WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual toxicity test

  1. Evaluating the suitability of Hydrobia ulvae as a test species for sediment metal toxicity testing applying a tissue residue approach to metal mixtures in laboratory and field exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Olivia; Rodríguez, Antonio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-05-01

    A major weakness in evaluating the suitability of a biomonitor organism is the poor ability to predict the variability of the bioavailability of metals from measured environmental concentrations. In this study, the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was used to evaluate its suitability as a test organism for assessing sediment metal toxicity. Toxicity tests were run with sediments spiked with copper, cadmium and zinc applied both as single metal and as a mixture to investigate toxicological interactions evaluating different lethal and sublethal effects. Dose-response relationships were constructed based both on tissue residue approach and particulate metal concentrations. Because metal-spiked sediments used in routine toxicity tests often do not exhibit the same adsorption/desorption kinetics as the natural sediments, the laboratory results were compared to 10-d bioassays conducted with natural field sediments collected from the Guadalete estuary (SW Spain). Highly significant correlations between tissue residue concentrations and particulate metal concentrations were found for all metal-spiked or field-collected and demonstrated that: (i) H. ulvae readily accumulated copper and cadmium in response to contamination and (ii) dietary uptake was determined to be the most significant route of metal exposure. The comparison of the modeled tissue residue-response curve developed from the mixture tests was in good agreement with the results from the bioassay conducted with field sediments and strongly demonstrated that H. ulvae is also a suitable test organism for assessing copper sediment toxicity. In contrast, the dose-response curve expressed as a function of total particulate metal concentrations would fail in predicting effect, erroneously assessing higher metal toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the toxicity using body residues of DDE and select PCB congeners to the midge, Chironomus riparius, in partial-life cycle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H; Fisher, S W; Kim, K; Landrum, P F

    2004-01-01

    Due to the long time course required to achieve steady state with highly lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), data derived from short-term toxicity tests may lead to an erroneous interpretation of hazard. In addition, PCBs bioaccumulated over time can cause sublethal impairments in organisms at concentrations much lower than required for mortality. Here, the body residues of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-p-chlorophenyl ethane (DDE) and select PCB congeners associated with a spectrum of chronic effects in the midge, Chironomus riparius, were evaluated. The route of exposure was ingestion of the PCB-contaminated alga, Chlorella vulgarus, and trout chow loaded with the selected test compound. Two separate exposures of midges were performed. In the first experiment, midges were exposed from the second instar to the pupal stage. In the second exposure, midges were exposed from the second instar to the adult stage. A variety of sublethal endpoints was monitored, including developmental time within a stadium, body weight, and fecundity for the female adult. The dose was assessed as the whole body residue concentration of the contaminant. Overall, the midge concentration increased with increasing exposure concentration in algae and trout chow. Body weight at the end of each stadium was the assessment parameter that was least significantly affected among the test endpoints monitored. In contrast, a significant increase in development time was the endpoint that was most frequently observed in response to contaminant exposure. Reduction in fecundity was found only for DDE-exposed midges. These data, in which chronic endpoints are related to body residues, suggest that body residues will be useful in defining sublethal hazards of DDE and some PCB congeners.

  3. Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST) was developed to allow users to easily estimate the toxicity of chemicals using Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) methodologies. QSARs are mathematical models used to predict measures of toxicity from the physical c...

  4. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    . Azimphos-methyl foi o produto que menos afetou a sobrevivência do ácaro predador. Os inseticidas testados, usados na região do "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén" para o controle de Cydia pomonella, praga-chave das culturas de pomáceas, apresentaram baixa toxicidade sobre N. californicus.Phytoseiid mites, mainly Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, are important biological control agents of Tetranychidae pest mites in pip fruit crops in the region known as "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. We assessed the mortality of N. californicus when exposed to residues of the insecticides azimphos-methyl, carbaryl and cyfluthrin, as well as the acaricides cyhexatin and propargite. Pear plants were sprayed up to dip-point with pesticides in their recommended label concentrations. One, 3, 6 and 10 days after application (DAA, leaves were collected from treated plants and used to establish experimental arenas. Five adult laboratory-reared N. californicus specimens were transferred into each arena which contained Southern cattail pollen as food source. Experimental arenas were kept at 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 14 hours. Mite mortality was assessed 24 hours after the confinement. The completely randomized design was adopted for data statistical analysis, mortality means were compared by Dunnett's test (p < 0.05. Progression of pesticide's effect decline was submitted to regression analysis. On 1 and 3 DAA mean mortality in all of the treatments was significantly different from that of the water-treated control. On the sixth DAA, propargite, cyhexatin and cyfluthrin treatments caused about 30% mortality, while mortality levels in treatments with azimphos-methyl and carbaryl were statistically similar to that of control treatment. On the tenth DAA, mortality in none of the pesticide treatments differed from that of control. All of the pesticide treatments presented progressive decline throughout the experimental period, being significant (p < 0

  5. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  6. Wildlife toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    1995-01-01

    Reports of anthropogenic environmental contaminants affecting free-ranging wildlife first began to accumulate during the Industrial Revolution of the 1850s. early reports included cases of arsenic and lead shot ingestion, and industrial smokestack emission toxicity. One early report described the death of fallow deer (Dama dama) due to arsenic emissions from a silver foundry in Germany in 1887, whereas another report described hydrogen sulfide fumes in the vicinity of a Texas oil field that resulted in a large die-off of both wild birds and mammals.1 Mortality in waterfowl and ring-necked pheasants (Phaisanus colchicus) due to the ingestion of spent lead shot was recognized at least as early as 1874 when lead-poisoned birds were reported in Texas and North Carolina.

  7. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    and test volumes (down to 1 ml) could also be used. Tissue culture treated polystyrene microplates were found toxic to algae and thus unusable. pH control is achieved more easily in the minitest than in larger size shake flasks due to greater turbulence and a larger surface/volume ratio which both......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  8. A Miniscale Algal Toxicity Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arensberg, Pia; Hemmingsen, Vicky H.; Nyholm, Niels

    1995-01-01

    facilitates CO2 mass transfer. Uniform illumination of the individual units of a minitest setup is obtained readily due to the small area that has to be illuminated. Using the rapidly growing green alga S. capricornutum as test organism, it is proposed generally to reduce the standard test duration from 3......A simple miniscale (approx. 1 - 2.5 ml) toxicity test procedure with the freshwater green algaSelenastrum capricornutum is described. The procedure fulfils the validity criteria of the ISO (International Association for Standardization) standard test protocol. Practically identical concentration......-response curves were obtained with the ISO standard test and the minitest for potassium dichromate and 3,5-dichlorophenol. The minitest is conveniently carried out using 2.5 ml test volume in 20 ml glass scintillation vials, placed on a microplate shaker or on an ordinary shaking table, but smaller containers...

  9. Toxicity of solid residues resulting from wastewater treatment with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Verónica; Lopes, Isabel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are widely recommended for wastewater treatments due to their unique properties. Several studies report the different advantages of nanotechnology in the remediation of wastewaters, but limited research has been directed toward the fate and potential impacts of the solid residues (SRs) produced after the application of such technologies. The present work aimed at investigating the ecotoxicity of SRs resulting from the treatment of three effluents (OOMW, kraft pulp mill, and mining drainage) with two NMs (TiO2 and Fe2O3). The invertebrate Chironomus riparius was selected as test organism and exposed to the residues. The effect on percentage of survival and growth was assessed. Results showed that the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(0.5M) and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) from OOMW and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) from kraft pulp mill effluent exhibited lethal toxicity to C. riparius. Only the exposure to SRs resulting from the treatment with nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) applied to the kraft pulp mill effluent significantly affected the growth rate based on the head capsule width. In terms of growth rate, based on the body length, it decreased significantly after exposure to the SRs from the treatments nano-TiO2 (1.0gL(-1)) and nano-Fe2O3(0.75gL(-1))/H2O2(0.01M) of kraft paper mill effluent and nano-Fe2O3(1.0gL(-1))/H2O2(1.0M) of OOMW. According to our study the SRs can promote negative effects on C. riparius. However, the effects are dependent on the type of effluent treated as well as on the organic and inorganic compounds attached to the NMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdier, Francois; Barrow, Paul C.; Burge, Joeelle

    2003-01-01

    Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in

  11. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing?

  12. Short-tailed shrews: Toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments involving dietary toxicity and residue relationships of DDT, dieldrin, and endrin were conducted with short-tailed shrews. Dietary concentrations of DDT dissolved in vegetable oils were usually more toxic than diets containing comparable amounts of powdered DDT. Younger shrews, particularly females, were more tolerant of powdered DDT than older animals; yet, there were no conspicuous age differences in toxicity of DDT dissolved in oils. In comparison to other mammals, short-tailed shrews are not unusually sensitive to DDT, dieldrin, or endrin on the basis of two-week feeding tests. The influence of age and sex on toxicity of DDT, endrin, and dieldrin was sometimes more important than body weight. Of those shrews of the same age and sex that were fed the same dietary dosage, heavier shrews were more tolerant than lighter individuals; and, heavier shrews tended to lose a greater percentage of body weight before death. There was a range of 15 to 105 DDT equivalents in brains of shrews dying on dietary dosages of DDT. Six shrews fed a high level of DDT seemed to have unusual metabolite capabilities and died with apparent lethal levels of DDD in their brains. Levels of dieldrin in brains of shrews that died on a dietary dosage of dieldrin ranged from 3.7 to 12.6 ppm. In the rates of gain and loss experiments where shrews were given diets containing 400 ppm DDT or 50 ppm dieldrin up to 17 days, high residues were noted in tissues of shrews after two weeks on a contaminated diet and a few died at that time. After shrews were placed on clean food, it was determined that >50% of the dieldrin residues in carcass and brain were lost in 50% of residues of DDT and metabolites in brains after 2 weeks on clean food; males lost nearly 50% of residues in carcasses after two weeks on clean food compared with a loss of only 11% in females.

  13. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  14. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  15. Geochemical Testing And Model Development - Residual Tank Waste Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrell, K.J.; Connelly, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  16. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  17. Bacterial toxicity assessment of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) and lake sediment amended with DWTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-11-01

    Drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) seems to be very promising for controlling lake sediment pollution. Logically, acquisition of the potential toxicity of DWTR will be beneficial for its applications. In this study, the toxicity of DWTR and sediments amended with DWTR to Aliivibrio fischeri was evaluated based on the Microtox(®) solid and leachate phase assays, in combination with flow cytometry analyses and the kinetic luminescent bacteria test. The results showed that both solid particles and aqueous/organic extracts of DWTR exhibited no toxicity to the bacterial luminescence and growth. The solid particles of DWTR even promoted bacterial luminescence, possibly because DWTR particles could act as a microbial carrier and provide nutrients for bacteria growth. Bacterial toxicity (either luminescence or growth) was observed from the solid phase and aqueous/organic extracts of sediments with or without DWTR addition. Further analysis showed that the solid phase toxicity was determined to be related mainly to the fixation of bacteria to fine particles and/or organic matter, and all of the observed inhibition resulting from aqueous/organic extracts was identified as non-significant. Moreover, DWTR addition not only had no adverse effect on the aqueous/organic extract toxicity of the sediment but also reduced the solid phase toxicity of the sediment. Overall, in practical application, the solid particles, the water-soluble substances transferred to surface water or the organic substances in DWTR had no toxicity or any delayed effect on bacteria in lakes, and DWTR can therefore be considered as a non-hazardous material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological assays for aquatic toxicity testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Slabbert, JL

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of aquatic toxicity tests have been established for South African use, which include fish and Daphnia lethality tests, microbiotests, and short-term chronic tests. Studies on effluents and surface waters showed that all the tests have a...

  19. Toxicity test of a dental commercial composite

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce-Bravo, Santa; Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Mart?nez-Rivera, Jos?-Luis; Garc?s-Ort?z, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Background International rules must be followed for testing biosecurity in dental materials. A new brand of restorative material appeared in the market and regulations indicated that it should be tested for toxicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the 90-day sub chronic toxicity of one triethylene glycol dimethacrylate containing composite (MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite?) orally administered to rats according to Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development no. 48 ...

  20. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-01-01

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental

  1. Evaluation of metals, metalloids, and ash mixture toxicity using sediment toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Amber; Bonnevie, Nancy L; Jones, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    In December 2008, a release of 4.1 million m(3) of coal ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant occurred. Ash washed into the Emory River and migrated downstream into the Clinch and Tennessee Rivers. A Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment evaluated risks to ecological receptors from ash in the river system post-dredging. This article describes the approach used and results from sediment toxicity tests, discussing any causal relationships between ash, metals, and toxicity. Literature is limited in the realm of aquatic coal combustion residue (CCR) exposures and the potential magnitude of effects on benthic invertebrates. Sediment samples along a spectrum of ash content were used in a tiered toxicity testing approach and included a combination of 10 day sediment toxicity acute tests and longer-term, partial life cycle "definitive" tests with 2 species (Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus). Arsenic, and to a lesser extent Se, in the ash was the most likely toxicant causing observed effects in the laboratory toxicity tests. Sites in the Emory River with the greatest statistical and biologically significant effects had As concentrations in sediments twice the probable effects concentration of 33 mg/kg. These sites contained greater than 50% ash. Sites with less than approximately 50% ash in sediments exhibited fewer significant toxic responses relative to the reference sediment in the laboratory. The results discussed here present useful evidence of only limited effects occurring from a worst-case exposure pathway. These results provided a valuable line of evidence for the overall assessment of risks to benthic invertebrates and to other ecological receptors, and were crucial to risk management and development of project remediation goals. © 2014 SETAC.

  2. Toxicity of char residues produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Maria; Lapa, N; Gonçalves, M; Barbosa, R; Mendes, B; Pinto, F; Gulyurtlu, I

    2010-04-01

    Char residues produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes (plastics, pine biomass and used tyres) were characterized using chemical and toxicity assays. One part of the solid chars was submitted to extraction with dichloromethane (DCM) in order to reduce the toxicity of the char residues by removing organic contaminants. The different volatility fractions present in the extracted char (Char A) and in the raw char (Char B) were determined by progressive weight loss combustion. A selected group of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg and As) was determined in both chars. The chars were subjected to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268 - 2, 2007 and the resulting eluates were further characterized by determining a group of inorganic parameters (pH, conductivity, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Hg and As contents) and the concentrations of several organic contaminants (volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols). An ecotoxicological characterization was also performed by using the bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were analyzed according to the Council Decision 2003/33/CE and the criteria on the evaluation methods of waste ecotoxicity (CEMWE). The results obtained in this work indicated that the extraction with DCM is an effective method for the removal of organic contaminants of high to medium volatility from pyrolysis solid residues, thus decreasing their toxicity potential. Zn can be leached from the chars even after the DCM extraction treatment and can contribute to the ecotoxicity of the eluates obtained from chars. Both chars (treated and non treated with DCM) were classified as hazardous and ecotoxic wastes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of biogas plant fermentation residue for the stabilisation of toxic metals in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geršl, Milan; Šotnar, Martin; Mareček, Jan; Vítěz, Tomáš; Koutný, Tomáš; Kleinová, Jana

    2015-04-01

    Our department has been paying attention to different methods of soil decontamination, including the in situ stabilisation. Possible reagents to control the toxic metals mobility in soils include a fermentation residue (FR) from a biogas plant. Referred to as digestate, it is a product of anaerobic decomposition taking place in such facilities. The fermentation residue is applied to soils as a fertiliser. A new way of its use is the in situ stabilisation of toxic metals in soils. Testing the stabilisation of toxic metals made use of real soil samples sourced from five agriculturally used areas of the Czech Republic with 3 soil samples taken from sites contaminated with Cu, Pb and Zn and 2 samples collected at sites of natural occurrence of Cu, Pb and Zn ores. All the samples were analysed using the sequential extraction procedure (BCR) (determine the type of Cu, Pb and Zn bonds). Stabilisation of toxic metals was tested in five soil samples by adding reagents as follows: dolomite, slaked lime, goethite, compost and fermentation residue. A single reagent was added at three different concentrations. In the wet state with the added reagents, the samples were left for seven days, shaken twice per day. After seven days, metal extraction was carried out: samples of 10 g soil were shaken for 2 h in a solution of 0.1M NH4NO3 at a 1:2.5 (g.ml-1), centrifuged for 15 min at 5,000 rpm and then filtered through PTFE 0.45 μm mesh filters. The extracts were analysed by ICP-OES. Copper The best reduction of Cu concentration in the extract was obtained at each of the tested sites by adding dolomite (10 g soil + 0.3 g dolomite). The concentration of Cu in the leachate decreased to 2.1-18.4% compare with the leachate without addition. Similar results were also shown for the addition of fermentation residue (10 g soil + 1 g FR). The Cu concentration in the leachate decreased to 16.7-26.8% compared with the leachate without addition. Lead The best results were achieved by adding

  4. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Crucial role of mechanisms and modes of toxic action for understanding tissue residue toxicity and internal effect concentrations of organic chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escher, B.I.; Ashauer, R.; Dyer, S.; Hermens, J.L.M.; van der Lee, J.H.; Leslie, H.A.; Mayer, P.; Meador, J.P.; Warne, M.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the mechanistic basis of the tissue residue approach for toxicity assessment (TRA). The tissue residue approach implies that whole-body or organ concentrations (residues) are a better dose metric for describing toxicity to aquatic organisms than is the aqueous concentration

  6. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  7. Rethinking developmental toxicity testing: Evolution or revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E

    2018-02-12

    Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing? A workshop was held under the auspices of the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute to consider how we might design developmental toxicity testing if we started over with 21st century knowledge and techniques (revolution). We first consider what changes to the current protocols might be recommended to make them more predictive for human risk (evolution). The evolutionary approach includes modifications of existing protocols and can include humanized models, disease models, more accurate assessment and testing of metabolites, and informed approaches to dose selection. The revolution could start with hypothesis-driven testing where we take what we know about a compound or close analog and answer specific questions using targeted experimental techniques rather than a one-protocol-fits-all approach. Central to the idea of hypothesis-driven testing is the concept that testing can be done at the level of mode of action. It might be feasible to identify a small number of key events at a molecular or cellular level that predict an adverse outcome and for which testing could be performed in vitro or in silico or, rarely, using limited in vivo models. Techniques for evaluating these key events exist today or are in development. Opportunities exist for refining and then replacing current developmental toxicity testing protocols using techniques that have already been developed or are within reach. © 2018 The Authors. Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry...... and stakeholders, this study aims to develop innovative partial life-cycle tests on the reproduction of the freshwater gastropods Potamopyrgus antipodarum and Lymnaea stagnalis, which are relevant candidate species for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests assessing reprotoxic effects of chemicals....... Draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) have been designed based upon literature and expert knowledge from project partners. Pre-validation studies have been implemented to validate the proposed test conditions and identify issues in performing the SOPs and analyzing test results. Pre-validation work...

