedures are presented for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations and to determine instrument responses for various mixtures of radionuclides. Finally, a comparison is made between existing decommissioning guidance and the ARCL values calculated for unrestricted release of the 115-F and 117-F facilities. The comparison shows a good agreement

  12. Effects of Fetal and Neonatal Murine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Infusion on MicroRNA-145 Expression in Renal Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in MRL/lpr Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C; Liu, X Y; Wan, W Q; Yi, Z W

    2015-10-01

    For patients with refractory systemic lupus erythematosus, current medications are insufficient to control their condition, and new treatments are necessary. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of fetal and neonatal murine peripheral blood (FNPB) mononuclear cells and their impact on microRNA-145 (miR-145) in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of MRL/lpr lupus-prone mice. MRL/lpr mice aged 20 weeks were randomized to 3 groups of 15 (control group, radiation group, infusion group). The renal tissues were subjected to pathological examination. In situ hybridization assay was applied to measure miR-145 expression in renal vessels of MRL/lpr mice. The infusion group had significantly better results for pathological renal tissue lesions than either the control or radiation group. In MRL/lpr mice, there was positive expression of miR-145 in renal VSMCs, although the expression of miR-145 was not discernible in renal vascular intima and adventitia. The miR-145 expression in renal VSMCs in the infusion group was significantly higher than in the control or radiation group, and higher in the radiation group than in the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant. The increased expression of miR-145 in renal VSMCs might be one of the mechanisms supporting FNPB as a therapy for lupus nephritis; it also suggests that the miR-145 in renal vessels might be a new target for treatment of lupus nephritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental exposure to trichloroethylene promotes CD4+ T cell differentiation and hyperactivity in association with oxidative stress and neurobehavioral deficits in MRL+/+ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Doss, Jason C.; Hennings, Leah J.; Jernigan, Stefanie; Melnyk, Stepan; James, S. Jill

    2008-01-01

    The non adult immune system is particularly sensitive to perinatal and early life exposures to environmental toxicants. The common environmental toxicant, trichloroethylene (TCE), was shown to increase CD4+ T cell production of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-γ following a period of prenatal and lifetime exposure in autoimmune-prone MRL+/+ mice. In the current study, MRL+/+ mice were used to further examine the impact of TCE on the immune system in the thymus and periphery. Since there is considerable cross-talk between the immune system and the brain during development, the potential relationship between TCE and neurobehavioral endpoints were also examined. MRL+/+ mice were exposed to 0.1 mg/ml TCE (∼ 31 mg/kg/day) via maternal drinking water or direct exposure via the drinking water from gestation day 1 until postnatal day (PD) 42. TCE exposure did not impact gross motor skills but instead significantly altered social behaviors and promoted aggression associated with indicators of oxidative stress in brain tissues in male mice. The immunoregulatory effects of TCE involved a redox-associated promotion of T cell differentiation in the thymus that preceded the production of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ by mature CD4+ T cells. The results demonstrated that developmental and early life TCE exposure modulated immune function and may have important implications for neurodevelopmental disorders

  14. Determination of pesticide residues in fruits of Nawabshah district, Sindh, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, T.; Ahmad, I.; Tahir, S.

    2011-01-01

    Eight fruit samples of apple, guava, orange, grapes, pear, persimmon, banana and pear purchased from the local markets of Nawabshah district, Sindh and residues of pesticide of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid and organochlorine (OC) (i.e., dichlorvos, fenvalerate, dimethoate, methyl parathion, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, endosulfan, deltamethrin, mevinphos, chlorpyriphos, profenofos and dicofol) were monitored in fruit samples by Gas Chromatography (GC). All the fruit samples were found contaminated except banana and among these only apple samples were found exceeding the maximum residue limits (MRL) of Codex Alimentarius Commission. (author)

  15. Determination of Profenofos Pesticidal Residue in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by Gas Chromatographic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Alen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The determination of profenofos pesticidal residue in the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. by using gas chromatography using flame photometric detector (FPD had been investigated. The lettuce was collected from Padang Luar area, Agam distric, West Sumatera. Sample for determination of profenofos residue divided into three groups: unwashed (A, washed with water (B, and washed with detergent (C. Maceration with sonication was used for the extraction using ethylacetateas a solvent. The results showed that profenofos pesticide residue in sample A, B and C were 0.204, 0.080 and 0.061 ppm, respectively. These profenofos pesticidal residue are over than the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL that established by The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation (0.05 ppm even though World Health Organization (WHO has not established Maximum Residue Limits (MRL profenofos on lettuce. Based on the statistical analysis one-way method (Anova using SPSS 20.0 showed that there was a significant concentrations difference between lettuce A from lettuce B and lettuce C with p < 0.05.

  16. Influence of post-harvest application rates of cyprodinil, treatment time and temperature on residue levels and efficacy in controlling green mould on 'Valencia' oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    The effectiveness of heat treatments with water and cyprodinil in controlling post-harvest green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Valencia' oranges. Residue levels of cyprodinil were determined in the oranges as a function of active ingredient concentration, temperature and treatment time. Cyprodinil residues were significantly dependent on treatment time when applied at 600 mg l(-1) and 20 degrees C, but not when fruit were treated at 150-300 mg l(-1). The application of cyprodinil at 50 or 100 mg l(-1) at 55 degrees C for 30 s produced similar residue levels, while residues increased when the application rate was 150 mg l(-1). Cyprodinil at 100 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C produced a significant increase in residues compared to treatment at 50 mg l(-1); no significant increase in residues was found when the application rate was raised from 100 to 150 mg l(-1). In comparison to treatments performed at 20 degrees C, the application of a heated cyprodinil mixture resulted in significantly higher residues in fruit. All treatments with cyprodinil at 20 degrees C similarly reduced green mould after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. After 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 600 mg l(-1) for 30 s was more effective than at 150-300 mg l(-1). When dip time was extended to 90 or 180 s, treatment efficacy was positively related to fungicide concentration. Treatments with water at 55 degrees C for 30 s were as effective as cyprodinil at 50-100 mg l(-1), but less effective than cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1). After 7 days, treatment with water or cyprodinil at 50-150 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C were equally effective in controlling green mould; while, after 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1) was consistently more effective than at 50-100 mg l(-1) or hot water alone.

  17. Multi-residue method for the determination of antibiotics and some of their metabolites in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Compte, Albert; Álvarez-Muñoz, Diana; Rodríguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damià

    2017-06-01

    The presence of antibiotics in seafood for human consumption may pose a risk for consumers. A methodology for the analysis of antibiotics in seafood based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction, followed by detection and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method was evaluated for the determination of 23 antibiotics (including parent compounds and some metabolites) in fish, mussels and clams. Recoveries ranged between 30% and 70% for most of the compounds and method detection and quantification limits (MDLs and MQLs) were between 0.01 and 0.31 ng/g dry weigh (dw) and 0.02-1.03 ng/g (dw) respectively. Real seafood samples were analysed using this method. Nine antibiotics were found at levels above MDLs; however none of them exceed the maximum residue limits (MRL) established by the authorities. Tetracycline was the most ubiquitous compound, presenting also the highest concentration: 5.63 ng/g (dw) in fish from Netherlands. In addition, an alternative technique based on microbial growth inhibition was explored as semiquantitative detection method of antibiotics in seafood. This methodology could be applied as a fast screening technique for the detection of macrolides and β-lactams in seafood but further research is needed for other antibiotics families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Nanobalance (EQCN) Based Biosensor for Sensitive Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhand, Sunil; Mishra, Geetesh K

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (EQCN), which provides real-time analysis of dynamic surface events, is a valuable tool for analyzing biomolecular interactions. EQCN biosensors are based on mass-sensitive measurements that can detect small mass changes caused by chemical binding to small piezoelectric crystals. Among the various biosensors, the piezoelectric biosensor is considered one of the most sensitive analytical techniques, capable of detecting antigens at picogram levels. EQCN is an effective monitoring technique for regulation of the antibiotics below the maximum residual limit (MRL). The analysis of antibiotic residues requires high sensitivity, rapidity, reliability and cost effectiveness. For analytical purposes the general approach is to take advantage of the piezoelectric effect by immobilizing a biosensing layer on top of the piezoelectric crystal. The sensing layer usually comprises a biological material such as an antibody, enzymes, or aptamers having high specificity and selectivity for the target molecule to be detected. The biosensing layer is usually functionalized using surface chemistry modifications. When these bio-functionalized quartz crystals are exposed to a particular substance of interest (e.g., a substrate, inhibitor, antigen or protein), binding interaction occurs. This causes a frequency or mass change that can be used to determine the amount of material interacted or bound. EQCN biosensors can easily be automated by using a flow injection analysis (FIA) setup coupled through automated pumps and injection valves. Such FIA-EQCN biosensors have great potential for the detection of different analytes such as antibiotic residues in various matrices such as water, waste water, and milk.

  19. Novel potentiometric sensors for the determination of the dinotefuran insecticide residue levels in cucumber and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Ghany, Maha F; Hussein, Lobna A; El Azab, Noha F

    2017-03-01

    Five new potentiometric membrane sensors for the determination of the dinotefuran levels in cucumber and soil samples have been developed. Four of these sensors were based on a newly designed molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material consisting of acrylamide or methacrylic acid as a functional monomer in a plasticized PVC (polyvinyl chloride) membrane before and after elution of the template. A fifth sensor, a carboxylated PVC-based sensor plasticized with dioctyl phthalate, was also prepared and tested. Sensor 1 (acrylamide washed) and sensor 3 (methacrylic acid washed) exhibited significantly enhanced responses towards dinotefuran over the concentration range of 10 -7 -10 -2 molL -1 . The limit of detection (LOD) for both sensors was 0.35µgL -1 . The response was near-Nernstian, with average slopes of 66.3 and 50.8mV/decade for sensors 1 and 3 respectively. Sensors 2 (acrylamide non-washed), 4 (methacrylic acid non-washed) and 5 (carboxylated-PVC) exhibited non-Nernstian responses over the concentration range of 10 -7 -10 -3 molL -1 , with LODs of 10.07, 6.90, and 4.30µgL -1 , respectively, as well as average slopes of 39.1, 27.2 and 33mV/decade, respectively. The application of the proposed sensors to the determination of the dinotefuran levels in spiked soil and cucumber samples was demonstrated. The average recoveries from the cucumber samples were from 7.93% to 106.43%, with a standard deviation of less than 13.73%, and recoveries from soil samples were from 97.46% to 108.71%, with a standard deviation of less than 10.66%. The sensors were applied successfully to the determination of the dinotefuran residue, its rate of disappearance and its half-life in cucumbers in soil in which a safety pre-harvest interval for dinotefuran was suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the effect of washing and boiling on the levels of pesticide residues in vegetables cultivated in Akuapem North Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opare-Boafo, Maame Serwa

    2016-07-01

    Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and health. Pesticides are extensively used by vegetable farmers in crop production and this may contaminate the crop. Traditional method of washing vegetables prior to consumption has been assumed to reduce pesticide residues. The study seeks to assess the effect of washing with various solutions and with boiling on the concentration of pesticide residues in vegetables and to estimate the potential human health risk associated with pesticide ingestion via vegetable diet using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method. Results of the study indicated that the farmers involved in vegetable farming in the Akwapim North Municipality are in the middle age group and use pesticides in their farming activities. Majority (65%) of them have no formal training in pesticide usage and apply pesticides in mixtures made of combinations of up to four (4) pesticides in a single tank mixture. The farmers do not use any protective clothing and stores agrochemicals in multipurpose storage structures together with food containers and farm implements. As a result of pesticide exposure, 67% of farmers experienced various kinds of discomfort including headache, tingling or burning of skin, irritation of eyes or skin. Chloropyrifos residue was the only pesticide residue that gave positive detection in the analysed vegetable samples. The raw (non-spiked) vegetable samples (cabbage, lettuce and squash) had 0.29 mg kg -1 , 0.19 mg kg -1 and 0.14 mg kg -1 of Chloropyrifos residue in cabbage, squash and lettuce respectively. The level of chloropyrifos residues detected in raw cabbage samples from the study area was below the maximum permissible limit (MPLs) of 1 mg/kg (Codex, 2003) but the residues found in raw squash was above the maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/kg and that of lettuce was also above the maximum permissible limit (0.05mg/kg). Washing of vegetables vigorously in water for 2 minutes before

  1. Increased nitration and carbonylation of proteins in MRL +/+ mice exposed to trichloroethene: Potential role of protein oxidation in autoimmunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gangduo; Wang Jianling; Ma Huaxian; Khan, M. Firoze

    2009-01-01

    Even though reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are implicated as mediators of autoimmune diseases (ADs), little is known about contribution of protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) in the pathogenesis of such diseases. The focus of this study was, therefore, to establish a link between protein oxidation and induction and/or exacerbation of autoimmunity. To achieve this, female MRL +/+ mice were treated with trichloroethene (TCE), an environmental contaminant known to induce autoimmune response, for 6 or 12 weeks (10 mmol/kg, i.p., every 4 th day). TCE treatment resulted in significantly increased formation of nitrotyrosine (NT) and induction of iNOS in the serum at both 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, but the response was greater at 12 weeks. Likewise, TCE treatment led to greater NT formation, and iNOS protein and mRNA expression in the livers and kidneys. Moreover, TCE treatment also caused significant increases (∼3 fold) in serum protein carbonyls (a marker of protein oxidation) at both 6 and 12 weeks. Significantly increased protein carbonyls were also observed in the livers and kidneys (2.1 and 1.3 fold, respectively) at 6 weeks, and to a greater extent at 12 weeks (3.5 and 2.1 fold, respectively) following TCE treatment. The increases in TCE-induced protein oxidation (carbonylation and nitration) were associated with significant increases in Th1 specific cytokine (IL-2, IFN-γ) release into splenocyte cultures. These results suggest an association between protein oxidation and induction/exacerbation of autoimmune response. The results present a potential mechanism by which oxidatively modified proteins could contribute to TCE-induced autoimmune response and necessitates further investigations for clearly establishing the role of protein oxidation in the pathogenesis of ADs.

  2. Measurement of ampicillin residue levels in chicken eggs during and after medicated feed administration by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Kouko; Akama, Ryoko; Mizuno, Yasuharu

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of ampicillin (ABPC) in chicken eggs. Residues were extracted by reverse-phase solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reverse-phase column with an elution gradient. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.1 ng g(-1), respectively. For the 0.1-50 ng g(-1) concentration range, mean recovery and accuracy values were 93.9-98.5% and 100.2-118.0%, respectively. ABPC residue concentrations in eggs before, during and after 7 days of medicated feeding of maximum dosage (40 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1)) of ABPC were determined with the LC-MS/MS method. The maximum concentration of ABPC in eggs was 3.6 ± 1.7 ng g(-1) (mean ± SD) on the last day of the administration period. Residue concentrations of ABPC in eggs during and after ABPC administration were not over the Japanese maximum residue limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1).

  3. Evaluation of mechanical vibration effect on the residual stresses levels in steel welded joints using an Interface Matlab based on Norm API 579

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays with the high growth of petrochemical welding technology a great development due to high manufacturing offshore structures, storage tanks of petroleum, boilers and pressure vessels for refining plants have been done. Due to various metallurgical changes and restrictions to contraction and expansion undergone by materials when subjected to welding thermal cycle, internal stresses are generated in welded joint which are nominated residual stresses. It is generally undesirable because it can lead to several problems, such as cracks, cold stress fracture, stress corrosion, among others. Although several studies involving residual stresses have been developed in recent years, few information about the variation of the residual stresses level in welded joints when subjected to stress relief treatment by mechanical vibration have been done. Likewise, there are few information related to the comparison between the degree of efficiency by using the post-weld heat treatment and those treatment. Therefore, the goal of this work was to apply the relieve residual stresses treatment by mechanical vibration in steel welded joints used in oil industry, and compare the results with those obtained by post heat treatment and evaluate the efficiency level of this technique In addition, this works also hope to contribute for a better understanding of this technique and to find which parameters have a greater influence on the results.

  4. Determination of low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen D; Milne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A collaborative study was conducted on a method for the measurement of 11 low-level pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The pesticide residues determined in this study were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Blind fortification solutions containing 3 different levels of pesticide residues were provided to 9 collaborating laboratories to create test samples at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 0.5 microg/L with a 10-fold concentration for phorate in a total of 6 matrixes (2 colas, 1 diet cola, 1 clear lemon-lime soft drink, 1 orange soft drink, and 1 sports drink). Good qualitative performance of the method was demonstrated for all pesticide residues. Reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDR) ranged from 7 to 151% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDR ranged from 9 to 57% for alachlor, atrazine, butachlor isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, methyl paraoxon, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-D in all matrixes. Repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr), applicable to the diet cola and sports drink, ranged from 0 to 124% for the 11 pesticide residues at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate). At 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate), RSDr ranged from 4 to 26%. Recoveries for the 11 pesticide residues in all matrixes ranged from 84 to 300% at the 0.1 microg/L level (1.0 microg/L for phorate) and from 66 to 127% at the 0.5 microg/L (5.0 microg/L for phorate) level. Coefficients of determination (r2) of the matrix-matched calibration curves were > or = 0.95. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC

  5. Qualitative and Quantitative Drug residue analyses: Florfenicol in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and supermarket meat by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shanoy C; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Gentles, Angella; Austin, Galen; Stonum, Paul; Brooks, Tiffanie A; Brooks, Chance; Smith, Ernest E

    2016-10-15

    A method for confirmation and detection of Florfenicol amine residues in white-tailed deer tissues was developed and validated in our laboratory. Tissue samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up on sorbent (Chem-elut) cartridges. Liguid chromatography (LC) separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate in water and methanol at a flow rate of 300μL/min. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography - heated electrospray ionization(HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) interface. The limits of detection (LODs) for HESI and APCI probe were 1.8ng/g and 1.4ng/g respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for HESI and APCI probe were 5.8ng/g and 3.4ng/g respectively. Mean recovery values ranged from 79% to 111% for APCI and 30% to 60% for HESI. The validated method was used to determine white-tailed deer florfenicol tissue residue concentration 10-days after exposure. Florfenicol tissue residues concentration ranged from 0.4 to 0.6μg/g for liver and 0.02-0.05μg/g for muscle and a trace in blood samples. The concentration found in the tested edible tissues were lower than the maximum residual limit (MRL) values established by the federal drug administration (FDA) for bovine tissues. In summary, the resulting optimization procedures using the sensitivity of HESI and APCI probes in the determination of florfenicol in white-tailed deer tissue are the most compelling conclusions in this study, to the extent that we have applied this method in the evaluation of supermarket samples drug residue levels as a proof of principle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Common bean growth, N uptake and seed production in sandy loam soil as affected by application of plant residues, nitrogen and irrigation level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, A.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted at the experimental farm, Inshas, atomic energy authority, egypt. Common bean seeds e.v. Nebrasks were cultivated in sandy loan soil using drip irrigation system prepared for this purpose. Two water regimes, i.e., 100% (793.0 m 3 /fed.) and 65% (513.0 m 3 /fed.) of maximum available water were used in main plots. Where in sub plots two fertilizers types were applied i.e., soybean plant residues which contains N 15 labelled as an organic matter without any addition of any fertilizer and nitrogen as chemical fertilizer without using organic matter. The obtained results indicated that, application of plant residues was superior for total seed yield comparing to nitrogen fertilization treatments. This N source with irrigation level of 793.33 m 3 /fed. had a slight increase in total seed yield comparing with (513.0 m 3 /fed.). Irrigation level of 513.0 m 3 /fed. (65% MAW) as well as application of soybean plant residues showed the highest value of water use efficiency. The highest value of N seed percentage was obtained irrigation level with (513.0 m 3 /fed.). Soybean plant residues improved and increased seeds N content, and total seeds protein content. Both N chemical and irrigation level (65% Maw) recorded highest values with N 15 % atom excess. This result has been obtained at two growth stages and seed yield. The same trend of N 15 % atom excess reflected N utilized with both growth stages and seed yield

  7. SequenceCEROSENE: a computational method and web server to visualize spatial residue neighborhoods at the sequence level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinke, Florian; Bittrich, Sebastian; Kaiser, Florian; Labudde, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    To understand the molecular function of biopolymers, studying their structural characteristics is of central importance. Graphics programs are often utilized to conceive these properties, but with the increasing number of available structures in databases or structure models produced by automated modeling frameworks this process requires assistance from tools that allow automated structure visualization. In this paper a web server and its underlying method for generating graphical sequence representations of molecular structures is presented. The method, called SequenceCEROSENE (color encoding of residues obtained by spatial neighborhood embedding), retrieves the sequence of each amino acid or nucleotide chain in a given structure and produces a color coding for each residue based on three-dimensional structure information. From this, color-highlighted sequences are obtained, where residue coloring represent three-dimensional residue locations in the structure. This color encoding thus provides a one-dimensional representation, from which spatial interactions, proximity and relations between residues or entire chains can be deduced quickly and solely from color similarity. Furthermore, additional heteroatoms and chemical compounds bound to the structure, like ligands or coenzymes, are processed and reported as well. To provide free access to SequenceCEROSENE, a web server has been implemented that allows generating color codings for structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank or structure models uploaded by the user. Besides retrieving visualizations in popular graphic formats, underlying raw data can be downloaded as well. In addition, the server provides user interactivity with generated visualizations and the three-dimensional structure in question. Color encoded sequences generated by SequenceCEROSENE can aid to quickly perceive the general characteristics of a structure of interest (or entire sets of complexes), thus supporting the researcher in the initial

  8. Loss of P2X7 receptor plasma membrane expression and function in pathogenic B220+ double-negative T lymphocytes of autoimmune MRL/lpr mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain M Le Gall

    Full Text Available Lupus is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease influenced by multiple genetic loci including Fas Ligand (FasL and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R. The Fas/Fas Ligand apoptotic pathway is critical for immune homeostasis and peripheral tolerance. Normal effector T lymphocytes up-regulate the transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase B220 before undergoing apoptosis. Fas-deficient MRL/lpr mice (lpr mutation exhibit lupus and lymphoproliferative syndromes due to the massive accumulation of B220(+ CD4(-CD8(- (DN T lymphocytes. The precise ontogeny of B220(+ DN T cells is unknown. B220(+ DN T lymphocytes could be derived from effector CD4(+ and CD8(+ T lymphocytes, which have not undergone activation-induced cell death due to inactivation of Fas, or from a special cell lineage. P2X7R is an extracellular ATP-gated cell membrane receptor involved in the release of proinflammatory cytokines and TNFR1/Fas-independent cell death. P2X7R also regulate early signaling events involved in T-cell activation. We show herein that MRL/lpr mice carry a P2X7R allele, which confers a high sensitivity to ATP. However, during aging, the MRL/lpr T-cell population exhibits a drastically reduced sensitivity to ATP- or NAD-mediated stimulation of P2X7R, which parallels the increase in B220(+ DN T-cell numbers in lymphoid organs. Importantly, we found that this B220(+ DN T-cell subpopulation has a defect in P2X7R-mediated responses. The few B220(+ T cells observed in normal MRL(+/+ and C57BL/6 mice are also resistant to ATP or NAD treatment. Unexpectedly, while P2X7R mRNA and proteins are present inside of B220(+ T cells, P2X7R are undetectable on the plasma membrane of these T cells. Our results prompt the conclusion that cell surface expression of B220 strongly correlates with the negative regulation of the P2X7R pathway in T cells.

  9. Tracking Differential Gene Expression in MRL/MpJ Versus C57BL/6 Anergic B Cells: Molecular Markers of Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Clark

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anergy is a key mechanism controlling expression of autoreactive B cells and a major site for failed regulation in autoimmune diseases. Yet the molecular basis for this differentiated cell state remains poorly understood. The current lack of well-characterized surface or molecular markers hinders the isolation of anergic cells for further study. Global gene profiling recently identified transcripts whose expression differentiates anergic from naïve B cells in model mouse systems. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the molecular and cellular processes that differentiate anergic cells that develop in the healthy C57BL/6 (B6 milieu from those that develop in the autoimmune-prone MRL/MpJ (MRL background. This approach takes advantage of B6 and MRL mice bearing an anti-laminin Ig transgene with a well characterized anergic B cell phenotype.Results: Global gene expression was evaluated in purified transgenic B cells using Operon version 3.0 oligonucleotide microarray assaying 31,000 oligoprobes. Genes with a 2-fold expression difference in B6 as compared to MRL anergic B cells were identified. Expression of selected genes was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. This approach identified 43 probes corresponding to 37 characterized genes, including Ptpn22, CD74, Birc1f/Naip, and Ctla4, as differentially expressed in anergic B cells in the two strains. Gene Ontology classification identified differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, development, apoptosis, and cell death as prominently represented ontology groups. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified two major networks incorporating 27 qualifying genes. Network 1 centers on beta-estradiol and TP53, and Network 2 encompasses RB1, p38 MAPK, and NFkB cell growth, proliferation, and cell cycle signaling pathways.Conclusion: Using microarray analysis we identified 37 characterized genes and two functional pathways engaged in maintenance of B cell anergy for which expression is

  10. Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) from an electronic waste recycling site and a reference site, South China: Influence of residue levels on the isomeric composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Shen; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were examined in common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) and their prey fishes collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and a reference site in South China, to investigate the possible influence of DP residue levels on the isomeric compositions. ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site ranged from 29 to 150 (median of 58) ng/g lipid weight (lw), which were one order of magnitude greater than those from the reference site (median = 3.9 ng/g lw). The isomer fractions of anti-DP (f anti ) in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site (mean of 0.65) were significantly smaller than those from the reference site (0.76). Additionally, the f anti values were negatively correlated to logarithm of ∑DP concentrations in the kingfishers (r 2 = 0.41, p 11 -DP in the kingfishers is likely originated from the diet. ► The f anti values were negatively correlated to DP residue levels in the kingfishers. -- DP residue levels influence the isomeric compositions in the investigated kingfishers

  11. SGR-76 gamma radiation level indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubinskij-Nadezhdin, I.V.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a gamma-radiation level indicator is described; the instrument is part of a mobile radiometric laboratory (MRL). The design of the instrument permits gamma-radiation dose rates recording at 0.2-200 R/hr, and signals on gamma-background levels. The instrument has two separate threshold levels of signalling actuation. The light signalling at the first level is precautionary, and the sound signalling at the second level indicates the necessity of taking a decision as to whether or not the MRL can remain in the gamma-radiation field. Halogenic counters operating in a current mode are used as detectors. The basic error in recording the dose rate amounts to +-25%. Overall dimensions of the instrument 150x280x100 mm; weight less than 2.5 kg

  12. SigniSite: Identification of residue-level genotype-phenotype correlations in protein multiple sequence alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Leon Ivar; Hoof, Ilka; Lund, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Site does not require any pre-definition of subgroups or binary classification. Input is a set of protein sequences where each sequence has an associated real number, quantifying a given phenotype. SigniSite will then identify which amino acid residues are significantly associated with the data set......) using a set of human immunodeficiency virus protease-inhibitor genotype–phenotype data and corresponding resistance mutation scores from the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database, and a data set of protein families with experimentally annotated SDPs. For both data sets, SigniSite was found...

  13. Bioprinting: an assessment based on manufacturing readiness levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Changsheng; Wang, Ben; Zhang, Chuck; Wysk, Richard A; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decade, bioprinting has emerged as a promising technology in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. With recent advances in additive manufacturing, bioprinting is poised to provide patient-specific therapies and new approaches for tissue and organ studies, drug discoveries and even food manufacturing. Manufacturing Readiness Level (MRL) is a method that has been applied to assess manufacturing maturity and to identify risks and gaps in technology-manufacturing transitions. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is used to evaluate the maturity of a technology. This paper reviews recent advances in bioprinting following the MRL scheme and addresses corresponding MRL levels of engineering challenges and gaps associated with the translation of bioprinting from lab-bench experiments to ultimate full-scale manufacturing of tissues and organs. According to our step-by-step TRL and MRL assessment, after years of rigorous investigation by the biotechnology community, bioprinting is on the cusp of entering the translational phase where laboratory research practices can be scaled up into manufacturing products specifically designed for individual patients.

  14. Comparison and evaluation of two methods for the pesticide residue analysis of organophosphates in yerba mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Pareja

    Full Text Available Abstract Microwave Assisted Extraction and a modified CEN-QuEChERS methodology were evaluated as extraction and clean up procedures for the simultaneous analysis of 42 organophosphate pesticides in yerba mate (Ilex paraguaiensis. The obtained extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame photometric detector. Linearity, recovery percentages, relative standard deviations, detection and quantification limits and matrix effects were determined according to DG-SANCO guidelines for both methods. At 0.2 and 0.5 mg/kg the evaluated methods showed percentages recoveries between 70 and 120% for most of the analytes. Using Microwave Assisted Extraction methodology, 33 pesticide residues could be properly analyzed whereas only 27 could be determined with the proposed modified QuEChERS. All relative standard deviation were below 18% except for omethoate and disulfoton sulfone when evaluated by the modified QuEChERS. The limits of detection in both methodologies were 0.2 mg/kg for most of the analyzed compounds. The average detection limit for QuEChERS was 0.04 mg/kg. For 19 of the analytes determined through Microwave Assisted Extraction the lowest validated level were 0.004 mg/kg. Signal suppression/enhancement was observed for most of the pesticides, thus matrix-matched calibration curves were used for quantification. The Microwave Assisted Extraction and QuEChERS procedures studied could detect the organophosphate pesticides above the MRL fixed for "mate" by the European Union. They have been successfully applied for the determination of organophosphate pesticide residues in commercial samples and the positives were confirmed through GC–(ITD-MS.

  15. Rapid gas chromatographic method for the determination of famoxadone, trifloxystrobin and fenhexamid residues in tomato, grape and wine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likas, D T; Tsiropoulos, N G; Miliadis, G E

    2007-05-25

    Trifloxystrobin, fenhexamid and famoxadone belong to the generation of fungicides acting against a broad spectrum of fungi and widely used in Integrated Pest Management strategies in different agricultural crops but mainly in viticulture. In the present work, a gas chromatographic (GC) method for their determination was developed and validated on tomato, grape and wine matrices. The method was based on a simple one step liquid-liquid microextraction with cyclohexane/dichloromethane (9+1, v/v) and determination of fungicides by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous (NP-) and electron capture (EC-) detection, and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) for confirmation. The method was validated by recovery experiments, assessment of matrix effect and calculation of the associated uncertainty. Recoveries for GC-NPD and GC-ECD were found in the range of 81-102% with RSD NPD, respectively, depending on the sensitivity of each compound with trifloxystrobin being the most sensitive. The expanded uncertainty, calculated for a sample concentration of 0.10 mg/kg, ranged from 4.8 to 13% for the GC-ECD and from 5.4 to 29% for the GC-NPD. The concentration levels for famoxadone residues found in tomato and grape samples from field experiments were clearly below the EU established MRL values, thus causing no problems in terms of food safety.

  16. Residues of pharmaceutical products in recycled organic manure produced from sewage sludge and solid waste from livestock and relationship to their fermentation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Miki; Nakagawa, Shuhei; Tanoue, Rumi; Sato, Yuri; Nomiyama, Kei; Shinohara, Ryota

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, sludge generated in sewage treatment plants (STPs) and solid waste from livestock being utilized is useful for circulation of nourishment in farmlands as recycled organic manure (ROM). In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of 12 pharmaceutical products generated by human activity in the ROMs produced from human waste sludge (HWS), sewage sludge (SS), cattle manure (CM), poultry manure (PM), swine manure (SM) and horse manure (HM). The kind and number of pharmaceutical products detected in ROMs were different. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) were detected at high levels in HWS and SS samples. In addition, the detection frequency and concentration levels of sulfonamides (SAs) in PM and SM were high. Moreover, high concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC) were found in only SM. These differences reflect specific adherence adsorption of the pharmaceutical products to different livestock and humans. Moreover, it was found that the concentrations of pharmaceutical products and fermentation levels of ROMs had significant positive correlation (r=0.41, p=0.024). When the fermentation test of ROM was conducted in a rotary fermentor in a lab scale test, the residue levels of pharmaceutical products decreased effectively except carbamazepine (CBZ). The rates of decrease were in the case of tetracyclines (TCs): 85-92%, FQs: 81-100%, erythromycine: 67%, SAs: 79-95%, trimethoprim: 86% and CBZ: 37% by 30 d. Pharmaceutical products that can be decomposed by fermentation process at the lowest impact of residual antibiotic activities may therefore be considered as environmentally friendly medicines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Residue levels of organochlorines and mercury in Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, eggs from the Faiyum Oasis, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullie, W.C. (Wageningen Agricultural Univ. (Netherlands) Foundation for Ornithological Research in Egypt, Belfort (Netherlands)); Massi, A.; Focardi, S.; Renzoni, A. (Universita di Siena (Italy))

    1992-05-01

    In Egypt, the Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis is a common resident bird of the Nile Valley, the southern part of the Nile Delta, and the Suez Canal area. In the 1970s it disappeared as a breeding bird from the greater part of the Nile Delta, as did several other bird species, notably birds of prey. Only in recent years some of the species that had declined are markedly recovering, such as the Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus and the Cattle Egret. There is circumstancial evidence that these birds declined - at least partially - as a result of pesticide use in the main cotton growing areas, but this has never been substantiated. The recent recovery of some bird populations, commencing in the 1980s, coincides with a general shift from the use of organochlorines (except for endrin and HCH which are still in use) towards synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates in Egyptian agriculture: 30 million kg of formulated product annually, of which 70% are applied to cotton. The number of breeding pairs of Cattle Egrets in a well-known colony at Giza (30[degrees].01'N 31[degrees].13'E) steadily declined from 2500 in 1977 to 1100 in 1984. Therefore, it was decided to collect some eggs for residue analysis. Cattle Egrets are not piscivores, such as most other egrets, but mainly insectivores. They feed in agricultural areas and likely are good indicators for pesticide use in these habitats. Based on gizzard contents analysis, Kirkpatrick (1925) concluded that Cattle Egrets in Egypt only occasionally take (semi) aquatic prey, such as toads, and further predominantly Orthoptera and Diptera on arable land. Various studies have been published with respect to pesticides or heavy metals in the Egyptian environment but, surprisingly, birds have been almost completely ignored. The data presented are the first residue analyses of bird eggs from an agricultural area in Egypt, and as such they can be considered as baseline data for future research. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Expression of a new laccase from Moniliophthora roreri at high levels in Pichia pastoris and its potential application in micropollutant degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, Agathe; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Koschorreck, Katja; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2017-12-01

    Laccases have gained significant attention due to their emerging applications including bioremediation, biomass degradation and biofuel cells. One of the prerequisites for the industrial application of laccases is their sufficient availability. However, expression levels of recombinantly expressed laccases are often low. In this study Mrl2, a new laccase from the basidiomycete Moniliophthora roreri, was cloned in Pichia pastoris and produced in an optimized fed-batch process at an exceptionally high yield of 1.05 g l -1 . With a redox potential of 0.58 V, Mrl2 belongs to mid-redox potential laccases. However, Mrl2 demonstrated high k cat values of 316, 20, 74, and 36 s -1 towards 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), syringaldazine (SGZ), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP) and guaiacol, respectively. Mrl2 remained stable above pH 6 and in the presence of many metal ions, which is important for application in bioremediation. Mrl2 was investigated for the ability to degrade endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSDAIs) at neutral pH value. The enzyme accepted and converted estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, the synthetic contraceptive 17α-ethinyl estradiol and bisphenol A at pH 7 faster than high-potential laccases from Trametes versicolor. For example, within 30 min Mrl2 removed more than 90% bisphenol A, 17ß-estradiol, 17α-ethinyl estradiol and estriol, respectively. The concentration of the recalcitrant drug diclofenac dropped by 56% after 20 h incubation with Mrl2.

  19. Pesticide residues in muscles of some marine fish species and seaweeds of Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean), Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Abdurahman; Polat, Sevim; Simsek, Ayşe; Kurt, Tuba Terbiyik; Ozyurt, Gülsün

    2018-02-01

    Pesticide residues in muscles of nine marine fish and four seaweed species of Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean) have been investigated. In sampled fish species, two herbicides, three insecticides, two fungicides, and one synergist were identified and quantified. Metribuzin DADK, propamocarb HCl, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were detected in all the muscles of sampled fish species. Metribuzin DADK was the most abundant pesticide residue in fish muscles and the highest metribuzin DADK concentration was found in sardine (311.20 μg/kg). Propamocarb HCl concentrations varied greatly among species; from 0.530 ± 0.020 μg/kg in striped sea bream to 34.170 μg/kg in sea bass. The level of PBO ranged from 0.001 μg/kg for fourlined terapon to 0.013 μg/kg for sardine. No measurable oxamyl residue was found in any of the muscles of sampled fish species (except sardine). In seaweeds, two herbicides and two insecticides were identified and quantified. Metribuzin DADK was the most abundant and found in Cystoseira corniculata (5.01 mg/kg), Corallina elongata (0.703 mg/kg), and Jania rubens (3.85 mg/kg). Molinate was a minor contaminant and only found in Corallina elongata (0.002 mg/kg). Pyrethrin I was determined only in Padina pavonia to be 0.567 mg/kg. Pyrethrine II was found in Padina pavonia and Corallina elongate to be 1.214 and 0.229 mg/kg, respectively. The most hazardous pesticide residues of organochlorines and organophosphorus were not detected in both sampled fish muscles and seaweeds. There are no clear maximum residue limits for the detected eight pesticide residues declared for fish muscle by European Union MRL (2017). In conclusion, it can be considered that observed concentrations of pesticides in sampled nine marine fish species do not have a potential health risk for consumers. Some of the detected pesticide residues can be toxic for algae and aquatic life and regular monitoring studies are therefore essential to control the pesticide

  20. Investigating the Possibility to Reduce the Residual Stress Level in 2.5D Cutting Using Titanium Coated Carbide Ball End Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Masmiati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available End milling is a multipoint cutting process in which material is removed from a workpiece by a rotating tool. It is widely used in cutting 2.5D profiles such as point-to-point, contouring, and pocketing operations. 2.5D machining possesses the capability to translate in all 3 axes but can perform the cutting operation in only 2 of the 3 axes at a time. This study focuses on optimizing the cutting parameters, such as machined surface inclinationangle, axial depth of cut, spindle speed, and feed rate for better surface integrity, namely, microhardness, residual stress, and microstructure in 2.5D cutting utilizing a titanium-coated carbide ball end mill. An optimization method known as Taguchi optimization, which includes planning, conducting, and analyzing results of matrix experiments, was used in order to achieve the best cutting parameter level. Data analysis was conducted using signal-to-noise (S/N and target performance measurement (TPM response analysis and analysis of variance (Pareto ANOVA. The optimum condition results obtained through analysis show improvements in microhardness of about 0.7%, residual stress in the feed direction of about 18.6%, and residual stress in the cutting direction of about 15.4%.

  1. Determination of Levels of Organochlorine, Organophosphorus, and Pyrethroid Pesticide Residues in Vegetables from Markets in Dar es Salaam by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. M. Mahugija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of pesticides and metabolites in vegetables from major markets in Dar es Salaam city, Tanzania. Samples of fresh cabbage, spinach, and onions from the markets were analysed for pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane : cyclohexane mixture and the extracts were cleaned up using Florisil. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Pesticides and metabolites were detected in 72.2% of the samples. The detected pesticide residues and their highest mean concentrations were p,p′-DDT 4.00 × 10−3 mg/kg, p,p′-DDD 6.40 × 10−1 mg/kg, o,p′-DDD 1.00 × 10−2 mg/kg, α-endosulfan 6.00 × 10−1 mg/kg, β-endosulfan 2.10 × 10−1 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos 3.00 mg/kg, and cypermethrin 4.00 × 10−2 mg/kg. The most frequently detected compounds were p,p′-DDD and chlorpyrifos. The order of contamination was spinach > cabbage > onions. Generally, there were no significant variations in concentrations of pesticide residues among samples and sampling sites, which indicated similarities in contamination patterns. The concentrations of contaminants were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs in 33.3–50% of the samples. The findings indicated risks and concerns for public health.

  2. An Overview on Recent Progress in Electrochemical Biosensors for Antimicrobial Drug Residues in Animal-Derived Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdinasab, Marjan; Yaqub, Mustansara; Rahim, Abdur; Catanante, Gaelle; Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2017-01-01

    Anti-microbial drugs are widely employed for the treatment and cure of diseases in animals, promotion of animal growth, and feed efficiency. However, the scientific literature has indicated the possible presence of antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food, making it one of the key public concerns for food safety. Therefore, it is highly desirable to design fast and accurate methodologies to monitor antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food. Legislation is in place in many countries to ensure antimicrobial drug residue quantities are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) defined on the basis of food safety. In this context, the recent years have witnessed a special interest in the field of electrochemical biosensors for food safety, based on their unique analytical features. This review article is focused on the recent progress in the domain of electrochemical biosensors to monitor antimicrobial drug residues in animal-derived food. PMID:28837093

  3. Determination of pesticide residues in animal origin baby foods by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Graziella; Pelosi, Patrizia; Attard Barbini, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    A simple, fast and multiresidue method for the determination of pesticide residues in baby foods of animal origin has been developed in order to check the compliance with the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) set at a general value of 0.01 mg/kg by Commission Directive 2006/125/EC for infant foods. The main classes of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid compounds have been considered, which are mainly fat soluble pesticides. The analytical procedure consists in the extraction of baby food samples by acetonitrile (ACN) followed by a clean up using C18 solid-phase extraction column eluted with ACN. The compounds were determined by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry equipped with a Programmed Temperature Vaporizer (PTV) injection and a backflush system. In order to compensate for matrix effects PTV and matrix matched standard calibrations have been used. The method has been fully validated for 57 pesticides according to the Document SANCO/12571/2013. Accuracy and precision (repeatability) have been studied by recoveries at two spiking levels, the Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) (0.003-0.008 mg/kg) and 10 time greater (0.03-0.08 mg/kg), and the results were in the acceptable range of 70-120% with Relative Standards Deviations (RSD) ≤20%. Selectivity, linearity, LOQ and uncertainty of measurement were also determined for all the compounds. The method has been also applied for the analysis of 18 baby food animal origin samples, bought form the local market in Rome (Italy), and no pesticide in the scope of the method has been found above the MRL or the LOQ.

  4. Comparison of the residue persistence of trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) on gherkin and soil at two locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Soudamini

    2015-12-01

    Residue study of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole on gherkin was carried out at two locations (Bangalore and Gouribiddunur, India) after applications at the standard and double doses of 75 + 150 and of 150 + 300 g ha(-1) of the formulated product, trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) (Nativo 75 WG). The fungicides were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Extraction and purification of the samples were carried out by Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method after validating the analytical parameters. Initial residues of trifloxystrobin on gherkin fruits were 0.335 and 0.65 mg kg(-1) at Bangalore, and 0.34 and 0.615 mg kg(-1) at Gouribiddunur. Tebuconazole residues were 0.842 and 1.682 mg kg(-1) at Bangalore, and 0.71 and 1.34 mg kg(-1) at Gouribiddunur. Residue dissipation of the fungicides followed first-order rate kinetics. Trifloxystrobin residues dissipated at the half-life of 2.9-3.7 days, and tebuconazole at 3.2 days. At the standard dose treatment, trifloxystrobin residues dissipated to below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.2 mg kg(-1) (European Union) within 3 days at both the locations. Residues of the metabolite CGA 321113 was less than the limit of quantification (LOQ; 0.05 mg kg(-1)) on all sampling days. Tebuconazole residues dissipated to below its MRL (0.05 mg kg(-1)) within 14 and 11 days, at Bangalore and Gouribiddunur, respectively. From the two trials, it was concluded that the required pre-harvest interval (PHI) for the combination formulation was 14 days. Application of Nativo 75 WG should be given before flowering to allow the residues to dissipate below the MRLs at harvest.

  5. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  6. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  7. Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) from an electronic waste recycling site and a reference site, South China: influence of residue levels on the isomeric composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiang; Zou, Fa-Shen; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-03-01

    Dechlorane Plus (DP) isomers were examined in common kingfishers (Alcedo atthis) and their prey fishes collected from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site and a reference site in South China, to investigate the possible influence of DP residue levels on the isomeric compositions. ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site ranged from 29 to 150 (median of 58) ng/g lipid weight (lw), which were one order of magnitude greater than those from the reference site (median = 3.9 ng/g lw). The isomer fractions of anti-DP (f(anti)) in kingfishers from the e-waste recycling site (mean of 0.65) were significantly smaller than those from the reference site (0.76). Additionally, the f(anti) values were negatively correlated to logarithm of ∑DP concentrations in the kingfishers (r(2) = 0.41, p < 0.0001). These results suggested that DP residue levels could influence its isomeric composition in the piscivorous bird. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Overexpression of hydroxynitrile lyase in cassava roots elevates protein and free amino acids while reducing residual cyanogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Narayanan N; Ihemere, Uzoma; Ellery, Claire; Sayre, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    Cassava is the major source of calories for more than 250 million Sub-Saharan Africans, however, it has the lowest protein-to-energy ratio of any major staple food crop in the world. A cassava-based diet provides less than 30% of the minimum daily requirement for protein. Moreover, both leaves and roots contain potentially toxic levels of cyanogenic glucosides. The major cyanogen in cassava is linamarin which is stored in the vacuole. Upon tissue disruption linamarin is deglycosylated by the apolplastic enzyme, linamarase, producing acetone cyanohydrin. Acetone cyanohydrin can spontaneously decompose at pHs >5.0 or temperatures >35°C, or is enzymatically broken down by hydroxynitrile lyase (HNL) to produce acetone and free cyanide which is then volatilized. Unlike leaves, cassava roots have little HNL activity. The lack of HNL activity in roots is associated with the accumulation of potentially toxic levels of acetone cyanohydrin in poorly processed roots. We hypothesized that the over-expression of HNL in cassava roots under the control of a root-specific, patatin promoter would not only accelerate cyanogenesis during food processing, resulting in a safer food product, but lead to increased root protein levels since HNL is sequestered in the cell wall. Transgenic lines expressing a patatin-driven HNL gene construct exhibited a 2-20 fold increase in relative HNL mRNA levels in roots when compared with wild type resulting in a threefold increase in total root protein in 7 month old plants. After food processing, HNL overexpressing lines had substantially reduced acetone cyanohydrin and cyanide levels in roots relative to wild-type roots. Furthermore, steady state linamarin levels in intact tissues were reduced by 80% in transgenic cassava roots. These results suggest that enhanced linamarin metabolism contributed to the elevated root protein levels.

  9. Performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk residues supplemented with various levels of maize flour and wheat bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senzosenkosi Surprise MKHIZE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of supplemented agricultural waste in mushroom cultivation can be one of the environmentally friendly strategies for poverty alleviation. The study evaluated the performance of Pleurotus pulmonarius mushroom grown on maize stalk supplemented with varying levels of wheat bran (WB and maize flour (MF. A completely random design was used for the experiments. It was observed that Pleurotus pulmonarius was significantly affected by varying levels of supplementation, as 20% WB supplementation encountered higher contamination. The lower supplementation levels gave significantly shorter colonisation period with better mycelial growth rate (MGR. The 2% MF, 2% WB and 4% WB gave significantly higher MGR and faster colonisation. The shortest pinning time (TP was observed at the first flush with the minimum of 2 days. Higher supplementation levels gave maximum yield and biological efficiency (BE. With further increase of supplementation above a 12% WB and 14% MF, the BE and yield declined. Lower supplementation levels resulted in quicker colonisation period and improved growth rate, whereas high supplementation gave better production in terms of yield and BE. Therefore, for the purpose of maximum production, 12% WB and 14% MF may be recommended while for fast production time, 2% MF and 2% WB are recommended.

  10. Dietary exposure to tetracycline residues through milk consumption in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalipour, Fathollah; Mirlohi, Maryam; Jalali, Mohammad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-01-01

    The abundant use of tetracycline antibiotics in veterinary medicine may result in the presence of their residues in milk at unsafe concentrations that can adversely affect public health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the risk of tetracycline residue (TET) intake via milk consumption amongst different age groups of human consumers in Iran. To quantify the drug residues, HPLC analysis was performed under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 355 nm. Milk consumption patterns were determined using a recent nutrition survey in Iran. The average concentration of total TETs in milk was determined to be 252.41 μg/kg, which is approximately 2.5 times greater than the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by codex. Of the four different tetracycline antibiotics analyzed, oxytetracyclin had the highest share (86 %) of the determined contamination. Daily exposure to TETs through milk using an average data on milk consumption was estimated to range from 58-62 μg. but, distribution based exposure to TETs in milk appeared as 0-99.3 μg per day. Risk characterization of dietary exposure to TETs residue via milk intake in different age groups showed that considering the standard dietary recommendation that advices on two servings of milk per day (480 ml), consumers may receive 7-30 % of the determined ADI via bovine milk consumption.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of oxytetracycline residues in the bones of broiler chickens following therapeutic oral administration of a water formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odore, R; De Marco, M; Gasco, L; Rotolo, L; Meucci, V; Palatucci, A T; Rubino, V; Ruggiero, G; Canello, S; Guidetti, G; Centenaro, S; Quarantelli, A; Terrazzano, G; Schiavone, A

    2015-08-01

    Tetracyclines, which represent one of the most commonly used antibiotics for poultry, are known to be deposited in bones, where they can remain, despite the observation of appropriate withdrawal times. The aim of the study was to determine the concentration of oxytretracycline (OTC) residues in the bone and muscle of chickens, following the oral administration of a commercially available liquid formulation, and to test their cytotoxic effects on an in vitro cell culture model. Seventy-two 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted into 2 groups (control and treated animals). OTC (40 mg/kg BW) was administered via drinking water during the 1 to 5 and 20 to 25 days of life periods. At the end of the trial, the birds were slaughtered and the OTC residues in the target tissues were measured by means of liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of the bone residues on the K562 erythroleukemic line and on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In all the animals, the OTC residues in the muscle were far below the established MRL of 100 μg/kg. The OTC levels in the bones of the treated animals were instead found in the parts per million (ppm) range. Cell cytotoxicity was assessed by evaluating the pro-apoptotic effect of OTC bone residues on the haematopoietic cell system. This in vitro system has revealed a significant pro-apoptotic effect on both the K562 cell line and PBMC cultures. This result suggests potential human and animal health risks due to the entry of tetracycline residues contained in the bones of treated livestock into the food-chain. This could be of concern, particularly for canine and feline diets, as meat, bone meal, and poultry by-products represent some of the main ingredients of pet foods, especially in the case of dry pet food. Further studies are needed to define the underlying mechanisms of cytotoxicity and to evaluate the in vivo toxicological

  12. Effects of delayed cord clamping on residual placental blood volume, hemoglobin and bilirubin levels in term infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, J S; Erickson-Owens, D A; Collins, J; Barcelos, M O; Parker, A B; Padbury, J F

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study was to measure the effects of a 5-min delay (DCC) versus immediate cord clamping (ICC) on residual placental blood volume (RPBV) at birth, and hemoglobin and serum bilirubin at 24 to 48 h of age. In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 73 women with term (37 to 41 weeks) singleton fetuses were randomized to DCC (⩾5 min; n=37) or ICC (protocol violations. Cord milking was the proxy for DCC (n=11) when the provider could not wait. Infants randomized to DCC compared with ICC had significantly less RPBV (20.0 versus 30.8 ml kg -1 , Phemoglobin levels (19.4 versus 17.8 g dl -1 , P=0.002) at 24 to 48 h, with no difference in bilirubin levels. Term infants had early hematological advantage of DCC without increases in hyperbilirubinemia or symptomatic polycythemia.

  13. Biomass Production and Soil Carbon Level Changes in Various Tillage, Residue Management, and Cropping Systems in Moderately High Organic Matter Soils in Eastern South Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, H. J.; Bly, A.

    2003-12-01

    A four-year replicated field study was conducted in eastern South Dakota to assess the impact of maize (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop residue accumulation and soil carbon when various tillage, crop residue management, and crop rotation scenarios were applied. Before planting, half the plots were chisel plowed and harrowed (tilled vs. no-till treatments). Corn-soybean, soybean-wheat, or corn-wheat-soybean rotations were established (rotation treatments). After grain harvest, crop residues were removed on half of the plots (residue-removed vs. residue-retained treatments). The range of initial soil carbon levels (loss by ignition method) for the 0-15cm depth was 1.7-3.0%. Post-harvest crop residue accumulation was greatest for the residue-retained treatment compared to the residue-removed treatment and for the no-till treatment compared to the tilled treatment. In addition, surface biomass accumulation was greatest when maize was part of a crop rotation. Maize can produce greater levels of biomass compared to either spring wheat or soybean. The least surface biomass accumulation was measured in the soybean-wheat rotation.

  14. Acclimation to Low Level Exposure of Copper in Bufo arenarum Embryos: Linkage of Effects to Tissue Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Silvia Pérez-Coll

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The acclimation possibilities to copper in Bufo arenarum embryos was evaluated by means of three different low level copper exposure conditions during 14 days. By the end of the acclimation period the copper content in control embryos was 1.04 ± 0.09 μg.g-1 (wet weight while in all the acclimated embryos a reduction of about 25% of copper was found. Thus copper content could be considered as a biomarker of low level exposure conditions. Batches of 10 embryos (by triplicate from each acclimation condition were challenged with three different toxic concentrations of copper. As a general pattern, the acclimation protocol to copper exerted a transient beneficial effect on the survival of the Bufo arenarum embryos. The acclimation phenomenon could be related to the selection of pollution tolerant organisms within an adaptive process and therefore the persistence of information within an ecological system following a toxicological stressor.