  9. 77 FR 24671 - Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Compliance Guide for Residue Prevention and Agency Testing Policy for Residues AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability and... availability of a compliance guide for the prevention of violative residues in livestock slaughter...

  10. Estimation of toxicity using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tens of thousands of chemicals are currently in commerce, and hundreds more are introduced every year. Since experimental measurements of toxicity are extremely time consuming and expensive, it is imperative that alternative methods to estimate toxicity are developed.

  11. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process.

  12. Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium-processing residue with potential for environmental use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Laura A; Binet, Monique T; Yuan, Zheng; Gissi, Francesca; Koppel, Darren J; Adams, Merrin S

    2013-07-01

    Thorough examination of the physicochemical characteristics of a Ti-processing residue was undertaken, including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterization, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of soft-water leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of potentially toxic elements on exposure to low-ionic strength natural waters. Relative to stringent ecosystem health-based guidelines, only chromium concentrations in the leachate exceeded guideline concentrations for 95% species protection; however, sulfate was present at concentrations known to cause toxicity. It is likely that the high concentration of calcium and extreme water hardness of the leachate reduced the bioavailability of some elements. Geochemical modeling of the leachate indicated that calcium and sulfate concentrations were largely controlled by gypsum mineral dissolution. The leachate was not toxic to the microalga Chlorella sp., the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia, or the estuarine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The Ti-processing residue exhibited an absorbed dose rate of 186 nGy/h, equivalent to an annual dose of 1.63 mGy and an annual effective dose of 0.326 mGy. In summary, the results indicate that the Ti-processing residue examined is suitable for productive use as an environmental amendment following 10 to 100 times dilution to ameliorate potential toxic effects due to chromium or sulfate. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Ocular Toxicity Testing of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ocular testing to determine the toxicity of lunar dust. The OECD recommendations are reviewed. With these recommendations in mind the test methodology was to use EpiOcular, tissues derived from normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the cells of which have been differentiated on cell culture inserts to form a multi-layered structure, which closely parallels the corneal epithelium and to dose the tissue with 100 mg dust from various sources. The in-vitro study provides evidence that lunar dust is not severely corrosive or irritating, however, in vitro tests have limitations, and in vivo tests provides a more complete scenario, and information, it is recommended that in vivo tests be performed.

  14. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals.......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  15. A survey of residual analysis and a new test of residual trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, J J; Calvin, Olivia L; Klapes, Bryan

    2016-05-01

    A survey of residual analysis in behavior-analytic research reveals that existing methods are problematic in one way or another. A new test for residual trends is proposed that avoids the problematic features of the existing methods. It entails fitting cubic polynomials to sets of residuals and comparing their effect sizes to those that would be expected if the sets of residuals were random. To this end, sampling distributions of effect sizes for fits of a cubic polynomial to random data were obtained by generating sets of random standardized residuals of various sizes, n. A cubic polynomial was then fitted to each set of residuals and its effect size was calculated. This yielded a sampling distribution of effect sizes for each n. To test for a residual trend in experimental data, the median effect size of cubic-polynomial fits to sets of experimental residuals can be compared to the median of the corresponding sampling distribution of effect sizes for random residuals using a sign test. An example from the literature, which entailed comparing mathematical and computational models of continuous choice, is used to illustrate the utility of the test. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  17. SEDIMENT TOXICITY ASSESSMENT: COMPARISON OF STANDARD AND NEW TESTING DESIGNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard methods of sediment toxicity testing are fairly well accepted; however, as with all else, evolution of these methods is inevitable. We compared a standard ASTM 10-day amphipod toxicity testing method with smaller, 48- and 96-h test methods using very toxic and reference ...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... multiple animal holder. Selected doses of liquids and solutions are introduced under the sleeve. If there... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C...

  19. Toxicity of raw and neutralized bauxite refinery residue liquors to the freshwater cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the marine amphipod Paracalliope australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Clark, Malcolm W; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda; Johnston, Max

    2011-12-01

    The extraction of alumina from bauxite produces a highly toxic residue, termed bauxite refinery residue (BRR) or red mud. The toxicity of this material is due to chemical and biological effects of high pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and Na(+) and Al(3+) concentrations. Several neutralization techniques may allow BRR to be used for environmental remediation. The present study investigated standardized 48-h acute toxicity tests with a freshwater cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and a marine amphipod, Paracalliope australis, against raw supernatant BRR liquor (RL) versus liquors neutralized with acid (ANL), CO(2) (CNL), seawater (SNL), and a hybrid method (HNL). Based on 48-h LC50 values, the toxicity of the liquors to C. dubia increased in the following order; HNL ≤ SNL< ANL ≤ CNL < RL, with comparable responses from P. australis. The high toxicity of RL likely is due to high pH (≈ 12), alkalinity, and Al concentration. Toxicity of CNL likely is due to high EC and alkalinity. Sulfate and Na(+) concentrations are considered sources of toxicity in ANL. Seawater-neutralized liquor and HNL were considerably less toxic to both test species. These data provide evidence of the acute lethal toxicity of raw supernatant liquor from BRR and four neutralized supernatant liquors to the freshwater cladoceran C. dubia and the marine amphipod P. australis, providing valuable baselines for further ecotoxicological investigations of BRR materials in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  20. TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool) Ver 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) has been developed to allow users to easily estimate toxicity and physical properties using a variety of QSAR methodologies. T.E.S.T allows a user to estimate toxicity without requiring any external programs. Users can input a chem...

  1. Dioxins, metals, and fish toxicity in ash residue from space heaters burning used motor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon; Stone, Alex

    2007-06-01

    Ash residue, generated from burning used motor oil, is a complex and ubiquitous waste stream. Ash samples were collected from space heaters and analyzed for dioxins (N=10), expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQ), and heavy metals (N=9). TEQ averaged 148-164 ng kg(-1) (standard deviation [SD] 385-416 ng kg(-1)), depending on methods used for non-detects (NDs) and toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). It is notable that median TEQ (2.89-3.49 ng kg(-1)) was about 50 fold lower, reflecting the influence of several high end values on the mean. The proportion of NDs among 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in each sample averaged 38.2% (range 0-94.1%). Total metals averaged 103,000 mg kg(-1) (SD 26,600 mg kg(-1)), with Zn, Cu, and Pb contributing 89.3%, 6.4%, and 3.0% of the total, respectively. Rainbow trout bioassays resulted in median mortalities of 3.2% and 42.0% (respective SD 25.3% and 43.2%) at ash concentrations of 10 and 100 mg l(-1), respectively. Nominal concentrations of several metals (e.g., Cu, Zn) in the fish bioassay exceeded their reported median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for the test species. Multiple regressions (Bonferroni Poil ash ranked on the high end of TEQ content in other environmental matrices, including wood ash, cement kiln dust, biosolids, and soils. Overall, these results suggest that suitable disposal methods are needed for ash generated from burning used motor oil.

  2. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A

  3. Testing the efficiency of extraction of incurred residues from soil with optimized multi-residue method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszter, Gabriella K; Ambrus, Árpád

    2017-08-03

    The reproducibility of extraction of residues from spiked soil samples and from soils containing incurred residues was tested with 14 C-labeled test compounds of different physical-chemical properties. Nearly 100% of the compounds added to the sample before extraction could be recovered with an average reproducibility relative standard deviation (CV) of 5.4%. The additional steps of the determination process (cleanup, evaporation, etc.) contributed to the major part of the variability of the results (CV = 10-20%). The incurred residues were most efficiently extracted with acetone for 30 min followed by the mixture of acetone/ethyl acetate 1:1 for additional 30 min. However, they could only be recovered at various extent (64-90% of total residues), underlying the importance of testing the efficiency of extraction. The residues were identified and quantified by gas chromatography applying thermionic detector. The performance parameters of the method complied with the international method validation guidelines, and they proved to be robust and suitable for determination of pesticide residues in soils of widely different physical-chemical properties.

  4. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there

  5. Bacterial and enzymatic bioassays for toxicity testing in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitton, G; Koopman, B

    1992-01-01

    Microbioassays using bacteria or enzymes are increasingly applied to measure chemical toxicity in the environment. Attractive features of these assays may include low cost, rapid response to toxicants, high sample throughput, modest laboratory equipment and space requirements, low sample volume, portability, and reproducible responses. Enzymatic tests rely on measurement of either enzyme activity or enzyme biosynthesis. Dehydrogenases are the enzymes most used in toxicity testing. Assay of dehydrogenase activity is conveniently carried out using oxidoreduction dyes such as tetrazolium salts. Other enzyme activity tests utilize ATPases, esterases, phosphatases, urease, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, protease, amylase, or beta-glucosidase. Recently, the inhibition of enzyme (beta-galactosidase, tryptophanase, alpha-glucosidase) biosynthesis has been explored as a basis for toxicity testing. Enzyme biosynthesis was found to be generally more sensitive to organic chemicals than enzyme activity. Bacterial toxicity tests are based on bioluminescence, motility, growth, viability, ATP, oxygen uptake, nitrification, or heat production. An important aspect of bacterial tests is the permeability of cells to environmental toxicants, particularly organic chemicals of hydrophobic nature. Physical, chemical, and genetic alterations of the outer membrane of E. coli have been found to affect test sensitivity to organic toxicants. Several microbioassays are now commercially available. The names of the assays and their basis are: Microtox (bioluminescence), Polytox (respiration), ECHA Biocide Monitor (dehydrogenase activity), Toxi-Chromotest (enzyme biosynthesis), and MetPAD (enzyme activity). An important feature common to these tests is the provision of standardized cultures of bacteria in freeze-dried form. Two of the more recent applications of microbioassays are in sediment toxicity testing and toxicity reduction evaluation. Sediment pore water may be assayed directly or

  6. Test Guidelines for Pesticides and Toxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents that specify methods EPA recommends to generate data submitted to EPA to support the registration of a pesticide, setting of a tolerance or tolerance exemption for pesticide residues, or the decision making process for an industrial chemical.

  7. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  8. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos-methyl,...

  9. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombi, E.; Stevens, D.P.; McLaughlin, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  10. Effect of water treatment residuals on soil phosphorus, copper and aluminium availability and toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombi, E., E-mail: enzo.lombi@unisa.edu.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Building X, Mawson Lakes Campus, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); CRC CARE, PO Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Stevens, D.P. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Arris Pty Ltd, PO Box 5143, Burnley, Victoria 3121 (Australia); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Land and Water, Centre for Environmental Contaminant Research, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Soil and Land Systems, University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-06-15

    Water treatment residuals (WTRs) are produced by the treatment of potable water with coagulating agents. Beneficial recycling in agriculture is hampered by the fact that WTRs contain potentially toxic contaminants (e.g. copper and aluminium) and they bind phosphorus strongly. These issues were investigated using a plant bioassay (Lactuca sativa), chemical extractions and an isotopic dilution technique. Two WTRs were applied to an acidic and a neutral pH soil at six rates. Reductions in plant growth in amended soils were due to WTR-induced P deficiency, rather than Al or Cu toxicity. The release of potentially toxic Al from WTRs was found to be mitigated by their alkaline nature and pH buffering capacity. However, acidification of WTRs was shown to release more soluble Al than soil naturally high in Al. Copper availability was relatively low in all treatments. However, the lability of WTR-Cu increased when the WTR was applied to the soil. - The effect of water treatment residue application to soil was investigated in relation to phosphorus availability, and copper and aluminium phytotoxicity.

  11. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.A.; Sergy, G.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.; Huybers, A.

    1998-01-01

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  12. In Vitro Toxicity testing in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin L Roggen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The National Research Council (NRC article Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and A Strategy (National Research Council, 2007 was written to bring attention to the application of scientific advances for use in toxicity tests so that chemicals can be tested in a more time and cost efficient manner while providing a more relevant and mechanistic insight into the toxic potential of a compound.Development of tools for in vitro toxicity testing constitutes an important activity of this vision and contributes to the provision of test systems as well as data that are essential for the development of computer modelling tools for e.g. system biology, physiologically-based modelling. This article intends to highlight some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the 21st century.

  13. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    High visibility efforts in toxicity testing and computational toxicology including the recent NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: a Vision and Strategy (NRC, 2007), raise important research questions and opportunities for the field of exposure science. The authors ...

  14. A chronic toxicity test protocol using Caridina nilotica (Decapoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinization of freshwater resources is an increasing global problem, yet there is a paucity of chronic salinity tolerance data linked to very few chronic toxicity test protocols. This research aimed to generate a chronic toxicity test protocol and protective salinity tolerance data for the indigenous South African freshwater shrimp ...

  15. Contact Toxicity and Residual Efficacy of Indoxacarb against the European Earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L

    2012-06-25

    Indoxacarb (Arilon 20WG) was evaluated against a nuisance pest, the European earwig (Forficula auricularia), and was found to be an effective contact toxicant with residual activity on substrates commonly encountered in urban environments. Within 16 h of being directly sprayed with indoxacarb, ≥90% of earwigs from two populations were either ataxic, moribund, or dead, and 100% displayed these symptoms of severe intoxication at 1 d. Brief exposure (5 min or 1 h) to dried residues on either a porous (pine wood) or non-porous (ceramic tile) substrate also was sufficient to cause severe intoxication of earwigs within 1 d. In all bioassays, indoxacarb-treated earwigs showed no signs of recovery during the 21-d observation period. In outdoor urban habitats, intoxicated earwigs would be more vulnerable to desiccation, predation, or pathogens leading to higher mortality than in a laboratory setting.

  16. Contact Toxicity and Residual Efficacy of Indoxacarb against the European Earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Bryant

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoxacarb (Arilon 20WG was evaluated against a nuisance pest, the European earwig (Forficula auricularia, and was found to be an effective contact toxicant with residual activity on substrates commonly encountered in urban environments. Within 16 h of being directly sprayed with indoxacarb, ≥90% of earwigs from two populations were either ataxic, moribund, or dead, and 100% displayed these symptoms of severe intoxication at 1 d. Brief exposure (5 min or 1 h to dried residues on either a porous (pine wood or non-porous (ceramic tile substrate also was sufficient to cause severe intoxication of earwigs within 1 d. In all bioassays, indoxacarb-treated earwigs showed no signs of recovery during the 21-d observation period. In outdoor urban habitats, intoxicated earwigs would be more vulnerable to desiccation, predation, or pathogens leading to higher mortality than in a laboratory setting.

  17. Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults of Culex pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. I. Badawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone on paper discs was the most active (KT50 = 17.20 min followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT50 = 20.79 min and citronella oil alone (KT50 = 28.72 min. Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.. Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations.

  18. Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults ofCulex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Mohamed E I; Taktak, Nehad E M; Awad, Osama M; Elfiki, Souraya A; Abou El-Ela, Nadia E

    2016-01-01

    Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene) were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone) on paper discs was the most active (KT 50 = 17.20 min) followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT 50 = 20.79 min) and citronella oil alone (KT 50 = 28.72 min). Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol) monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT 50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.). Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT 50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations.

  19. An overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Samantha L.; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Abstract Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit’s eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced t...

  20. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis and Risk Assessment of Seven Toxic Element Residues in Raw Bovine Milk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xue-Yin; Zheng, Nan; Zhou, Xue-Wei; Li, Song-Li; Wang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2018-05-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the levels of seven toxic elements residues in raw bovine milk in China and assess the potential health risk of those residues. The 178 raw bovine milk samples were collected from eight main milk-producing provinces and from three types of milk stations in China, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), aluminum (Al), and nickel (Ni) using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Al, Pb, Hg, Ni, Cr, and As were detected in 47.8, 29.2, 28.1, 23.6, 12.4, and 9.0% of total milk samples, respectively, and Cd were not detected in all samples. The raw bovine milk samples with high levels of toxic elements were found in industrial areas, such as Heilongjiang and Shanxi. Nemerow pollution index analysis showed that the levels were lower in the samples from the processing plants than that from the large-scale farms and small farm cooperatives. The margin of exposure (MOE) values suggest that the levels of As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Al, and Ni in the raw milk samples are not causing a health risk for Chinese consumers, including adults and children. Nevertheless, the risk of Pb for infant and young children was more serious than adult.

  2. Screening of toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials using and alternative toxicity testing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Chatterjee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The widely promising applications of graphene nanomaterials raise considerable concerns regarding their environmental and human health risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the toxicity profiling of graphene family nananomaterials (GFNs in alternative in vitro and in vivo toxicity testing models. Methods The GFNs used in this study are graphene nanoplatelets ([GNPs]–pristine, carboxylate [COOH] and amide [NH2] and graphene oxides (single layer [SLGO] and few layers [FLGO]. The human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2B cells as in vitro system and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as in vivo system were used to profile the toxicity response of GFNs. Cytotoxicity assays, colony formation assay for cellular toxicity and reproduction potentiality in C. elegans were used as end points to evaluate the GFNs’ toxicity. Results In general, GNPs exhibited higher toxicity than GOs in Beas2B cells, and among the GNPs the order of toxicity was pristine>NH2>COOH. Although the order of toxicity of the GNPs was maintained in C. elegans reproductive toxicity, but GOs were found to be more toxic in the worms than GNPs. In both systems, SLGO exhibited profoundly greater dose dependency than FLGO. The possible reason of their differential toxicity lay in their distinctive physicochemical characteristics and agglomeration behavior in the exposure media. Conclusions The present study revealed that the toxicity of GFNs is dependent on the graphene nanomaterial’s physical forms, surface functionalizations, number of layers, dose, time of exposure and obviously, on the alternative model systems used for toxicity assessment.