  15. The defect level and ideal thermal conductivity of graphene uncovered by residual thermal reffusivity at the 0 K limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yangsu; Xu, Zaoli; Xu, Shen; Cheng, Zhe; Hashemi, Nastaran; Deng, Cheng; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-06-14

    Due to its intriguing thermal and electrical properties, graphene has been widely studied for potential applications in sensor and energy devices. However, the reported value for its thermal conductivity spans from dozens to thousands of W m(-1) K(-1) due to different levels of alternations and defects in graphene samples. In this work, the thermal diffusivity of suspended four-layered graphene foam (GF) is characterized from room temperature (RT) down to 17 K. For the first time, we identify the defect level in graphene by evaluating the inverse of thermal diffusivity (termed "thermal reffusivity": Θ) at the 0 K limit. By using the Debye model of Θ = Θ0 + C× e(-θ/2T) and fitting the Θ-T curve to the point of T = 0 K, we identify the defect level (Θ0) and determine the Debye temperature of graphene. Θ0 is found to be 1878 s m(-2) for the studied GF and 43-112 s m(-2) for three highly crystalline graphite materials. This uncovers a 16-43-fold higher defect level in GF than that in pyrolytic graphite. In GF, the phonon mean free path solely induced by defects and boundary scattering is determined as 166 nm. The Debye temperature of graphene is determined to be 1813 K, which is very close to the average theoretical Debye temperature (1911 K) of the three acoustic phonon modes in graphene. By subtracting the defect effect, we report the ideal thermal diffusivity and conductivity (κideal) of graphene presented in the 3D foam structure in the range of 33-299 K. Detailed physics based on chemical composition and structure analysis are given to explain the κideal-T profile by comparing with those reported for suspended graphene.

  16. Detection of residues in urine and tissues of sheep treated with trace levels of dietary ractopamine HCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ractopamine HCl was fed to sheep at 0 (Z), 0.001 (L), 0.01 (M), or 0.1 (H) mg/kg of diet (n = 4 per level, 0.5 kg of feed/day) for seven consecutive days and urine was collected daily about ~16 h post exposure. On-site lateral flow assays were able to reliably (0% false negatives) detect 20 ng of r...

  17. Levels of persistent organic pollutants and residual pattern of DDTs in small cetaceans from the coast of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogui, G T; Santos, M C O; Bertozzi, C P; Montone, R C

    2010-10-01

    The State of São Paulo is the most developed area in Brazil and was impacted by persistent organic pollutants for several decades. This study investigated organochlorines in five species of small cetaceans (Pontoporia blainvillei, Stenella frontalis, Sotalia guianensis, Tursiops truncatus and Steno bredanensis) found dead along the coast of São Paulo between 1997 and 2003. DDTs (15.9 μg g(-1) lipid; mean for all pooled individuals) and PCBs (8.08 μg g(-1)) exhibited the highest concentrations in the animals, reflecting large amounts formerly used in Brazil. Lower levels of mirex (0.149 μg g(-1)), HCB (0.051 μg g(-1)), CHLs (0.008 μg g(-1)) and HCHs (0.007 μg g(-1)) were detected in all species. Residual pattern of DDTs in dolphins suggests that o,p'-DDT is more recalcitrant than p,p'-DDT in the body of the animals and/or the environment. In contrast to p,p'-DDT, residues of o,p'-DDT seem to be preferentially converted into o,p'-DDD rather than o,p'-DDE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Residu Zeranol dalam Daging Sapi yang Diimpor dari Australia dan Selandia Baru Melalui Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok (ZERANOL RESIDUE IN BEEF MEAT IMPORTED FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND THROUGH THE PORT OF TANJUNG PRIOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khadijah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeranol is one of the synthetic growth hormone produced from mycotoxin that could affect humanhealth. The objective of this study was to determine zeranol residue in beef meat imported from Australiaand New Zealand using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The results showed that zeranolresidue was detected in 5 of 59 meat samples (8,5 % of Australia and 1 of 59 meat samples (1,7 % of NewZealand, with mean concentration of 0,644±0,157 ppb and 0.680±0.00 ppb, respectively. There were nosignificant differences in the concentration of zeranol residue between the meat from both countries(p>0,005. In addition the concentration of zeranol residue was below the National Standardization Agencyof Indonesia Maximum Residue Limit (MRL which is 2 ppb.

  19. The relative contribution of waves, tides, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels on U.S. West Coast sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Stockdon, Hilary F.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand how individual processes combine to cause flooding and erosion events, we investigate the relative contribution of tides, waves, and nontidal residuals to extreme total water levels (TWLs) at the shoreline of U.S. West Coast sandy beaches. Extreme TWLs, defined as the observed annual maximum event and the simulated 100 year return level event, peak in Washington, and are on average larger in Washington and Oregon than in California. The relative contribution of wave-induced and still water levels (SWL) to the 100 year TWL event is similar to that of the annual maximum event; however, the contribution of storm surge to the SWL doubles across events. Understanding the regional variability of TWLs will lead to a better understanding of how sea level rise, changes in storminess, and possible changes in the frequency of major El Niños may impact future coastal flooding and erosion along the U.S. West Coast and elsewhere.

  20. The use of multilevel modeling and the level two residual file to explore the relationship between middle years programme student performance and diploma programme student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Melissa; Bergeron, Liz

    2015-03-01

    Multilevel modeling has recently found a substantial niche in the context of educational research, although several details about the methodological application of these models have yet to be explored in an achievement data framework. This paper makes use of data provided by the International Baccalaureate (IB) in order to investigate modeling decisions and certain applications of the level two residual file in an effort to increase understanding about the way linear and logistic multilevel models function. The focus of this research is on the relationship between performances in two IB programmes: the Middle Years Programme (MYP) and the Diploma Programme (DP). The impact of predictors on the interpretation of the unconditional and conditional variance-covariance matrix as well as the reliability coefficients is discussed. Empirical findings suggest that students who perform better during MYP moderation tend to perform better on DP exams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and assessment of pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor for kresoxim methyl residues in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, Rupali; Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Utture, Sagar C; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Adsule, Pandurang G; Deshmukh, Madhukar B

    2014-04-01

    A field dissipation study was conducted to evaluate the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor (PF) for kresoxim methyl (Ergon 44.3 SC) residues in grapes and during raisin making process at recommended dose (RD) and double the recommended dose (DRD). Kresoxim methyl residues dissipated following 1st-order kinetics with a half-life of 10 and 18 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The PHIs with respect to the European Union maximum residue limit (EU-MRL) of 1 mg kg(-1) for grapes were 13 and 30 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The degradation data during grape to raisin making process were best fitted to nonlinear 1st + 1st-order kinetics with a half-life ranging between 4 and 8 days for both shade drying and with raisin dryer at different doses. The PFs were 1.19 and 1.24 with shade drying and 1.09 and 1.10 with raisin dryer, respectively, which indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making process. The dietary exposure of kresoxim methyl on each sampling day was less than the respective maximum permissible intake both at RD and DRD. The residues of kresoxim methyl in market samples of grapes and raisins were well below the EU-MRL and were also devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure.

  2. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  3. Hearing loss without overt metabolic acidosis in ATP6V1B1 deficient MRL mice, a new genetic model for non-syndromic deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cong; Gagnon, Leona H; Longo-Guess, Chantal; Korstanje, Ron; Sheehan, Susan M; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Schrader, Angela D; Lett, Jaclynn M; Johnson, Kenneth R

    2017-10-01

    Mutations of the human ATP6V1B1 gene cause distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA; OMIM #267300) often associated with sensorineural hearing impairment; however, mice with a knockout mutation of Atp6v1b1 were reported to exhibit a compensated acidosis and normal hearing. We discovered a new spontaneous mutation (vortex, symbol vtx) of Atp6v1b1 in an MRL/MpJ (MRL) colony of mice. In contrast to the reported phenotype of the knockout mouse, which was developed on a primarily C57BL/6 (B6) strain background, MRL-Atp6v1b1vtx/vtx mutant mice exhibit profound hearing impairment, which is associated with enlarged endolymphatic compartments of the inner ear. Mutant mice have alkaline urine but do not exhibit overt metabolic acidosis, a renal phenotype similar to that of the Atpbv1b1 knockout mouse. The abnormal inner ear phenotype of MRL- Atp6v1b1vtx/vtx mice was lost when the mutation was transferred onto the C57BL/6J (B6) background, indicating the influence of strain-specific genetic modifiers. To genetically map modifier loci in Atp6v1b1vtx/vtx mice, we analysed ABR thresholds of progeny from a backcross segregating MRL and B6 alleles. We found statistically significant linkage with a locus on Chr 13 that accounts for about 20% of the hearing threshold variation in the backcross mice. The important effect that genetic background has on the inner ear phenotype of Atp6v1b1 mutant mice provides insight into the hearing loss variability associated with dRTA caused by ATP6V1B1 mutations. Because MRL-Atp6v1b1vxt/vtx mice do not recapitulate the metabolic acidosis of dRTA patients, they provide a new genetic model for nonsyndromic deafness with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA; OMIM #600791). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in Lembang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides to control plant diseases may cause residual formation in crops, its byproduct and environmental. Furthermore, the use of agriculture byproduct as animal feed may cause poisoning or residual formation in animal products. The purpose of this study is to investigate of pesticide residues in brain tissues of dairy cattle in relation to animal feed as a contamination source. Samples consisted of animal feeds (19 samples of fodder and 6 samples of feed, 31 samples of sera and 25 samples of brain tissues of dairy cattle collected from Lembang, West Java. Feeds and fodders were collected from dairy farms located in Lembang. Sera were directly collected from 31 heads of Frisien Holstein (FH cattle from the same location, while brain tissues of FH cattle were collected from a local animal slaughtering house. Pesticide residues were analysed using gas chromatography (GC. Both residues of organochlorines and organophosphates were detected from brain tissues with average residue concentration OP was 22.7 ppb and OC was 5.1 ppb and a total residue was 27.8 ppb. The pesticide residues in brain tissues are new information that should be taken into consideration since the Indonesian consumed this tissues as an oval. Although pesticides residue concentration was low, pathological changes were noted microscopically from the brain tissues including extracellular vacuolisation, focal necrosis, haemorrhages, dilatation of basement membrane without cellular infiltration. Both pesticide residues were also detected in sera, where OP (9.0 ppb was higher than OC (4.9 ppb. These pesticides were also detected in animal feeds consisting fodders and feeds. Residues of OP (12.0 ppb were higher than OC (1.8 ppb in feeds, but residues of OP (16.8 ppb were lower than OC (18.7 ppb in fodders. Although, pesticide residues in sera and brain tissues were below the maximum residue limits (MRL of fat, the presence of pesticides in brain tissues should be taken

  5. Trained and consumer panel evaluation of sparkling wines sweetened to brut or demi sec residual sugar levels with three different sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kenneth M; Diako, Charles; Aplin, Jesse; Mattinson, D Scott; Culver, Caleb; Ross, Carolyn F

    2017-09-01

    The dosage liquid, added at the final stage of sparkling wine production, imparts residual sweetness to the wine. No study has yet analyzed the influence of dosage composition on the final wine's sensory profile or consumer acceptance. In this study, dosage composition was altered through the addition of different sugar types (ST; fructose, glucose, or sucrose) to produce seven sparkling wines of varying residual sugar levels (RSL), including no sugar added, brut (5.3-8.4gST/L) or demi sec (34.9-37.8gST/L). As evaluated by a trained panel (n=9), the interaction between ST and RSL influenced the perception of caramelized/vanilla/honey (CVH) flavor, sweet taste, and sour taste attributes (pConsumers (n=126) also evaluated the sparkling wines and ST, RSL, and their interaction influenced consumer acceptance of different attributes, as well as the perception of the "refreshing" aspect of the wine (pconsumer acceptance of sparkling wines was highly correlated (r 2 ≤0.88) to CVH, floral, and fruity flavors, as well as sweet taste and creamy mouthfeel. External preference mapping revealed two clusters of consumers. Both consumer clusters liked wines sweetened with fructose, but Cluster 1 liked the demi sec sparkling wine sweetened with fructose (32.8g/L fructose) while Cluster 2 preferred the brut wine sweetened with fructose (8.4g/L fructose). These results suggest that consumer preference for sparkling wine was segmented based on sweetness preference. The results of this study offer winemakers knowledge about the influence of dosage composition on the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved Screening Test for Idiopathic Infantile Hypercalcemia Confirms Residual Levels of Serum 24,25-(OH)2 D3 in Affected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Martin; Morse, Nicole; Molloy, Billy Joe; Cooper, Donald P; Schlingmann, Karl Peter; Molin, Arnaud; Kottler, Marie Laure; Gallagher, J Christopher; Armas, Laura; Jones, Glenville

    2017-07-01

    CYP24A1 mutations are now accepted as a cause of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia (IIH). A rapid liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based blood test enabling measurement of the 25-OH-D 3 :24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 ratio (R) can identify IIH patients on the basis of reduced C24-hydroxylation of 25-OH-D 3 by CYP24A1 in vivo. Although values of this ratio are significantly elevated in IIH, somewhat surprisingly, serum 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 remains detectable. The current study explores possible explanations for this including: residual CYP24A1 enzyme activity in individuals with certain CYP24A1 genotypes, expression of alternative C24-hydroxylases, and the possibility of isobaric contamination of the 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 peak on LC-MS/MS. We employed an extended 20-min run time on LC-MS/MS to study serum vitamin D metabolites in patients with IIH due to mutations of CYP24A1 or SLC34A1; in unaffected heterozygotes and dialysis patients; in patients with vitamin D deficiency; as well as in normal subjects exhibiting a broad range of 25-OH-D levels. We identified 25,26-(OH) 2 D 3 as a contaminant of the 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 peak. In normals, the concentration of 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 greatly exceeds 25,26-(OH) 2 D 3 ; however, 25,26-(OH) 2 D 3 becomes more significant in IIH with CYP24A1 mutations and in dialysis patients, where 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 levels are low when CYP24A1 function is compromised. Mean R in 30 IIH-CYP24A1 patients was 700 (range, 166 to 2168; cutoff = 140) as compared with 31 in 163 controls. Furthermore, patients possessing CYP24A1 L409S alleles exhibited higher 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 levels and lower R (mean R = 268; n = 8) than patients with other mutations. We conclude that a chromatographic approach which resolves 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 from 25,26-(OH) 2 D 3 produces a more accurate R that can be used to differentiate pathological states where CYP24A1 activity is altered. The origin of the residual serum 24,25-(OH) 2 D 3 in IIH patients appears to be

  7. Effects of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy with idarubicin and high dose cytarabine on minimal residual disease levels in newly diagnosed adult precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Bradstock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An intensive induction regimen, consisting of idarubicin and high dose cytarabine, was assessed in 19 adult patients, median age 44 years, with newly diagnosed precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Patients achieving a complete response (CR were given an attenuated consolidation course. The primary endpoints were induction death rate and incidence of serious non-hematological toxicity. Grades 3–4 diarrhoea occurred in 47% of patients during induction. Two patients (11% died during induction therapy, and 2 were withdrawn due to resistant disease or prolonged marrow hypoplasia. Fifteen patients achieved CR (79%, but levels of minimal residual disease (MRD after induction were comparable with those previously observed using a modified pediatric protocol. Overall survival at 5 years was 36.8% while leukemia-free survival was 44.1%. An intensive AML protocol used in adults with ALL resulted in substantial toxicity and provided similar levels of cytoreduction to conventional ALL protocols, without improving long-term outcomes.

  8. Abelson interactor-1 (ABI-1) interacts with MRL adaptor protein MIG-10 and is required in guided cell migrations and process outgrowth in C.elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, Molly A.; Schmidt, Kristopher L.; Dubuke, Michelle L.; Baldiga, Christina E.; Sullender, Meagan E.; Reis, Andrea L.; Zhang, Subaiou; O'Toole, Sean M.; Jeffers, Mary C.; Warden, Rachel M.; Kenney, Allison H.; Gosselin, Jennifer; Kuhlwein, Mark; Hashmi, Sana K.; Stringham, Eve G.; Ryder, Elizabeth F.

    2012-01-01

    Directed cell migration and process outgrowth are vital to proper development of many metazoan tissues. These processes are dependent on reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in response to external guidance cues. During development of the nervous system, the MIG-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) signaling proteins are thought to transmit positional information from surface guidance cues to the actin polymerization machinery, and thus to promote polarized outgrowth of axons. In C. elegans, mutations in the MRL family member gene mig-10 result in animals that have defects in axon guidance, neuronal migration, and the outgrowth of the processes or ‘canals’ of the excretory cell, which is required for osmoregulation in the worm. In addition, mig-10 mutant animals have recently been shown to have defects in clustering of vesicles at the synapse. To determine additional molecular partners of MIG-10, we conducted a yeast two hybrid screen using isoform MIG-10A as bait and isolated Abelson-interactor protein-1 (ABI-1). ABI-1, a downstream target of Abl non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is a member of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) involved in the initiation of actin polymerization. Further analysis using a co-mmunoprecipitation system confirmed the interaction of MIG-10 and ABI-1 and showed that it requires the SH3 domain of ABI-1. Single mutants for mig-10 and abi-1 displayed similar phenotypes of incomplete migration of the ALM neurons and truncated outgrowth of the excretory cell canals, suggesting that the ABI-1/MIG-10 interaction is relevant in vivo. Cell autonomous expression of MIG-10 isoforms rescued both the neuronal migration and the canal outgrowth defects, showing that MIG-10 functions autonomously in the ALM neurons and the excretory cell. These results suggest that MIG-10 and ABI-1 interact physically to promote cell migration and process outgrowth in vivo. In the excretory canal, ABI-1 is thought to act downstream of UNC-53/NAV2, linking this large

  9. [Residual levels in air, soil and soil-air exchange of organochlorine pesticides in Hami region of Xinjiang and its potential ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Long; Mao, Xiao-Xuan; Ding, Zhong-Yuan; Gao, Hong; Huang, Tao; Tian, Hui; Guo, Qiang

    2013-03-01

    The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in soil and air of urban/rural/forestry centre locations in the Hami region of Xinjiang were monitored for a year by passive atmospheric sampling in order to study the residual levels and air-soil exchange and evaluate ecological risk. The study results showed that the annual average concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in the air of Hami were 107.1 pg x m(-3) and 43.9 pg x m(-3), respectively, and the concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in summer and autumn were generally higher than those in winter and spring. It was deduced that the HCHs and DDTs tended to evaporate into the air because of the higher temperatures in summer and autumn. For OCPs in the air of study area, HCHs were dominanted the main pollution compared with DDTs. Meanwhile, alpha-HCH contributed the largest portion among all HCHs isomers, and p,p'-DDE dominated the residual levels of DDTs. Moreover, the values of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH were in the range of 3 to 7, which indicated that the use of technical HCHs or the long distance atmosphere transport of HCHs may play a significant role for HCHs in the air of Hami region. Furthermore, ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs were in the range of 0.4-0.9, 71.4% of which were higher than 0.5, indicating that DDTs in the air were mainly from historical usage and no new DDTs sources emerged in Hami recently. The concentrations of HCHs and DDTs in soil were between 0.344-6.954 ng x g(-1) and 0.104-26.397 ng x g(-1), respectively, which did not exceed the National Soil Quality Standard Level I. In addition, DDTs predominated in soil OCPs, in which beta-HCH accounting for a huge percentage in HCHs isomers, while o,p'-DDT predominated in pollution caused by DDTs isomers. From study results, it was also suggested that the important cause of DDTs residues in soil of Hami area could be the recent inputs of new sources since the value of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs were lower than 0.5. The sources of HCHs and DDTs in soil and atmosphere were not consistent

  10. High levels of DDT in breast milk: Intake, risk, lactation duration, and involvement of gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Kylin, Henrik; Sereda, Barbara; Bornman, Riana

    2012-01-01

    We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the highest ΣDDT level ever reported for breast milk from South Africa (140 mg/kg mf). Understanding the causes for these differences would be informative for exposure reduction intervention. The Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI) for DDT by infants, and the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) were significantly exceeded. DDT had no effect on duration of lactation. There were indications (not significant) from DDT-sprayed villages that first-born female infants drink milk with more ΣDDT than first-born male infants, and vice versa for multipara male and female infants, suggesting gender involvement on levels of DDT in breast milk – requiring further investigation. - Highlights: ► The highest ΣDDT in breast milk ever found in South Africa is reported. ► Maximum Residue Limit is exceeded, up to 99 times. ► Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake is exceeded, up to 310 times. ► High ΣDDT did not affect duration of lactation. ► Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk. - High levels of DDT in breast milk from a DDT-spayed area exceeded known limits in milk, but did not affect duration lactation. Infant gender may affect levels of ΣDDT in breast milk.

  11. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  12. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy prediction indexes and residue depletion of antibacterial drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Anadón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetics behaviour of the antibacterial in food producing animals, provides information on the rates of absorption and elimination, half-life in plasma and tissue, elimination pathways and metabolism. The dose and the dosing interval of the antimicrobial can be justified by considering the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD relationship, if established, as well as the severity of the disease, whereas the number of administrations should be in line with the nature of the disease. The target population for therapy should be well defined and possible to identify under field conditions. Based on in vitro susceptibility data, and target animal PK data, an analysis for the PK/PD relationship may be used to support dose regimen selection and interpretation criteria for a clinical breakpoint. Therefore, for all antibacterials with systemic activity, the MIC data collected should be compared with the concentration of the compound at the relevant biophase following administration at the assumed therapeutic dose as recorded in the pharmacokinetic studies. Currently, the most frequently used parameters to express the PK/PD relationship are Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/MIC, %T > MIC (fraction of time in which concentration exceeds MIC and AUC/MIC (area under the inhibitory concentration– time curve/MIC. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters provide the first indication of the potential for persistent residues and the tissues in which they may occur. The information on residue depletion in food-producing animals, provides the data on which MRL recommendations will be based. A critical factor in the antibacterial medication of all food-producing animals is the mandatory withdrawal period, defined as the time during which drug must not be administered prior to the slaughter of the animal for consumption. The withdrawal period is an integral part of the regulatory authorities’ approval process and is designed to ensure that no

  13. Assessment of hemato-biochemical parameters on exposure to low level of deltamethrin in mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Tewari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, sub-acute toxicity of deltamethrin on hematological and biochemical blood parameters of male albino Swiss mice was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Generally, the maximum permissible residue level (MRL of deltamethrin for food products lies between 0.01 to 0.5 mg/kg body weight. So the mice were exposed orally with two doses of pesticide i.e. 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg body weight. The doses were given on a daily basis for a period of 15 days and 30 days respectively. Ground nut oil was used as control treatment. Samples of blood were collected at the end of the treatment. Hepatotoxicity was evaluated by quantitative analysis of the serum enzymes alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP, total bilirubin (TBIL and serum urea. Alterations of hematological parameters were analysed by total leukocyte, differential leukocyte count and hemoglobin levels. Results: Significant increase in the levels of hepatic enzymes (ALT, AST, ALKP were observed for both doses, but no considerable differences were found by histological analysis. The hematological parameters showed significant alterations for 0.5 mg/kg body weight dose which is indicated by leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and neutropenia in long duration study. Conclusions: The results indicated that even very low dose of deltamethrin can promote hematological and hepatic alterations. Thus it is imperative to do further studies on the detrimental effect of the low levels of pyrethroid commonly present in our food, which further necessitate the reduction of maximum permissible levels of residual synthetic pyrethroid levels in foods and feed.

  14. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  15. Determination of pesticide residues in leafy vegetables at parts per billion levels by a chemometric study using GC-ECD in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Yang; Abdullah, Md Pauzi; Bibi, Nusrat; Khalik, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd

    2017-06-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method has been developed employing gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD), and validated for screening and quantification of 15 pesticide residues at trace levels in cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, spinach, and mustard. The method consists of two steps, first, to determine the significance of each factor by Pareto chart followed by optimization of these significant factors using central composite design (CCD). Minitab statistical software was used for these multivariate experiments for the generation of 2 4-1 design and CCD matrices. The method evaluation was done by external standard calibration with linearity range between 0.5 and 3mg/kg, with correlation coefficient 0.99, limit of detection (LOD) ranges between 0.02 and 4.5ng/g, and limit of quantification (LOQ) ranges between 0.2 and 45ng/g. The average recovery was between 60% and 128%, with RSD 0.2-19.8%. The method was applied on real vegetable samples from Cameron Highlands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation of a methodology multi-residue for the determination of pesticides residuals in strawberry (fragraria spp.) by gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano Garces, Mauricio; Guerrero Dallos, Jairo Arturo

    2001-01-01

    This study describes the validation of multi-residue analytical methodology for the simultaneous determination of 19 organ chlorine, organophosphorus and organ nitrogen pesticides in strawberry. Pesticides residues were extracted from strawberry samples with ethyl acetate, the extracts were cleaned-up by GPC, the quantitative analysis was carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (GC) with a pulsed splitless injection mode and simultaneous detection by m-ECD and NPD coupled in parallel. The methodology is specific, selective, and accurate and robust the calibration curves in matrix matched analytical standards show linearity over the concentration range of 0.04-5.00 mg/kg with limits of detection and quantitation between 0.007-0.5 mg/kg and 0.01-1.00 mg/kg respectively. The recovery experiments yielding averages between 80-110% for most of the pesticides. The distribution of analyze in the laboratory sample was evaluated and it was found its homogeneity. The methodology was applied in field samples and was mainly found Captan residues below MRL

  17. Analysis of 27 antibiotic residues in raw cow's milk and milk-based products--validation of Delvotest® T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bion, Cindy; Beck Henzelin, Andrea; Qu, Yajuan; Pizzocri, Giuseppe; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Buffoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Delvotest® T was evaluated for its capability at detecting residues of 27 antibiotics in raw cow's milk and in some dairy ingredients (skimmed and full-cream milk powders). The kit was used as a screening tool for the qualitative determination of antibiotics from different families in a single test. Results delivered by such a method are expressed as 'positive' or 'negative', referring to the claimed screening target concentration (STC). Validation was conducted according to the European Community Reference Laboratories' (CRLs) residues guidelines of 20 January 2010 and performed by two laboratories, one located in Europe and the other in Asia. Five criteria were evaluated including detection capability at STC, false-positive (FP) rate, false-negative (FN) rate, robustness and cross-reactivity using visual reading and Delvoscan®. STCs were set at or below the corresponding maximum residue limit (MRL), as fixed by European Regulation EC No. 37/2010. Four antibiotics (nafcillin, oxytetracycline, tetracycline and rifaximin) out of 27 had a false-negative rate ranging from 1.7% to 4.9%; however, it was still compliant with the CRLs' requirements. Globally, Delvotest T can be recommended for the analysis of the surveyed antibiotics in raw cow's milk, skimmed and full-cream milk powders. Additional compounds were tested such as sulfamethazine, spiramycin and erythromycin; however, detection at the corresponding MRL was not achievable and these compounds were removed from the validation. Other drugs from the sulfonamide, aminoglycoside or macrolide families not detected by the test at the MRL were not evaluated in this study. Regarding the reliability of this rapid test to milk-based preparations, additional experiments should be performed on a larger range of compounds and samples to validate the Delvotest T in such matrices.

  18. Doses de boro e água residuária na produção do girassol Levels of boron and wastewater in production of sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Amilton Santos Junior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade hídrica de qualidade tem se tornado em todo o mundo, um dos principais entraves à expansão das fronteiras agrícolas. Dentro deste contexto o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de boro e da irrigação com dois tipos de água, residuária e de abastecimento, nos componentes de produção do girassol (Helianthus annuus L. cv. EMBRAPA 122/V-2000. A pesquisa foi realizada em ambiente protegido da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, analisados em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 sendo cinco doses de boro (0 - testemunha; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 mg L-1 combinados com dois tipos de água de irrigação (R - residuária e AB - abastecimento, com três repetições. A análise estatística compreendeu análises de variância (teste F e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey para comparar os fatores qualitativos em 0,05 de probabilidade. Verificou-se que as doses de boro e tipos de água utilizados não influenciaram nenhuma variável ligada à produção de aquênios; no entanto, a irrigação com água residuária influenciou positivamente as variáveis fitomassa fresca e seca das folhas, do caule e da parte aérea, todas ligadas à produção de forragem.The availability of water of quality has become worldwide, a major constraint to expanding agricultural frontiers. Within this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of boron doses and irrigation with two types of water, wastewater and municipal supply water, on yield components of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. EMBRAPA 122/V-2000. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in a randomized block design, analyzed in a 5 x 2 factorial with five B of boron (0; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 mg L-1 combined with two types of irrigation water (R - wastewater and AB - municipal supply water with three replications. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance

  19. Permissible level of toxaphene residues in fish from the German market based on in vivo and in vitro effects to tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Perihan; Friess, Albrecht; Parlar, Harun

    2008-07-01

    Toxaphene is a chlorinated pesticide consisting of more than 200 congeners that are mainly chlorobornanes and chlorocamphenes. As the congeners exhibit different stability properties in the environment, only between 20 and 30 compounds can be observed in, e.g., fish, which are represented by technical toxaphene as a mixture. In human body, the congeners Parlar #26, #40, #41, #44, #50, and #62 are detected frequently. Three of them, #26, #50, and #62, pose a potential risk to human health due to their persistent characteristic. By using experimental results of a European Union study (MATT, 2000. Investigation into the Monitoring, Analysis and Toxicity of Toxaphene in Marine Foodstuffs, European Union, Brussels, Final report, FAIR CT PL.96.3131. Investigation into the Monitoring, Analysis and Toxicity of Toxaphene in Marine Foodstuffs), a reference dose related to tumor promotion was calculated for these representative persistent toxaphene congeners. In Germany, the sum of the congeners #26, #50, and #62 is defined as the official standard for toxaphene residues in food. In this work, different fish samples obtained from German markets were studied regarding their contamination with toxaphene congeners, presented either in sum, or as single constitutes. The obtained data were used to define the acceptable total concentration of the sum of Parlar #26, #50, and #62 with regard to prevention of tumor promotion in human. The results showed that the currently existing permissible level of the sum of these congeners (0.1 mg/kg) is higher than the acceptable concentration in fish samples determined by this work and calculated at ca. 0.090 mg/kg. It is therefore recommended to improve the permissible level of toxaphene in German food samples.

  20. Determination Residues of Penicillin G and Cloxacillin in Raw Cow Milk Using Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dračková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to study the use of Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FTNIR combined with the partial least square (PLS method for determining the residues of penicillin and cloxacillin in raw milk. The spectra were measured in the reflectance mode with transflectance cell in the spectral range of 10,000 – 4,000 cm-1 with 100 scans. Calibration models were developed. They were assessed statistically based on correlation coefficients (R and standard errors of calibration (SEC. For penicillin, the following values were established: R = 0.951 and SEC = 0.004. For cloxacillin, they were R = 0.871 and SEC = 0.007. These calibration models were verified later with cross-validation. Better results were obtained in the calibration and validation models that were developed on milk samples coming from one farm. Using FT-NIR, the maximum residue limit (MRL of cloxacillin in milk can be determined. However, standard errors of calibration and validation for penicillin G exceed the fixed MRL. FT-NIR spectroscopy is not a suitable method for accurate determination of these substances in raw milk. Variability in milk composition has a major influence on detection of substances present at very low concentrations.

  1. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  2. Effects of graded levels of cupric citrate on growth performance, antioxidant status, serum lipid metabolites and immunity, and tissue residues of trace elements in weaned pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Cai Peng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cupric citrate (CuCit on growth performance, antioxidant indices, serum lipid metabolites, serum immune indices, and tissue residues of copper (Cu, zinc, and iron in weaned pigs. Methods A total of 180 weaned pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White with an average body weight of 8.98±1.21 kg were randomly assigned to a corn-soybean meal control ration, or 4 similar rations with 30, 60, 120, or 240 mg/kg Cu as CuCit. All diets contained 10 mg/kg Cu as cupric sulfate from the vitamin-mineral premix. The experiment was divided into two phases: 0 to 14 d (phase 1 and 15 to 28 d (phase 2. Results Average daily gain (ADG; linearly, p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI; linearly and quadratically, p<0.05 were affected by an increase in CuCit during phase 2. Overall period, ADG (p<0.05 and ADFI (p<0.01 were linearly increased with increasing dietary levels of CuCit. Serum malondialdehyde concentrations (p<0.05 and glutathione peroxidase activity (p<0.01 linearly decreased and increased respectively with an increase in CuCit. Serum levels of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase were linearly affected with an increase in CuCit (p<0.01. Hepatic malondialdehyde levels decreased with an increase in CuCit (linearly and quadratically, p<0.01. Serum total cholesterol concentrations were quadratically affected (p<0.05 and decreased in pigs fed Cu as CuCit at 60 and 120 mg/kg and increased in pigs fed 240 mg/kg Cu as CuCit. Serum high-density lipoprotein concentrations were linearly affected with an increase in CuCit (p<0.01. Serum IL-1β levels were quadratically affected (p<0.05 by dietary treatment. Compared with other treatments, 240 mg/kg Cu from CuCit quadratically increased hepatic (p<0.01 and renal (p<0.05 Cu concentrations, and quadratically decreased hepatic and renal iron concentrations (p<0.05. Conclusion Cu administered in the form of CuCit at a dosage range of 30 to 60 mg/kg, effectively

  3. High-Throughput Analytical Techniques for the Determination of the Residues of 653 Multiclass Pesticides and Chemical Pollutants in Tea, Part VII: A GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, and LC-MS/MS Study of the Degradation Profiles of Pesticide Residues in Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qiao-Ying; Pang, Guo-Fang; Fan, Chun-Lin; Chen, Hui; Yang, Fang; Li, Jie; Wen, Bi-Fang

    2016-11-01

    GC-MS, GC-tandem MS (MS/MS), and LC-MS/MS were used to mathematically define the degradation profiles of pesticide residues in two field trials. Nineteen pesticides were studied in the first field trial and 11 in the second. The results of the field trials demonstrated that the degradation profiles of pesticide residues in green tea can be described with power functions to successfully estimate the amount of time, following pesticide application, pesticide residues appearing in tea in concentrations at and/or above the maximum residue limit (MRL) decrease to concentrations below the MRL. Stability tests on green tea samples stored at room temperature were conducted to determine whether pesticide-incurred green tea samples prepared according to the method used in the field trials would be suitable for the preparation of reference standards for laboratory-proficiency testing trials. This paper reports the results of a GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, and LC-MS/MS study, as well as the suitability of the samples prepared under these conditions for use as pesticide reference standards in tea analysis.

  4. Quantitative analysis of tylosin in eggs by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: residue depletion kinetics after administration via feed and drinking water in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamscher, Gerd; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Tansakul, Natthasit; Kietzmann, Manfred

    2006-11-29

    Maximum residue limits (MRLs) have been established by the European Union when tylosin is used therapeutically. They are fixed at 200 microg/kg for eggs. A highly sensitive and selective quantitative liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) method suitable for monitoring tylosin residues in eggs to determine its depletion kinetics was developed and validated. For sample pretreatment all samples were liquid-liquid extracted with citrate buffer (pH 5.0) and acetonitrile. Liquid chromatographic separation was carried out on a reversed phase C18 column employing a 0.5% formic acid/acetonitrile gradient system. The tylosin recovery in eggs at a concentration range from 1.0-400 microg/kg was >82% with relative standard deviations between 1.5 and 11.0%. In two experimental studies administrating tylosin via feed (final dosage: 1.5 g/kg) or drinking water (final dosage: 0.5 g/L), no residues above the MRL were found during and after treatment. Moreover, all samples were well below the actual MRL of 200 microg/kg. Therefore, our residue data suggest that a withholding period for eggs is not required when laying hens are treated with tylosin in recommended dosages via feed or drinking water. Tylosin; residue; depletion; laying hen; withholding period; mass spectrometry.

  5. Chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and transfers during duck pellet feed processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Wei, Wei; He, Liang; Hao, Lili; Ji, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphorus pesticide in agricultural crops (including food) and animal feeds in China, resulting in heavy contamination. Many studies have focused on the food-processing effects on chlorpyrifos removal, but sufficient information is not observed for feed-processing steps. Here, chlorpyrifos residual behaviors in field crops and its transfers in duck pellet feed-processing steps were evaluated. In field trials, the highest residues for rice grain, shelled corn, and soybean seed were 12.0, 0.605, and 0.220 mg/kg, respectively. Residues of all rice grain and about half of shelled corn exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China, and five soybean seeds exceeded the MRL of China. Chlorpyrifos residue was reduced 38.2% in brown rice after the raw rice grain was hulled. The residue in bran increased 71.2% after milling from brown rice. During the squashing step, the residue reduced 73.8% in soybean meal. The residues reduced significantly (23.7-36.8%) during the process of granulating for rice, maize, and soybean products. Comparatively, the grinding process showed only limited influence on chlorpyrifos removal (residues of duck pellet feeds produced from highly contaminated raw materials of this study were 1.01 mg/kg (maize-soybean feed) and 3.20 mg/kg (rice-soybean feed), which were much higher than the generally accepted value (>0.1 mg/kg) for animal feeding. Chlorpyrifos residues were removed significantly by processing steps of pellet feeds, but the residue of raw materials was the determining factor for the safety of duck feeding.

  6. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  7. Pesticide residue levels in strawberry processing by-products that are rich in ellagitannins and an assessment of their dietary risk to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sójka

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the pesticide residue contents in strawberry by-products are higher than in fresh fruits, the suggested doses of the by-products are lower. Therefore, the dietary risk to consumers from strawberry by-products is comparable to that from fresh fruits.

  8. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Residual effect of injectable moxidectin against lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes in calves exposed to high pasture infectivity levels in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eysker, M.; Boersema, J.H.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Kloosterman, A.; Kooyman, F.N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The residual effect of a 0.2 mg kg−1 injectable formulation of moxidectin against lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle was studied in a grazing experiment in the Netherlands. Five groups of four calves were grazed between May and October 1991 and one similar group was used as

  10. Residual replacement strategies for Krylov subspace iterative methods for the convergence of true residuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in

  11. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  12. Reducing residual stresses and deformations in selective laser melting through multi-level multi-scale optimization of cellular scanning strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Sankhya; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    Residual stresses and deformations continue to remain one of the primary challenges towards expanding the scope of selective laser melting as an industrial scale manufacturing process. While process monitoring and feedback-based process control of the process has shown significant potential......, there is still dearth of techniques to tackle the issue. Numerical modelling of selective laser melting process has thus been an active area of research in the last few years. However, large computational resource requirements have slowed the usage of these models for optimizing the process.In this paper......, a calibrated, fast, multiscale thermal model coupled with a 3D finite element mechanical model is used to simulate residual stress formation and deformations during selective laser melting. The resulting reduction in thermal model computation time allows evolutionary algorithm-based optimization of the process...

  13. Validation of a Five Plate Test, the STAR protocol, for the screening of antibiotic residues in muscle from different animal species according to European Decision 2002/657/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, V; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Verdon, E

    2010-07-01

    The STAR protocol is a Five Plate Test (FPT) developed several years ago at the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for the screening of antimicrobial residues in milk and muscle. This paper presents the validation of this method according to European Decision 2002/657/EC and to an internal guideline for validation. A validation protocol based on 'simulated tissues' and on a list of 16 representative antimicrobials to be validated was implemented in our laboratory during several months for the STAR protocol. The performance characteristics of the method were determined (specificity, detection capabilities CCbeta, applicability, ruggedness). In conclusion, the STAR protocol is applicable to the broad-spectrum detection of antibiotic residues in muscles of different animal species (pig, cattle, sheep, poultry). The method has good specificity (false-positive rate = 4%). The detection capabilities were determined for 16 antibiotics from different families in relation to their respective maximum residue limit (MRL): beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins sensitivity of the STAR protocol towards aminoglycosides (> 8 MRL) and florfenicol (MRL). The two objectives of this study were met: firstly, to validate the STAR protocol according to European Decision 2002/657/EC, then to demonstrate that the validation guideline developed to implement this decision is applicable to microbiological plate tests even for muscle. The use of simulated tissue appeared a good compromise between spiked discs with antibiotic solutions and incurred tissues. In addition, the choice of a list of representative antibiotics allowed the reduction of the scope of the validation, which was already costly in time and effort.

  14. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  15. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 11 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks. The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alachlor, atrazine, butachlor, isoproturon, malaoxon, monocrotophos, paraoxon-methyl, phorate, phorate sulfone, phorate sulfoxide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) when spiked at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate). Samples were filtered (if particulate matter was present), degassed (if carbonated), and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitation was performed with matrix-matched external standard calibration solutions. The standard curve range for this assay was 0.0750 to 10.0 microg/L. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficient of determination (r2) values greater than or equal to 0.9900 with the exception of 2 values that were 0.9285 and 0.8514. Fortification spikes at 0.100 microg/L (1.00 microg/L for phorate) over the course of 2 days (n=8 each day) for 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=48): 94.4 (15.2) for alachlor, 98.2 (13.5) for atrazine, 83.1 (41.6) for butachlor, 89.6 (24.5) for isoproturon, 87.9 (24.4) for malaoxon, 96.1 (9.26) for monocrotophos, 101 (25.7) for paraoxon-methyl, 86.6 (20.4) for phorate, 101 (16.5) for phorate sulfone, 93.6 (25.5) for phorate sulfoxide, and 98.2 (6.02) for 2,4-D.

  16. Estratégias de amostragem para determinação do nitrato residual no solo após o cultivo do tomateiro adubado em sulcos = Sampling strategies for determining residual nitrate soil levels after growing tomatoes in fertilized furrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles de Araújo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes critérios para o manejo da adubação nitrogenada e do posicionamento de amostragem para a quantificação do N-NO3 residual no solo foi determinado após o cultivo do tomateiro adubado por sulcos. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, no campo sem proteção, com aplicação de adubo sólido e irrigação por sulcos. Em cada experimento, os tratamentos foram arranjados em parcela subdivida, com dez critérios para o manejo da adubação nitrogenada na parcela e posições de amostragem do solo na subparcela. Esses foram arranjados no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso. Foi determinado o teor de N-NO3 no solo de amostras retiradas no final do ciclo de cada experimento, em diferentes posições. Em todos os experimentos o teor de N-NO3 residual no solo foi proporcional àquantidade de N aplicada nos diferentes critérios. Em condições de campo sem proteção e fertilizante nitrogenado aplicado em sulco, a melhor estratégia de amostragem do solo para a determinação do teor de N-NO3 residual foi obtida pela utilização de amostra composta tomada em posições sobre o sulco e entre o sulco e as plantas.Management of nitrogen fertilizer programs and sampling strategies to determine the levels of N-NO3 in the soil after growing tomatoes in fertilized furrows were studied. Two groups were studied, one without protection and another grown in an irrigated furrow in which a solid nitrogen fertilizer had been applied. In each plot, 10 treatments or criteria were evaluated. In each experiment, the treatments were arranged in a split-plot design, with 10 different nitrogen fertilizer conditions as the main treatment and soil sampling positions in a split-plot treatment. The sampling positions were arranged in a randomized complete block design. Soil N-NO3 levels were determined at the end of each sampling cycle. In all groups, residual soil N-NO3 levels were proportional to the amount of N applied. In fields without

  17. Efeito do processamento industrial e doméstico de alimentos nos níveis de resíduos de agrotóxicos / Effect of industrial and household food processing on pesticide residues levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziara da Costa Cabrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resíduos de agrotóxicos em alimentos representam um grande risco para a saúde pública, devido aos efeitos nocivos que podem causar. Devido à utilização de agrotóxicos na produção de alimentos, bem como por meio de contaminação ambiental, os resíduos podem ser encontrados em alimentos frescos, cozidos e processados. A maioria dos alimentos é consumida após o processamento industrial ou doméstico, como a lavagem, remoção da casca, tratamentos térmicos ou esterilização. Vários estudos têm mostrado que estes processos podem, em alguns casos, reduzir os níveis de resíduos. A eficiência de remoção de resíduos depende do processamento envolvido e das propriedades físico-químicas dos agrotóxicos, tais como estabilidade e interação com o alimento. Esta revisão tem como objetivo destacar os resultados de estudos dos efeitos de diversos processos sobre os níveis de resíduos de agrotóxicos em diferentes alimentos, especialmente a eficiência de remoção dos compostos. Esta informação é útil para avaliar a possibilidade de minimizar o risco de exposição do consumidor aos resíduos de agrotóxicos nos alimentos, tornando-se uma importante ferramenta para a segurança alimentar. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Pesticide residues in food pose a great risk to public health due to the harmful effects they can cause. Due to the use of pesticides in food production, as well as through environmental contamination, residues can be found in fresh, cooked and processed foodstuffs. Most food is consumed after industrial or household processing, such as washing, peeling, thermal treatments and sterilization. Several studies have shown that these procedures may, in some cases, reduce residue levels. The efficiency of residues removal depends on the processing involved and the physicochemical properties of pesticides, such as stability and interaction with food. This

  18. On conditional residual lifetime and conditional inactivity time of k-out-of-n systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavangar, Mahdi; Bairamov, Ismihan

    2015-01-01

    In designing structures of technical systems, the reliability engineers often deal with the reliability analysis of coherent systems. Coherent system has monotone structure function and all components of the system are relevant. This paper considers some particular models of coherent systems having identical components with independent lifetimes. The main purpose of the paper is to study conditional residual lifetime of coherent system, given that at a fixed time certain number of components have failed but still there are some functioning components. Different aging and stochastic properties of variables connected with the conditional residual lifetimes of the coherent systems are obtained. An expression for the parent distribution in terms of conditional mean residual lifetime is provided. The similar result is obtained for the conditional mean inactivity time of the failed components of coherent system. The conditional mean inactivity time of failed components presents an interest in many engineering applications where the reliability of system structure is important for designing and constructing of systems. Some illustrative examples with given particular distributions are also presented. - Highlights: • Comparisons of conditional residual lifetime of k-out-of-n systems are derived. • The behavior of the coherent system is explored for IHR distributions. • The parent distribution is expressed in terms of conditional MRL and MIT. • Some illustrative examples are given to clarify the results of the paper.

  19. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  20. Determination of florfenicol residues in broiler meat and liver samples using RP-HPLC with UV-visible detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Asma; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Ali, Asghar; Muhammad, Faqir; Raza, Ahmad; Sindhu, Zia-ud-Din

    2016-03-15

    Broilers are vulnerable to various types of microorganisms, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in multiple infections. Broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs such as florfenicol (FF) are widely used in the treatment of such infections. Suspected residues of these drugs in body tissues of treated birds can be passed to humans through meat consumption and thus lead to serious ill effects on human health. The present study was designed to estimate the presence of FF residues in broiler meat and liver samples. The mean residual concentrations of FF in broiler meat and liver samples were 311.42 ± 186.56 and 2585.44 ± 1759.71 µg kg(-1) respectively, which are higher than their respective maximum residual limits (MRLs). The results showed that 126 and 24 samples were FF-positive and FF-negative respectively. Of the positive samples, 84 and 42 samples were above and below the MRL respectively. The results indicate the presence of FF residues in broiler meat and liver samples. Usage of this contaminated meat causes resistance in consumers and poses a public health threat. Thus there is a need to educate farmers about the ill effects of residual drugs on human health and their withdrawal times in poultry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Níveis de resíduos de praguicidas organoclorados em produtos cárneos sob inspeção federal Levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat products inspected by the federal government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pessoa de Paula Carvalho

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de evidenciar a freqüência e os níveis de resíduos de praguiddas organoclorados, foram analisadas 445 unidades amostrais de matéria prima (gordura bovina provenientes de carcaças de bovinos de frigoríficos e 132 unidades amostrais de carne bovina já processada (enlatados, tais como "corned beef" e "roast beef". Apresentaram-se com resíduos de praguicidas acima dos limites de tolerância estipulados, 77 unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 5 de produto processado. Resíduos de praguiddas, sem contudo ultrapassar os limites de tolerância, foram identificados em, praticamente, todas as amostras, sendo que 27% das unidades amostrais de gordura bovina e 10,6% de produto processado apresentaram resíduos de praguicidas em violação aos limites estabelecidos na legislação. Heptacloro, BHC e Dieldrin foram os praguiddas mais freqüentes e Lindane e DDT os menos evidenciados.To bring attention to the frequency and the levels of organochlorine pesticide residue in meat, 445 samples of raw material (bovine fat from bovine carcasses collected from meat packing plants and 132 samples of preserved meat (canned, such as corned or roast beef were analyzed. Seventy-seven samples of bovine fat and 8 of preserved meat were discovered to have pesticide residue above the maximum acceptable limits. Pesticide residue was found in practically all the samples without, however, exceeding the acceptable limits. Twenty-seven percent of the bovine fat samples and 10.6% of the preserved meat contained residue above the legal tolerance levels. Heptachlor, BHC, and Dieldrin were the most frequent; Lindane and DDT, the least.

  2. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  3. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Drooge, Barend; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-05-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for summation operator PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and summation operator PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE.

  4. An accurate, residue-level, pair potential of mean force for folding and binding based on the distance-scaled, ideal-gas reference state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Liu, Song; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhou, Yaoqi

    2004-02-01

    Structure prediction on a genomic scale requires a simplified energy function that can efficiently sample the conformational space of polypeptide chains. A good energy function at minimum should discriminate native structures against decoys. Here, we show that a recently developed, residue-specific, all-atom knowledge-based potential (167 atomic types) based on distance-scaled, finite ideal-gas reference state (DFIRE-all-atom) can be substantially simplified to 20 residue types located at side-chain center of mass (DFIRE-SCM) without a significant change in its capability of structure discrimination. Using 96 standard multiple decoy sets, we show that there is only a small reduction (from 80% to 78%) in success rate of ranking native structures as the top 1. The success rate is higher than two previously developed, all-atom distance-dependent statistical pair potentials. Applied to structure selections of 21 docking decoys without modification, the DFIRE-SCM potential is 29% more successful in recognizing native complex structures than an all-atom statistical potential trained by a database of dimeric interfaces. The potential also achieves 92% accuracy in distinguishing true dimeric interfaces from artificial crystal interfaces. In addition, the DFIRE potential with the C(alpha) positions as the interaction centers recognizes 123 native structures out of a comprehensive 125-protein TOUCHSTONE decoy set in which each protein has 24,000 decoys with only C(alpha) positions. Furthermore, the performance by DFIRE-SCM on newly established 25 monomeric and 31 docking Rosetta-decoy sets is comparable to (or better than in the case of monomeric decoy sets) that of a recently developed, all-atom Rosetta energy function enhanced with an orientation-dependent hydrogen bonding potential.

  5. Disponibilidad de agua, nitrógeno y azufre en barbechos con y sin control de malezas en distintos niveles de residuos Water, nitrogen and sulphur availability in fallows with and without weed control and different residue levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernández

    2009-06-01

    presence, ten experiments with different levels of residue (A: 10,000 kg MS ha-1, M: 5,000 kg MS ha-1, B: less than 2,000 kg MS ha-1 were set up in Haplustolls of the tosca and dune plains in La Pampa and south of Córdoba. Each residue treatment was divided into sub-plots with different weed management: without weed control (malezas and with control (barbecho. Soil texture, bulk density, permanent wilting pint, and organic matter were determined in each site. At the beginning and end of fallow soil water contents, nitrate (N and soluble and adsorbed sulphates (S were measured in samples from 0 -0.2m depth. At all sites the water content at the beginning of fallow was high (between 51 and 100% available water. Despite this, our results showed a positive effect of residue level on water contents at the end of fallow, with a mean difference between A and B of 33%. In weed treatments no effect of residue was observed, and the difference between A and B was 10%. Water contents were more strongly affected by the presence of weeds than by residue level. Available N and S contents showed no effect of residue level, but were strongly affected by weed presence. In weed treatments sunflower seeding would be severely limited by lower available water contents, and the expectable yields would be diminished by 200 kg ha-1 or 600 kg ha-1 due to the lower availability of N and S respectively.

  6. Determination of low-level agricultural residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paske, Nathan; Berry, Bryan; Schmitz, John; Sullivan, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    In this study, sponsored by PepsiCo Inc., a method was validated for measurement of 19 pesticide residues in soft drinks and sports drinks by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with mass selective detection The pesticide residues determined in this validation were alpha-benzenehexachloride (BHC); beta-BHC; gamma-BHC; delta-BHC; methyl parathion; malathion; chlorpyrifos; aldrin; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE); alpha-endosulfan; 4,4-DDE; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD); dieldrin; ethion; 4,4-DDD; 2,4-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDT); beta-endosulfan; 4,4-DDT; and endosulfan sulfate when spiked into a 200 mL matrix sample at 0.50 microg/L. The samples were diluted with acetonitrile and water, then liquid-liquid phase extracted into petroleum ether. The resulting extract was concentrated to near dryness and diluted with hexane:dichloromethane (50:50). The concentrated samples were purified by gel permeation chromatography. The resulting solution was concentrated and separated on a Florisil substrate. The eluent was concentrated to near dryness, reconstituted to produce a 200-fold concentration, and analyzed using a GC/MS instrument operated in the selective ion monitoring mode. The GC/MS instrument was equipped with a large volume injector capable of injecting 25 microL. External standards prepared in dichloromethane were used for quantification without the need for matrix-matched calibration because the extraction step minimized the matrix effects. The calibration curves for all agricultural residues had coefficients of determination (r2) of greater than or equal to 0.9900, with the exception of one value that was 0.988. Fortification spikes at 0.50 microg/L in 3 matrixes (7UP, Gatorade, and Diet Pepsi) over the course of 2 days (4 days for Gatorade), where n=8 each day, yielded average percent recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) as follows (n=64): 95.6 (24.8) for alpha-BHC; 91.9 (23.6) for beta-BHC; 89.1 (21

  7. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  8. A survey and measurement of residues of lindane (organochlorine pesticides) in four species of the most consumed fish in the Caspian Sea (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, A G; Shokrzadeh, M

    2006-02-01

    In this study, samples of four species of the most consumed fish (sefid, koli, kilca and kafal fish) were analysed for concentrations of lindane (organochlorine pesticides). Fish were caught using electric fishing at four sites (Chalous and Babolsar cities, Khazar Abad and Miankaleh regions) in the Mazandaran provinces of Iran. Quantitative determination of the lindane was performed by gas chromatography electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Samples contained detectable concentrations of lindane, but at concentrations below the maximum residue limit (MRL). No differences were found in the lindane concentrations between the types of fish at each site, but there were two groups of sites that were significantly different from one another in terms of lindane concentrations: sites II-IV < site I (P <0.05). However, the concentrations of lindane residues in the muscle were found to be less than the FAO/WHO (1993) recommended permissible intake and should not be of public concern in Mazandaran province.