  3. Toxicity potential of residual ethylene oxide on fresh or frozen embryos maintained in plastic straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Schmidt, P M; Pontbriand, D; Wildt, D E

    1988-01-01

    The toxic effects of residual ethylene oxide (EtO), a frequently used gas-sterilant, on embryos either frozen for long-term purposes or stored acutely for 30 min to 9 hr in a fresh condition in 0.25-ml straw containers were evaluated. In Experiment 1, fresh embryos were frozen (using conventional technology) in straws previously aerated for 0 hr to 8 mo after EtO sterilization. With the exception of the 8-mo group in which survival and quality ratings were depressed, embryo viability was not affected significantly by short-term prefreeze and post-thaw exposure to EtO residues. Experiment 2 was conducted to analyze the influence of prefreeze exposure to EtO residues on embryo development in vitro for embryos temporarily stored in previously sterilized straws aerated for different intervals. Compared to non-EtO-sterilized control straws, the development, quality, and viability of embryos exposed to EtO-treated straws were compromised (p less than 0.05) as the aeration interval decreased and the exposure interval increased. The combined results of both experiments indicate that EtO-treated straws can be used to cryopreserve gametes efficiently, but only if the aeration interval is greater than or equal to 72 hr and the prefreeze duration of exposure is less than or equal to 3 hr.

  4. Residual bioassay to assess the toxicity of Acaricides against Aceria guerreronis (Acari: Eriophyidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2012-08-01

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.

  5. Detection of antibiotic residues in food by Charm II test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addali, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in food to: -therapy and prophylaxis, -increase the productivity of the food producing animals. The presence of antimicrobial residues: -constitutes a potential human health hazard. has significant impact on international food trade. has implications on technological process in dairy industry. Detection of antibiotic residues is of great interest. It helps protect humans against the effects of such residues, the more it can support the participation of our country in international trade. Charm II test is one of the methods of detection of antimicrobial residues. The tests utilize microbial or antibody receptor assay technology. The sample is incubated with a binding agent (microbial cells with specific receptor sites or with specific antibodies attached) and a tracer (the radio-labeled version of the antibiotic to be detected). The amount of tracer on the binding agent is measured using a scintillation counter and is compared to a pre-determined cut-off or control point. If contaminating antibiotic is present, it will prevent the binding of the tracer by occupying the receptors on the binding agent. The less labeled tracer detected, the more contaminating antibiotic there is present in the sample. This work, carried out at the Radiochemical Laboratory of the National Centre of Nuclear Science and Technology, has two parts: 1/ The first is reserved to a literature review provides an overview on antibiotics and the charm II method. 2/ The second is devoted to the experimental study and presentation of results.

  6. Interwell tracer testing for residual oil saturation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses mainly on the interpretation of partitioning tracer data for residual oil saturation measurement. As a secondary objective, depending on the progress of the project, it may also look into some commonly encountered phenomena related to tracer interaction with rock matrix such as adsorption and mass transfer into secondary pores. With advancement of interpretation techniques, interwell partitioning tracer tests have become popular in the industry for determining residual oil saturation to water flood or gas flood. With reported successes both in petroleum and environmental industry, it has gained wide recognition as a reliable method for measuring residual oil saturation, along with other standard techniques such as single well tracer testing, sponge coring and log-inject-log. Several levels of interpretation, depending on the degree of sophistication, are available to interpret the tracer data for residual oil saturation determination. These methods range from the simplest analytical methods namely chromatographic transformation and moment analysis to the most intricate finite difference or streamline simulation, with the semi-quantitative Brigham's Model being in between. The residual oil saturations measured by these methods are not necessarily identical. There arises a legitimate question as to what the residual oil saturation values from different methods mean. Brigham's Model has the advantage that it is semi-analytical and requires minimal effort to match the tracer data. Brigham's five spot model will be extended to model the propagation of partitioning tracer for residual oil saturation measurement. The limitation of using the model for irregular pattern will also be addressed. We will also try to construct a 7 spot, 9 spot and line drive based on Brigham's correlation. This model will also be used to study the effect of different Sor in different layers on chromatographic and moment analysis method. Other retention mechanisms such as

  7. Proficiency test on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes with multi-residue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Pieter; Grimalt, Susana; Dabrio, Marta; Cordeiro, Fernando; Fiamegos, Yiannis; Robouch, Piotr; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R; de la Calle, Beatriz

    2015-05-22

    This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 37 (IMEP-37) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the world-wide performance of food control laboratories on the determination of pesticide residues in grapes. This PT supports the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on maximum residue levels of pesticides in or on food and feed of plant and animal origin. Eighty-one participants reported results, forty from EU Member States and forty-one from outside the EU. The test item was a grape sample spiked with 20 selected pesticides. The results of the participants were rated with z- and zeta (ζ-) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for the proficiency assessment, σˆ, of this PT was set at 25% for the 20 measured pesticides based on previous experience with similar measurands. The results reported to IMEP-37 showed that the participants performed satisfactorily, ranging from 81% (carbendazim) to 97% (azoxystrobin, penconazole, pyrimethanil) of the participating laboratories. However, only 30% of the participants managed to analyze all pesticides satisfactorily. Overall, the performance of the participants in this PT was good but there is room for improvement in the development of multi-residue methods for the simultaneous analysis of a large number of pesticides with an increased accuracy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Larvicidal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and their components against Aedes aegypti, acute toxicity on Daphnia magna, and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Byung-Seok; Yang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Gil-Hah; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon

    2011-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of 11 Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. Of the 11, Melaleuca linariifolia Sm., Melaleuca dissitiflora F. Muell., Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake, and Eucalyptus globulus Labill oils at 0.1 mg/ml exhibited > or = 80% larval mortality. At this same concentration, the individual constituents tested, allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, gamma-terpinene, and (E)-nerolidol, resulted in > or = 95% mortality. We also tested the acute toxicity of these four active oils earlier mentioned and their constituents against Daphnia magna Straus. M. linariifolia and allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic to D. magna. Twodays after treatment, residues of M. dissitiflora, M. linariifolia, M. quinquenervia, and E. globulus oils in water were 55.4, 46.6, 32.4, and 14.8%, respectively. Less than 10% of allyl isothiocyanate, alpha-terpinene, p-cymene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, and gamma-terpinene was detected in the water at 2 d after treatment. Our results indicated that oils and their constituents could easily volatilize in water within a few days after application, thus minimizing their effect on the aqueous ecosystem. Therefore, Myrtaceae essential oils and their constituents could be developed as control agents against mosquito larvae.

  9. An overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samantha L; Ahearne, Mark; Hopkinson, Andrew

    2015-01-02

    Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit's eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced to try to reduce animal testing and promote alternative techniques. These techniques include ex vivo tests on deceased animal tissue, computational models that use algorithms to apply existing data to new chemicals and in vitro assays based on two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) cell culture models. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of the latest advances in ocular toxicity testing techniques, and discuss the regulatory framework used to evaluate their suitability. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Rice seed toxicity tests for organic and inorganic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.

    1994-01-01

    Plant seed toxicity tests can be used to evaluate hazardous waste sites and to assess toxicity of complex effluents and industrial chemicals. Conventional plant seed toxicity tests are performed using culture dishes containing filter paper. Some reports indicate that filter papers might interfere with the toxicity of inorganic substances. In this study, a plastic seed tray was used. Rice was used as the test species. A comparison of results in the literature and this study revealed that variation of test species, methods, exposure duration, and other factors may affect the test results. The results of this study showed that the order of decreasing toxicity of metal ions was Cu>Ag>Ni>Cd>Cr(VI)>Pb>Zn>Mn>NaF for rice. The test results were similar to those reported in the literature for lettuce Ag>Ni>Cd,Cu>Cr (VI)>Zn>Mn, millet Cu,Ni>Cd>Cr(VI)>Zn>Mn, and ryegrass Cu>Ni>Mn>>Pb>Cd>Zn> Al>Hg>Cr>Fe. The order of decreasing toxicity of organic herbicides was paraquat, 2,4-D>>glyphosate>bromacil.

  11. Air Toxics Emissions from Open Burning of Crop Residues in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Permadi, D. A.; Hopke, P. K.; Smith, K. R.; Nguyet, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural crops production in Southeast Asia (SEA) increases annually to meet domestic consumption of growing population and also for export. Crop residue open burning (CROB) is commonly practiced by farmers to quickly dispose of huge amounts of the agricultural waste, such as rice straw, generated after each crop cycle. This CROB activity emits various toxic air pollutants as well as short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon particles. Our study focused on quantifying the 2015 annual emissions of semi-volatile organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), along with other conventional trace gases, particulate matter, and greenhouse gases from CROB in 10 major agricultural crop producing SEA countries. Crop production statistics and current field OB practices were gathered from our primary surveys and relevant secondary data sources. Emission factors for rice straw and maize residue burning were taken mainly from our measurements in Thailand while for other crops relevant published data were used. The best emission estimates of air toxics from CROB in SEA were 112 g-TEQ/yr of PCDD/PCDF, 33 t/yr of OCP, and 25 Gg/yr of total PAH of which the well-known carcinogenic benzo[a]pyrene was 0.3 Gg/yr. The CROB of rice production had the highest shares of emissions (33-95%) among considered 8 crop types. Indonesia was the top contributor to the total SEA emissions (30-45%) followed by Vietnam (16-26%), Thailand (6-22%) and Myanmar (5-18%). The spatial distributions of emissions, 0.1º x 0.1º, for each specie were prepared using MODIS land cover data. Temporally, higher emissions were observed in the harvesting months of the main rice crops. This emissions database can be used in regional air quality modeling studies to assess the impacts of CROB activity and to promote non-open burning alternatives.

  12. Evaluation of eugenol toxicity in bioassays with test-organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Santos Gueretz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Fish in both natural and farming conditions are exposed to stress of capture, handling, transport or treatment that provoke low zootechnical performance. Anesthetics like eugenol obtained from clove oil have been used strategically not only in freshwater but also in marine and estuarine fish in order to reduce the stress. Apart from the eugenol indication as anesthetic and its low toxicity for animals, its environment action is not clear. Bioassays or ecotoxicity tests with indicator organisms are used to evaluate the mode of action of the pollutants in the environment. The aim of this study was to test the acute toxicity of eugenol using the microcrustacean Daphnia magna and the bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri, and also its chronic toxicity for the algae Desmodesmus subspicatus. Eugenol in the concentrations of 50, 75 and 100mg L-1 were toxic to tested indicator organisms.

  13. A New Toxicity Test Using the Freshwater Copepod Cyclops vernalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marus, Emma M; Elphick, James R; Bailey, Howard C

    2015-09-01

    The cladocerans Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna are widely used in environmental toxicity testing and the test methodologies for these species are well developed. However, copepods are a much more abundant contributor to zooplankton in many lakes, but they are not routinely used in toxicity tests. Therefore, we propose toxicity test methods for the freshwater copepod, Cyclops vernalis assessing effects on its survival and growth. A case study is presented in which the proposed test was performed with a range of concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and used as part of a test battery to develop a site-specific water quality objective. C. vernalis was less sensitive to TDS compared to D. magna and C. dubia, but similarly sensitive to an alga, a diatom, a rotifer, a chironomid, and two fish species. No adverse effects were observed on survival or growth of C. vernalis at TDS concentrations up to 1500 mg/L.

  14. Accumulation and residue of napropamide in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and soil involved in toxic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li E; Yang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    Napropamide belongs to the amide herbicide family and widely used to control weeds in farmland. Intensive use of the herbicide has resulted in widespread contamination to ecosystems. The present study demonstrated an analysis on accumulation of the toxic pesticide napropamide in six genotypes of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), along with biological parameters and its residues in soils. Soil was treated with napropamide at 3 mg kg(-1) dry soil and alfalfa plants were cultured for 10 or 30 d, respectively. The maximum value for napropamide accumulation is 0.426 mg kg(-1) in shoots and 2.444 mg kg(-1) in roots. The napropamide-contaminated soil with alfalfa cultivation had much lower napropamide concentrations than the control (soil without alfalfa cultivation). Also, the content of napropamide residue in the rhizosphere was significantly lower than that in the non-rhizosphere soil. M. sativa exposed to 3 mg kg(-1) napropamide showed inhibited growth. Further analysis revealed that plants treated with napropamide accumulated more reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-) and H(2)O(2)) and less amounts of chlorophyll. However, not all cultivars showed oxidative injury, suggesting that the alfalfa cultivars display different tolerance to napropamide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  16. 78 FR 69414 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... substance listed in the TSCA section 4 test rule entitled ``Testing for Certain High Production Volume... Section 4 Test Rule at 40 CFR 799.5089, Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group...) (CAS No. 52556-42-0). properties; promotes Toxicity to Daphnia; adhesion of pigments; Toxicity to Algae...

  17. Cold vacuum drying residual free water test description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Residual free water expected to remain in a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) after processing in the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility is investigated based on three alternative models of fuel crevices. Tests and operating conditions for the CVD process are defined based on the analysis of these models. The models consider water pockets constrained by cladding defects, water constrained in a pore or crack by flow through a porous bed, and water constrained in pores by diffusion. An analysis of comparative reaction rate constraints is also presented indicating that a pressure rise test can be used to show MCO's will be thermally stable at operating temperatures up to 75 C

  18. Developmental toxicity testing: protecting future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jarrod

    2008-12-01

    A recent editorial is discussed, which implied that animal-based developmental and reproductive toxicology tests will continue to be crucial, that the thalidomide disaster could have been prevented by more animal testing, and that tests on juvenile animals would help to protect children (as developing adults) from the adverse effects of pharmaceuticals. It is argued that animal tests in these scientific areas do not provide reliable data that are predictive for human responses and, even if they did, the tests are too expensive and time-consuming for application to the very large number of substances that need to be tested. It is estimated there are already more than 100,000 man-made chemicals to which humans may be exposed on a regular basis, and it is therefore widely accepted that in vivo developmental toxicology could not possibly be used to assess all new and existing chemical substances, due to the scale of its demand upon time and resources. It is therefore imperative that alternatives such as those outlined above are embraced, further developed, accepted and used - as a matter of urgency. 2008 FRAME.

  19. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils...

  20. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  1. Laboratory studies to elucidate the residual toxicity of eight insecticides to Anystis baccarum (Acari: Anystidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Marie-Claude; Bostanian, Noubar J

    2007-08-01

    Anystis baccarum (L.) [=Anystis agilis (Banks)] (Acari: Anystidae) is a common predatory mite recently identified in apple (Malus spp.) orchards and in vineyards (Vitus spp.) in Québec, Canada. Studies of its susceptibility to pesticides used in these crops need to be carried out to encourage integrated pest management programs. A laboratory evaluation of methoxyfenozide, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, spinosad, phosmet, carbaryl, and lambda-cyhalothrin showed that residues of lambda-cyhalothrin, phosmet, and carbaryl were highly toxic in 48-h petri dish bioassays. The field rate of lambda-cyhalothrin is 0.0184 g (AI) /liter, which is 26-fold the estimated LC50 of 0.0007 g (AI) /liter) for this predator. The field rate for phosmet is 0.6000 g (AI) /liter, which is 118-fold the LC50 for phosmet, which is 0.0051 g (AI) /liter), and the field rate for carbaryl is 1.960 g (AI) /liter, which is 784-fold the estimated LC50 of 0.0025 g (AI) /liter). Five other insecticides, methoxyfenozide, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, and spinosad, were evaluated and found to be nontoxic.

  2. Evaluation of residual monomer release and toxicity of self-adhesive resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Aysegul; Altintas, Subutay Han; Kiziltas, Mustafa Volkan; Tekkeli, Serife Evrim; Guler, Eray Metin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Usumez, Aslihan

    2018-01-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of leached residual monomers from self-adhesive resin cements and evaluate their toxicity in-vitro. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens (5 mm in diameter and 0.5 mm in thickness) were prepared from each cement (RelyX U200, SpeedCEM, G-Cem) (n=20). Specimens were immersed in artificial saliva and the amount of released monomers [urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA)] was identified. Then, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect on cells were evaluated using the defined amounts of released monomers from cements. The highest monomer release was detected in G-Cem (p<0.05). The highest cytotoxicity value was identified from SpeedCEM (p<0.01) and the highest genotoxicity values were calculated from RelyX U200 (p<0.05). Released UDMA and TEGDMA from self-adhesive resin cements induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect on cells.

  3. Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxicity test and bacteriophage typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from food contact surfaces and foods prepared by families in Zaria, Nigeria. ... contamination of products by toxigenic strains of organisms. Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin production, phage typing, haemolysis and food poisoning ...

  4. Improvement in Shrimp Hatchery Procedures for Toxicity Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Azizah Marsiddi; Fazliana Mohd Saaya; Anee Suryani Sued

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity testing of brine shrimp Artemia salina Brine shrimp lethality assay is a screening test to determine half the dose mortality (LC50) for its shrimp given certain herbal extract at a concentration tested. The shrimp child mortality half a dose indicator to determine level of toxicity before further testing done on animal cell culture and animal experiments also on the mouse. The use of new hardware, namely Artemio 1 has increased its shrimp production at a rate that more and faster than the use of the black box hatching previously taken from the method by Solis, 1993. brine shrimp eggs from Artemio mix also easier to use because it contains egg and sea salt have been ready mixed for use in experiments. In conclusion, this method improvements help increase the number of offspring produced shrimp and produce experimental method easier than previous methods. (author)

  5. Freshwater toxicity testing using rehydrated Philodina sp. (Rotifera) as test animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Terry W; Johnston, Rachel K; Matthews, Amelia B

    2017-10-01

    Rotifers have become widely used in aquatic toxicology as a rapid screening test for toxicity. The commercial availability of diapausing embryos (cysts) have facilitated their popularity because test animals can be obtained without having to master the details of culturing. Other rotifer species have life stages capable of surviving desiccation and also could be used in non-culture systems for toxicity assessment. In this article, we describe a system for toxicity testing in freshwater based on rehydrating desiccated bdelloid rotifers in the genus Philodina. These animals can remain in this anhydrobiotic state for more than one year and then rehydrate within hours to provide animals for toxicity tests. We describe three endpoints: a 1.5 h ingestion test, a 24 h mortality test, and a five day reproductive test. The latter test requires feeding and a method using a dried commercial product is explained. Using desiccated rotifers and dried food in toxicity tests make this system especially attractive because of its flexibility and low threshold of biological expertise required to execute the tests. The use of the Philodina toxicity test is illustrated with four metals: copper, lead, mercury and cadmium. Reproduction generally was the most sensitive endpoint, with EC50s of 0.33, 0.44, 0.60, and 0.12 mg/L, respectively. Ingestion was a close second with EC50s of 0.13, 1.64, 0.64, and 6.26 mg/L, respectively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Toxicity tests on ciliates--a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persoone, G; Dive, D

    1978-09-01

    A variety of methods has been proposed to study the toxicity of chemicals or polluted waters on ciliates as representative test organisms of the microfauna of aquatic ecosystems. These methods are based on morphological, ultrastructural, ethological, or metabolic criteria. The techniques proposed are mostly species dependent and so are their applications and restrictions. In view of a future standardization of protozoan toxicity tests a selection has been made by the authors on the basis of the applicability of the tests for routine analysis. The methods withheld are briefly described and comments are made on their advantages and limitations. The equipment involved, the operational complexity, and the accuracy of the results and their interpretation are listed in a synoptic table.