  9. Predictive role of minimal residual disease and log clearance in acute myeloid leukemia: a comparison between multiparameter flow cytometry and Wilm's tumor 1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Giovanni; Minervini, Maria Marta; Melillo, Lorella; di Nardo, Francesco; de Waure, Chiara; Scalzulli, Potito Rosario; Perla, Gianni; Valente, Daniela; Sinisi, Nicola; Cascavilla, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) as well as the degree of log clearance similarly identifies patients with poor prognosis. No comparison was provided between the two approaches in order to identify the best one to monitor follow-up patients. In this study, MRD and clearance were assessed by both multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and WT1 expression at different time points on 45 AML patients achieving complete remission. Our results by WT1 expression showed that log clearance lower than 1.96 after induction predicted the recurrence better than MRD higher than 77.0 copies WT1/10(4) ABL. Conversely, on MFC, MRD higher than 0.2 % after consolidation was more predictive than log clearance below 2.64. At univariate and multivariate analysis, positive MRD values and log clearance below the optimal cutoffs were associated with a shorter disease-free survival (DFS). At the univariate analysis, positive MRD values were also associated with overall survival (OS). Therefore, post-induction log clearance by WT1 and post-consolidation MRD by MFC represented the most informative approaches to identify the relapse. At the optimal timing of assessment, positive MRD and log-clearance values lower than calculated thresholds similarly predicted an adverse prognosis in AML.

  10. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drooge, Barend van [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Vives, Ingrid [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cardiel, Iris [Instituto de Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos, IREC (CSIC-UCLM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Guitart, Raimon [Laboratory of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: raimon.guitart@uab.cat

    2008-05-15

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for {sigma}PCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and {sigma}PCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors.

  11. Organochlorine residue levels in livers of birds of prey from Spain: Inter-species comparison in relation with diet and migratory patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drooge, Barend van; Mateo, Rafael; Vives, Ingrid; Cardiel, Iris; Guitart, Raimon

    2008-01-01

    Livers from 130 specimens corresponding to 18 species of raptors from Spain were analysed for persistent organochlorine (OC) residues. In all species, p,p'-DDE was the most abundant individual OC compound detected, with geometric means ranging from 61 to 40,086 ng/g ww. The geometric mean for ΣPCB ranged from 225 to 9184 ng/g ww. Migration to Africa, south of Sahara, where p,p'-DDT is still in use, was not associated with higher liver concentrations of its metabolite, p,p'-DDE. The presence of birds in the diet of the species was an important species-specific factor determining the mean liver concentrations of p,p'-DDE and ΣPCB. The effect of the diet on OC concentrations in liver is explained by the lower metabolising capacity of OC compounds in birds, especially for p,p'-DDE. - The contribution of bird biomass in the diet is a determining factor for the accumulation of organochlorines in raptors

  12. Development of computer program ENAUDIBL for computation of the sensation levels of multiple, complex, intrusive sounds in the presence of residual environmental masking noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebich, R. E.; Chang, Y.-S.; Chun, K. C.

    2000-03-31

    The relative audibility of multiple sounds occurs in separate, independent channels (frequency bands) termed critical bands or equivalent rectangular (filter-response) bandwidths (ERBs) of frequency. The true nature of human hearing is a function of a complex combination of subjective factors, both auditory and nonauditory. Assessment of the probability of individual annoyance, community-complaint reaction levels, speech intelligibility, and the most cost-effective mitigation actions requires sensation-level data; these data are one of the most important auditory factors. However, sensation levels cannot be calculated by using single-number, A-weighted sound level values. This paper describes specific steps to compute sensation levels. A unique, newly developed procedure is used, which simplifies and improves the accuracy of such computations by the use of maximum sensation levels that occur, for each intrusive-sound spectrum, within each ERB. The newly developed program ENAUDIBL makes use of ERB sensation-level values generated with some computational subroutines developed for the formerly documented program SPECTRAN.

  13. Multi-residue method for trace level determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabic, Roman; Fick, Jerker; Lindberg, Richard H; Fedorova, Ganna; Tysklind, Mats

    2012-10-15

    A multi-residue method for the simultaneous determination of more than 90 pharmaceuticals in water samples was developed and validated. The developed method utilizes a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) run after sample enrichment using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The pharmaceuticals included in this method were chosen based on their potency (effect/concentration ratio) and potential to bioaccumulate in fish. Because the selection was based on ecotoxicological criteria and not on ease of detection, the pharmaceuticals have a wide range of physico-chemical properties and represent 27 distinct classes. No method for surface, waste water or similar matrices was previously described for 52 of the 100 target analytes. Four chromatographic columns were tested to optimize the separation prior to detection by mass spectrometry (MS). The resulting method utilizes a Hypersil Gold aQ column. Three different water matrices were tested during method validation: Milli-Q water, surface water (river water from the Umea River) and effluent from the Umea waste water treatment plant (WWTP). Four of the selected pharmaceuticals exhibited poor method efficiency in all matrices. Amiodarone, Dihydroergotamine, Perphenazine and Terbutalin were omitted from the final analytical method. In addition, five compounds were excluded from the method for surface water (Atorvastatin, Chloropromazin, Dipyridamol, Furosemid and Ranitidin) and three other pharmaceuticals (Glibenclamid, Glimepirid and Meclozine) from waste water method respectively. Absolute recoveries were above 70% for Milli-Q water, surface water, and sewage effluent for most pharmaceuticals. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.05 to 50 ng L(-1) (median 5 ng L(-1)). The use of matrix-matched standards led to the elimination of ionization enhancement or suppression. The recoveries of the method for real matrices were in the range of 23-134% for surface water (only three compounds were

  14. Impact of Hemoglobin A1c Levels on Residual Platelet Reactivity and Outcomes After Insertion of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (from the ADAPT-DES Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel M.; Dangas, George D.; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    that included PRU, high HbA1c levels (>8.5) remained associated with ST (hazard ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.29 to 12.66, p = 0.02) and cardiac death (hazard ratio 4.24, 95% CI 1.41 to 12.70) but not bleeding at 2-year follow-up. There was no association between aspirin reaction units >550 and HbA1c levels....... In conclusion, in this large-scale study, HbA1c and HPR were positively associated, but the clinical effect on adverse outcome was driven by poor glycemic control, which predicted ST and cardiac death after PCI regardless of PRU levels, warranting efforts to improve glycemic control after DES implantation...

  15. Dynamics of mycotoxin and Aspergillus flavus levels in aging Bt and non-Bt corn residues under Mississippi no-till conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Hamed K; Accinelli, Cesare; Zablotowicz, Robert M; Abel, Craig A; Bruns, H Arnold; Dong, Yanhong; Shier, W Thomas

    2008-08-27

    Mycotoxin and Aspergillus flavus levels in soil-surface corn debris left by no-till agriculture methods (stover, cobs, and cobs with grain) were determined during the December-March fallow period for near-isogenic Bt and non-Bt hybrid corn. By December, average mycotoxin levels in non-Bt corn were many times higher in cobs with grain than in grain harvested in September (total aflatoxins, 774 vs 211 ng/g; total fumonisins, 216 vs 3.5 microg/g; cyclopiazonic acid, 4102 vs 72.2 microg/g; zearalenone, 0.2 vs corn debris fractions decreased during winter but began to rise in March. Levels of all mycotoxins and A. flavus propagules were lower in harvested grain and debris from Bt than non-Bt corn, but differences were significant (p < 0.05) only for aflatoxins.

  16. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Abdul; Kashif, Natasha; Kifayat, Nasira; Ahmad, Shabeer

    2016-09-01

    The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9. Out of 80 samples only 4 samples were positive for antibiotic residues. The highest concentrations of antibiotic residue found in these tissues were tetracycline (8%) followed by ampicilin (4%), streptomycine (2%) and aminoglycosides (1%) as compared to other antibiotics like sulfonamides, neomycine and gentamycine. It was concluded that these microorganism at these pH levels could be effectively used for detection of antibiotic residues in poultry meat.

  18. Deep residual networks of residual networks for image super-resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueqi; Yang, Fumeng; Wu, Congzhong

    2017-11-01

    Single image super-resolution (SISR), which aims at obtaining a high-resolution image from a single low-resolution image, is a classical problem in computer vision. In this paper, we address this problem based on a deep learning method with residual learning in an end-to-end manner. We propose a novel residual-network architecture, Residual networks of Residual networks (RoR), to promote the learning capability of residual networks for SISR. In residual network, the signal can be directly propagated from one unit to any other units in both forward and backward passes when using identity mapping as the skip connections. Based on it, we add level-wise connections upon original residual networks, to dig the optimization ability of residual networks. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and versatility of RoR, it can get a faster convergence speed and gain higher resolution accuracy from considerably increased depth.

  19. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load levels of soluble immune activation markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, B K

    2008-01-01

    -count, CD4+HLA-DR+, CD8+HLA-DR+CD38+, CD4+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD8+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+, CD8+CD45RA+CD62L+ T cells, IgG or IgM. In conclusion, RV was associated with increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers in HAART-treated HIV-1-infected patients. The finding that RV...

  20. Evolution of chemical conditions and estimated solubility controls on radionuclides in the residual waste layer during post-closure aging of high-level waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Millings, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2012-08-28

    in a flow and transport model were estimated for 27 elements in each of the chemical stages generated in the grout simulations plus local groundwater. The grout simulations were run with the initial infiltrating fluid in equilibrium with atmospheric oxygen to account for degradation of the reduction capacity of the grout. However, a lower Eh was used in pore fluids in the oxidizing conditions used to estimate solubilities to be more consistent with measured Eh values and natural systems. Solubilities of plutonium are affected by this decision, but those of other elements are not. In addition, the baseline for H-Area tanks is that they will be washed with oxalic acid prior to being filled with grout. Hence, oxalate was included in the pore fluids by assuming equilibrium with calcium oxalate. Solubility estimates were done by equilibrating a solubility controlling phase for each element with the pore fluid compositions using The Geochemist’s Workbench®. Condition B pore fluids are similar to Condition D. Therefore, solubilities for Condition B were not estimated, but assumed to be the same as in Condition D. In general solubility controlling phases were selected to bias solubilities to higher values. Several elements had no solubility controls and solubility estimates for other elements were omitted because the elements had short half-lives or were present in residual waste in very low amounts. For these it is recommended that release from the tank be instantaneous when the tank liner is breached. There is considerable uncertainty in this approach to enabling a flow and transport model to account for variable waste release. Yet, it is also flexible and requires much less computing time than a fully coupled reactive transport model. This allows some of the uncertainty to be addressed by multiple flow and transport sensitivity cases. Some of the uncertainties are addressed within this document. These include uncertainty in infiltrate composition, grout mineralogy, and

  1. Endogenous level of acetic acid in yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares): a pilot study about a possible controversy on its residue nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Luca Maria; Pasquale, Elisa; Panseri, Sara; Britti, Domenico; Malandra, Renato; Villa, Roberto; Arioli, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    A method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by GC-MS analysis was developed for the determination of underivatised acetic acid in fresh tuna fish muscle. Parameters such as the fibre selected and the extraction time and temperature were optimised and the linearity, detection limits and precision of the whole analytical procedure were assessed. The method was then applied to determine the acetic acid concentration in fresh yellowfin tuna muscles (Thunnus albacares) in order to evaluate the endogenous level and its variations during the shelf life under different storage conditions. A qualitative comparison was also made with variations in histamine levels to evaluate the possibility of the joint monitoring of acetic acid and histamine to identify fish stored in poor conditions. The caudal area always had a lower content of acetic acid than the ventral area, independent of the storage time and temperature. A difference was found between the 6- and 3-day time points and day 0 at a storage temperature of 8°C and between the 6-day time point and day 0 at a storage temperature of 0°C, independent of the anatomical area of the sampled tissue. The evaluation of acetic acid could represent an important approach in the field of food safety to detect the illicit use of acetic acid as an antibacterial preservative treatment or to eliminate the unpleasant smell of trimethylamine.

  2. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  3. Low-level Determination of Residual Methyl Methane Sulfonate and Ethyl Methane Sulfonate in Pharmaceuticals by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A capillary gas chromatographic method using mass spectrometric detection was developed and validated for the trace analysis (ppm level of methyl methane sulfonate and ethyl methane sulfonate in pharmaceutical drug substances. The method utilizes a capillary column (DB-624 with 6% cyanopropyl phenyl and 94% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase. A dissolve-and-injection approach was adopted for sample introduction in a split less mode. Mixture of (80:20 ratio of methanol and chloroform was used as a diluent or sample solvent. A limit of detection of about 0.17 μg/g (0.17 ppm for methyl methane sulfonate and 0.18 μg/g (0.18 ppm for ethyl methane sulfonate were achieved and limit of quantitation of 0.52 μg/g (0.52 ppm for methyl methane sulfonate and 0.54 μg/g (0.54 ppm for ethyl methane sulfonate were achieved for alkyl sulfonates in drug substance samples.

  4. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  5. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  6. Bioaccumulation and distribution of organochlorine residues across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transfer of organochlorine residues in the food chain and its distribution in the trophic levels was influenced by habitat, environmental conditions, feeding habit and biochemical composition of individual populations. The total residual concentration of OCPs in shellfish and fish ranged between 0.16 ppm and 0.69 ppm.

  7. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  8. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  9. NÍVEIS DE FÓSFORO E CALAGEM PARA AMENDOIN E FEIJÃO E EFEITO RESIDUAL NO ARROZ EM SOLOS DE CERRADO DE GOIÁS PHOSPHORUS AND LIME LEVELS FOR PEANUTS AND COMMON BEANS AND THE RESIDUAL EFFECT IN RICE IN CERRADO SOILS OF THE GOIÁS STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Augusto da Eira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados de experimentos de campo, sobre níveis de fósforo e calagem com o feijão após crotalária, e sobre efeito residual da adubação na cultura do arroz, em cinco localidades do Estado de Goiás. Houve efeito linear do fósforo em dois experimentos com amendoim e em um com feijão. Nos experimentos de efeito residual com arroz houve efeito linear do fósforo em dois e efeito linear do calcário e da interação fósforo calcário em um. Apesar da estiagem prolongada, foram alcançadas produções razoáveis (amendoim 1,5 vezes; feijão 1,9 vezes e arroz 2,3 vezes as produções médias do Brasil em 1969, respectivamente. Calcularam-se o lucro e a relação entre o valor do aumento da produção e o custo dos tratamentos (adubo e corretivo havendo compensação em três das cinco localidades.

    In this study, the results of the field experiments of phosphorus and lime levels on peanuts (Arachis hypogea L. and dry beans (Phasealus vulgaris L. after crotalaria juncea and of the subsequent rice crop, at five locations in the State of Goiás, are presented. There was a linear effect of phosphorus in two experiments on peanuts and in one experiment on dry beans. In the experiments testing residual effect on rice, there was a linear effect of phosphorus in two experiments and a linear effect of lime and interaction of phosphorus and lime in a third. Even though there was a severe drought, reasonable yields were reached. The results showed peanuts at 1.5, dry beans at 1.9, and rice at 2.3 times the average yields for Brazil in 1969. The profits were determined along with the relationship between the increase in value of the crop and the cost of producing the increase. It was determined that the cost of the treatments (Fertilizer and lime, which produced this increase

  10. NÍVEIS DE FÓSFORO E CALAGEM PARA SOJA E EFEITO RESIDUAL NO ARROZ, EM SOLOS DE CERRADO DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS PHOSPHORUS AND LIME LEVELS FOR SOYBEANS AND RESIDUAL EFFECT IN RICE IN “CERRADO” SOILS OF THE STATE OF GOIÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Dobereiner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados de experimentos de campo sobre níveis de fósforo e calagem, com a cultura da soja, em nove localidades do Estado de Goiás, e do efeito residual da adubação em cinco destas localidades com o plantio do arroz. Houve efeito linear do fósforo em sete dos experimentos com soja, efeito quadrático deste elemento em um deles e da interação fósforo calcário em outro. Nos experimentos com arroz, houve efeito linear do fósforo residual em três localidades e quadrático do calcário em uma. As melhores produções de soja e arroz foram 1,9 vezes mais altas que as médias de produção destas culturas no Brasil em 1969, apesar da estiagem prolongada.

    In this study are presented the results of the field experiments of phosphorous and lime levels in soybean (Glicine max. L. Merril crops. which were planted in nine locations in the state of Goiás. It was also studied the effect of fertilizer in five of these locations on the subsequent rice crops. There was a linear effect of phosphorous in seven of the soybean experiments, with a quadratic effect of this same element in another experiment. In the rice experiments, there was a linear effect of residual phosphorous in three of the locations and a quadratic effect of calcium in one location. The best production of soybeans and rice was 1.9 times higher than the average production of these crops in Brazil in 1969, despite of a severe drought. The profit was calculated along with the relationship between the increase in value of the crops and the cost (fertilizer and lime of producing this increase. The extra cost was justified in six places, mainly in the places where rice was planted during the second year.

  11. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  12. Accounting for Non-Gaussian Sources of Spatial Correlation in Parametric Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Paradigms II: A Method to Obtain First-Level Analysis Residuals with Uniform and Gaussian Spatial Autocorrelation Function and Independent and Identically Distributed Time-Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K

    2018-02-01

    In a recent study Eklund et al. have shown that cluster-wise family-wise error (FWE) rate-corrected inferences made in parametric statistical method-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past couple of decades may have been invalid, particularly for cluster defining thresholds less stringent than p method based on the assumption that heterogeneity and non-Gaussianity of the sACF of the first-level GLM analysis residuals, as well as temporal autocorrelations in the first-level voxel residual time-series, are caused by unmodeled MRI signal from neuronal and physiological processes as well as motion and other artifacts, which can be approximated by appropriate decompositions of the first-level residuals with principal component analysis (PCA), and removed. We show that application of this method yields GLM residuals with significantly reduced spatial correlation, nearly Gaussian sACF and uniform spatial smoothness across the brain, thereby allowing valid cluster-based FWE-corrected inferences based on assumption of Gaussian spatial noise. We further show that application of this method renders the voxel time-series of first-level GLM residuals independent, and identically distributed across time (which is a necessary condition for appropriate voxel-level GLM inference), without having to fit ad hoc stochastic colored noise models. Furthermore, the detection power of individual subject brain activation analysis is enhanced. This method will be especially useful for case studies, which rely on first-level GLM analysis inferences.

  13. Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea.A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling

  14. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  15. The Increase in Phosphorylation Levels of Serine Residues of Protein HSP70 during Holding Time at 17°C Is Concomitant with a Higher Cryotolerance of Boar Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h–30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (Pspermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance. PMID:24603527

  16. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  17. Ammoniated maize residue for the fattening of lambs | Seed | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of ammoniated maize residue as a replacement for maize meal in the diet for fattening lambs, was investigated. Ammoniation of maize residue increased average daily DMI and ADG at the 0 and 20oh concentrate levels. The feed conversions to carcass in lambs fed untreated maize residue with 40,60 or 80% ...

  18. Ethanol production from crop residues and soil organic carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2008-01-01

    In decision making about the use of residues from annual crops for ethanol production, alternative applications of these residues should be considered. Especially important is the use of such residues for stabilizing and increasing levels of soil organic carbon. Such alternative use leads to a

  19. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  20. Assessing the levels of food shortage using the traffic light metaphor by analyzing the gathering and consumption of wild food plants, crop parts and crop residues in Konso, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocho Dechassa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humanitarian relief agencies use scales to assess levels of critical food shortage to efficiently target and allocate food to the neediest. These scales are often labor-intensive. A lesser used approach is assessing gathering and consumption of wild food plants. This gathering per se is not a reliable signal of emerging food stress. However, the gathering and consumption of some specific plant species could be considered markers of food shortage, as it indicates that people are compelled to eat very poor or even health-threatening food. Methods We used the traffic light metaphor to indicate normal (green, alarmingly low (amber and fully depleted (red food supplies and identified these conditions for Konso (Ethiopia on the basis of wild food plants (WFPs, crop parts (crop parts not used for human consumption under normal conditions; CPs and crop residues (CRs being gathered and consumed. Plant specimens were collected for expert identification and deposition in the National Herbarium. Two hundred twenty individual households free-listed WFPs, CPs, and CRs gathered and consumed during times of food stress. Through focus group discussions, the species list from the free-listing that was further enriched through key informants interviews and own field observations was categorized into species used for green, amber and red conditions. Results The study identified 113 WFPs (120 products/food items whose gathering and consumption reflect the three traffic light metaphors: red, amber and green. We identified 25 food items for the red, 30 food items for the amber and 65 food items for the green metaphor. We also obtained reliable information on 21 different products/food items (from 17 crops normally not consumed as food, reflecting the red or amber metaphor and 10 crop residues (from various crops, plus one recycled stuff which are used as emergency foods in the study area clearly indicating the severity of food stress (red metaphor

  1. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte B. Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D. We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the miRNAs expression levels to beta-cell function and glycaemic control. Global miRNA sequencing analyses were performed on sera pools from two T1D cohorts (n = 275 and 129, resp. and one control group (n = 151. We identified twelve upregulated human miRNAs in T1D patients (miR-152, miR-30a-5p, miR-181a, miR-24, miR-148a, miR-210, miR-27a, miR-29a, miR-26a, miR-27b, miR-25, miR-200a; several of these miRNAs were linked to apoptosis and beta-cell networks. Furthermore, we identified miR-25 as negatively associated with residual beta-cell function (est.: −0.12, P = 0.0037, and positively associated with glycaemic control (HbA1c (est.: 0.11, P = 0.0035 3 months after onset. In conclusion this study demonstrates that miR-25 might be a “tissue-specific” miRNA for glycaemic control 3 months after diagnosis in new onset T1D children and therefore supports the role of circulating miRNAs as predictive biomarkers for tissue physiopathology and potential intervention targets.

  2. Residual stress field of ballised holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Man On; He, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Ballising, involving pushing a slightly over-sized ball made of hard material through a hole, is a kind of cold working process. Applying ballising process to fastener holes produces compressive residual stress on the edge of the holes, and therefore increases the fatigue life of the components or structures. Quantification of the residual stress field is critical to define and precede the ballising process. In this article, the ballised holes are modeled as cold-expanded holes. Elastic-perfectly plastic theory is employed to analyze the holes with cold expansion process. For theoretical simplification, an axially symmetrical thin plate with a cold expanded hole is assumed. The elasticplastic boundaries and residual stress distribution surrounding the cold expanded hole are derived. With the analysis, the residual stress field can be obtained together with actual cold expansion process in which only the diameters of hole before and after cold expansion need to be measured. As it is a non-destructive method, it provides a convenient way to estimate the elastic-plastic boundaries and residual stresses of cold worked holes. The approach is later extended to the case involving two cold-worked holes. A ballised hole is looked upon as a cold expanded hole and therefore is investigated by the approach. Specimens ballised with different interference levels are investigated. The effects of interference levels and specimen size on residual stresses are studied. The overall residual stresses of plates with two ballised holes are obtained by superposing the residual stresses induced on a single ballised hole. The effects of distance between the centers of the two holes with different interference levels on the residual stress field are revealed

  3. Plasma levels of nucleosomes and nucleosome-autoantibody complexes in murine lupus: effects of disease progression and lipopolyssacharide administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Licht, R.; Bruggen, M.C.J. van; Oppers-Walgreen, B.; Rijke, T.P.M.; Berden, J.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of disease progression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on the presence of nucleosomes, antinucleosome reactivity, and nucleosome-Ig complexes in the circulation of MRL and control mice. METHODS: Plasma samples from lupus-prone (MRL/lpr and MRL/+) and

  4. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  5. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  6. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  7. Pesticide residues in locally available cereals and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunanan, S.A.; Santos, F.L.; Bonoan, L.S.

    1976-03-01

    Vegetable samples (pechay, cabbage, lettuce, green beans and tomatoes) bought from public markets in the Metro Manila area were analyzed for pesticide residues using gas chromatography. The samples analyzed in 1968-69 contained high levels of chlorinated pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Endrin, and Thiodan, while in the samples analyzed in January 1976, no chlorinated and organophosphate pesticides were detected. Cereal samples (rice, corn and sorghum) were obtained from the National Grains Authority and analyzed for pesticide residues and bromine residues. Total bromine residues was determined by neutron activation analysis. In most of the samples analyzed, the concentrations of pesticide residues were below the tolerance levels set by the FAO/WHO Committee on Pesticide Residues in Foods. An exception was one rice sample from Thailand, the bromine residue content (110ppm) of which exceeds the tolerance level of 50ppm

  8. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  9. Cyolane residues in milk of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Osman, A.; Fakhr, I.M.I.

    1981-01-01

    Consecutive feeding of lactating goats with 14 C-alkyl labelled cyolane for 5 days at dietary levels 8 and 16 ppm resulted in the appearance of measurable insecticide residues in milk (0.02-0.04 mg/kg). The residue levels were markedly reduced after a withdrawal period of 7 days. Analysis of urine and milk residues showed the presence of similar metabolites in addition to the parent compound. The major part of the residue consisted of mono-, diethyl phosphate and 2 hydrophilic unknown metabolites. The erythrocyte cholinesterase activity was reduced to about 50% after 24 hours whereas the plasma enzyme was only slightly affected. The animals remained symptom-free during the experimental period. (author)

  10. Disposal of radioactive residuals requires careful planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontius, F.W.

    1994-01-01

    Radionuclides removed from source waters during water treatment become concentrated in residual liquids and sludges. Treatment technologies used to remove these contaminants from source waters may generate wastes that contain substantial radioactivity. Water systems that install one or more of these technologies in order to comply with the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) eventually adopted must dispose of the residuals. Disposal of radionuclide-containing wastes can be especially difficult, depending on the nature and amount of radioactivity present

  11. Low-Level Burial Grounds dangerous waste permit application: Request for exemption from lined trench requirements and from land disposal restrictions for residual liquid at 218-E-12B Burial Ground Trench 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document has been prepared and is being submitted to the respective agencies to satisfy three objectives of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) concerning Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Facility. Figure 1-1 shows the general location of the Hanford Site. The 218-E-12B Burial Ground is one of eight burial grounds included in the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG), a treatment, storage and/or disposal (TSD) unit. Decommissioned, defueled naval submarine reactor compartments (SRCs) contain radioactivity caused by exposure of structural components to neutrons during normal operation of the submarines. After all the alternatives were evaluated in the US Department of the Navy 1984 environmental impact statement (EIS) (USN 1984), land burial of the SRCs was selected as the preferred disposal option. The SRCs currently are sent to Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. In addition to radioactivity, the SRCs disposed in. The DOE-RL's three objectives in preparing and submitting this document are as follows. Request from Ecology an exemption from dangerous waste landfill liner and leachate collection and removal system (hereinafter referred to as liner/leachate system) requirements for Trench 94 of the 218-E-12B Burial Ground. Petition Ecology to exempt residual liquid in the SRCs from land disposal restrictions. Obtain EPA Region 10 review and comment on the request to Ecology for exemption from liner/leachate system requirements

  12. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  13. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  14. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  15. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  16. Efecto de la profundidad de siembra, cobertura de rastrojo y ambiente térmico sobre la germinación y emergencia de Amaranthus quitensis K. Effect of seed burial, different residue levels and thermal enviroment on germination and emergence of Amaranthus quitensis K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Faccini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La germinación y la emergencia son los estadios más importantes en el proceso de invasión de malezas anuales. El objetivo fue relacionar la germinación y emergencia de Amaranthus quitensis con la profundidad de siembra, cobertura de rastrojo y diferencias del ambiente térmico de las semillas en el suelo. Durante 2000 y 2001 se sembraron semillas en bolsas a dos profundidades (0,5 y 4 cm, con dos niveles de rastrojo (0 y 6000 kg/ha determinándose periódicamente la geminación in situ. La emergencia se evaluó en macetas con los mismos tratamientos de profundidad y cobertura. Se registró la amplitud térmica diaria del suelo. La germinación y la emergencia se relacionaron linealmente con la amplitud térmica, siendo máximas a 0,5 cm y sin cobertura de rastrojo. A 4 cm y con rastrojo el retraso en la emergencia y en la tasa de incremento fueron mayores que en los otros tratamientos. La cobertura en superficie y la profundidad de siembra de las semillas afectaron los niveles de amplitud térmica. Esos niveles a su vez condicionaron la pérdida total de la dormición de manera que la germinación y la emergencia fueron menores cuando las semillas estuvieron enterradas y/o con altos niveles de cobertura.Germination and emergence are the most important stages in the invasion process of annual weeds. The objective was to relate germination and emergence of Amaranthus quitensis with seed sowing depth, crop residue and different thermal environment of seeds in the soil. During 2000 y 2001 seeds were buried in bags at two depths (0.5 and 4 cm, with two residue levels (0 and 6.000 kg/ha. In situ germination was periodically recorded. Emergence was evaluated in pots with the same seed sowing depths and residue levels treatments. In all cases, the soil daily thermal amplitude was recorded. Germination and emergence were linearly related with the thermal amplitude and were highest at 0.5 cm and without residue. At 4 cm and with residue the delay in

  17. Residues Of Streptomycin Antibiotic In Commercial Layers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some of the muscle samples recorded residue concentration levels higher than the W.H.O recommended maximum residue level for streptomycin antibiotic in muscle tissue of food animals. In view of the importance of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial diseases in both human and animals, it is advocated that the use of ...

  18. Contamination of food with residues of antibiotics in the sulphonamide class, risk can be avoided

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lidia Chitescu,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadiazine are the most common usedsulfonamides in veterinary practice. The recommended withdrawal periods if not observed before slaughteringof the medicated animals, the products may obtain from such animals may be contaminated with residue. Theinterest in having reliable methods able to detect low amounts of sulfonamides in food is very actual. In thisstudy, a multiresidue analysis was performed to simultaneously determine those four sulfonamides in chickenmuscle tissue by the Waters LC.Criteria of validation: specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and linearity,according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, show that the method can detect differentkinds of sulfonamides within one run, without mass spectrometry analyses, or Fluor metric derivatization ofanalyts.The method is accurate, simple, economical in both time and cost, capable of detecting sulfonamidesresidues below the maximum residue limits (MRL and easy to perform to routine samples, in normal conditionof laboratory.The sulfonamides were extracted with acetonitrile and acetone and dichloromethane. N-hexane wasadded for defeating the sample. Separation was carried out on a Zorbax SB- C18 analytical column, using asmobile phase a mixture of 75:25 = di-natrium-hydrogenphosphat solution 6 g/1000 ml (pH = 8.5 : methanol.The detection wavelength was set at: 254 nm Calibration graphs were linear with very good correlationcoefficients in the concentration range from 0.320 to 1.5μg /mL. The limits of quantification (LOQ for thesulfonamides were in the range of 6.6–0.34 μg /kg. The recovery for spiked chicken muscle with 50–150 μg/kg ranged more than 70%. The relative standard deviation (Reds of the sulfonamides for six measurementsat 50 go/kg, 100 μg /kg and 150 μg /kg was less then 15%.The applicability of the method to the analysis of chicken muscle tissue was

  19. Method for residual household waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimaa, Olli; Hupponen, Mari; Horttanainen, Mika; Sorvari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    The rising awareness of decreasing natural resources has brought forward the idea of a circular economy and resource efficiency in Europe. As a part of this movement, European countries have identified the need to monitor residual waste flows in order to make recycling more efficient. In Finland, studies on the composition of residual household waste have mostly been conducted using different methods, which makes the comparison of the results difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method for residual household waste composition studies. First, a literature review on European study methods was performed. Also, 19 Finnish waste composition studies were compared in order to identify the shortcomings of the current Finnish residual household waste composition data. Moreover, the information needs of different waste management authorities concerning residual household waste were studied through a survey and personal interviews. Stratification, sampling, the classification of fractions and statistical analysis were identified as the key factors in a residual household waste composition study. The area studied should be divided into non-overlapping strata in order to decrease the heterogeneity of waste and enable comparisons between different waste producers. A minimum of six subsamples, each 100 kg, from each stratum should be sorted. Confidence intervals for each waste category should be determined in order to evaluate the applicability of the results. A new three-level classification system was created based on Finnish stakeholders' information needs and compared to four other European waste composition study classifications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residues in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.; Sarkar, A.

    periodic monitoring of the levels of the major pollutants. One on-going exercise has been to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, the persistent organochlorine pesticide residues in the Northern Indian Ocean. The baseline levels of some...

  2. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  3. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  4. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravka Samaržija; Neven Antunac

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU) regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking ani...

  5. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    exposure to an organochlorine pesticide, the concentrations of residues in the different tissues are ordinarily directly correlated with each other. When the dosage is at lethal levels, or when stored residues are mobilised to lethal levels, the balanced relationship is disrupted. The concentrations of residues in the brain provide the most rigorous criteria for diagnosis of death due to these chemicals, and levels are generally similar across a wide range of species of birds and mammals. Residues in liver are closely correlated with recent dose, either from direct intake or from mobilisation from storage, and so reflect hazardous exposure. Residues in the whole carcass show the storage reserve, and so indicate the potential for adverse effects from lethal mobilisation or from the continuous slow mobilisation that occurs during the normal processes of metabolism and excretion. A synchronous, rapid, and widespread decline in weight and thickness of shells of eggs laid by many species of wild birds occurred in the late 1940's and has persisted. Birds of prey were primarily affected; exceptions apparently are the result of lesser exposure because of different food habits. Many species of fish-eating birds are also affected. Others, however, appear to be more resistant and to accumulate much higher residues before shell-thinning occurs. Seed-eating birds do not appear to have been generally affected; their exposure is ordinarily lower, but physiological factors also seem to be involved. A relationship between shell-thinning and population decline has been established for many species. In exceptional cases, such as the herring gull, persistent re-nesting and other population reactions have overcome adverse effects at the population level. The discovery of shell-thinning among natural populations, and the hypothesis that this thinning was related to the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides, stimulated experimental studies to determine wheth

  6. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  7. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  8. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in milk and muscle based on a simple and fast extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Jank, Louíse; Martins, Magda Targa; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Sirtori, Carla

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine mainly for treatment and prevention of diseases. The aminoglycosides are one of the antibiotics classes that have been extensively employed in animal husbandry for the treatment of bacterial infections, but also as growth promotion. The European Union has issued strict Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for aminoglycosides in several animal origin products including bovine milk, bovine, swine and poultry muscle. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (spectinomycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, hygromycin, apramycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, amikacin and neomycin) in bovine milk and bovine, swine and poultry muscle. For sample preparation, an extraction method was developed using trichloroacetic acid and clean up with low temperature precipitation and C18 bulk. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to carry out quantitative analysis and liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was used to screening purposes. Both methods were validated according to the European Union Commission Directive 2002/657/EC. Good performance characteristics were obtained for recovery, precision, calibration curve, specificity, decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) in all matrices evaluated. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were ranging from 5 to 100ngg(-1) and 12.5 to 250ngg(-1), respectively. Good linearity (r)-above 0.99-was achieved in concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 2.0×MRL. Recoveries ranged from 36.8% to 98.0% and the coefficient of variation from 0.9 to 20.2%, noting that all curves have been made into their own matrices in order to minimize the matrix effects. The CCβ values obtained in qualitative method were between 25 and 250ngg(-1). The proposed method showed to be simple, easy, and adequate for high-throughput analysis of a large

  9. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  10. Residual stress in Ni-W electrodeposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the residual stress in Ni–W layers electrodeposited from electrolytes based on NiSO4 and Na2WO4, is investigated. Citrate, glycine and triethanolamine were used as complexing agents, enabling complex formation between the nickel ion and tungstate. The results show that the type...... of complexing agent and the current efficiency have an influence on the residual stress. In all cases, an increase in tensile stress in the deposit with time after deposition was observed. Pulse plating could improve the stress level for the electrolyte containing equal amounts of citrate...

  11. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  12. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  13. Characterization of bound residues in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The characterization of unextractable (or 'bound') pesticide residues in plants can be difficult owing to the insoluble nature of the pesticide-plant complex. An unextractable residue can be defined as material derived from the applied pesticide which remains in the plant matrix after exhaustive organic solvent extraction. Experiments with a variety of pesticide classes in plants indicate that the level of unextractable residue varies with the plant species, the pesticide and the exposure time of the plant to the pesticide. Methods used in attempts to release 'bound' residues from solvent-extracted plant tissues include acid hydrolyses, enzymatic treatments and techniques of high-temperature distillation. These methods solubilize or release varying amounts of unextractable material; the amounts depend on the pesticide and on the extent to which the plant fibre is degraded. In experiments using radiolabelled dieldrin (1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 10-hexachloro-6, 7-epoxy-1, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8a-octahydro-exo-1, 4-endo-5,6-dimethanonaphthalene), carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) and permethrin ([3-phenoxybenzyl(+-)-3-(2, 2-dichlorovinyl)-2, 2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate]) in radishes, portions of the unextractable material solubilized by the above methods were identified as parent compound and/or closely related metabolites. The bioavailability and toxicological significance of unextractable pesticide residues need to be evaluated. (author)

  14. Comparison of residual stress in martensitic alloys by nondestructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Suresh, S.B.; Wells, D.

    2006-01-01

    Three martensitic materials, namely Alloys EP-823, HT-9 and 422 were subjected to tensile loading at ambient temperature. The cylindrical specimens tested at different levels of tensile loading were analyzed for characterization of residual stress resulting from plastic deformation corresponding to the applied loads between the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength. The extent of residual stress developed at these applied stresses was analyzed by nondestructive positron annihilation spectroscopy, activation, and neutron diffraction techniques. The results indicate that the residual stresses characterized by all three techniques exhibited a consistent pattern showing a gradual enhancement in residual stress with increasing applied load

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Oxytetracycline Residue in Beef and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that a high proportion of beef and chicken consumed in the cities contained violative levels of oxytetracycline residue arising possibly from indiscriminate antibiotics usage in Nigeria livestock industry. These could predispose meat consumers to the associated health risks of antibiotic residue. Regulatory ...

  16. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Tomatoes and Watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by ...

  17. Assessment of pesticide residues in tomatoes and watermelons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the levels of pesticide residues in selected fruits from major markets in Dar es Salaam city. Samples of tomatoes and watermelons were analysed for eighteen organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticide residues. Extraction was performed using acetone followed by dichloromethane: ...

  18. Food Access, Food Subsidy, and Residue-Based Bioenergy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research also aims to examine the effect of biofuels on the poor's incomes and food consumption. It will focus on the use of agricultural residues to produce energy and its trickle-down effect on agricultural productivity and food security at the local level. Diverting residues to commercial energy production could improve ...

  19. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  20. Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected penicillin antibiotic residues from intact milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Michaelidou, Katia; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium. Herein short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) provided optimum extraction sensitivity for the selected penicillins, which were analysed using an RP-HPLC method, validated according to the European Decision 657/2002/EC. The limit of quantitation was 10μg/kg for benzylpenicillin, 20μg/kg for cloxacillin, 25μg/kg dicloxacillin and 30μg/kg oxacillin. These are a similar order of magnitude with those reported in the literature and (with the exception of benzylpenicillin) are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by European legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation and validation of a multi-residue method based on biochip technology for the simultaneous screening of six families of antibiotics in muscle and aquaculture products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Soumet, Christophe; Verdon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Evidence Investigator™ system (Randox, UK) is a biochip and semi-automated system. The microarray kit II (AM II) is capable of detecting several compounds belonging to different families of antibiotics: quinolones, ceftiofur, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, tylosin and tetracyclines. The performance of this innovative system was evaluated for the detection of antibiotic residues in new matrices, in muscle of different animal species and in aquaculture products. The method was validated according to the European Decision No. EC/2002/657 and the European guideline for the validation of screening methods, which represents a complete initial validation. The false-positive rate was equal to 0% in muscle and in aquaculture products. The detection capabilities CCβ for 12 validated antibiotics (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, ceftiofur, desfuroyl ceftiofur cysteine disulfide, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, tylosin, tilmicosin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline) were all lower than the respective maximum residue limits (MRLs) in muscle from different animal origins (bovine, ovine, porcine, poultry). No cross-reactions were observed with other antibiotics, neither with the six detected families nor with other families of antibiotics. The AM II kit could be applied to aquaculture products but with higher detection capabilities from those in muscle. The detection capabilities CCβ in aquaculture products were respectively at 0.25, 0.10 and 0.5 of the respective MRL in aquaculture products for enrofloxacin, tylosin and oxytetracycline. The performance of the AM II kit has been compared with other screening methods and with the performance characteristics previously determined in honey.

  2. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  3. Identification of residue pairing in interacting β-strands from a predicted residue contact map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenzhi; Wang, Tong; Zhang, Wenxuan; Gong, Haipeng

    2018-04-19

    Despite the rapid progress of protein residue contact prediction, predicted residue contact maps frequently contain many errors. However, information of residue pairing in β strands could be extracted from a noisy contact map, due to the presence of characteristic contact patterns in β-β interactions. This information may benefit the tertiary structure prediction of mainly β proteins. In this work, we propose a novel ridge-detection-based β-β contact predictor to identify residue pairing in β strands from any predicted residue contact map. Our algorithm RDb 2 C adopts ridge detection, a well-developed technique in computer image processing, to capture consecutive residue contacts, and then utilizes a novel multi-stage random forest framework to integrate the ridge information and additional features for prediction. Starting from the predicted contact map of CCMpred, RDb 2 C remarkably outperforms all state-of-the-art methods on two conventional test sets of β proteins (BetaSheet916 and BetaSheet1452), and achieves F1-scores of ~ 62% and ~ 76% at the residue level and strand level, respectively. Taking the prediction of the more advanced RaptorX-Contact as input, RDb 2 C achieves impressively higher performance, with F1-scores reaching ~ 76% and ~ 86% at the residue level and strand level, respectively. In a test of structural modeling using the top 1 L predicted contacts as constraints, for 61 mainly β proteins, the average TM-score achieves 0.442 when using the raw RaptorX-Contact prediction, but increases to 0.506 when using the improved prediction by RDb 2 C. Our method can significantly improve the prediction of β-β contacts from any predicted residue contact maps. Prediction results of our algorithm could be directly applied to effectively facilitate the practical structure prediction of mainly β proteins. All source data and codes are available at http://166.111.152.91/Downloads.html or the GitHub address of https://github.com/wzmao/RDb2C .

  4. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  5. Mechanically induced residual stresses: Modelling and characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranart, Jean-Claude E.

    Accurate characterisation of residual stress represents a major challenge to the engineering community. This is because it is difficult to validate the measurement and the accuracy is doubtful. It is with this in mind that the current research program concerning the characterisation of mechanically induced residual stresses was undertaken. Specifically, the cold expansion of fastener holes and the shot peening treatment of aerospace alloys, aluminium 7075 and titanium Ti-6Al-4V, are considered. The objective of this study is to characterise residual stresses resulting from cold working using three powerful techniques. These are: (i) theoretical using three dimensional non-linear finite element modelling, (ii) semi-destructive using a modified incremental hole drilling technique and (iii) nondestructive using a newly developed guided wave method supplemented by traditional C-scan measurements. The three dimensional finite element results of both simultaneous and sequential cold expansion of two fastener holes revealed the importance of the separation distance, the expansion level and the loading history upon the development and growth of the plastic zone and unloading residual stresses. It further showed that the commonly adopted two dimensional finite element models are inaccurate and incapable of predicting these residual stresses. Similarly, the dynamic elasto-plastic finite element studies of shot peening showed that the depth of the compressed layer, surface and sub-surface residual stresses are significantly influenced by the shot characteristics. Furthermore, the results reveal that the separation distance between two simultaneously impacting shots governs the plastic zone development and its growth. In the semi-destructive incremental hole drilling technique, the accuracy of the newly developed calibration coefficients and measurement techniques were verified with a known stress field and the method was used to measure peening residual stresses. Unlike

  6. Development of a SERS aptasensor for detection of medical residues

    OpenAIRE

    Frøhling, Kasper Bayer; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen; Boisen, Anja; Bache, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of medical residues in environmental, industrial and domestic water systems is a growing concern. The biosensor industry is trying to accomodate the need of sensitive and specific sensor systems capable of ultra-low level detection of medical residues. In this PhD project a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor for the female sexhormone 17β-estradiol was attempted. It is commonly used in contraceptive pills from where it find its way through waste water treatment plants...

  7. AERODYNAMIC BEHAVIOR AIRCRAFT CAUSED BY RESIDUAL STRAIN WINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy Ishchenko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of residual strain on the airframe aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft wasconsidered. The possibility of estimation of changes in deformation of airframe using data of leveling wasshown. The method of estimating the change of aerodynamic characteristics caused by the influence ofresidual strain airframe was proposed. Technique can be used in the operation and overhaul of aircraft withlarge operating time.Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, residual strain construction asymmetric moments, thedistribution of circulation, the scheme of leveling, trigonometric series.

  8. Residual stress alleviation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. B.; June, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    Methods to eliminate or reduce residual stresses in aircraft metal structures reinforced by filamentary composites are discussed. Residual stress level reductions were achieved by modifying the manufacturing procedures used during adhesive bonding. The residual stress alleviation techniques involved various forms of mechanical constraint which were applied to the components during bonding. Nine methods were evaluated, covering a wide range in complexity. All methods investigated during the program affected the residual stress level. In general, residual stresses were reduced by 70 percent or more from the stress level produced by conventional adhesive bonding procedures.

  9. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  10. Formulation of morning product using food residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário de Fátima Padilha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, there is resistance of the population to the use of stalks, leaves, peels and seeds of vegetables and fruits, leading to trash important parts of the food in good physiological conditions and with the presence of potential nutrients. In this research, a morning product was elaborated using green and dry coconut residue, jerimum and melon seed, crystallized sicilian lemon peel, cashew nut, common rapadura sweet and ginger. The bacteriological tests proved the hygienic-sanitary quality of the product, therefore suitable for consumption, that is, according to RDC 12/2001. It was also observed that the dehydration of all the residues reached the legal levels and accepted by ANVISA that limits in 25% the water content in the dehydrated foods. As for the centesimal composition, it was observed that the elaborated product with residues and other ingredients had a good content of macro nutrients. A use of the type of waste as a new food proposal constitutes an alternative to avoid and reduce: the serious environmental problem caused by the large residual volume generated, and the inadequate places in which they are stored or deposited, aggravating the scenario of food-borne pollutants.

  11. Regulatory framework for NORM residues in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepin, S.; Dehandschutter, B.; Poffijn, A.; Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (FANC), Rue Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    The Belgian radiation protection authority (Federal Agency for Nuclear Control - FANC) has published in March 2013 a decree regulating the acceptance of NORM residues by nonradioactive waste treatment facilities. This regulation is based on the concept of 'work activities involving natural radiation sources' in the sense of article 40 of the 96/29/EURATOM directive. The disposal or processing facilities which accept NORM residues with an activity concentration above a generic exemption level will be considered as 'work activities' and submitted to declaration according to the Belgian radiation protection regulations. On basis of this declaration, specific acceptance criteria for the different types of processing/ disposal of the residues (disposal on landfill, recycling into building materials, etc.) are imposed. FANC has drafted guidelines for these acceptance criteria. A methodological guide for the operators of the concerned facilities was also published. Moreover, sites where significant quantities of NORM residues are or have been disposed, are subjected to an environmental monitoring in the framework of the national program of radiological surveillance of FANC. FANC also introduced in its regulations the concept of anthropogenic radon-prone areas: e.g. former phosphogypsum stacks have been defined as anthropogenic radon-prone areas, which allows some form of regulatory control of these sites. (authors)

  12. Direct residue analysis of systemic insecticides and some of their relevant metabolites in wines by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berset, J D; Mermer, S; Robel, A E; Walton, V M; Chien, M L; Field, J A

    2017-07-14

    A direct large volume injection (DI-LVI) high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of 16 systemic insecticides and their main plant metabolites. The assays were conducted on commercial red and white wines made from grapes grown in major wine-producing regions nationally and internationally. Using a 1:20 dilution and an injection volume of 800μL, a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 1μgL -1 for all analytes was achieved. Matrix-matched standards (MM) were used for accurate quantitation. Imidacloprid (IMI) and methoxyfenozide (MET) were the most frequently detected parent insecticides in the wines reaching concentrations of 1-132μgL -1 . Two important plant metabolites imidacloprid-olefin (IMI-OLE) and spirotetramat-enol (SPT-EN) were found at higher concentrations. In five samples SPT-EN was detected in the mgL -1 range with a maximum concentration of 16.3mgL -1 measured in a conventional white wine sample. Most "organic" wines contained no detectable or low insecticide residues, except for one sample, which showed the highest IMI (14.7μgL -1 ) and IMI-OLE (331μgL -1 ) concentrations. Considering the maximum residue limit (MRL) definition for the different insecticides, three "conventional" wine samples were non-compliant for SPT. This study highlights the importance to determine both parent and metabolite forms of systemic insecticides in the finished product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron diffraction studies of laser welding residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Peter I.; Bokuchava, Gizo D.; Papushkin, Igor V.; Genchev, Gancho; Doynov, Nikolay; Michailov, Vesselin G.; Ormanova, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    The residual stress and microstrain distribution induced by laser beam welding of the low-alloyed C45 steel plate was investigated using high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffraction. The neutron diffraction experiments were performed on FSD diffractometer at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor in FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The experiments have shown that the residual stress distribution across weld seam exhibit typical alternating sign character as it was observed in our previous studies. The residual stress level is varying in the range from -60 MPa to 450 MPa. At the same time, the microstrain level exhibits sharp maxima at weld seam position with maximal level of 4.8·10-3. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with FEM calculations according to the STAAZ model. The provided numerical model validated with measured data enables to study the influence of different conditions and process parameters on the development of residual welding stresses.

  14. Journal of Agricultural Extension http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v18i2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) ... food. To solve this problem, ICCO recommended best practices for cocoa bean to meet the stipulated European Union (EU) Maximum Residue Level (MRL) of 0.1mg and to ... Prevention is a phenomenon, which according to advanced learner dictionary (2000) is.

  15. Identification and discrimination of herbicide residues using a conducting polymer electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The identification of herbicide residues on crop foliage is necessary to make crop-management decisions for weed pest control and to monitor pesticide residue levels on food crops. Electronic-nose (e-nose) methods were tested as a cheaper, alternative means of discriminating between herbicide residue types (compared with conventional chromatography methods), by...

  16. Influx of CO2 from Soil Incubated Organic Residues at Constant Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoukat Ali Abro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature induced CO2 from genotypic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat- maize were incubated at a constant temperature (25°C to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO2 in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Results revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO2-C evolution significantly & emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rates CO2-C than the residues superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO2-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced SOC levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH4-N and nitrate NO3-N nitrogen were decreased.

  17. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  18. Are pesticide residues in honey related to oilseed rape treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karise, Reet; Raimets, Risto; Bartkevics, Vadims; Pugajeva, Iveta; Pihlik, Priit; Keres, Indrek; Williams, Ingrid H; Viinalass, Haldja; Mänd, Marika

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide treatments before and during the flowering of honey bee forage crops may lead to residues in honey. In northern regions oilseed rape belongs to the main forage crops that is mostly cultivated by means of intensive agriculture, including several pesticide treatments. However, in addition to the focal forage crops, pesticides from non-forage crops can spread to wild flowers around fields, and thus the residues in honey would reflect the whole range of pesticides used in the agricultural landscape. The aim of our study was to clarify which currently used pesticides are present in honey gathered from heterogeneous agricultural landscapes after the end of flowering of oilseed crops. Honey samples (N = 33) were collected from beehives of Estonia during 2013 and 2014, and analysed for residues of 47 currently used agricultural pesticides using the multiresidue method with HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS and a single residue method for glyphosate, aminopyralid and clopyralid. Residues of eight different active ingredients with representatives from all three basic pesticide classes were determined. Although no correlation was detected between the cumulative amount of pesticide residues and percent of oilseed crops in the foraging territory, most of the residues are those allowed for oilseed rape treatments. Among all pesticides, herbicide residues prevailed in 2013 but not in 2014. Despite the relatively small agricultural impact of Estonia, the detected levels of pesticide residues sometimes exceeded maximum residue level; however, these concentrations do not pose a health risk to consumers, also acute toxicity to honey bees would be very unlikely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  20. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  1. Circulating Levels of MicroRNA from Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: Evidence That miR-25 Associates to Residual Beta-Cell Function and Glycaemic Control during Disease Progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lotte B.; Wang, Cheng; Sorensen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to identify key miRNAs in circulation, which predict ongoing beta-cell destruction and regeneration in children with newly diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). We compared expression level of sera miRNAs from new onset T1D children and age-matched healthy controls and related the mi...... for tissue physiopathology and potential intervention targets....

  2. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  3. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  4. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  5. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs.

  6. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed.

  7. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed

  8. A manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Yu, C.; Yuan, Y.C.; Zielen, A.J.; Jusko, M.J.; Wallo, A. III; Argonne National Lab., IL; Dames and Moore, West Valley, NY; Argonne National Lab., IL; USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC

    1989-06-01

    This manual presents information for implementing US Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines for residual radioactive material at sites identified by the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and the Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). It describes the analysis and models used to derive site-specific guidelines for allowable residual concentrations of radionuclides in soil and the design and use of the RESRAD computer code for calculating guideline values. It also describes procedures for implementing DOE policy for reducing residual radioactivity to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. 36 refs., 16 figs, 22 tabs

  9. Manual evaluation of residual curarization using double burst stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drenck, N E; Ueda, N; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    contractions. Fade in the response results from neuromuscular blockade as with train-of-four stimulation (TOF). The authors compared the sensitivity of DBS and TOF in the detection of residual neuromuscular blockade during clinical anaesthesia. Fifty-two healthy patients undergoing surgery were studied...... with DBS than with TOF, regardless of the TOF ratio level. Absence of fade with TOF implied a 48% chance of considerable residual relaxation as compared with 9% when fade was absent with DBS. The results demonstrate that DBS is more sensitive than TOF in the manual detection of residual neuromuscular...

  10. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  11. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...... versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples....... None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0...