  7. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are being developed due to animal welfare and resource considerations. We compiled a large dataset of oral rat LD50 values to assess the predictive performance currently available in silico models. Our dataset combines LD50 values from five different sources: literature data provided by The Dow Chemical Company, REACH data from eChemportal, HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Bank), RTECS data from Leadscope, and the training set underpinning TEST (Toxicity Estimation Software Tool). Combined these data sources yield 33848 chemical-LD50 pairs (data points), with 23475 unique data points covering 16439 compounds. The entire dataset was loaded into a chemical properties database. All of the compounds were registered in DSSTox and 59.5% have publically available structures. Compounds without a structure in DSSTox are currently having their structures registered. The structural data will be used to evaluate the predictive performance and applicable chemical domains of three QSAR models (TIMES, PROTOX, and TEST). Future work will combine the dataset with information from ToxCast assays, and using random forest modeling, assess whether ToxCast assays are useful in predicting acute oral toxicity. Pre

  9. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. 2015 FRAME.

  10. Using single-species toxicity tests, community-level responses, and toxicity identification evaluations to investigate effluent impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltby, L.; Clayton, S.A.; Yu, H.; McLoughlin, N.; Wood, R.M.; Yin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests are increasingly used to monitor compliance of consented discharges, but few studies have related toxicity measured using WET tests to receiving water impacts. Here the authors adopt a four-stage procedure to investigate the toxicity and biological impact of a point source discharge and to identify the major toxicants. In stage 1, standard WET tests were employed to determine the toxicity of the effluent. This was then followed by an assessment of receiving water toxicity using in situ deployment of indigenous (Gammarus pulex) and standard (Daphnia magna) test species. The third stage involved the use of biological survey techniques to assess the impact of the discharge on the structure and functioning of the benthic macroinvertebrate community. In stage 4, toxicity identification evaluations (TIE) were used to identify toxic components in the effluent. Receiving-water toxicity and ecological impact detected downstream of the discharge were consistent with the results of WET tests performed on the effluent. Downstream of the discharge, there was a reduction in D. magna survival, in G. pulex survival and feeding rate, in detritus processing, and in biotic indices based on macroinvertebrate community structure. The TIE studies suggested that chlorine was the principal toxicant in the effluent.

  11. Potentially toxic elements in lignite and its combustion residues from a power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, L C; Masto, R E; Srivastava, N K; George, J; Selvi, V A; Das, T B; Pal, S K; Maity, S; Mohanty, D

    2015-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements in lignite and coal is a matter of global concern during energy extraction from them. Accordingly, Barsingsar lignite from Rajasthan (India), a newly identified and currently exploited commercial source of energy, was evaluated for the presence of these elements and their fate during its combustion. Mobility of these elements in Barsingsar lignite and its ashes from a power plant (Bikaner-Nagaur region of Thar Desert, India) is presented in this paper. Kaolinite, quartz, and gypsum are the main minerals in lignite. Both the fly ash and bottom ash of lignite belong to class-F with SiO₂ > Al₂O₃ > CaO > MgO. Both the ashes contain quartz, mullite, anhydrite, and albite. As, In, and Sr have higher concentration in the feed than the ashes. Compared to the feed lignite, Ba, Co, U, Cu, Cd, and Ni are enriched (10-5 times) in fly ash and Co, Pb, Li, Ga, Cd, and U in bottom ash (9-5 times). Earth crust-normalization pattern showed enrichment of Ga, U, B, Ag, Cd, and Se in the lignite; Li, Ba, Ga, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se, in fly ash; and Li, Sr, Ga, U, B, Cu, Ag, Cd, Pb, and Se in bottom ash. Hg, Ag, Zn, Ni, Ba, and Se are possibly associated with pyrite. Leaching test by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) showed that except B all the elements are within the safe limits prescribed by Indian Standards.

  12. Toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids, stage I: laboratory essays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Jorge A.S.; Penna, Monica de O.; Portela, Daniele B.; Christino, Fernando P.; Silva, Joao L.B. da; Geraldo, Lucia M.L. [Petroleo do Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mota, Vanessa V.C. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Cravo Junior, Walter [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the laboratory essays stage of the project for toxicity minimization of pipelines hydrostatic tests fluids. The hydrostatic-hibernation fluid composition most used by PETROBRAS in offshore operations is seawater added with sodium bis sulfite, fluorescein, alquildimetilbenzilamonium chloride, and tetrakis-hydroxymethyl-phosphonium sulfate (THPS). In order to reduce the toxicity of the fluid used in hydrostatic tests, the use of lesser concentrations of THPS was attempted with UV radiation application as a disinfection technique prior to the adding of the fluid's components. The compositions were evaluated in different conditions of temperature use of UV radiation or not and oxygen scavenger adding (presence and absence). The fluids were kept hibernating for 120 days. All the parameters tested after hibernation were compared to fresh from preparation samples (zero time samples). The fluid's characteristics were evaluated by microbiological control and toxicity as well as the THPS residual. Results showed that the UV treatment was more effective in the absence of oxygen scavenger. The temperature acts as a microbial growth control agent, as expected. To large scale operations, a water quality monitoring must be performed previously to any field operations, in order to determinate the best treatment to be used in each case. (author)

  13. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, C.A. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States); Mayo, R.R. [ENSR Environmental Toxicology Lab., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ``Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,`` required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications.

  14. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, C.A.; Mayo, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ''Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,'' required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications

  15. Subjective and objective screening tests for hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Huynh, Nancy; Vitale, Susan; Wong, Wai T; Ferris, Fredrick L; Sieving, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    To compare subjective and objective clinical tests used in the screening for hydroxychloroquine retinal toxicity to multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) reference testing. Prospective, single-center, case control study. Fifty-seven patients with a previous or current history of hydroxychloroquine treatment of more than 5 years' duration. Participants were evaluated with a detailed medical history, dilated ophthalmologic examination, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), automated visual field testing (10-2 visual field mean deviation [VFMD]), and mfERG testing. We used mfERG test parameters as a gold standard to divide participants into 2 groups: those affected by hydroxychloroquine-induced retinal toxicity and those unaffected. We assessed the association of various imaging and psychophysical variables in the affected versus the unaffected group. Fifty-seven study participants (91.2% female; mean age, 55.7±10.4 years; mean duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment, 15.0±7.5 years) were divided into affected (n = 19) and unaffected (n = 38) groups based on mfERG criteria. Mean age and duration of hydroxychloroquine treatment did not differ statistically between groups. Mean OCT retinal thickness measurements in all 9 macular subfields were significantly lower (<40 μm) in the affected group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons) compared with those in the unaffected group. Mean VFMD was 11 dB lower in the affected group (P < 0.0001). Clinical features indicative of retinal toxicity were scored for the 2 groups and were detected in 68.4% versus 0.0% using color fundus photographs, 73.3% versus 9.1% using FAF images, and 84.2% versus 0.0% on the scoring for the perifoveal loss of the photoreceptor ellipsoid zone on SD-OCT for affected and unaffected participants, respectively. Using a polynomial modeling approach, OCT inner ring retinal thickness measurements and Humphrey 10-2 VFMD were

  16. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

  17. Aerial energetic residue data from JBER C4 testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Aerially-collected energetic residues from surface detonation of C4. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Walsh, M., B. Gullett, M. Walsh, M....

  18. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busquet, F.; Strecker, R.; Rawlings, J.M.; Belanger, S.E.; Braunbeck, T.; Carr, G.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Fochtman, P.; Gourmelon, A.; Hübler, N.; Kleensang, A.; Knöbel, M.; Kussatz, C.; Legler, J.; Lillicrap, A.; Martínez-Jerónimo, F.; Polleichtner, C.; Rzodeczko, H.; Salinas, E.; Schneider, K.E.; Scholz, S.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van der Ven, L.T.; Walter-Rohde, S.; Weigt, S.; Witters, H.; Halder, M.

    2014-01-01

    A The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were

  19. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing... the test substance is added and to which the test species is exposed. (6) “Early life stage toxicity...

  20. Combinatorial QSAR modeling of chemical toxicants tested against Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Tropsha, Alexander; Fourches, Denis; Varnek, Alexandre; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola; Oberg, Tomas; Dao, Phuong; Cherkasov, Artem; Tetko, Igor V

    2008-04-01

    Selecting most rigorous quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approaches is of great importance in the development of robust and predictive models of chemical toxicity. To address this issue in a systematic way, we have formed an international virtual collaboratory consisting of six independent groups with shared interests in computational chemical toxicology. We have compiled an aqueous toxicity data set containing 983 unique compounds tested in the same laboratory over a decade against Tetrahymena pyriformis. A modeling set including 644 compounds was selected randomly from the original set and distributed to all groups that used their own QSAR tools for model development. The remaining 339 compounds in the original set (external set I) as well as 110 additional compounds (external set II) published recently by the same laboratory (after this computational study was already in progress) were used as two independent validation sets to assess the external predictive power of individual models. In total, our virtual collaboratory has developed 15 different types of QSAR models of aquatic toxicity for the training set. The internal prediction accuracy for the modeling set ranged from 0.76 to 0.93 as measured by the leave-one-out cross-validation correlation coefficient ( Q abs2). The prediction accuracy for the external validation sets I and II ranged from 0.71 to 0.85 (linear regression coefficient R absI2) and from 0.38 to 0.83 (linear regression coefficient R absII2), respectively. The use of an applicability domain threshold implemented in most models generally improved the external prediction accuracy but at the same time led to a decrease in chemical space coverage. Finally, several consensus models were developed by averaging the predicted aquatic toxicity for every compound using all 15 models, with or without taking into account their respective applicability domains. We find that consensus models afford higher prediction accuracy for the

  1. Guanicid and PHMG Toxicity Tests on Aquatic Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Poštulková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of new algicidal products is caused by the ever increasing popularity of garden ponds as well as the use of these products in the fisheries sector, especially for disposal of cyanobacteria and algae. Most frequent means of combating cyanobacteria and algae are applications of algicidal substances. Newly developed algaecides include Guanicid and polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG. The aim of the study was to identify toxic effects of Guanicid and PHMG on zebrafish (Danio rerio and green algae (Desmodesmus communis. We determined the acute toxicity in fish according to ČSN EN ISO 7346-1, and conducted the freshwater algae growth inhibition test according to ČSN ISO 8692 methodology. For inhibition tests with green algae we chose Guanicid and PHMG concentrations of 0.001, 0.005, and 0.010 ml/L. For fish short-term acute toxicity tests we chose Guanicid concentrations of 0.010, 0.050, 0.150, 0.200, 0.250, and 0.300 ml/L and PHMG concentrations of 0.010, 0.025, 0.050, 0.075, 0.100, and 0.125 ml/L. In case of zebrafish (Danio rerio, the LC50 value for Guanicid is 0.086 ml/L, while the LC50 value for PHMG is 0.043 ml/L. Effects of Guanicid on inhibition of green algae (Desmodesmus communis appear highly significant (p < 0.010 at a concentration of 0.010 ml/L. For PHMG, these effects are highly significant (p < 0.001 at concentrations of 0.005 and 0.010 ml/L in 48 hours.

  2. A large hemispherical chamber for fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Smouse, K. Y.; Leon, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an 84-liter chamber for fire toxicity tests consisting of an upper hemispherical dome section with a diameter of 533 mm, made of clear polymethyl methacrylate and a lower cylindrical base section 190 mm deep, made of cast aluminum. The chamber is designed to expose 36 mice, 8 rats, 4 rabbits or combinations of smaller numbers of two or three species simultaneously to the gaseous products of pyrolysis or combustion. The chamber does not appear to be suitable for screening purposes because its large size introduces operating costs and problems which reduce its cost effectiveness.

  3. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M. [Univ. of Maryland System, Solomons, MD (United States); Aurand, D.V. [Ecosystem Management and Associates, Purcellville, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea.

  4. In situ toxicity testing of Lake Orta sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BELTRAMI

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of in situ assays, which was initially proposed by Nebeker et al. (1984, is presently recognised as an effective tool to study the effects of contaminated sediments (Burton 1992. The placement of caged organisms to study short-term effects of exposure to contaminated environments has been employed for a number of aquatic species, both fish and invertebrate. This paper describes the application of this techniques to study the toxicity of Lake Orta sediments using both resident (Daphnia obtusa, D. longispina and non-resident (D. magna, Echinogammarus stammeri invertebrate species. In each of the selected stations, a group of four chambers, each containing 10 individuals, were deployed by scuba divers at 10 m depth and collected after 48 h. For each chamber, the surviving animals were counted, transferred to the laboratory and kept in Lake Orta water until their death. The number of neonates produced by each female in the laboratory was recorded daily in order to determine if the short exposure period could affect the reproductive behaviour of the animals. The technique and results reported here indicate the utility of in situ testing and suggest that, under certain conditions, this method of testing may yield results which are more representative of actual environmental conditions by avoiding the sample manipulation required for traditional laboratory toxicity tests.

  5. Toxicity and residual activity of methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide to codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Daniel M; Walgenbach, James F; Kennedy, George G; Long, John W

    2004-08-01

    A series of studies were conducted to examine the residual activity and toxicity of the ecdysone agonists tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), in North Carolina apple systems. Methoxyfenozide exhibited greater activity than tebufenozide against codling moth eggs in dose-response bioassays, with a 4.5- and 5.3-fold lower LC50 value to eggs laid on fruit treated before or after oviposition, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs were 57- and 12-fold less sensitive to methoxyfenozide than were codling moth eggs on fruit treated before and after oviposition, respectively. Methoxyfenozide was effective in reducing larval entries of both codling moth and oriental fruit moth in field residual activity bioassays, exhibiting activity for at least 28 d after application. Residue breakdown on fruit was approximately 80% at 28 d after treatment for both methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide, with the most rapid residue decline (60%) occurring during the first 14 d after application. Two applications of methoxyfenozide applied at 14-d intervals provided better canopy coverage and higher residue levels than one application. Spray volume (683 versus 2,057 liters/ha) did not affect the efficacy of methoxyfenozide. Leaf and fruit expansion during the season was measured to determine potential plant-growth dilution effects on residual activity. There was very little increase in leaf area after mid May, but increase in fruit surface area over the season was described by a second order polynomial regression. Implications for codling moth and oriental fruit moth management programs are discussed.

  6. Non-animal methodologies within biomedical research and toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory animal models are limited by scientific constraints on human applicability, and increasing regulatory restrictions, driven by social concerns. Reliance on laboratory animals also incurs marked - and in some cases, prohibitive - logistical challenges, within high-throughput chemical testing programmes, such as those currently underway within Europe and the US. However, a range of non-animal methodologies is available within biomedical research and toxicity testing. These include: mechanisms to enhance the sharing and assessment of existing data prior to conducting further studies, and physicochemical evaluation and computerised modelling, including the use of structure-activity relationships and expert systems. Minimally-sentient animals from lower phylogenetic orders or early developmental vertebral stages may be used, as well as microorganisms and higher plants. A variety of tissue cultures, including immortalised cell lines, embryonic and adult stem cells, and organotypic cultures, are also available. In vitro assays utilising bacterial, yeast, protozoal, mammalian or human cell cultures exist for a wide range of toxic and other endpoints. These may be static or perfused, and may be used individually, or combined within test batteries. Human hepatocyte cultures and metabolic activation systems offer potential assessment of metabolite activity and organ-organ interaction. Microarray technology may allow genetic expression profiling, increasing the speed of toxin detection, well prior to more invasive endpoints. Enhanced human clinical trials utilising micro- dosing, staggered dosing, and more representative study populations and durations, as well as surrogate human tissues, advanced imaging modalities and human epidemiological, sociological and psycho- logical studies, may increase our understanding of illness aetiology and pathogenesis, and facilitate the development of safe and effective pharmacologic interventions. Particularly when human tissues

  7. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  8. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  9. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  10. Research on Toxicity Evaluation of Waste Incineration Residues of Printed Circuit Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Volungevičienė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCB is an extremely complicated process, because PCBs consist of a number of complex components – hazardous and non-hazardous materials sets. Pyrolysis and combustion are currently the most effective treatment technologies for waste printed circuit boards. Pyrolysis can be used for thermally decomposing PCBs allowing for the simultaneous recovery of valuable materials. Following the extraction of valuable materials, the problem of residual ash utilization is encountered. Determining the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of incineration residue helps with choosing effective ash management technologies. This paper analyzes PCB ash generated at three different temperatures of 400 °C, 500 °C and 600 °C. Ash residues have been analysed to determine the quantity and type of metals present. Furthermore, the experiment of leaching heavy metals from ash has been described.

  11. Impact of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residues in herbal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nema S. Shaban

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 65%–80% of the world's populations depend on the herbal products as their primary form of health care. This review is conducted to provide a general idea about chemical contaminants such as heavy metals and pesticide residues as major common contaminants of the herbal medicine, which impose serious health risks to human health. Additionally, we aim to provide different analytical methods for analysis of heavy metals and pesticide residues in the herbal medicine.

  12. Surface preparation for residual stress measurement of an accelerated corrosion tested welded marine steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Bilal; Fitzpatrick, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Residual stress measurement is often required for the assessment of structural integrity of components. Measurement of residual stress in corrosion tested specimens is challenging owing to the difficulty of accessing the surface because of the rust layer. This study explored the potential methods for the surface preparation of an ultrasonically-peened and accelerated corrosion tested DH36 marine steel fillet welded specimen to ease the way for subsequent residual stress measurement using neutron diffraction and the contour method. We find that hydroblasting introduces compressive residual stress at the surface that will alter the surface stress to be measured

  13. Role of omics techniques in the toxicity testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Fröhlich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology of the twenty-first century. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology it is also known that engineered nanoparticles (NPs may cause adverse health effects in humans. Reports on toxic effects of NPs relay mainly on conventional (phenotypic testing but studies of changes in epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome induced by NPs have also been performed. NPs most relevant for human exposure in consumer, health and food products are metal, metal oxide and carbon-based NPs. They were also studied quite frequently with omics technologies and an overview of the study results can serve to answer the question if screening for established targets of nanotoxicity (e.g. cell death, proliferation, oxidative stress, and inflammation is sufficient or if omics techniques are needed to reveal new targets. Regulated pathways identified by omics techniques were confirmed by phenotypic assays performed in the same study and comparison of particle types and cells by the same group indicated a more cell/organ-specific than particle specific regulation pattern. Between different studies moderate overlap of the regulated pathways was observed and cell-specific regulation is less obvious. The lack of standardization in particle exposure, in omics technologies, difficulties to translate mechanistic data to phenotypes and comparison with human in vivo data currently limit the use of these technologies in the prediction of toxic effects by NPs.

  14. Toxics testing performance evaluation for GB and GD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, H.J.; Schneider, J.F.; Brubaker, K.L.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1997-10-01

    Residues resulting from demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah, are currently listed as hazardous wastes by the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality. The US Army Test and Evaluation Command believes that certain categories of waste generated at DPG are not hazardous. To demonstrate this, analytical methods capable of quantitatively measuring the concentrations of chemical agents, including GB and GD, in the different waste media must be available. Argonne National Laboratory has developed methods to analyze metal substrate, spent hypochlorite decontamination fluid, and soil matrices for GB and GD. These methods involve the use of sorbent cartridge preconcentration and thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography using flame photometric detection to achieve the desired sensitivity and specificity. This report describes the methods and presents results for these three common waste matrices. The test results indicate that these methods can be used to quantitatively determine concentrations of GB and GD in the low parts-per-billion range in all sample media tested.

  15. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  16. Acute Toxicity Tests Of Brewery Effluent on the Ostracoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mortality also varied with the concentrations. The toxic effect of brewery effluent on ostracoda, which plays an important role in the aquatic food chain and the possibility that they may be accumulating some of these toxic components, is a matter for concern. Keywords: Toxicity, rewery effluent, Ostracoda, Strandesia, ...

  17. Discovering less toxic ionic liquids by using the Microtox® toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fernández, F J; Bayo, J; Pérez de los Ríos, A; Vicente, M A; Bernal, F J; Quesada-Medina, J

    2015-06-01

    New Microtox® toxicity data of 16 ionic liquids of different cationic and anionic composition were determined. The ionic liquids 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium trifluoromethanesulfonate, [BMPyr(+)][TFO(-)], 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride, [BMPyr(+)][Cl(-)], hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium fluoroacetate, [HOPMIM(+)][FCH2COO(-)], and hydroxypropylmethylimidazolium glycolate [HOPMIM(+)][glycolate(-)] were found to be less toxic than conventional organic solvent such as chloroform or toluene, accoding the Microtox® toxicity assays. The toxicity of pyrrolidinium cation was lower than the imidazolium and pyridinium ones. It was found that the inclusion of an hydroxyl group in the alkyl chain length of the cation also reduce the toxicity of the ionic liquid. To sum up, the Microtox® toxicity assays can be used as screening tool to easily determined the toxicity of a wide range of ionic liquids and the toxicity data obtained could allow the obtention of structure-toxicity relationships to design less toxic ionic liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Triolo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ, located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  19. Toxic emissions from a military test site in the territory of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaldi, Mauro; Foschi, Cristiano; Szpunar, Germana; Brini, Carlo; Marinelli, Fiorenzo; Triolo, Lucio

    2013-04-19

    This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ), located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  20. Laboratory Rodent Diets Contain Toxic Levels of Environmental Contaminants: Implications for Regulatory Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Mesnage

    Full Text Available The quality of diets in rodent feeding trials is crucial. We describe the contamination with environmental pollutants of 13 laboratory rodent diets from 5 continents. Measurements were performed using accredited methodologies. All diets were contaminated with pesticides (1-6 out of 262 measured, heavy metals (2-3 out of 4, mostly lead and cadmium, PCDD/Fs (1-13 out of 17 and PCBs (5-15 out of 18. Out of 22 GMOs tested for, Roundup-tolerant GMOs were the most frequently detected, constituting up to 48% of the diet. The main pesticide detected was Roundup, with residues of glyphosate and AMPA in 9 of the 13 diets, up to 370 ppb. The levels correlated with the amount of Roundup-tolerant GMOs. Toxic effects of these pollutants on liver, neurodevelopment, and reproduction are documented. The sum of the hazard quotients of the pollutants in the diets (an estimator of risk with a threshold of 1 varied from 15.8 to 40.5. Thus the chronic consumption of these diets can be considered at risk. Efforts toward safer diets will improve the reliability of toxicity tests in biomedical research and regulatory toxicology.

  1. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  2. Simple diagnostic tests to detect toxic alcohol intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurologic disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, whereas the latter is caused by accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly decrease their rates of morbidity and mortality. Currently, detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid-based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive, and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications.

  3. Residual Toxicity of Abamectin, Chlorpyrifos, Cyromazine, Indoxacarb and Spinosad on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Askari Saryazdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liriomyza trifolii is an important pest of vegetable crops in many parts of the worldincluding Iran. In this study potted bean plants were sprayed with recommended fieldrates of abamectin, chlorpyrifos, cyromazine, indoxacarb and spinosad. To assess the residualactivities of these insecticides, the plants were infested with L. trifolii adults 2 hours; 1, 3,5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 days after insecticidal treatments. The adults were allowed to stayon treated plants for eight hours. The treated plants were kept in a greenhouse. Numberof feeding stipples and larval mines on leaves, as well as pupation and adult eclosion rateswere assessed. Two-way ANOVA procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis andthe treatment means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test. Abamectin andspinosad severely affected egg hatching and embryonic development. Eggs oviposited inleaves with residues of chlorpyrifos up to 5 days old, had reduced hatching. Larval developmentwas also, affected by residues of chlorpyrifos up to four weeks old. Indoxacarbreduced larval development and adult eclosion in treatments with up to 20 days old residues.Cyromazine had no effect on the number of larval mines, but, pupation was severelyhampered and adult eclosion was completely ceased even in treatments with five weeksold residues. Determining the residual activity of insecticides used for controlling this pestis useful in avoiding unnecessary treatments.

  4. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Meißner, Tobias; Weil, Mirco; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing. (paper)

  5. Genetically Defined Strains in Drug Development and Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern about the poor quality and lack of repeatability of many pre-clinical experiments involving laboratory animals. According to one estimate as much as $28 billion is wasted annually in the USA alone in such studies. A decade ago the FDA's "Critical path" white paper noted that "The traditional tools used to assess product safety-animal toxicology and outcomes from human studies-have changed little over many decades and have largely not benefited from recent gains in scientific knowledge. The inability to better assess and predict product safety leads to failures during clinical development and, occasionally, after marketing." Repeat-dose 28-days and 90-days toxicity tests in rodents have been widely used as part of a strategy to assess the safety of drugs and chemicals but their repeatability and power to detect adverse effects have not been formally evaluated.The guidelines (OECD TG 407 and 408) for these tests specify the dose levels and number of animals per dose but do not specify the strain of animals which should be used. In practice, almost all the tests are done using genetically undefined "albino" rats or mice in which the genetic variation, a major cause of inter-individual and strain variability, is unknown and uncontrolled. This chapter suggests that a better strategy would be to use small numbers of animals of several genetically defined strains of mice or rats instead of the undefined animals used at present. Inbred strains are more stable providing more repeatable data than outbred stocks. Importantly their greater phenotypic uniformity should lead to more powerful and repeatable tests. Any observed strain differences would indicate genetic variation in response to the test substance, providing key data. We suggest that the FDA and other regulators and funding organizations should support research to evaluate this alternative.

  6. Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals and a test for white noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Partial sums of lagged cross-products of AR residuals are defined. By studying the sample paths of these statistics, changes in residual dependence can be detected that might be missed by statistics using only the total sum of cross-products. Also, a test statistic for white noise is proposed. It is

  7. Toxicity testing: the search for an in vitro alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J E; Xu, J; Morse, H R; Avent, N D; Donaldson, C

    2009-01-01

    Prior to introduction to the clinic, pharmaceuticals must undergo rigorous toxicity testing to ensure their safety. Traditionally, this has been achieved using in vivo animal models. However, besides ethical reasons, there is a continual drive to reduce the number of animals used for this purpose due to concerns such as the lack of concordance seen between animal models and toxic effects in humans. Adequate testing to ensure any toxic metabolites are detected can be further complicated if the agent is administered in a prodrug form, requiring a source of cytochrome P450 enzymes for metabolism. A number of sources of metabolic enzymes have been utilised in in vitro models, including cell lines, primary human tissue and liver extracts such as S9. This review examines current and new in vitro models for toxicity testing, including a new model developed within the authors' laboratory utilising HepG2 liver spheroids within a co-culture system to examine the effects of chemotherapeutic agents on other cell types.

  8. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Echols, Kathy R.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Henquinet, Jeffrey; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2015-01-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH water under an air atmosphere (pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5–8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems.

  9. An evaluation of the residual toxicity and chemistry of a sodium hydroxide-based ballast water treatment system for freshwater ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Kemble, Nile E; Echols, Kathy R; Brumbaugh, William G; Henquinet, Jeffrey W; Watten, Barnaby J

    2015-06-01

    Nonnative organisms in the ballast water of freshwater ships must be killed to prevent the spread of invasive species. The ideal ballast water treatment system (BWTS) would kill 100% of ballast water organisms with minimal residual toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. In the present study, the residual toxicity and chemistry of a BWTS was evaluated. Sodium hydroxide was added to elevate pH to >11.5 to kill ballast water organisms, then reduced to pH pH drifted to ≥9) or a 2.5% CO2 atmosphere (pH 7.5-8.2), then transferred to control water for 5 d to assess potential delayed toxicity. Chemical concentrations in the BWTS water met vessel discharge guidelines with the exception of concentrations of copper. There was little to no residual toxicity to cladocerans or fish, but the BWTS water was toxic to amphipods. Maintaining a neutral pH and diluting BWTS water by 50% eliminated toxicity to the amphipods. The toxicity of BWTS water would likely be minimal because of rapid dilution in the receiving water, with subsurface release likely preventing pH rise. This BWTS has the potential to become a viable method for treating ballast water released into freshwater systems. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Report on tests of tip-filter using residue from Zeitz TTH-separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, L.; Eisenhut, A.

    1943-03-15

    In the TTH process as run at Zeitz, one of the steps was paraffin removal from the Abstreifer (an intermediate, viscous, liquid product) by filtration. Apparently a filtration-aiding material known as Filterhilfe A was used in the process; each batch seemed to have been used more than once, since Filterhilfe A appeared in the filtration residue and then in the residue left upon distillation to release most of the paraffin from the filtration residue. This report described tests run by Ludwigshafen on samples (from different days' operations) of this distillation residue from Zeitz to evaluate how well the effectiveness of the filter aid contained in the residue was being maintained through time, as compared to the effectiveness of fresh Filterhilfe A in paraffin removal. It was found that most samples of residue showed a drop-off of 35% to 47% in effectiveness, measured by the percentage of distillation residue in the filtration mixture which was necessary to give filtration residues of comparable properties to those given by 0.5% of fresh Filterhilfe A. Thus the Filterhilfe A seemed to have been damaged somewhat by the processing procedure at Zeitz; the report described suggested ways of distilling the paraffin from the filtration residue so as to damage the Filterhilfe A as little as possible. In testing the distillation residues before the filtration experiment, it was found that their content of high-molecular-weight waxlike materials increased with the number of times the residues had been recycled as filtration aids. It was suggested that such a buildup could be lessened by cycling part of the distillation residue back through the hydrogenation process each time. Finally, the report mentioned two types of asphalt which seemed to be comparable in effectiveness to Filterhilfe A as filtration aids.

  11. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  12. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  13. 77 FR 67239 - National Organic Program; Periodic Residue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ..., it is appropriate for a certifying agent to determine what operations should be tested under this... samples, tissue samples, or water. Commenters noted that preharvest sampling may be more meaningful when...). In addition, commenters suggested that preharvest testing of tissue samples, [[Page 67242

  14. Toxic anterior segment syndrome caused by autoclave reservoir wall biofilms and their residual toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Andrew L; Sorenson, Robert L; Evans, David J

    2016-11-01

    To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. Retrospective case series. Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TASS and prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. From 2010 to 2013, 11 935 consecutive cataract surgeries were performed at 1 center by multiple surgeons with no reported TASS. Between January 1, 2014, and January 15, 2015, 10 cases of TASS occurred out of 3003 cataract surgeries; these patients' charts were reviewed. Cultures of 2 Statim autoclave reservoir walls grew Bacillus species, Williamsia species, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, and Candida parapsilosis. Scanning electron microscopy of reservoir wall sections showed prominent biofilm. The 2 autoclaves were replaced in January 2015. Subsequently, 2875 cataract surgeries were performed with no reported TASS (P autoclaves were also contaminated with bacterial biofilms. Toxic anterior segment syndrome was strongly associated with bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. An etiological mechanism might involve transport of heat-stable bacterial cell antigens in the steam with deposition on surgical instrumentation. Data suggest widespread prevalence of bacterial biofilms on fluid-reservoir walls, despite adherence to manufacturer guidelines for cleaning and maintenance. Prevention or elimination of autoclave fluid-reservoir biofilms might reduce the risk for postoperative TASS. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Field kit and method for testing for the presence of gunshot residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacy, Philip J.; Walker, Pamela K.

    2003-09-02

    A field test kit for gunshot residue comprises a container having at least compartments separated by a barrier. A surface is tested by wiping it with a swab and placing the swab in a first compartment. The barrier is then breached, permitting reagent in the second compartment to flow onto the swab. The first compartment is transparent, and a color change will be observed if the reagent reacts with gunshot residue.

  16. Change of residual stresses during plastic deformation under uniaxial tension test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benito, J. A.; Jorba, J.; Roca, A.

    2001-01-01

    Hang of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses was studied by X Ray diffraction method as the applied plastic deformation, measured as A% was increased in a standard tension test. The starting material, hot rolling Armco iron, has values close to 0 MPa in longitudinal direction. But it reaches 600 MPa with only A=1,5%, this value remains constant until necking is produced. In transverse direction the stating values are 300 MPa, changes are small and residual stresses remain compressive until the end of tension test. In addition, studies of the changes of residual stresses with time and with misalignment between incident X Ray and drawing direction are presented. (Author) 5 refs

  17. Hanford Tank 241-S-112 Residual Waste Composition and Leach Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Arey, Bruce W.; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2008-08-29

    This report presents the results of laboratory characterization and testing of two samples (designated 20406 and 20407) of residual waste collected from tank S-112 after final waste retrieval. These studies were completed to characterize the residual waste and assess the leachability of contami¬nants from the solids. This is the first report from this PNNL project to describe the composition and leach test data for residual waste from a salt cake tank. All previous PNNL reports (Cantrell et al. 2008; Deutsch et al. 2006, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) describing contaminant release models, and characterization and testing results for residual waste in single-shell tanks were based on samples from sludge tanks.

  18. Removal of toxic Congo red dye from water employing low-cost coconut residual fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, K C; Naik, Aduja; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2017-05-01

    The coconut residual fiber (CRF) is the major byproduct obtained during production of virgin coconut oil. Its application as a biosorbent for adsorption of Congo red was investigated. The CRF was subjected to different pretreatments, namely, pressure cooking, hexane treatment, acid treatment and their combinations. The pretreatment of CRF with the combination of hexane, acid, and pressure cooking resulted in the highest degree of adsorption. The equilibrium data were analyzed and found to fit best to both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard free energy (ΔG 0 kJ mol -1 ), standard enthalpy (ΔH 0 , kJ mol -1 ) and standard entropy (ΔS 0 , kJ mol -1 K -1 ) of the systems were calculated by using the Langmuir constant. The ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 were found to be 16.51 kJ mol -1 , -19.39 kJ mol -1 and -0.12 kJ mol -1 K -1 , respectively, at 300 K. These thermodynamic parameters suggest the present adsorption process to be non-spontaneous and exothermic. The adsorption process was observed to follow pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results suggest that CRF has potential to be a biosorbent for the removal of hazardous material (Congo red dye) with a maximum adsorption capacity of 128.94 mg g -1 at 300 K.

  19. Nouws antibiotics test: Validation of a post-screening method for antibiotic residues in kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Kortenhoeven, L.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating the rise in ‘suspect’ samples caused by the introduction of a more sensitive screening test for the presence of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals, an additional microbial post-screening method was developed. The test comprises four antibiotic group specific test plates, optimized

  20. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Testing for Toxic Constituents of Comfrey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the possibilities of toxins present in medicinal herbs. Describes an experiment in which toxic constituents can be selectively detected by thin-layer chromatography and NMR spectroscopy. (TW)

  1. OECD validation study to assess intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of the zebrafish embryo toxicity test for acute aquatic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, François; Strecker, Ruben; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Braunbeck, Thomas; Carr, Gregory J; Cenijn, Peter; Fochtman, Przemyslaw; Gourmelon, Anne; Hübler, Nicole; Kleensang, André; Knöbel, Melanie; Kussatz, Carola; Legler, Juliette; Lillicrap, Adam; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Polleichtner, Christian; Rzodeczko, Helena; Salinas, Edward; Schneider, Katharina E; Scholz, Stefan; van den Brandhof, Evert-Jan; van der Ven, Leo T M; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Weigt, Stefan; Witters, Hilda; Halder, Marlies

    2014-08-01

    The OECD validation study of the zebrafish embryo acute toxicity test (ZFET) for acute aquatic toxicity testing evaluated the ZFET reproducibility by testing 20 chemicals at 5 different concentrations in 3 independent runs in at least 3 laboratories. Stock solutions and test concentrations were analytically confirmed for 11 chemicals. Newly fertilised zebrafish eggs (20/concentration and control) were exposed for 96h to chemicals. Four apical endpoints were recorded daily as indicators of acute lethality: coagulation of the embryo, lack of somite formation, non-detachment of the tail bud from the yolk sac and lack of heartbeat. Results (LC50 values for 48/96h exposure) show that the ZFET is a robust method with a good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility (CV30%) for some very toxic or volatile chemicals, and chemicals tested close to their limit of solubility. The ZFET is now available as OECD Test Guideline 236. Considering the high predictive capacity of the ZFET demonstrated by Belanger et al. (2013) in their retrospective analysis of acute fish toxicity and fish embryo acute toxicity data, the ZFET is ready to be considered for acute fish toxicity for regulatory purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Residual energy applications program test and operations report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, F.H.