  12. Identification of oligo-N-glycolylneuraminic acid residues in mammal-derived glycoproteins by a newly developed immunochemical reagent and biochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, C; Kitajima, K; Inoue, S; Inoue, Y

    1998-01-30

    The occurrence of the alpha2-->8-linked oligomeric form of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (oligo-Neu5Gc) residues in mammalian glycoproteins was unequivocally demonstrated using a newly developed anti-oligo/poly-Neu5Gc monoclonal antibody as well as by chemical and biochemical methods. First, the antibody, designated mAb.2-4B, which specifically recognized oligo/poly-Neu5Gc with a degree of polymerization of >2, was developed by establishing a hybridoma cell line from P3U1 myeloma cells fused with splenocytes from an MRL autoimmune mouse immunized with dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated oligo/poly-Neu5Gc. Second, oligo-Neu5Gc was shown to occur in glycoproteins derived from pig spleen by Western blot analysis using mAb.2-4B, which was also confirmed by fluorometric high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the product of periodate oxidation/reduction/acid hydrolysis of the purified glycopeptide fractions and by TLC and 600-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic analysis of their mild acid hydrolysates. Finally, the ubiquitous occurrence of oligo-Neu5Gc chains as glycoproteinaceous components in Wistar rat tissue was immunochemically indicated. This is the first example demonstrating the diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure in mammalian glycoproteins, where only poly-N-acetylneuraminic acid is known to occur. Such diversity in oligo/poly-Sia structure also implicates a diverged array of biological functions of this glycan unit in glycoproteins.

  13. Advanced new technologies for residue upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, D.

    1997-01-01

    Viewgraphs summarizing UOP technologies for residue are provided. The upgrading technologies include: (1) Aquaconversion, (2) the Discriminatory Destructive Distillation process (3D), and (3) the RCD uniflex process. The Aquaconversion process is based on catalytic hydrovisbreaking. It makes use of a homogeneous (liquid phase) catalyst. The hydrogen is derived from water. The advantages of this process are improved residue stability and quality at higher conversion levels, high synthetic crude yields, low operational complexity, reduced transportation costs. The 3D process is a unique carbon rejection contaminant removal process which can process whole crudes through viscous residues. FCC type equipment is used. Performance characteristics and advantages of the process were highlighted. The RCD uniflex process makes use of proven fixed bed and ebullated bed technologies in a new process configuration in which the fixed bed system is located upstream of the ebullated bed system. In this process, the catalyst volume increases exponentially with increasing processing severity. Performance characteristics, design features, benefits and development progress to date are described. 1 tab., 21 figs

  14. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  15. Distribution of pesticide residues in soil and uncertainty of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriela K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    Pesticide residues were determined in about 120 soil cores taken randomly from the top 15 cm layer of two sunflower fields about 30 days after preemergence herbicide treatments. Samples were extracted with acetone-ethyl acetate mixture and the residues were determined with GC-TSD. Residues of dimethenamid, pendimethalin, and prometryn ranged from 0.005 to 2.97 mg/kg. Their relative standard deviations (CV) were between 0.66 and 1.13. The relative frequency distributions of residues in soil cores were very similar to those observed in root and tuber vegetables grown in pesticide treated soils. Based on all available information, a typical CV of 1.00 was estimated for pesticide residues in primary soil samples (soil cores). The corresponding expectable relative uncertainty of sampling is 20% when composite samples of size 25 are taken. To obtain a reliable estimate of the average residues in the top 15 cm layer of soil of a field up to 8 independent replicate random samples should be taken. To obtain better estimate of the actual residue level of the sampled filed would be marginal if larger number of samples were taken.

  16. Microclimate effects of crop residues on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J. L.; Prueger, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    plant to maintain transpiration rates at optimal levels during the early vegetative growth period. The biological implications of crop residue on the soil surface can be more positive than negative and increasing our understanding of the physical environment and biological system interactions will lead to improved resource management.

  17. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  18. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  19. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  20. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  1. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  2. Effect of different formulations on tebuconazole residues in stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The correlation between pesticide residue levels and formulation of an active substance is often not considered, even if it is reasonable to expect some differences arising from behaviour during dilution and spraying, from adhesion to plant and from degradation. An experimental study to investigate the magnitude of tebuconazole residues as a function of different tebuconazole formulated products was carried out in Italy. The fungicide was applied as wettable powder (WP) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations to peach, plum, apricot and nectarine orchards, on four different sites. The fruit samples gained from the field trials were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) for tebuconazole residues. Tebuconazole residues in the fruits gained from the plot treated with the WP formulation, 14 days after application, were in the range 0.01-0.07 mg kg(-1), while corresponding residues in the plot treated with the WG formulation were in the range 0.01-0.06 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in the residue levels of tebuconazole could be observed between the trials conducted with the WP and the WG formulation. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Niclosamide residues in milk and organs of lactating goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hindi, A.M.; Sidra, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    14 C-Niclosamide was administered to two groups of lactating goats at levels of 2ppm for five consecutive days and 10ppm as a single dose. Residues of the molluscicide in milk, if at all present, did not exceed 0.001 ppm at any time. About 50% of the administered activity was excreted in faeces, while 30% excreted through urine in animals surviving 6 days after withdrawal. The unchanged molluscicide is present only in relatively trace amounts. The highest residues in organs were found in the liver of both groups (0.01-0.04 ppm). From the results it could be concluded that absorbed niclosamide is completely metabolised and rapidly eliminated through urine, leaving little or no residues of the unchanged molluscicide. Little or no residues were detected in lean muscles and milk which are consumed by humans. There is no preferential deposition of the molluscicide or its metabolites in fat

  4. Neutron diffraction measurement of residual stress in NPP construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinca, R.; Bokuchava, G.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to study the level of residual stresses induced by the surfacing in the weld deposit zone and in the base metal, where considerable thermal gradients are present. Surfacing high-nickel filler on an austenitic base metal is one of techniques in repair of primary collector the primary circuit of nuclear power plant type VVER. The repair technology was developed at Welding Research Institute Bratislava. Measurements of residual stresses in the weld overlay and the base metal are necessary for approving the mechanical analysis and verifying of residual stresses determination on welded material by numerical weld g computer simulation. Investigations of residual stresses are important for developing optimal welding techniques. (authors)

  5. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking animals, they are mostly present after mastitis treatment. The aim of this work is to stress the importance of the continuous control on antibiotic residues presence in milk, due to the role that milk and dairy products have in human nutrition. In this paper, different groups of antibiotics, mechanisms of theirs action, mistakes occurring in dairy products manufacture as well as the methods for theirs detection are described.

  6. Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...

  7. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  8. Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-03

    rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then

  9. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  10. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  11. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  12. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  13. Heavy metals investigation in bovine tissues in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Fabiano Alkmim Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of arsenic, lead, and cadmium residues in samples of liver, kidney, and muscle of cattle during the years of 2002 to 2008. A total of 1017 samples from 20 Brazilian States were used. The samples were analyzed at the National Agricultural Laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrometry technique. Arsenic residues were detected in 15.7% of liver samples and 28.7% of kidney samples although no results have exceeded the MRL. With regard to lead, 16 samples of liver and 74 samples of kidney were contaminated (5.2 and 10.9%, respectively. Among these samples, only one liver and two of kidney samples had lead levels above the MRL. Cadmium was found with levels below the MRL in 12.5% of the liver samples, and only 3 samples (1% were quantified above the MRL. Among the kidney samples, 420 (60.8% of the total tested had cadmium residues, and five of them exceeded the limits established by legislation. It is concluded that the Brazilian meat meets the legislation requirements without putting consumer's healthy at risk since as it satisfies the national and international food-safety conditions.

  14. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  15. RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore 85 kg ha-1 N as labelled ammonium sulfate (9.764% atomic excess) was applied in a three-split application. Fertiliser N recovery by wheat in the first year was 33.1%. At harvest, 64.8% of fertiliser N was found in the 0 - 80 cm profile as residual fertiliser-derived N; 2.1% of the applied N could not be accounted for ...

  16. Detecting Enteral Nutrition Residues and Microorganism Proliferation in Feeding Tubes via Real-Time Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Kagawa, Tomohiro; Mizugai, Kazuya; Ebisu, Goro

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) residues that persist in feeding tubes provide substrates for microorganisms to proliferate and occlude the tubes. Visible EN residues in tubes are easily identified, but smaller residues can persist. We developed a new imaging technique to visualize EN residues and proliferation of microorganisms in feeding tubes. (1) Feeding tubes containing EN labeled with fluorescent dye and either with or without various types or amounts of thickeners were flushed once with water and then seeded with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen05 with recombinant luciferase DNA. (2) Because EN fluoresces intrinsically, EN in the feeding tubes without fluorescent dye was repeatedly flushed until the intrinsic fluorescence levels reached background levels. Fluorescent images of EN residues and bioluminescent images of microorganisms were acquired via an optical imaging system. (1) Fluorescence images showed that the amount of EN residues increased at various sites in tubes depending on EN viscosity and the thickening agent, and bioluminescence images showed that microorganism proliferation was associated with a commensurate increase in EN residues. (2) The intrinsic fluorescence of EN also enabled the detection of EN residues in tubes even in the absence of fluorescence dye. Higher EN viscosity required more flushes to reach undetectable levels. EN residues and microorganism proliferation in enteral feeding tubes were detected on fluorescence and bioluminescence images, respectively. This simplified approach allowed the real-time visualization of EN residues and microorganisms in feeding tubes.

  17. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  18. Levels Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Residues In Warri River, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of PCB were compared with ecotoxicological benchmarks and regulatory guidelines to determine potential concern for effects on aquatic life and human health. Measured mean concentrations in surface water and sediments samples from Crawford creek station indicated concern for environmental and ...

  19. Levels of organochlorine insecticide residues in cowpea grains and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ife, Nigeria were analysed for their organochlorine insecticides (Aldrin, Dieldrin, Heptachlor, Endrin, Chlordane and Endosulfan) content. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumption safety status of these food items. Qualitative and ...

  20. Assessment of Pesticide Residue Levels in Vegetables sold in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. kelechi

    (1996) defined a pesticide as any product that kills or control various types of pest (plant or animal that is harmful ... pesticides that get into the plant tissues may be transformed (metabolised) or sequestered in the tissues to .... pesticide was detected in the tissue of the vegetables from Oyingbo with those in the tissues of the ...

  1. A Design of Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Sensor Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyung Soo

    2017-04-01

    In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for sensor fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite measurements and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noisefree systems. The proposed residual generation filter is specified to the digital filter structure for the amenability to hardware implementation. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, extensive simulations are performed for the discretized DC motor system with two types of sensor faults, incipient soft bias-type fault and abrupt bias-type fault. In particular, according to diverse noise levels and windows lengths, meaningful simulation results are given for the abrupt bias-type fault.

  2. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  4. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  5. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  7. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Criteria for the restoration of mining residues in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Ettenhuber, E.; Gehrcke, K.; Przyborowski, S.

    2000-01-01

    Residues from uranium mines and mills and from the mining of silver, tin, cobalt, nickel and other ores, as well as of coal mineralized with uranium, are situated in densely populated regions of Germany. Social and political pressure required an urgent investigation and evaluation of these residues in order to identify relevant residues which could not be disregarded from the radiation protection point of view. There were two categories of residues. First, for huge former uranium mining and milling sites, the original owner could be made liable for restoration. A large Federal rehabilitation programme for the Wismut sites was started immediately after the political change in the former East Germany in 1990 and was based on radiological as well as on social and economic concerns. Secondly, for a large number of smaller residues, sometimes dating back to the middle ages, an evaluation of their radiological relevance was necessary before decisions could be taken on the justification of a restoration. This was the objective of a Federal programme on registration, investigation and evaluation of mining residues. Up to now only minor remedial activities have been carried out in cases where an urgent need had been detected. Criteria developed by the German Commission on radiological protection (SSK) were applied for the evaluation of the residues. The primary criterion for the justification of a restoration was an annual individual effective dose of 1 mSv for all exposure pathways except for the inhalation of radon. For inhalation of radon, the primary criterion for justification was a long term average outdoor radon concentration of 50 Bq/m 3 caused by the residues. Both levels were taken in addition to the natural background radiation level at a given site. These criteria were based on the upper end of the 'normal' range of naturally occurring exposure or concentration levels. SSK established reference levels in measurable quantities (activity concentration in soil

  9. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  11. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  12. Comparação entre o efeito do resíduo do abacaxizeiro (caules e folhas e da pectina cítrica de alta metoxilação no nível de colesterol sangüíneo em ratos Comparison with the effect of pineapple residue (stems and leaves and the high metoxyl citric pectin on rats blood cholesterol level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Piedade

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou a investigar o efeito da ingestão do resíduo do abacaxizeiro no nível do colesterol total, HDL-colesterol e LDL-colesterol em ratos em comparação com a pectina cítrica, e verificar o comportamento dos animais em relação ao consumo alimentar e ao ganho de peso nos períodos de 15, 30 e 45 dias. As dietas do resíduo proporcionaram um maior consumo alimentar quando comparadas às dietas de pectina. O maior ganho de peso foi observado nas dietas: controle e com 10% de resíduo aos 15 e 30 dias, e aos 45 dias somente a dieta controle. O resíduo proporcionou um ganho de peso intermediário e a pectina, o menor ganho de peso. Os tratamentos com a pectina foram mais efetivos na redução do colesterol total; no entanto, aos 15 dias, as dietas com 10% e 15% de resíduo, aos 30 dias a dieta com 10% de resíduo, e todas as dietas contendo resíduo aos 45 dias. A concentração plasmática do HDL-colesterol foi aumentada em quase todas as dietas, com exceção da dieta com 25% de pectina, que reduziu este nível aos 15 dias, e aos 30 dias o manteve igual ao da dieta- controle; e as dietas do resíduo que proporcionaram redução e manutenção do teor do HDL-colesterol aos 45 dias quando comparada a dieta controle. O LDL-colesterol foi reduzido em todos os tratamentos, principalmente para as dietas contendo pectina.The present work aimed to investigate the effect of pineapple residue on total cholesterol levels, HDL-cholesterol and LDL- cholesterol of rats in comparison with the citric pectin, and to verify the rats behavior in relation to the food intake and weight gain at 15, 30 e 45 days. Residue diets provided higher food consumption when compared to the pectin diets. The highest weight gains was observed for the following control-diets and 10% of residue at 15 and 30 days, and at 45 days only for control-diet. Residue provided intermediate weight gains and the pectin the smallest weight gain. Pectin treatments were

  13. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  14. Monitoring of Pesticide Residues in Commonly Used Fruits and Vegetables in Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Jallow, Mustapha F. A.; Awadh, Dawood G.; Albaho, Mohammed S.; Devi, Vimala Y.; Ahmad, Nisar

    2017-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in primary and derived agricultural products raises serious health concerns for consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of pesticide residues in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables in Kuwait. A total of 150 samples of different fresh vegetables and fruits were analyzed for the presence of 34 pesticides using the quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe (QuEChERS) multi-residue extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometr...

  15. Proficiency test on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes with multi-residue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Pieter; Grimalt, Susana; Dabrio, Marta; Cordeiro, Fernando; Fiamegos, Yiannis; Robouch, Piotr; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; de la Calle, Beatriz

    2015-05-22

    This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 37 (IMEP-37) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the world-wide performance of food control laboratories on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes. This PT supports the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin. Eighty-one participants reported results, forty from EU Member States and forty-one from outside the EU. The test item was a grape sample spiked with 20 selected pesticides. The results of the participants were rated with z- and zeta (ζ-) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for the proficiency assessment, σˆ, of this PT was set at 25% for the 20 measured pesticides based on previous experience with similar measurands. The results reported to IMEP-37 showed that the participants performed satisfactorily, ranging from 81% (carbendazim) to 97% (azoxystrobin, penconazole, pyrimethanil) of the participating laboratories. However, only 30% of the participants managed to analyze all pesticides satisfactorily. Overall, the performance of the participants in this PT was good but there is room for improvement in the development of multi-residue methods for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of pesticides with an increased accuracy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct and residual effects of phosphate fertilizer on maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term field experiments were conducted for 13 cropping seasons on a Typic Paleustult in Ghana to study response of maize (Zea mays L.) to P fertilization, evaluate the relative efficiency of broadcast versus band applications, estimate residual effects of applied P and determine the critical P level for maize. The results ...

  17. PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN THE WATER AND FISH (LAGOON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid extraction technique was employed to extract pesticide residues in water and fish samples, respectively, using 1:1 (v/v) ethyl acetate/dichloromethane mixture before being analyzed by gas chromatography. The highest level of pesticide contaminations was recorded in the Chemu lagoon as ...

  18. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  19. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  20. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  1. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.

  2. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  3. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. linked by α-(1- 4) glycosidic bonds into chains and chains. branch via α-(1- 6) linkage. Branching points are about every fourth residue – allows. glucose ...

  4. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  5. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  6. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  7. Manual evaluation of residual curarization using double burst stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drenck, N E; Ueda, N; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    1989-01-01

    . For both stimulation patterns the frequencies of manually detectable fade in the response to stimulation were determined and compared at various electromechanically measured TOF ratios. A total of 369 fade evaluations for DBS and TOF were performed. Fade frequencies were statistically significantly higher...... with DBS than with TOF, regardless of the TOF ratio level. Absence of fade with TOF implied a 48% chance of considerable residual relaxation as compared with 9% when fade was absent with DBS. The results demonstrate that DBS is more sensitive than TOF in the manual detection of residual neuromuscular...

  8. Advances in Nonylphenols Residues and Their Behaviors in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ting-yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonylphenol, a kind of substances similar to environmental hormone, has biological toxicity, and prevalent in various environ-mental media, such as water, sludge and sediment. It can pose a threat to food safety, but we still lack of knowledge about the residual level of nonylphenol in soil. In this paper, the sources and residual status of nonylphenol in soil and other environmental media were summarized. The behavior processes of nonylphenol in soil were also analyzed, including adsorption and desorption, metabolic degradation, leaching and mi-gration, etc. Future work were also proposed to provide reference for further soil pollution survey and evaluation studies.

  9. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  10. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  11. Residual stress measurements of welded stainless steel 304 plate using the HANARO residual stress instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described

  12. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... residues and ethylamine distillation residues. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  13. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  14. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  15. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  16. Residual impairment after lower extremity fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergemann, C; Frandsen, P A; Röck, N D

    1998-01-01

    In a prospective follow-up study of 158 consecutive patients 18 to 64 years old with unilateral lower extremity fracture, our aim was to disclose the impairment and disability 6 months after the injury. The patients were interviewed within 1 week after the trauma, and all patients returned...... the functional status before the injury. Additionally, three major aspects of impairments were measured 6 months after the fractures: range of motion, muscle strength, and pain. Most patients had a significantly higher SIP score 6 months after the fracture(s) than pretraumatically. The mean overall SIP score...... was 2.7 pretraumatically and 8.7 6 months posttraumatically. Major deficits in range of motion was observed, especially in the ankle joint. Additionally, loss of muscle strength was observed in the thigh and calf muscles in one fourth of the patients. Only low levels of residual pain were reported after...

  17. Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Cristina Cara,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Next to the beta-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction. Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition ofthe stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.

  18. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  19. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  20. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  1. Residual-stress distributions near stainless steel butt weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elligson, W.A.; Shack, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    Concern for the integrity of stainless steel butt-weldments in boiling-water-reactor (BWR) piping systems has stimulated study of the conditions that cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in the heat-affected zones (HAZ) of the weldments. It is generally agreed that a high stress exceeding the initial yield strength is one of the essential elements for crack initiation. Since design procedures usually ensure that load stresses are below initial yield, the source of the high stresses necessary to produce SCC is thought to be the residual stresses due to welding. To examine the level of residual stresses in the weldments of interest, bulk residual stresses were measured on 100 mm (4-in.) and 254 mm (10-in.) diameter Schedule 80 piping weldments using strain relief techniques. Both laboratory welded specimens and field welded specimens from reactors in service were studied. Axial bulk residual stress distributions were obtained at 45 0 intervals around the circumference. At each azimuthal position, the residual stresses were measured at seven axial positions: on the weld centerline and 13, 20, and 25 mm on either side of the weld centerline on both the inside and outside surfaces

  2. Possible standard specimens for neutron diffraction residual stress measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, P.C.; Prask, H.J.; Fields, R.J.; Blackburn, J.; Proctor, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, sub-surface residual stress measurements by means of neutron diffraction are being conducted at various laboratories around the world. Unlike X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement setups, neutron instruments in use worldwide vary widely in design, neutron flux, and level of dedication towards residual stress measurements. Although confidence in the neutron technique has increased within the materials science and engineering communities, no demonstration of standardization or consistency between laboratories has been made. One of the steps in the direction of such standardization is the development of standard specimens, that have well characterized residual stress states and which could be examined worldwide. In this paper the authors will examine two options for a neutron stress standard specimen: (1) a steel ring-plug specimen with very well defined diametrical interference; (2) a spot weld in a High Strength Low Alloy steel disk. The results of neutron residual stress measurements on these specimens will be discussed and conclusions as to their usefulness as neutron stress standards will be presented

  3. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother's age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds.

  4. Pesticide residues and microbial contamination of water resources in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah Uan Boh; Lum Keng Yeang

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the water resources of the Muda rice growing areas revealed evidence of pesticide residues in the agroecosystem. While the cyclodiene endosulfan was found as a ubiquitous contaminant, the occurrence of other organochlorine insecticides was sporadic. The presence of 2,4-D, paraquat and molinate residues was also evident but the occurrence of these herbicides was seasonal. Residue levels of molinate were generally higher than those from the other herbicides. The problem of thiobencarb and carbofuran residues was not encountered. Analyses for microbial contamination revealed that the water resources were unfit for drinking; coliform counts were higher during certain periods of the year than others. (Author)

  5. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozowicka, B.; Mojsak, P.; Jankowska, M.; Kaczynski, P.; Hrynko, I.; Rutkowska, E.; Szabunko, J.; Borusiewicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005–2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01–0.81 mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor < 2.9% and < 10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. - Highlights: • Health risk assessment of insecticide via dietary intake of fruit was estimated. • Sixteen residues in pome, stone, berries and small fruit ranged from 0.01 to 0.8 mg/kg. • Organophosphates were the most frequently occurring group with common MoA. • Dietary exposures for adults and children were below the safety reference values. • Toxicological study provided important date of human health.

  6. Toxicological studies for adults and children of insecticide residues with common mode of action (MoA) in pome, stone, berries and other small fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozowicka, B., E-mail: B.Lozowicka@iorpib.poznan.pl [Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok (Poland); Mojsak, P.; Jankowska, M.; Kaczynski, P.; Hrynko, I.; Rutkowska, E.; Szabunko, J. [Plant Protection Institute - National Research Institute, Laboratory of Pesticide Residues, Chelmonskiego 22, 15-195 Bialystok (Poland); Borusiewicz, A. [Department of Agronomy, The Academy of Agrobusiness in Łomza (Poland)

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in fruit is a serious health concern. This paper for the first time demonstrated the Hazard Index (HI) method to carry out acute, chronic and cumulative health risk assessment to the 14 groups of insecticides for three subpopulations. The challenge of this study was to present results from a long period of research (years 2005–2014) with toxicological aspects, especially in multiresidue samples. Near 1000 fresh pome, stone, berries and small fruit were prepared by two accredited MSPD and QuEChERS methods followed by liquid and gas chromatography analyses with various systems of detection ECD/NPD/MS/MS. Twenty percent of the fruit samples contained 16 insecticide residues in the range of 0.01–0.81 mg/kg and 3% over MRL. The class of pesticide with the highest contribution to the ADI was found to be OPPs: dimethoate and diazinon for adults 48% and 66% of the ADI whereas for infants 144% and 294% of the ADI. The highest contributions of the cHQ to common MoA pesticides were AChE inhibitors: 135% for adults and 528% for infants, sodium channel modulators 4.9% and 20%, nicotic acetylocholine receptor < 2.9% and < 10.6% for adults and infants, respectively. The fruit with the highest contribution to the ADI were found to be apples (316%, 58%), cherries (96%, 37%) and pears (129%, 33%) for infants and adults. The study findings indicated that dietary exposures to insecticide residues in fruit would be unlikely to pose unacceptable health risks for the infants, toddlers and adults. - Highlights: • Health risk assessment of insecticide via dietary intake of fruit was estimated. • Sixteen residues in pome, stone, berries and small fruit ranged from 0.01 to 0.8 mg/kg. • Organophosphates were the most frequently occurring group with common MoA. • Dietary exposures for adults and children were below the safety reference values. • Toxicological study provided important date of human health.

  7. Review on the Influences of Bagging Treatment on Pesticide Residue in Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xiao-yun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, bagging technology has been widely applicated in fruit cultivation. Impact of bagging treatment on the pesticide residues have different results. On the basis of existing achievements, this paper systematically analyzed the influence of different bagging treatments on pesticide residues:such as different ways of applying pesticide, pesticide concentration, number of applying pesticide; bagging materials, bagged layer; the type of pesticide(systemic pesticide, nonendoscopic pesticide; different portions of the fruit, crop varieties and so on. The way of applying pesticide had great impact on pesticide residue, pesticide application after bagging could largely reduce the pesticide residue, and pesticide application before bagging could increase pesticide residues; The four factors including pesticide appliacation dosage, the type of pesticides and fruit portion and fruit varieties on the effects of pesticide residues, had interaction each other. The pesticide applying several times, bagging could significantly reduce pesticide residues and control within the security level. Different bagging materials could reduce pesticide residues, but the impact on pesticide residues had no significant difference. More bagging layers caused less pesticide residues.

  8. A Multi-Factor Analysis of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; David Muth; Paul Adler; Eleanor Campbell; Kenneth Mark Bryden

    2012-10-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a near term source of cellulosic biomass for bioenergy production, but sustainable removal of agricultural residues requires consideration of the critical roles that residues play in the agronomic system. Previous work has developed an integrated model to evaluate sustainable agricultural residue removal potential considering soil erosion, soil organic carbon, greenhouse gas emission, and long-term yield impacts of residue removal practices. The integrated model couples the environmental process models WEPS, RUSLE2, SCI, and DAYCENT. This study uses the integrated model to investigate the impact of interval removal practices in Boone County, Iowa, US. Residue removal of 4.5 Mg/ha was performed annually, bi-annually, and tri-annually and were compared to no residue removal. The study is performed at the soil type scale using a national soil survey database assuming a continuous corn rotation with reduced tillage. Results are aggregated across soil types to provide county level estimates of soil organic carbon changes and individual soil type soil organic matter content if interval residue removal were implemented. Results show interval residue removal is possible while improving soil organic matter. Implementation of interval removal practices provide greater increases in soil organic matter while still providing substantial residue for bioenergy production.

  9. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  10. Lindane and propoxur residues in cocoa from Central region of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindane and propoxur residue levels in cocoa samples taken from the Central Region of Ghana were determined. Propoxur and Lindane residues in cocoa were extracted by continuous soxhlet extraction with a 1:1 v/v acetone-chloroform and acetone-hexane (20:80 v/v) mixture for propoxur and lindane respectively for 12 ...

  11. Willingness of nonindustrial private forest owners in Norway to supply logging residues for wood energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne K. Sjolie; Dennis Becker; Daniel Habesland; Birger Solberg; Berit Hauger Lindstad; Stephanie Snyder; Mike. Kilgore

    2016-01-01

    Norway has set ambitious targets for increasing bioenergy production. Forest residue extraction levels are currently very low, but residues have the potential to be an important component of the wood energy supply chain. A representative sample of Norwegian nonindustrial private forest owners having at least 8 ha (20 acres) of productive forest land was surveyed about...

  12. Tebuconazole and Azoxystrobin Residue Behaviors and Distribution in Field and Cooked Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fan; Teng, Peipei; Liu, Fengmao; Wang, Wenzhuo

    2017-06-07

    Residue behaviors of tebuconazole and azoxystrobin in field condition and the variation of their residue levels during the boiling process were evaluated. The terminal residues of peanut kernels were determined by using a modified QuEChERS method (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) by means of the optimization of the novel purification procedure with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Fe 3 O 4 -magnetic nanoparticle (Fe 3 O 4 -MNP) in the presence of an external magnetic field, and the terminal residues were all at trace level at harvest time. The residues in shells were detected as well to investigate the distribution in peanuts. Tebuconazole and azoxystrobin residue levels varied before/after boiling in kernels and shells to different degrees due to various factors, such as the modes of action and physicochemical properties of pesticides. The residues have been transferred from peanut into the infusion during boiling with the higher percentage of azoxystrobin as its lower logK ow . The processing factors (PFs) for tebuconazole and azoxystrobin after processing were <1, indicating that home cooking in this study could reduce the residue levels in peanut. Risk assessment showed there was no health risk for consumers.

  13. Monitoring residue in animals and primary products of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of control and systematic monitoring of residue is to secure, by the examination of a corresponding number of samples, the efficient monitoring of the residue level in tissues and organs of animals, as well as in primary products of animal origin. This creates possibilities for the timely taking of measures toward the securing of food hygiene of animal origin and the protection of public health. Residue can be a consequence of the inadequate use of medicines in veterinary medicine and pesticides in agriculture and veterinary medicine, as well as the polluting of the environment with toxic elements, dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and others. Residue is being monitored in Serbia since 1972, and in 2004, national monitoring was brought to the level of EU countries through significant investments by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management. This is also evident in the EU directives which permit exports of all kinds of meat and primary products of animal origin, covered by the Residue Monitoring Program. The program of systematic examinations of residue has been coordinated with the requirements of the European Union, both according to the type of examined substance, as well as according to the number of samples and the applied analytical techniques. In addition to the development of methods and the including of new harmful substances into the monitoring programme, it is also necessary to coordinate the national regulations that define the maximum permitted quantities of certain medicines and contaminants with the EU regulations, in order to protect the health of consumers as efficiently as possible, and for the country to take equal part in international trade.

  14. Crop residue recycling for economic and environmental sustainability: The case of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Saroj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the key producers of food grain, oilseed, sugarcane and other agricultural products. Agricultural crops generate considerable amounts of leftover residues, with increases in food production crop residues also increasing. These leftover residues exhibit not only resource loss but also a missed opportunity to improve a farmer’s income. The use of crop residues in various fields are being explored by researchers across the world in areas such as textile composite non-woven making processes, power generation, biogas production, animal feed, compost and manures, etc. The increasing trend in addition of bio-energy cogeneration plants, increasing demand for animal feedstock and increasing trend for organic agriculture indicates a competitive opportunity forcrop residue in Agriculture. It is to be noted that the use of this left over residue isoften not mutually exclusive which makes measurement of its economic value more difficult.For example, straw can be used as animal bedding and thereafter as a crop fertilizer. In view of this, the main aim of this paper envisaged to know about how much crop residue is left unutilized and how best they can be utilized for alternative purposes for environmental stewardship and sustainability. In this context, an attempt has been made to estimate the total crop residue across the states and its economic value though data available from various government sources and a SWOT analysis performed for possible alternative uses of residue in India. This paper also discusses the successful case studies of India and global level of use of crop residues in economic activities. Over all 516 Mtonnes of crop residue was produced in 2014-15 in India among which cereals were the largest producer of crop residue followed by sugarcane. The energy potential from paddy rice straw crop residue was estimated as 486,955 megawatt for 2014-15 and similarly for coarse cereals it was 226,200megawatt.

  15. CSmetaPred: a consensus method for prediction of catalytic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Preeti; Kumar, Shailesh; Bachhawat, Anand Kumar; Pandit, Shashi Bhushan

    2017-12-22

    residues at lower (better) ranked positions, which can facilitate and expedite their experimental characterization. The benchmarking studies showed that employing meta-approach in combining residue-level scores derived from well-known catalytic residue predictors can improve prediction accuracy as well as provide improved ranked positions of known catalytic residues. Hence, such predictions can assist experimentalist to prioritize residues for mutational studies in their efforts to characterize catalytic residues. Both meta-predictors are available as webserver at: http://14.139.227.206/csmetapred/ .

  16. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  17. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  18. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  19. Resíduos de glifosato e ácido aminometilfosfônico e teores de isoflavonas em soja BRS 244 RR e BRS 154 Residues of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid and levels of isoflavones in BRS 244 RR and BRS 154 soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani Mariza Bärwald Bohm

    2008-12-01

    cultivated treatments were evaluated: T1 - soybean BRS 244 RR, without herbicide and hand-weeded at 28 days after planting (dap; T2 - soybean BRS 154, without herbicide and hand-weeded at 28 dap; T3 - soybean BRS 244 RR with one application of 960 g ai ha-1 of glyphosate at 28 dap; T4 - soybean BRS 244 RR, with two applications of 960 g ai ha-1 of glyphosate at 28 and 56 dap; T5 - soybean BRS 244 RR, with one application of 100 g ai ha-1 of imazethapyr at 28 dap; and T6 - soybean BRS 154 with one application of 100 g ai ha-1 of imazethapyr at 28 dap. It was verified that the glyphosate application for weed control resulted in high levels of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid on the soil. The levels of isoflavone in the grains apparently were not affected by the glyphosate application, but the herbicide residues were higher than the current amount allowed by the legislation (10 mg.kg-1.

  20. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Annatto seed residue (Bixa orellana L.: nutritional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alessandra Valério

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that annatto seeds are rich in protein, the present work aimed to evaluate the biological quality of this nutrient in the meal residue originating from annatto seed processing. We determined the general composition, mineral levels, amino acid composition and chemical scores, antinutritional factors, and protein quality using biological assays. The following values were obtained: 11.50% protein, 6.74% moisture, 5.22% ash, 2.22% lipids, 42.19% total carbohydrates and 28.45% fiber. The residue proved to be a food rich in fiber and also a protein source. Antinutritional factors were not detected. The most abundant amino acids were lysine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine. Valine was the most limiting amino acid (chemical score 0.22. The protein quality of the seed residue and the isolated protein showed no significant differences. The biological value was lower than that of the control protein but higher than that found in other vegetables. Among the biochemical analyses, only creatinine level was decreased in the two test groups compared to the control group. Enzyme tests did not indicate liver toxicity. The results showed favorable aspects for the use of annatto seed residue in the human diet, meriting further research.

  2. Microwave calcination for plutonium immobilization and residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Rising, T.L.; Roushey, W.J.; Sprenger, G.S.

    1995-01-01

    In the late 1980's development was begun on a process using microwave energy to vitrify low level mixed waste sludge and transuranic mixed waste sludge generated in Building 374 at Rocky Flats. This process was shown to produce a dense, highly durable waste form. With the cessation of weapons production at Rocky Flats, the emphasis has changed from treatment of low level and TRU wastes to stabilizaiton of plutonium oxide and residues. This equipment is versatile and can be used as a heat source to calcine, react or vitrify many types of residues and oxides. It has natural economies in that it heats only the material to be treated, significantly reducing cycle times over conventional furnaces. It is inexpensive to operate in that most of the working components remain outside of any necessary contamination enclosure and therefore can easily be maintained. Limited testing has been successfully performed on cerium oxide (as a surrogate for plutonium oxide), surrogate electrorefining salts, surrogate residue sludge and residue ash. Future plans also include tests on ion exchange resins. In an attempt to further the usefullness of this technology, a mobile, self-contained microwave melting system is currently under development and expected to be operational at Rocky Flats Enviromental Technology Site by the 4th quarter of FY96

  3. Organotin levels in seafood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, A.C.; Purperhart, M.; Ariese, F.

    2000-01-01

    Tolerable average residue levels (TARL) for tributylin (TBT) in seafood products were calculated based on the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of TBT and the seafood consumption of the average consumer in various countries. Data from the literature show that these TARLs in seafood are exceeded in one or

  4. Fate of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid residues in grapes and wine by GC-ITMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Schirra, Mario; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2011-06-22

    The behavior in field and the transfer from grapes to wine during winemaking of iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid was studied. The residue levels found in grapes were far below the MRLs set for grapes in EU, accounting at harvest time 0.81, 0.43, and 4.23 mg/kg for iprovalicarb, indoxacarb, and boscalid, respectively. The residue levels in the samples treated with boscalid may have residual problems (due to an accumulation effect) if repeated field treatments will be performed. Winemaking experiments showed a complete transfer of all pesticide from grapes to the must, while in wine the residues were low or negligible due to the adsorbing effect of lees and pomace. The clarification experiments showed a good removal of pesticide residues from the wine media, for all pesticides. The GC-ITMS method showed good performance with adequate recoveries ranging from 75 to 115%, and good method limits of quantitation (LOQs) and of determination (LODs) far below MRLs.

  5. A study on the neoasozine residues in rice grain by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.H.; Lee, K.J.; Lee, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    Residues of neoasozine in rice grain were determined by neutron activation and colorimetric techniques. Twice application of the chemical before flowering did not lead to any increased residue level while 4-times application resulted in significant increase in the residue level up to 0.54 - 0.75 mg As 2 O 3 /kg. The partition ratio of arsenic residues into polished rice grain and bran was 73 : 27 in 100 % polishing while most of the residues in the bran was transferred to oil cake fraction during solvent extraction, reaching up to 2.9 mg As 2 O 3 /kg. The neutron activation technique was advantageous because of its high sensitivity and the smaller sample amounts required for analysis. (author)

  6. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  7. Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial Neural Networks and Concentration Residual Augmented Classical Least Squares for the Simultaneous Determination of Diphenhydramine, Benzonatate, Guaifenesin and Phenylephrine in their Quaternary Mixture.

  8. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...

  9. Residual heat removal pump retrofit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudiak, J.G.; McKenna, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Residual Heat Removal (RHR) pumps installed in pressurized water reactor power plants are used to provide the removal of decay heat from the reactor and to provide low head safety injection in the event of loss of coolant in the reactor coolant system. These pumps are subjected to rather severe temperature and pressure transients, therefore, the majority of pumps installed in the RHR service are vertical pumps with a single stage impeller. RHR pumps have traditionally been a significant maintenance item for many utilities. The close-coupled pump design requires disassembly of the casing cover from the lower pump casing while performing these routine maintenance tasks. The casing separation requires the loosening of numerous highly torqued studs. Once the casing is separated, the impeller is dropped from the motor shaft to allow removal of the mechanical seal and casing cover from the motor shaft. Galling of the impeller to the motor shaft is not uncommon. The RHR pump internals are radioactive and the separation of the pump casing to perform routine maintenance exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. The handling of the impeller also exposes the maintenance personnel to high radiation levels. This paper introduces a design modification developed to convert the close-coupled RHR pumps to a coupled configuration

  10. A Regulator's Guide to Management of Radioactive Residuals from Drinking Water Treatment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide is intended for state regulators, technical assistance providers, and field staffto help states address radionuclide residual disposal by outlining options available to help systems address elevated radionuclide levels.

  11. Measurement of final container residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J C; Wheeler, R M; Etz, N; Del Grosso, A

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research has changed its regulations pertaining to residual moisture in freeze-dried biological products as published in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations for Food and Drugs. The new regulation requires that each lot of dried product be tested for residual moisture and meet and not exceed established limits as specified by an approved method on file in the product license application. The gravimetric or loss-on-drying method is no longer listed as the required method; the 1.0% moisture limit is no longer specifically stated in the regulation. These revisions were made to bring the regulation into line with changes in residual moisture testing methods and the results obtained when new testing methods were applied to the determination of residual moisture. This is illustrated with data for Measles Virus Vaccine Live and Haemophilus b Polysaccharide Vaccine using final container residual moisture test results obtained by the gravimetric, coulometric Karl Fischer, thermogravimetric and thermogravimetric/mass spectrometric methods. Guidelines for the determination of residual moisture in dried biological products have been issued to describe residual moisture test methods and procedures used to set product residual moisture limits. For most products levels of residual moisture should be low, usually from less than 1.0% to 3.0%, so that the viability, immunologic potency and therefore the stability of the product is not compromised over time.

  12. Ammonia emission from crop residues : quantification of ammonia volatilization based on crop residue properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, de F.J.; Huijsmans, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of available literature data on ammonia volatilization from crop residues. From these data, a relation is derived for the ammonia emission depending on the N-content of crop residue.

  13. Interwell tracer testing for residual oil saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses mainly on the interpretation of partitioning tracer data for residual oil saturation measurement. As a secondary objective, depending on the progress of the project, it may also look into some commonly encountered phenomena related to tracer interaction with rock matrix such as adsorption and mass transfer into secondary pores. With advancement of interpretation techniques, interwell partitioning tracer tests have become popular in the industry for determining residual oil saturation to water flood or gas flood. With reported successes both in petroleum and environmental industry, it has gained wide recognition as a reliable method for measuring residual oil saturation, along with other standard techniques such as single well tracer testing, sponge coring and log-inject-log. Several levels of interpretation, depending on the degree of sophistication, are available to interpret the tracer data for residual oil saturation determination. These methods range from the simplest analytical methods namely chromatographic transformation and moment analysis to the most intricate finite difference or streamline simulation, with the semi-quantitative Brigham's Model being in between. The residual oil saturations measured by these methods are not necessarily identical. There arises a legitimate question as to what the residual oil saturation values from different methods mean. Brigham's Model has the advantage that it is semi-analytical and requires minimal effort to match the tracer data. Brigham's five spot model will be extended to model the propagation of partitioning tracer for residual oil saturation measurement. The limitation of using the model for irregular pattern will also be addressed. We will also try to construct a 7 spot, 9 spot and line drive based on Brigham's correlation. This model will also be used to study the effect of different Sor in different layers on chromatographic and moment analysis method. Other retention mechanisms such as

  14. Process for measuring residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.

    1982-01-01

    No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de

  15. Influx of CO/sub 2/ from soil incubated organic residues at constant temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature induced CO/sub 2/ from genotupic residue substances is still less understood. Two types of organic residues (wheat-maize) were incubated at a constant temperature (25 degree C) to determine the rate and cumulative influx of CO/sub 2/ in laboratory experiment for 40 days. Further, the effect of surface and incorporated crop residues with and without phosphorus addition was also studied. Result revealed that mixing of crop residues increased CO/sub 2/-C evolution significantly and emission rare was 37% higher than that of control. At constant temperature, soil mixed residues, had higher emission rate CO/sub 2/-C than the residue superimposed. There was linear correlation of CO/sub 2/-C influxed for phosphorus levels and residue application ways with entire incubation at constant temperature. The mixing of organic residues to soil enhanced soil organic carbon levels and biomass of microbially bound N; however to little degree ammonium (NH/sub 4/-N) and nitrate NO/sub 3/-N nitrogen were decreased. (author)

  16. Effects of Vermicompost and Water Treatment Residuals on Soil Physical Properties and Wheat Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; Mahmoud, Essawy K.; Ibrahim, Doaa A.

    2015-04-01

    The application of vermicompost and water treatment residuals to improve the physical properties in the salt affected soils is a promising technology to meet the requirements of high plant growth and cost-effective reclamation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vermicompost and its mixtures with water treatment residuals on selected physical properties of saline sodic soil and on wheat yield. The treatments were vermicompost, water treatment residuals, vermicompost + water treatment residuals (1:1 and 2:1 wet weight ratio) at levels of 5 and 10 g dry weight kg-1 dry soil. The considered physical properties included aggregate stability, mean weight diameter, pore size distribution and dry bulk density. The addition of vermicompost and water treatment residuals had significant positive effects on the studied soil physical properties, and improved the grain yield of wheat. The treatment of (2 vermicompost + 1 water treatment residuals) at level of 5 g kg-1 soil gave the best grain yield. Combination of vermicompost and water treatment residuals improved the water treatment residuals efficiency in ameliorating the soil physical properties, and could be considered as an ameliorating material for the reclamation of salt affected soils.

  17. 14C-Profenofos Residues in Milk and Milk Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhr, I.M.I.; Afifi, L.M.; Fouzy, A.S.M.; Hegazi, B.

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of lactating goats with only one dose of 14 C-ethoxy profenofos (17.9 mg/Kg) in gelatin capsules and then feeding normally, resulted in the presence of 0.5% of the radioactive insecticide residues in the milk collected through the fourteen successive days. The highest activity level was depicted at the first day and almost disappeared after two weeks. After processing, the analysis of milk products revealed difference in radioactive residue level according to the nature of the product and increased in the order: whey< skim < yoghurt < pasteurized milk < cheese< cream. TLC analysis of milk and milk products revealed the absence of the parent compound and the presence of 4 major metabolites, which were identified by co-chromatography with authentic compounds

  18. Phosphorus availability in residues as fertilizers in organic agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Foereid

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P should be recycled from organic wastes as much as possible, and input is needed in stockless organic agriculture. Seven organic residues were assessed and compared them to mineral P fertilizer and rock phosphate as fertilizer for barley. P availability in the mixtures and residual P availability were also assessed by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT. The best availability was found in digested liquid manure followed by wood ash, fish sludge, composted solid manure and composted food waste. Meat and bone meal, the commercially available product Ladybug plus and rock phosphate had low P availability at the same level as no P. Only wood ash had significant P available for the next crop. The pH level of the soil did not affect P availability for any of the P sources. DGT predicted P availability moderately well, as it measures P supply over a short period without any biological factors.

  19. Development of a SERS aptasensor for detection of medical residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    surface. By hybridisation to a labelled complementary strand it was proven that aptamer was indeed immobilised. It was also found that stronger binding to the gold covered nanopillars could be obtained by a short treatment in reactive O2 plasma. Likewise it was found that the addition of a detergent......Low levels of medical residues in environmental, industrial and domestic water systems is a growing concern. The biosensor industry is trying to accomodate the need of sensitive and specific sensor systems capable of ultra-low level detection of medical residues. In this PhD project a surface...... enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor for the female sexhormone 17β-estradiol was attempted. It is commonly used in contraceptive pills from where it find its way through waste water treatment plants and into the environment. The SERS substrate was fabricated in a cleanroom facility using techniques...

  20. Pyrethroid residue dynamics in insects depends on the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Justyna; Piechowicz, Bartosz; Maciąga, Gabriela; Zaręba, Lech; Marcinkowska, Sonia

    2018-02-27

    Many factors may affect pesticide effectiveness against pests. One of the factors that should be considered is circadian rhythmicity. In this study, we evaluated daily variations in pyrethroid susceptibility in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus L. Crickets were exposed to a standard dose of ß-cyfluthrin at different times of a day, and pesticide residue levels were evaluated using gas chromatography. Results demonstrate that the time of pyrethroid disappearance is correlated with the circadian clock, with the highest decomposition rate at night. Furthermore, crickets also showed the highest resistance to the insecticide at night, expressed as a high survival rate. Moreover, ß-cyfluthrin induced significant changes in thermal preferences of intoxicated crickets. This is the first report showing that pyrethroid residue levels in the crickets' body depend on its circadian clock.

  1. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  2. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  3. Residual stresses in steel and zirconium weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Root, J.H.; Coleman, C.E.; Bowden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Three-dimensional scans of residual stress within intact weldments provide insight into the consequences of various welding techniques and stress-relieving procedures. The neutron diffraction method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses has been applied to a circumferential weld in a ferritic steel pipe of outer diameter 114 mm and thickness 8.6 mm. The maximum tensile stresses, 250 MPa in the hoop direction, are found at mid-thickness of the fusion zone. The residual stresses approach zero within 20 mm from the weld center. The residual stresses caused by welding zirconium alloy components are partially to blame for failures due to delayed-hydride cracking. Neutron diffraction measurements in a GTA-welded Zr-2.5 Nb plate have shown that heat treatment at 530 C for 1 h reduces the longitudinal residual strain by 60%. Neutron diffraction has also been used to scan the residual stresses near circumferential electron beam welds in irradiated and unirradiated Zr-2.5 Nb pressure tubes. The residual stresses due to electron beam welding appear to be lower than 130 MPa, even in the as-welded state. No significant changes occur in the residual stress pattern of the electron-beam welded tube, during a prolonged exposure to thermal neutrons and the temperatures typical of an operating nuclear reactor

  4. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  5. Spatial resolution enhancement residual coding using hybrid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a normal video frames possess distinct characteristics compared to a residual frame. In this paper, we .... analyze the characteristics of IP, MC and RE residuals (Kamisli 2010; Rao et al 2007). The estimation ..... Eslami R and Radha H 2007 A new family of nonredundant transforms using hybrid wavelets and directional filter ...

  6. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  7. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  8. Unicystic ameloblastoma arising from a residual cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Amit D; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Khurana, Neha M; Shah, Navin

    2014-01-01

    Intraoral swellings involving alveolar ridges in edentulous patients are clinically diagnosed as residual cysts, traumatic bone cysts, Stafne's jaw bone cavity, ameloblastoma and metastatic tumours of the jaw. This case report describes a residual cyst in a 68-year-old edentulous male patient which was enucleated and histopathologically confirmed as a unicystic ameloblastoma. PMID:25199192

  9. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salts...

  10. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    quadratic residues and non-residues cases using some refinement of van der Warden's the- orem in combinatorial number theory. Therefore, in his proof, the constant p0(N) depends on the van der Warden number, which is very difficult to calculate for all N. For instance, recently, Luca and Thangadurai [8] proved that for all ...

  11. Power from wastewater and residual products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Jeppesen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells utilise wastewater and residual products from the pretreatment of straw to generate power. Denmark could lead the way......Microbial fuel cells utilise wastewater and residual products from the pretreatment of straw to generate power. Denmark could lead the way...

  12. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  13. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  14. 77 FR 24671 - Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability and... availability of a compliance guide for the prevention of violative residues in livestock slaughter...

  15. Avaliação da densidade de uma pastagem de coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers em níveis residuais de matéria seca sob pastejo Density evaluation of a coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers pasture under grazing in different levels of dry matter residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Coelho

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Câmpus do Arenito - UEM, em Cidade Gaúcha, no período de outubro de 1997 a março de 1998, com o objetivo de avaliar na pastagem de coastcross -1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em quatro níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS: 1.978, 2.130, 2.545 e 3.857 kg de MS/ha, com lotação contínua e carga animal variável, as densidades e participação dos componentes botânicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As avaliações da densidade de forragem, participação dos componentes botânicos e a relação folha/colmo foram estudados nos estratos inferiores (0 - 10 cm e superiores (10 - 20 cm da pastagem, em função dos níveis RMS. A densidade da pastagem (g de MS/m3 nos estratos inferior e superior teve uma relação positiva com os níveis de RMS e negativa em relação ao tempo (dias do experimento. A percentagem de material morto (MM foi superior no estrato inferior em relação à percentagem de colmos verdes (CV e de folhas verdes (FV. No estrato superior o MM e CV tiveram a maior participação, porém FV, aumentou à medida que se elevaram os níveis de RMS.This experiment was carried out in Arenito Research Center-UEM, in Cidade Gaúcha-PR, from October/1997 to March /1998, to evaluate in coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers grazing, in four levels of dry matter residue (DMR: 1,978; 2,130; 2,545; 3,857 kg of DM/ha, with a continuous allotment system and variable number of allotments, the densities and participation of botanical component. A completely randomized design with two replications was used. Forage density, participation of botanical components and leaf/stem ratio were evaluated in inferior strata (0-10 cm and superior ones (10-20 cm of the pasture, according to the levels of DMR. The pasture density (g of DM/m3 in superior and inferior strata had a positive relation with the DMR levels and negative when associated to the period (days

  16. Pesticides Residue in Milk and Milk Products: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Akhtar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock is an important sub-sector of agriculture that plays a key role in economy of a country by contributing to GDP (Gross Domestic Product and in total export. Pakistan is the 5th largest milk producer in the world with a total milk production of about 46.44 billion liters per anum. Almost 68% milk is produced by buffalo and 27% by cow. Pesticides used in agriculture sector may transfer to animal bodies through feed and fodder. A pesticide found in water is another source of residues in milk through drinking water. External control of parasites on animal body, insect control in cattle yard and sheds are direct sources of pesticides exposure for dairy animals. Due to its nutritional and supplementary value, milk is being consumed by people of different age groups therefore, issue of pesticide residues attain the immediate attention of researcher. Pesticide residues levels in raw dairy milk are discussed here in few selected developing and developed countries. It is concluded that human health is associated with exposure to organo phosphorus (OPPs, organo chlorine (OCPs, pyrethroids and carbamate (CB pesticides via milk or milk products and this issue deserve more attention. Different classes of pesticides OPPs, OCPs, pyrethroids and CBs etc. were reported in raw dairy milk in different countries and also in Pakistan. The results of this review demonstrate the need to establish pesticide residue monitoring programs for milk analysis for human consumption to improve food safety and decrease exposure risks to consumers.

  17. Stability of aged bound residues of methyl parathion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helling, C.S.; Gerstl, Z.; Kloskowski, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mineralization of bound 14 C-methyl parathion (MP) was demonstrated, indirectly by 14 CO 2 loss exceeding that which could derive from extractable MP residues, and directly by incubation of extracted soil. Amendment of the soil with sludge and with low to moderate rates of five soil fumigants and sterilants greatly enhanced 14 CO 2 loss; a high rate of HgCl 2 reduced mineralization. Asparagine and glucose amendments (incubated 78 days) caused a 10% increase in 14 CO 2 loss; 14 C-asparagine and 14 C-glucose were degraded, yielding 25% and 38% bound residue, respectively. When glucose, sludge or HgCl 2 was added to aged MP residues (after 145 days incubation), the amendments did not accelerate mineralization during a subsequent 33-day incubation period. Radioactivity after 178 days was 9% extractable, 58% in fulvic acid, 17% in humic acid and 16% in humin, in control soil and in amended soil. Methyl parathion degraded during high-temperature distillation, which technique also failed to yield identifiable volatile 14 C products (except 14 CO 2 ) from bound MP. However, extraction with supercritical methanol solubilized 38% of residual 14 C; parent MP was identified at a level of 0.6 μg per gram soil. (author)

  18. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction is influen......This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...... lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis...... process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown...

  19. Development of a General Modelling Methodology for Vacuum Residue Hydroconversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira de Oliveira L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns the development of a methodology for kinetic modelling of refining processes, and more specifically for vacuum residue conversion. The proposed approach allows to overcome the lack of molecular detail of the petroleum fractions and to simulate the transformation of the feedstock molecules into effluent molecules by means of a two-step procedure. In the first step, a synthetic mixture of molecules representing the feedstock for the process is generated via a molecular reconstruction method, termed SR-REM molecular reconstruction. In the second step, a kinetic Monte-Carlo method (kMC is used to simulate the conversion reactions on this mixture of molecules. The molecular reconstruction was applied to several petroleum residues and is illustrated for an Athabasca (Canada vacuum residue. The kinetic Monte-Carlo method is then described in detail. In order to validate this stochastic approach, a lumped deterministic model for vacuum residue conversion was simulated using Gillespie’s Stochastic Simulation Algorithm. Despite the fact that both approaches are based on very different hypotheses, the stochastic simulation algorithm simulates the conversion reactions with the same accuracy as the deterministic approach. The full-scale stochastic simulation approach using molecular-level reaction pathways provides high amounts of detail on the effluent composition and is briefly illustrated for Athabasca VR hydrocracking.

  20. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.