    1980-10-01

    Objective of REAP in the recovery of waste heat at US gaseous diffusion plants by 1984. This report contains policy, objective, and guideline suggestions for utilizing the proposed Energy applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility and for managing EAST operations; preliminary design information on facility support equipment and physical plant; and estimates of initial construction costs and staffing requirements for a two-bay, three-shift operation

  3. Application of toxicity testing in the evaluation of reclamation options for oil sands fine tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.; Gulley, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. An overview is presented of toxicity testing at Syncrude and Suncor, the application of toxicity testing to fine tailings management, and the role in reclamation planning. The main acutely toxic component of the tailings is the polar organic acid fraction, specifically naphthanates. These naphthanates are readily degraded biologically by indigenous microbial populations. Toxicity testing is aimed at assessing the degree of both acute and chronic toxicity and the long term potential for the input of toxins into the environment from various proposed reclamation measures. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Standardized toxicity testing may underestimate ecotoxicity: Environmentally relevant food rations increase the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Louise M; Krattenmaker, Katherine E; Johnson, Erica; Bowers, Alexandra J; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; McCauley, Edward; Nisbet, Roger M

    2017-11-01

    Daphnia in the natural environment experience fluctuations in algal food supply, with periods when algal populations bloom and seasons when Daphnia have very little algal food. Standardized chronic toxicity tests, used for ecological risk assessment, dictate that Daphnia must be fed up to 400 times more food than they would experience in the natural environment (outside of algal blooms) for a toxicity test to be valid. This disconnect can lead to underestimating the toxicity of a contaminant. We followed the growth, reproduction, and survival of Daphnia exposed to 75 and 200 µg/L silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 4 food rations for up to 99 d and found that AgNP exposure at low, environmentally relevant food rations increased the toxicity of AgNPs. Exposure to AgNP at low food rations decreased the survival and/or reproduction of individuals, with potential consequences for Daphnia populations (based on calculated specific population growth rates). We also found tentative evidence that a sublethal concentration of AgNPs (75 µg/L) caused Daphnia to alter energy allocation away from reproduction and toward survival and growth. The present findings emphasize the need to consider resource availability, and not just exposure, in the environment when estimating the effect of a toxicant. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3008-3018. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  5. Improving toxicity assessment of pesticide mixtures: the use of polar passive sampling devices extracts in microalgae toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KIM TIAM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i at characterizing the toxic potential of waters using dose-response curves, and ii at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.

  6. The Adverse Outcome Pathway: A conceptual framework to support toxicity testing in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    The field of regulatory toxicity testing is at a turning point. The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) envisioned a shift away from traditional toxicity testing and towards a focused effort to explore and understand pathways perturbed by biologically active substances or their ...

  7. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity : Moving from research to regulatory testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, B; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for

  8. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  9. Aquatic toxicity testing for aquatic life impact assessments and recent scientific advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this presentation is to provide an overview of the use of aquatic toxicity testing for assessing possible impacts to aquatic life and how new scientific approaches are being researched. Toxicity testing of both ambient and effluent monitoring samples will be discusse...

  10. Allium-test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudalova, A. A.; Geras'kin, S. A.; Dikareva, N. S.; Pyatkova, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium-test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium-test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds.

  11. Allium -test as a tool for toxicity testing of environmental radioactive-chemical mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A A; Pyatkova, S V; Geras’kin, S A; Dikareva, N S

    2017-01-01

    Bioassay-based approaches have been propagated to assess toxicity of unknown mixtures of environmental contaminants, but it was rarely applied in cases of chemicals with radionuclides combinations. Two Allium -test studies were performed to assess environmental impact from potential sources of combined radioactive-chemical pollution. Study sites were located at nuclear waste storage facilities in European and in Far-Eastern parts of Russia. As environmental media under impact, waters from monitor wells and nearby water bodies were tested. Concentrations of some chemicals and radionuclides in the samples collected enhanced the permitted limits. Cytogenetic and cytotoxic effects were used as biological endpoints, namely, frequency and spectrum of chromosome aberrations and mitotic abnormalities in anatelophase cells as well as mitotic activity in Allium root tips. Sample points were revealed where waters have an enhanced mutagenic potential. The findings obtained could be used to optimize monitoring system and advance decision making on management and rehabilitation of industrial sites. The Allium -test could be recommended and applied as an effective tool for toxicity testing in case of combined contamination of environmental compartments with radionuclides and chemical compounds. (paper)

  12. C-130: Results of center wing residual strength and crack propagation test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.; Snider, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings which had experienced from approximately 4,000 to 13,000 hours of flight service and its associated fatigue damage were tested to destruction, seven in upbending and seven in downbending. Six wings were tested directly for static residual strength in the fatigue-damaged condition as received from field service. The other eight wings were tested in crack propagation cyclic testing at a prescribed stress level for a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Then the stress level was reduced and testing was continued up to a maximum of 20,000 total cycles. Cyclic testing was performed with constant-amplitude stresses at a stress ratio of +0.1. Maximum cyclic skin stresses were approximately 18,000 psi. At the conclusion of cyclic testing, a static test to destruction was conducted to determine the residual strength of each fatigue-damaged specimen.

  13. Making Sense of Residues on Flaked Stone Artefacts: Learning from Blind Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots, Veerle; Hayes, Elspeth; Cnuts, Dries; Lepers, Christian; Fullagar, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Residue analysis has become a frequently applied method for identifying prehistoric stone tool use. Residues adhering to the stone tool with varying frequencies are interpreted as being the result of an intentional contact with the worked material during use. Yet, other processes during the life cycle of a stone tool or after deposition may leave residues and these residues may potentially lead to misinterpretations. We present a blind test that was designed to examine this issue. Results confirm that production, retouch, prehension, hafting, various incidental contacts during use and deposition may lead to residue depositions that significantly affect the accurateness of identifications of tool-use. All currently applied residue approaches are concerned. We therefore argue for a closer interaction with independent wear studies and a step-wise procedure in which a low magnification of wear traces is used as a first step for selecting potentially used flakes in archaeological contexts. In addition, residue concentrations on a tool’s edge should be sufficiently dense before linking them with use. PMID:26930210

  14. Comparison of Weibull and Probit Analysis in Toxicity Testing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    relationships to assess the toxic effects of chemical substances. These models range from very simple models to extremely complicated models for which the eventual functional forms cannot be easily expressed as single equations. Specifically, these models are (i) tolerance distribution models: log-probit, probit, Weibull, ...

  15. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cultures contain ephippia; (2) if adults in the cultures do not produce young before day 12; (3) if more... culture do not produce an average of at least 3 young per adult per day over the 7-day period prior to the... environment. (b) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and part...

  16. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the highest solvent concentration employed in the treatments. The solvent should not be toxic or have... collected from natural sources. If collected, they must be held in the laboratory for at least 14 days prior... stress and mortality. Dead and abnormal individuals shall be discarded. (iv) Feeding. The organisms shall...

  17. Developing a list of reference chemicals for testing alternatives to whole fish toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Kristin; Tanneberger, Katrin; Kramer, Nynke I; Völker, Doris; Scholz, Stefan; Hafner, Christoph; Lee, Lucy E J; Bols, Niels C; Hermens, Joop L M

    2008-11-11

    This paper details the derivation of a list of 60 reference chemicals for the development of alternatives to animal testing in ecotoxicology with a particular focus on fish. The chemicals were selected as a prerequisite to gather mechanistic information on the performance of alternative testing systems, namely vertebrate cell lines and fish embryos, in comparison to the fish acute lethality test. To avoid the need for additional experiments with fish, the U.S. EPA fathead minnow database was consulted as reference for whole organism responses. This database was compared to the Halle Registry of Cytotoxicity and a collation of data by the German EPA (UBA) on acute toxicity data derived from zebrafish embryos. Chemicals that were present in the fathead minnow database and in at least one of the other two databases were subject to selection. Criteria included the coverage of a wide range of toxicity and physico-chemical parameters as well as the determination of outliers of the in vivo/in vitro correlations. While the reference list of chemicals now guides our research for improving cell line and fish embryo assays to make them widely applicable, the list could be of benefit to search for alternatives in ecotoxicology in general. One example would be the use of this list to validate structure-activity prediction models, which in turn would benefit from a continuous extension of this list with regard to physico-chemical and toxicological data.

  18. Toxicity testing in the 21 century: defining new risk assessment approaches based on perturbation of intracellular toxicity pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudin Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The approaches to quantitatively assessing the health risks of chemical exposure have not changed appreciably in the past 50 to 80 years, the focus remaining on high-dose studies that measure adverse outcomes in homogeneous animal populations. This expensive, low-throughput approach relies on conservative extrapolations to relate animal studies to much lower-dose human exposures and is of questionable relevance to predicting risks to humans at their typical low exposures. It makes little use of a mechanistic understanding of the mode of action by which chemicals perturb biological processes in human cells and tissues. An alternative vision, proposed by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC report Toxicity Testing in the 21(st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, called for moving away from traditional high-dose animal studies to an approach based on perturbation of cellular responses using well-designed in vitro assays. Central to this vision are (a "toxicity pathways" (the innate cellular pathways that may be perturbed by chemicals and (b the determination of chemical concentration ranges where those perturbations are likely to be excessive, thereby leading to adverse health effects if present for a prolonged duration in an intact organism. In this paper we briefly review the original NRC report and responses to that report over the past 3 years, and discuss how the change in testing might be achieved in the U.S. and in the European Union (EU. EU initiatives in developing alternatives to animal testing of cosmetic ingredients have run very much in parallel with the NRC report. Moving from current practice to the NRC vision would require using prototype toxicity pathways to develop case studies showing the new vision in action. In this vein, we also discuss how the proposed strategy for toxicity testing might be applied to the toxicity pathways associated with DNA damage and repair.

  19. Toxicity of emamectin benzoate to Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Anfora, Gianfranco; Angeli, Gino; Civolani, Stefano; Schmidt, Silvia; Pasqualini, Edison

    2009-03-01

    Emamectin benzoate is a novel macrocyclic lactone insecticide derived from naturally occurring avermectin molecules isolated by fermentation from the soil microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis Kim & Goodfellow. The present study aims to evaluate the toxicity of emamectin benzoate to codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, C. molesta (Busck), under laboratory and semi-field conditions. Dose response bioassays showed that emamectin benzoate had a high level of intrinsic toxicity to early-stage larvae of both species, and that contact activity might contribute significantly to mortality. In the semi-field trials, residual toxicity lasted for more than 1 week. Ovicidal activity was recorded only for C. pomonella (approximately 30%), irrespective of the concentrations tested. Field trials confirmed the efficacy of emamectin benzoate on codling moth when applied at 7 day intervals. Fruit damage, both from the first and second generations, was comparable with that on treatment with chlorpyrifos-ethyl, used as a chemical reference. Emamectin benzoate may be considered a valuable tool for the control of codling moth as a component of an IPM programme. Its collective advantages are: high efficacy, lack of cross-resistance with currently used products, control of secondary pests such as oriental fruit moth and selective toxicity that spares beneficials. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry

  20. Test for Acute Toxicity of Copper, Cadmium, and Mercury in Five Marine Species

    OpenAIRE

    PRATO, Ermelinda; BIANDOLINO, Francesca; SCARDICCHIO, Christian

    2006-01-01

    : The acute toxicity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg) to the marine invertebrates Gammarus aequicauda, Corophium insidiosum, Idotea baltica, Sphaeroma serratum, and Mytilus galloprovincialis were evaluated by static bioassays and calculation of the LC50 (lethality concentration for 50%). Hg was more toxic to Gammarus aequicauda, Corophium insidiosum, Idotea baltica, Sphaeroma serratum, and Mytilus galloprovincialis than Cu and Cd. Cu was the least toxic of the metals tested.

  1. Development of a Chronic Toxicity Testing Method for Daphnia pulex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    of a potentially harmful substance on an organism • Brood-batch of neonates (young) released from the brood pouch at the same time • Chronic...first four days of exposure to 1 L beakers • This method was employed since neonates were sensitive to handling during transfer via wide bore plastic ...species sensitivity. Environmental Pollution 136: 145-154. Canton, J. H. and D. M. Adema. 1978. Reproducibility of short-term and reproduction toxicity

  2. Contaminant Leach Testing of Hanford Tank 241-C-104 Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Leach testing of Tank C-104 residual waste was completed using batch and column experiments. Tank C-104 residual waste contains exceptionally high concentrations of uranium (i.e., as high as 115 mg/g or 11.5 wt.%). This study was conducted to provide data to develop contaminant release models for Tank C-104 residual waste and Tank C-104 residual waste that has been treated with lime to transform uranium in the waste to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO4) or similar phase. Three column leaching cases were investigated. In the first case, C-104 residual waste was leached with deionized water. In the second case, crushed grout was added to the column so that deionized water contacted the grout prior to contacting the waste. In the third case, lime was mixed in with the grout. Results of the column experiments demonstrate that addition of lime dramatically reduces the leachability of uranium from Tank C-104 residual waste. Initial indications suggest that CaUO4 or a similar highly insoluble calcium rich uranium phase forms as a result of the lime addition. Additional work is needed to definitively identify the uranium phases that occur in the as received waste and the waste after the lime treatment.

  3. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, M.V.; Annema, W.; Salvati, A.; Lesniak, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Barnes, C.; McKerr, G.; Howard, C.; Lynch, I.; Dawson, K.; Piersma, A.H.; de Jong, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining

  4. Computerized In Vitro Test for Chemical Toxicity Based on Tetrahymena Swimming Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever, David A.; Matsos, Helen C.; Cronise, Raymond J.; Looger, Loren L.; Relwani, Rachna A.; Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and a method for rapidly determining chemical toxicity have been evaluated as an alternative to the rabbit eye initancy test (Draize). The toxicity monitor includes an automated scoring of how motile biological cells (Tetrahymena pyriformis) slow down or otherwise change their swimming patterns in a hostile chemical environment. The method, called the motility assay (MA), is tested for 30 s to determine the chemical toxicity in 20 aqueous samples containing trace organics and salts. With equal or better detection limits, results compare favorably to in vivo animal tests of eye irritancy.

  5. Animal Testing for Acute Inhalation Toxicity: A Thing of the Past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Silva, Emilie; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund

    2018-01-01

    According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403,......, TG 436, and TG 433). Since animal testing is ethically, scientifically and economically questionable, adoption of alternative methods by the European Union and the OECD is needed. An in vitro system based on the study of lung surfactant function is introduced.......According to REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), testing for acute inhalation toxicity is required for chemicals manufactured or imported at tonnages ≥ 10 tons per year. Three OECD test guidelines for acute inhalation toxicity in vivo are adopted (TG 403...

  6. 78 FR 52958 - Announcement of Test Concerning Manifesting and Entry of Residue Found in Instruments of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... manifested in this fashion and will not be required under the Residue Test. c. Containers Arriving With Cargo... by weight or volume, using industry standards, must be manifested. A consumption entry will be... container's total capacity by weight or volume, using industry standards, will be considered to contain...

  7. How To Test Nontarget Effects of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Residues in Livestock Dung in the Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochmann, R.; Blanckenhorn, W.U.; Bussière, L.; Eirkson, C.E.; Jensen, J.; Kryger, U.; Lahr, J.; Lumaret, J.P.; Römbke, J.; Wardhaugh, K.G.; Floate, K.D.

    2010-01-01

    To register veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) as parasiticides on pastured animals, legislation in the European Union requires an environmental risk assessment to test the potential nontarget effects of fecal residues on dung-dwelling organisms. Products with adverse effects in single-species

  8. 40 CFR 180.34 - Tests on the amount of residue remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests on the amount of residue remaining. 180.34 Section 180.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... analysts to apply it successfully. (c) If the pesticide chemical is absorbed into a living plant or animal...

  9. 40 CFR 797.1400 - Fish acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... have been acclimated in accordance with the test design are introduced into the test and control...) During the final 48-hours of acclimation, fish should be maintained in facilities with background colors... possible should be left exposed in the interior of the chamber. (v) Cleaning of test system. Test substance...

  10. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  11. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  12. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  13. The assessment of sewage sludge gasification by-products toxicity by ecotoxicologial test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2015-08-01

    The process of gasification of sewage sludge generates by-products, which may be contaminated with toxic and hazardous substances, both organic and inorganic. It is therefore important to assess the environmental risk associated with this type of waste. The feasibility of using an ecotoxicological tests for this purpose was determined in the presented study. The applied tests contained indicator organisms belonging to various biological groups (bacteria, crustaceans, plants). The subject of the study were solid (ash, char) and liquid (tar) by-products generated during gasification (in a fixed bed reactor) of dried sewage sludge from various wastewater treatment systems. The tested samples were classified based on their toxic effect. The sensitivity of the indicator organisms to the tested material was determined. In-house procedures for the preparation for toxicity analysis of both sewage sludge and by-products generated during the gasification were presented. The scope of work also included the determination of the effect of selected process parameters (temperature, amount of gasifying agent) on the toxicity of gasification by-products depending on the sewage sludge source. It was shown that both the type of sewage sludge and the parameters of the gasification process affects the toxicity of the by-products of gasification. However, the results of toxicity studies also depend on the type of ecotoxicological test used, which is associated with a different sensitivity of the indicator organisms. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the by-products formed during the gasification of the low toxicity sewage sludge can be regarded as non-toxic or low toxic. However, the results analysis of the gasification of the toxic sludge were not conclusive, which leads to further research needs in this area. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Dredged Material Evaluations: Review of Zooplankton Toxicity Test Methods for Marine Water Quality Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    reduce interactive effects between food and contaminants of concern. PUBLISHED RESEARCH USING ALTERNATIVE ZOOPLANKTON: While a few standard test...accumulation of contaminants of concern into biological tissue (bioaccumulation tests) after sediment settles at the placement site. Technical...EMBRYOS: The American Society for Testing and Materials International (ASTM) has produced standardized toxicity tests for echinoderm (ASTM E1563-98

  15. Integrating the fish embryo toxicity test as triad element for sediment toxicity assessment based on the water framework directive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzke, Mariana [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Dept. Bioanalytical Ecotoxicology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, UFZ, Leipzig (Germany); Delov, Vera [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Ecotoxicology, Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME, Aachen (Germany); Stahlschmidt-Allner, Petra; Allner, Bernhard [Gobio GmbH, Aarbergen/Kettenbach (Germany); Oehlmann, Joerg [Dept. Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Goethe Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to complement analyses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) with a sediment toxicity analysis as part of an integrated river assessment. To this end, Hessian water courses were analyzed using the sediment quality triad concept according to Chapman with chemical analyses, in situ effect evaluations, and ecotoxicological assessments. For the ecotoxicological assessment (fish embryo toxicity test with Danio rerio), a new evaluation scheme was developed, the fish teratogenicity index (FTI), that allows for a classification of sediments into ecological quality classes compliant to the WFD. Materials and methods sediment and macrozoobenthos samples were taken from tributaries of the rivers Fulda and Lahn. Sediments were characterized regarding particle size, carbon, heavy metals, and polyaromatic hydrocarbon content. Macroinvertebrate samples were taken via multi-habitat sampling. The fish embryo toxicity test with D. rerio was conducted as a contact assay on the basis of DIN 38415-6. Results and discussion The integrated assessment indicated a significant influence of heavy metals and carbon content on macroinvertebrate communities. The bioaccessibility of sediment pollutants were clearly demonstrated by the FTI, which showed a wide range of adverse effects. A significant linear relationship between metals and the FTI was detected. However, there was no statistically significant evidence that macroinvertebrate communities were affected by the hydromorphological quality clements at the sampling sites. Conclusions The new scheme for the assessment of fish embryo toxicity test was successfully applied. The results suggest that sediment compounds impact macroinvertebrate communities and early development of fish. It demonstrates that the quality of sediments should be evaluated on a routine basis as part of an integrated river assessment. (orig.)

  16. Revolutionizing Toxicity Testing For Predicting Developmental Outcomes (DNT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterizing risk from environmental chemical exposure currently requires extensive animal testing; however, alternative approaches are being researched to increase throughput of chemicals screened, decrease reliance on animal testing, and improve accuracy in predicting adverse...

  17. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, MSE; Schmand, B; Wekking, EM; Hageman, G; Deelman, BG

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  18. Suboptimal performance on neuropsychological tests in patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, Moniek S. E.; Schmand, Ben; Wekking, Ellie M.; Hageman, Gerard; Deelman, Betto G.

    2003-01-01

    Suboptimal performance during neuropsychological testing can seriously complicate assessment in behavioral neurotoxicology. We present data on the prevalence of suboptimal performance in a group of Dutch patients with suspected chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE) after long-term occupational exposure

  19. Development of an acute toxicity test with the tropical marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artal, Mariana Coletty; Dos Santos, Amanda; Henry, Theodore Burdick; Umbuzeiro, Gisela de Aragão

    2018-03-01

    There is a lack of suitable tropical marine species for ecotoxicity tests. An attractive model organism for ecotoxicology is the marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis, which is already a model for genetic and developmental studies. This species is widespread, can tolerate changes in salinity, is easy to handle and is representative of circumtropical regions. The aim of this work was to describe standardized procedures for laboratory husbandry, define conditions for acute toxicity tests, and to provide acute toxicity test results for some reference toxicants. Culturing conditions for the organism in the laboratory were established in reconstituted seawater (30 ± 2 salinity), 24 ± 2 °C, photoperiod 12/12 h light/dark. Acute toxicity test procedures were developed for 96 h-exposure time, and organisms at ages ecotoxicology investigations in understudied and vulnerable tropical marine ecosystems.

  20. A Roadmap for the Development of Alternative (Non-Animal) Methods for Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new prod...

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions 2.0 (TSCATS 2.0) tracks the submissions of health and safety data submitted to the EPA either as required or...

  2. Asphalts tests using onshore drilling oil wells residues; Ensaios asfalticos utilizando residuos de perfuracao onshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, Adriano Elisio de F.L.; Rodrigues, John Kennedy G.; Ferreira, Heber Carlos; Lucena, Leda Christiane de F.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Lucena, Luciana de F.L. [Faculdade de Ciencias Sociais Aplicada (FACISA), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The drilling cuttings are one of the residues produced by the oils industries in large amounts during the drilling of oil wells. An alternative of final disposal of the drilling cutting residue is its utilization in asphalt mixtures. Based on this alternative, it was realized chemical and granulometric analysis and tests (Marshall and indirect tensile strength), on the asphaltic mixture using the residue from the oil drilling wells (well: 1-POTI-4-RN, located at Governador DIX-Sept Rosado - RN - Brazil). The achieved results to Marshall test indicated that for the analyzed mixture, the ideal content of residue that can be incorporated to the asphaltic composition and attend at the DNIT-ES 31 (2006) is 5%. To the indirect tensile strength test, the results showed a strength value higher than the minimum limit requested by the DNIT (0,65 MPa). The achieved results indicated the possibility of the utilization of the drilling cuttings in asphaltic pavements as fine aggregate, obeying the percentage limits, as an alternative to the final disposal. (author)

  3. Toxicity evaluation with Vibrio fischeri test of organic chemicals used in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, M D; De Vettori, S; Martínez Bueno, M J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2007-06-01

    The evaluation of acute toxicity by Vibrio fischeri test for different organic chemicals (antibiotics, pesticides, therapeutants, herbicides) commonly applied in aquaculture and a degradation product of surfactants, 4-nonylphenol, is presented in this work. Simazine, atrazine, emamectin benzoate and leucomalachite green have no toxic effects on V. fischeri at the concentration tested (up to 6mgl(-1)) which correspond to the maximum water solubility. Ciprofloxacin, terbutryn and deltamethrin, caused inhibition effects of 28%, 22% and 30% at concentrations up to 5mgl(-1). Toxic effects were not observed in the case of flumequine and oxolinic acid at the maximum concentration tested (0.189mgl(-1)). According to the toxicity categories established in the EU legislation, ciprofloxacin, terbutryn and deltamethrin could be considered non-harmful for V. fischeri. Malachite green and 4-nonylphenol are "very toxic to aquatic organisms" (EC(50,30min)=0.031mgl(-1) and 0.48mgl(-1), respectively). Carbaryl is "toxic to aquatic organisms" (2.4mgl(-1)). and glyphosate is harmful to V. fischeri (EC(50,30min)=44.2mgl(-1)). The matrix effect was evaluated comparing the toxicity measurements of the target compounds solubilized in seawater and distilled water. Malachite green, 4-nonylphenol and glyphosate, showed higher toxicity in distilled water than in seawater. Carbaryl was more toxic in seawater. All the compounds tested in seawater were not harmful at concentrations of ngl(-1) (10 and 50). However, 4-nonlylphenol and malachite green may act as toxic compounds in the environment at a low ppb level, since both may be detected in water at this concentration level.

  4. Toxicity testing of Senna occidentalis seed in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, A C; Weg, R; Calore, E E; Sinhorini, I L; Dagli, M L; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L

    2000-12-01

    The effect was investigated of administering ground Senna occidentalis seeds to rabbits in different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) in the ration. The experiment lasted 30 days and the toxic effects of the plant were evaluated on the basis of weight gain, histopathological, biochemical and morphometric parameters, as well as histochemistry and electron microscopy. Animals that received the ration containing 4% ground S. occidentalis seeds gained less weight (p < 0.05) and died in the third week. Histopathology revealed that the heart and liver were the main organs affected, with myocardial necrosis and centrolobular degeneration. There was a reduction in cytochrome oxidase activity in the glycogenolytic fibres, together with muscle atrophy, confirmed by the morphometric studies. Electron microscopy of the liver cells revealed dilated mitochondria, with destruction of the internal cristae.

  5. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  7. Alternative methods for toxicity assessments in fish: comparison of the fish embryo toxicity and the larval growth and survival tests in zebrafish and fathead minnows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Marlo K Sellin; Stultz, Amy E; Smith, Austin W; Rawlings, Jane M; Belanger, Scott E; Oris, James T

    2014-11-01

    An increased demand for chemical toxicity evaluations has resulted in the need for alternative testing strategies that address animal welfare concerns. The fish embryo toxicity (FET) test developed for zebrafish (Danio rerio) is one such alternative, and the application of the FET test to other species such as the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) has been proposed. In the present study, the performances of the FET test and the larval growth and survival (LGS; a standard toxicity testing method) test in zebrafish and fathead minnows were evaluated. This required that testing methods for the fathead minnow FET and zebrafish LGS tests be harmonized with existing test methods and that the performance of these testing strategies be evaluated by comparing the median lethal concentrations of 2 reference toxicants, 3,4-dicholoraniline and ammonia, obtained via each of the test types. The results showed that procedures for the zebrafish FET test can be adapted and applied to the fathead minnow. Differences in test sensitivity were observed for 3,4-dicholoraniline but not ammonia; therefore, conclusions regarding which test types offer the least or most sensitivity could not be made. Overall, these results show that the fathead minnow FET test has potential as an alternative toxicity testing strategy and that further analysis with other toxicants is warranted in an effort to better characterize the sensitivity and feasibility of this testing strategy. © 2014 SETAC.

  8. Progress Toward Replacing Animals in Toxicity Testing for Cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nye, Marisa B.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1980’s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...

  9. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  10. Standard test method for determining residual stresses by the hole-drilling strain-gage method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 Residual Stress Determination: 1.1.1 This test method specifies a hole-drilling procedure for determining residual stress profiles near the surface of an isotropic linearly elastic material. The test method is applicable to residual stress profile determinations where in-plane stress gradients are small. The stresses may remain approximately constant with depth (“uniform” stresses) or they may vary significantly with depth (“non-uniform” stresses). The measured workpiece may be “thin” with thickness much less than the diameter of the drilled hole or “thick” with thickness much greater than the diameter of the drilled hole. Only uniform stress measurements are specified for thin workpieces, while both uniform and non-uniform stress measurements are specified for thick workpieces. 1.2 Stress Measurement Range: 1.2.1 The hole-drilling method can identify in-plane residual stresses near the measured surface of the workpiece material. The method gives localized measurements that indicate the...

  11. Aquatic toxicity testing of liquid hydrophobic chemicals – Passive dosing exactly at the saturation limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stibany, Felix; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Schäffer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing...... format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth...... at chemical activity of unity was higher than expected relative to a reported hydrophobicity cut-off in toxicity, but lower than expected relative to a reported chemical activity range for baseline toxicity. The present study introduces a new effective approach for toxicity testing of an important group...

  12. Influence of sediment composition on apparent toxicity in a solid-phase test using bioluminescent bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, M.J. [East Tennessee State Univ., Johnson City, TN (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health; Malott, M.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)]|[Dept. of Agriculture, Oxford, MS (United States); Knight, S.S.; Cooper, C.M. [Dept. of Agriculture, Oxford, MS (United States); Benson, W.H. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Clean and spiked sediment formulations of various silt:sand and clay:sand ratios were tested for toxicity using a bioassay that utilizes bioluminescent bacteria. Measured toxicities of clean and copper sulfate-spiked sediments were negatively but nonlinearly related with percent silt and percent clay, but no significant relationship existed between measured toxicity and sediment composition for methyl parathion-spiked formulations. Results suggest that solid-phase sediment bioassays using bioluminescence bacteria may be useful for testing the toxicities of single contaminants in formulated artificial sediments of known particle-size composition, and for repeated samples collected from the same site. However, extreme caution must be taken when testing sediments of varying composition or which may be differentially contaminated or contain a suite of contaminants.

  13. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  14. 40 CFR 797.1950 - Mysid shrimp chronic toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 32, and 64 mg/1). An equal number of mysids shall be placed in two or more replicates. If solvents..., conditions, procedures and mysids from the same population or culture container, except that none of the... delivery system. Equal aliquots of test solutions may be removed from each test chamber and pooled for...

  15. Assigning ethical weights to clinical signs observed during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringblom, Joakim; Törnqvist, Elin; Hansson, Sven Ove; Rudén, Christina; Öberg, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of laboratory animals used and refining experimental procedures to enhance animal welfare are fundamental questions to be considered in connection with animal experimentation. Here, we explored the use of cardinal ethical weights for clinical signs and symptoms in rodents by conducting trade-off interviews with members of Swedish Animal Ethics Committees in order to derive such weights for nine typical clinical signs of toxicity. The participants interviewed represent researchers, politically nominated political nominees and representatives of animal welfare organizations. We observed no statistically significant differences between these groups with respect to the magnitude of the ethical weights assigned, though the political nominees tended to assign lower weights. Overall, hunched posture was considered the most severe clinical sign and body weight loss the least severe. The ethical weights assigned varied considerably between individuals, from zero to infinite value, indicating discrepancies in prioritization of reduction and refinement. Cardinal ethical weights may be utilized to include both animal welfare refinement and reduction of animal use in designing as well as in retrospective assessment of animal experiments. Such weights may also be used to estimate ethical costs of animal experiments.

  16. Toxicity assessment of sediments from three European river basins using a sediment contact test battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuikka, A.I.; Schmitt, C.; Hoess, S.; Bandow, N; von der Ohe, P.; de Zwart, D.; de Deckere, E.; Streck, G.; Mothes, S.; van Hattum, A.G.M.; Kocan, A.; Brix, R.; Brack, W.; Barcelo, D.; Sormunen, A.; Kukkonen, J.V.K.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicity of four polluted sediments and their corresponding reference sediments from three European river basins were investigated using a battery of six sediment contact tests representing three different trophic levels. The tests included were chronic tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus

  17. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  18. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Romero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone was reached on the 1st day post treatment (260.0 ± 70.1 μg/kg, 112.8 ± 28.7 μg/kg, 152.0 ± 23.6 μg/kg, respectively, decreasing to lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg on the 3rd day post treatment. Milk samples were also analyzed by microbial tests [Brilliant Black Reduction Test (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100], and only one positive result was found for Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100. However, a high occurrence of positive outcomes was obtained for BRT MRL during 6 days post treatment, whereas ABZ residues were not detected from the 4th day post administration, suggesting that factors other than the antiparasitic agent might affect the microbial test response.

  19. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael; Moya, Vicente Javier; Beltrán, María Del Carmen; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2017-04-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone) was reached on the 1 st day post treatment (260.0 ± 70.1 μg/kg, 112.8 ± 28.7 μg/kg, 152.0 ± 23.6 μg/kg, respectively), decreasing to lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) on the 3 rd day post treatment. Milk samples were also analyzed by microbial tests [Brilliant Black Reduction Test (BRT) MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100], and only one positive result was found for Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100. However, a high occurrence of positive outcomes was obtained for BRT MRL during 6 days post treatment, whereas ABZ residues were not detected from the 4 th day post administration, suggesting that factors other than the antiparasitic agent might affect the microbial test response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Evans blue stain to a 1 milliliter aliquot of algae from a control container and to a 1 milliliter...) Methods and data records of all chemical analyses of water quality and test substance concentrations...

  1. The luminescent bacteria toxicity test: its potential as an in vitro alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulich, A A; Tung, K K; Scheibner, G

    1990-01-01

    During the past several years, the use of animals for toxicity testing has come under critical surveillance. For ethical and economic reasons, various techniques have been developed and proposed as potential alternatives for some of the whole animal toxicity assays. One assay proposed as an alternative to animal testing is the luminescent bacteria toxicity test (LBT), provided under the trade name of Microtox. The sensitivity and specificity of the LBT was compared with two commonly used toxicity tests--the L-929 Minimal Eàgle's Medium (MEM) elution cytotoxicity test and the Draize test. Cytotoxicity and LBT test data from 709 medical device and biomaterial extracts were compared using a positive/negative ranking system which provided a measurement of false positive and false negative results. These data were compiled from nine separate laboratories producing or using a wide variety of biomaterials and medical device products. The LBT was more sensitive than the tissue culture assay and displayed few false negatives. LBT EC50 values were compared with eye irritancy categories for a group of 34 chemicals and 27 personal care products. As with tissue culture, the LBT was more sensitive and produced minimal false negatives. The data from this study indicate the LBT has potential as a rapid, simple method to screen biomaterials and personal care products for toxicity and irritancy.

  2. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael; Moya, Vicente Javier; Beltrán, María del Carmen; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone) was reached on th...

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL TESTS USING QUARTZITE RESIDUES AS COMPONENT OF CERAMIC MASS AT THE PORCELAIN STONEWARE PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Marcondes Mendes; Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte; da Costa, Francine Alves; Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica (UFRN)

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate through technological tests the use of quartzite residues as component at the the production of porcelain stoneware. Were collected five samples of quartzites called of green quartzite, black quartzite, pink quartzite, goldy quartzite, white quartzite. After, the raw materials were milled, passed by a sieve with a Mesh of 200# (Mesh) and characterized by chemical analysis in fluorescence of x-rays and also analysis of the crystalline phases by diffraction of x-rays....

  4. Toxicities of four anti-neoplastic drugs and their binary mixtures tested on the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezovšek, Polona; Eleršek, Tina; Filipič, Metka

    2014-04-01

    The residues of anti-neoplastic drugs are new and emerging pollutants in aquatic environments. This is not only because of their increasing use, but also because due to their mechanisms of action, they belong to a group of particularly dangerous compounds. However, information on their ecotoxicological properties is very limited. We tested the toxicities of four anti-neoplastic drugs with different mechanisms of action (5-fluorouracil [5-FU], cisplatin [CDDP], etoposide [ET], and imatinib mesylate [IM]), and some of their binary mixtures, against two phytoplankton species: the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus leopoliensis. These four drugs showed different toxic potential, and the two species examined also showed differences in their susceptibilities towards the tested drugs and their mixtures. With P. subcapitata, the most toxic of these drugs was 5-FU (EC50, 0.13 mg/L), followed by CDDP (EC50, 1.52 mg/L), IM (EC50, 2.29 mg/L), and the least toxic, ET (EC50, 30.43 mg/L). With S. leopoliensis, the most toxic was CDDP (EC50, 0.67 mg/L), followed by 5-FU (EC50, 1.20 mg/L) and IM (EC50, 5.36 mg/L), while ET was not toxic up to 351 mg/L. The toxicities of the binary mixtures tested (5-FU + CDDP, 5-FU + IM, CDDP + ET) were predicted by the concepts of 'concentration addition' and 'independent action', and are compared to the experimentally determined toxicities. The measured toxicity of 5-FU + CDDP with P. subcapitata and S. leopoliensis was higher than that predicted, while the measured toxicity of CDDP + ET with both species was lower than that predicted. The measured toxicity of 5-FU + IM with P. subcapitata was higher, and with S. leopoliensis was lower, than that predicted. These data show that these mixtures can have compound-specific and species-specific synergistic or antagonistic effects, and they suggest that single compound toxicity data are not sufficient for the prediction of the aquatic

  5. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

    2015-01-01

    ) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h...... test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged...... and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment Ag...

  6. Evaluation of natural toxicity on MICROTOX solid-phase test. The pelitic normalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onorati, F.; Pellegrini, D.; Ausili, A.

    1999-01-01

    In sediment toxicity testing Microtox solid-phase test (SPT) is one of the most used and standardised bioassay. Nevertheless, its real sensitivity and discriminatory power is still unclear, because of several interferences principally related to the matrix composition. Using reference sediments, characterised with chemical and physical analysis, it was possible to find a significant relationship between their natural toxicity and the pelitic fraction that allows to estimate the natural component of the acute toxicity in contaminated samples. This relationship arrows a more sensitive and valid interpretation than raw data and it is used to develop a sediment toxicity index (STI) based on radio to reference (RTR) concept, applicable to harbour contaminated samples [it

  7. Alternative approaches for identifying acute systemic toxicity: Moving from research to regulatory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jon; Sullivan, Kristie; Clippinger, Amy J; Strickland, Judy; Bell, Shannon; Bhhatarai, Barun; Blaauboer, Bas; Casey, Warren; Dorman, David; Forsby, Anna; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gehen, Sean; Graepel, Rabea; Hotchkiss, Jon; Lowit, Anna; Matheson, Joanna; Reaves, Elissa; Scarano, Louis; Sprankle, Catherine; Tunkel, Jay; Wilson, Dan; Xia, Menghang; Zhu, Hao; Allen, David

    2017-06-01

    Acute systemic toxicity testing provides the basis for hazard labeling and risk management of chemicals. A number of international efforts have been directed at identifying non-animal alternatives for in vivo acute systemic toxicity tests. A September 2015 workshop, Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving from Research to Regulatory Testing, reviewed the state-of-the-science of non-animal alternatives for this testing and explored ways to facilitate implementation of alternatives. Workshop attendees included representatives from international regulatory agencies, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. Resources identified as necessary for meaningful progress in implementing alternatives included compiling and making available high-quality reference data, training on use and interpretation of in vitro and in silico approaches, and global harmonization of testing requirements. Attendees particularly noted the need to characterize variability in reference data to evaluate new approaches. They also noted the importance of understanding the mechanisms of acute toxicity, which could be facilitated by the development of adverse outcome pathways. Workshop breakout groups explored different approaches to reducing or replacing animal use for acute toxicity testing, with each group crafting a roadmap and strategy to accomplish near-term progress. The workshop steering committee has organized efforts to implement the recommendations of the workshop participants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. NMSBA: Aken Technologies Final Report: Toxicity Testing of Liquidoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruffing, Anne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strickland, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of Liquidoff on bacteria, three bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli DH5α, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. E. coli DH5α is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium that is often found in normal gut flora and is commonly used the laboratory due to its fast growth rate. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and S. elongatus PCC 7942 are Gram-negative, aquatic, autophototrophic cyanobacteria. Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from ‘fish pens’ on Magueyes Island, Puerto Rico in 1962, while S. elongatus PCC 7942 is a freshwater cyanobacterium. It should be noted that no Gram-positive bacterium was tested in this study.

  9. Toxic Substances Control Act test submissions database (TSCATS) - comprehensive update. Data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act Test Submissions Database (TSCATS) was developed to make unpublished test data available to the public. The test data is submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by industry under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Test is broadly defined to include case reports, episodic incidents, such as spills, and formal test study presentations. The database allows searching of test submissions according to specific chemical identity or type of study when used with an appropriate search retrieval software program. Studies are indexed under three broad subject areas: health effects, environmental effects and environmental fate. Additional controlled vocabulary terms are assigned which describe the experimental protocol and test observations. Records identify reference information needed to locate the source document, as well as the submitting organization and reason for submission of the test data

  10. Comparison of three-stage sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching tests to evaluate metal mobility in mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margui, E.; Salvado, V.; Queralt, I.; Hidalgo, M.

    2004-01-01

    Abandoned mining sites contain residues from ore processing operations that are characterised by high concentrations of heavy metals. The form in which a metal exists strongly influences its mobility and, thus, the effects on the environment. Operational methods of speciation analysis, such as the use of sequential extraction procedures, are commonly applied. In this work, the modified three-stage sequential extraction procedure proposed by the BCR (now the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme) was applied for the fractionation of Ni, Zn, Pb and Cd in mining wastes from old Pb-Zn mining areas located in the Val d'Aran (NE Spain) and Cartagena (SE Spain). Analyses of the extracts were performed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated by using a certified reference material, BCR-701. The results of the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilised forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for Cd and Zn, particularly in the sample from Cartagena. In contrast, the largest amount of lead was associated with the iron and manganese oxide fractions. On the other hand, the applicability of lixiviation tests commonly used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from landfill disposal (US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and DIN 38414-S4) to mining wastes was also investigated and the obtained results compared with the information on metal mobility derivable from the application of the three-stage sequential extraction procedure

  11. Test of electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue in pilot scale: focus on reduced metal and salt leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    In this study a pilot plant for electrodialytic treatment of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) air pollution control (APC) residue was tested and proposed as a treatment method which can lead to reuse of this otherwise hazardous waste. The pilot plant was developed based on a design...... that is adapted from conventional electrodialysis, e.g. used in desalination of solutions. The APC residue was treated in a suspension (8 kg APC residue and 80 L tap water) and circulated through an electrodialytic (ED) stack consisting of 50 cell pairs separated by ion exchange membranes. A direct current...... was applied to the ED stack for removal of heavy metals (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) and salts (Cl, Na, SO4) from the APC residue suspension. Different tank designs for mixing the APC residue suspension were tested as well as changing experimental conditions. A part of the raw experimental APC residue...

  12. Design, simulation and test for double focusing Si monochromator of neutron residual stress diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Rui; Liu Yuntao; Wang Wei; Liu Zhongxiao; Li Junhong; Gao Jianbo; Wang Hongli; Chen Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    The double focusing Si monochromator was designed, simulated and tested for the neutron residual stress diffractometer on China Advanced Research Reactor. The optimal vertical curvature and the optimal thickness of Si wafers were obtained by SIMRES simulation program. In addition, the figure of merit in dependence on the scattering angle, monochromator horizontal curvature and wavelength was also determined by this program. The neutron beam test results indicate that the intensity of neutron increases by 15 times by using double focusing Si monochromator in comparison with Cu monochromator. (authors)

  13. Large Dataset of Acute Oral Toxicity Data Created for Testing in Silico Models (ASCCT meeting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute toxicity data is a common requirement for substance registration in the US. Currently only data derived from animal tests are accepted by regulatory agencies, and the standard in vivo tests use lethality as the endpoint. Non-animal alternatives such as in silico models are ...

  14. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  15. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  16. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  17. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Cen...

  18. Toxicity Testing of Pristine and Aged Silver Nanoparticles in Real Wastewaters Using Bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Mallevre

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Impact of aging on nanoparticle toxicity in real matrices is scarcely investigated due to a lack of suitable methodologies. Herein, the toxicity of pristine and aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs to a bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida bioreporter was measured in spiked crude and final wastewater samples (CWs and FWs, respectively collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. Results showed lower toxicity of pristine Ag NPs in CWs than in FWs. The effect of the matrix on the eventual Ag NP toxicity was related to multiple physico-chemical parameters (biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS pH, ammonia, sulfide and chloride based on a multivariate analysis. However, no collection site effect was concluded. Aged Ag NPs (up to eight weeks were found less toxic than pristine Ag NPs in CWs; evident increased aggregation and decreased dissolution were associated with aging. However, Ag NPs exhibited consistent toxicity in FWs despite aging; comparable results were obtained in artificial wastewater (AW simulating effluent. The study demonstrates the potency of performing nanoparticle acute toxicity testing in real and complex matrices such as wastewaters using relevant bacterial bioreporters.

  19. Acute marine sediment toxicity: a potential new test with the amphipod Gammarus locusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F O; Correia, A D; Costa, M H

    1998-01-01

    Although amphipod toxicity tests have been successfully used in the United States to assess coastal sediment toxicity, few tests have been developed with European species. The authors have been working with the amphipod Gammarus locusta, a widely spread species along European coastal areas that is particularly abundant in the Portuguese Sado estuary. This amphipod fulfills the most important requirements of a test species. It can be easily reproduced in laboratory and it is tolerant to a broad range of sediment types. A series of tests demonstrated its sensitivity to copper and gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane) in the sediment (LC50 = 6.8 mg Cu/dry kg, 0.9% total volatile solids; LC50 = 60.5 micrograms HCH/dry kg, 2% total volatile solids) and to some heavily contaminated field sediments. After assessment of the species sensitivity to several noncontaminant variables, an experimental protocol was designed to conduct acute sediment toxicity tests that are briefly described. Proposed is a 10-day static toxicity test at 15 degrees C and 33-34/1000 salinity, with laboratory-produced juveniles and mortality as the endpoint. General assay performance is identical to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard for sediment toxicity tests with marine and estuarine amphipods. The results previously obtained revealed a strong potential for this amphipod to be used in toxicological testing. Considering the wide geographic distribution of this species and its amenability for culturing, it may be an alternative or complementary test for ecotoxicological studies in other European coastal systems where the existing tests cannot be applied or do not offer a definitive solution.

  20. Testing of residual monomer content reduction possibility on acrilic resins quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA is material widely used in dentistry. Despite the various methods used to initiate the polymerization of acrylic resins, the conversion of monomer to polymer is not complete thus leaving some unreacted methyl methacrylate (MMA, known as residual monomer (RM, in denture structure. RM in dental acrylic resins has deleterious effects on their mechanical properties and their biocompatibility. The objective of the work was to test the residual monomer reduction possibility by applying the appropriate postpolymerization treatment as well as to determine the effects of this reduction on pressure yields stress and surface structure characteristics of the acrylic resins. Postpolymerization treatments and water storage induced reduction of RM amount in cold-polymerized acrylic resins improved their mechanical properties and the homogenized surface structure. After the polymerization of heat-polymerized acrylic resins the post-polymerization treatments for improving the quality of this material type are not necessary.

  1. Residual-oil-saturation-technology test, Bell Creek Field, Montana. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    A field test was conducted of the technology available to measure residual oil saturation following waterflood secondary oil recovery processes. The test was conducted in a new well drilled solely for that purpose, located immediately northwest of the Bell Creek Micellar Polymer Pilot. The area where the test was conducted was originally drilled during 1968, produced by primary until late 1970, and was under line drive waterflood secondary recovery until early 1976, when the area was shut in at waterflood depletion. This report presents the results of tests conducted to determine waterflood residual oil saturation in the Muddy Sandstone reservoir. The engineering techniques used to determine the magnitude and distribution of the remaining oil saturation included both pressure and sidewall cores, conventional well logs (Dual Laterolog - Micro Spherically Focused Log, Dual Induction Log - Spherically Focused Log, Borehole Compensated Sonic Log, Formation Compensated Density-Compensated Neutron Log), Carbon-Oxygen Logs, Dielectric Logs, Nuclear Magnetism Log, Thermal Decay Time Logs, and a Partitioning Tracer Test.

  2. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  3. Feeding toxicity and impact of imidacloprid formulation and mixtures with six representative pesticides at residue concentrations on honey bee physiology (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng Zhu

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate, Karate (λ-cyhalothrin, Vydate (oxamyl, Domark (tetraconazole, and Roundup (glyphosate at residue level had a mortality range of 1.3-13.3%, statistically similar to that of control (P>0.05. The additive/synergistic toxicity was not detected from binary mixtures of Advise with different classes of pesticides at residue levels. The feeding of the mixture of all seven pesticides increased mortality to 53%, significantly higher than Advise only but still without synergism. Enzymatic data showed that activities of invertase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in imidacloprid-treated survivors were mostly similar to those found in control. Esterase activity mostly increased, but was significantly suppressed by Bracket (acephate. The immunity-related phenoloxidase activity in imidacloprid-treated survivors tended to be lower, but most treatments were statistically similar to the control. Increase of cytochrome P450 activity was correlated with Advise concentrations and reached significant difference at 56 mg/L (12 ppm a.i.. Our data demonstrated that residue levels of seven pesticide in pollens/hive may not adversely affect honey bees, but long term exclusive ingestion of the maximal residue levels of imidacloprid (912 ppb and sulfoxaflor (3 ppm a.i. may induce substantial bee mortality. Rotating with other insecticides is a necessary and practical way to reduce the residue level of any given pesticide.

  4. Feeding toxicity and impact of imidacloprid formulation and mixtures with six representative pesticides at residue concentrations on honey bee physiology (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Yao, Jianxiu; Adamczyk, John; Luttrell, Randall

    2017-01-01

    Imidacloprid is the most widely used insecticide in agriculture. In this study, we used feeding methods to simulate in-hive exposures of formulated imidacloprid (Advise® 2FL) alone and mixtures with six representative pesticides for different classes. Advise, fed at 4.3 mg/L (equal to maximal residue detection of 912 ppb active ingredient [a.i.] in pollen) induced 36% mortality and 56% feeding suppression after 2-week feeding. Treatments with individual Bracket (acephate), Karate (λ-cyhalothrin), Vydate (oxamyl), Domark (tetraconazole), and Roundup (glyphosate) at residue level had a mortality range of 1.3-13.3%, statistically similar to that of control (P>0.05). The additive/synergistic toxicity was not detected from binary mixtures of Advise with different classes of pesticides at residue levels. The feeding of the mixture of all seven pesticides increased mortality to 53%, significantly higher than Advise only but still without synergism. Enzymatic data showed that activities of invertase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in imidacloprid-treated survivors were mostly similar to those found in control. Esterase activity mostly increased, but was significantly suppressed by Bracket (acephate). The immunity-related phenoloxidase activity in imidacloprid-treated survivors tended to be lower, but most treatments were statistically similar to the control. Increase of cytochrome P450 activity was correlated with Advise concentrations and reached significant difference at 56 mg/L (12 ppm a.i.). Our data demonstrated that residue levels of seven pesticide in pollens/hive may not adversely affect honey bees, but long term exclusive ingestion of the maximal residue levels of imidacloprid (912 ppb) and sulfoxaflor (3 ppm a.i.) may induce substantial bee mortality. Rotating with other insecticides is a necessary and practical way to reduce the residue level of any given pesticide.

  5. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood; Hussain, Saber M.; Rowe, John J.; Nielsen, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  6. Acute toxicity test of CuO nanoparticles using human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Luisa; Cao, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    Despite the growing interest in nanoparticles (NPs), standardized procedures for the evaluation of their toxicity have not been defined. The risk of human exposure is rapidly increasing and reliable toxicity test systems are urgently needed. In vitro methods are ideal in toxicology research because they can rapidly provide reproducible results while preventing the use of animals. Recently, a new test for acute toxicity based on the use of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) has been developed and successfully tested in our laboratory following the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods guidelines. Along these lines, the aim of this study is to evaluate the acute cytotoxicity of copper oxide (CuO) NPs using the new toxicity test based on hBMMSCs. Our results show that CuO NPs are much more toxic compared to micrometer ones. Specifically, CuO NP exposure exhibits a significant cytotoxicity at all the concentrations used, with an IC50 value of 2.5 ± 0.53 µg/ml. On the other hand, CuO microsized particle exposure exhibits a very low cytotoxicity at the same concentrations, with an IC50 value of 72.13 ± 16.2 µg/ml.

  7. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  8. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  9. 76 FR 38170 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    .... industrial oils, anti oxidant for rubbers, resins, and adhesives. Existing data for 0181; transmittal... carbon paper, and method). leather shoe coloring. Acute Toxicity to Rainbow 0174 and 0184 Trout by Zahn...

  10. Consensus report on the future of animal-free systemic toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Marcel; Hasiwa, Nina; Rovida, Costanza; Daneshian, Mardas; Basketter, David; Kimber, Ian; Clewell, Harvey; Gocht, Tilman; Goldberg, Alan; Busquet, Francois; Rossi, Anna-Maria; Schwarz, Michael; Stephens, Martin; Taalman, Rob; Knudsen, Thomas B; McKim, James; Harris, Georgina; Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since March 2013, animal use for cosmetics testing for the European market has been banned. This requires a renewed view on risk assessment in this field. However, in other fields as well, traditional animal experimentation does not always satisfy requirements in safety testing, as the need for human-relevant information is ever increasing. A general strategy for animal-free test approaches was outlined by the US National Research Council`s vision document for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in 2007. It is now possible to provide a more defined roadmap on how to implement this vision for the four principal areas of systemic toxicity evaluation: repeat dose organ toxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity and allergy induction (skin sensitization), as well as for the evaluation of toxicant metabolism (toxicokinetics) (Fig. 1). CAAT-Europe assembled experts from Europe, America and Asia to design a scientific roadmap for future risk assessment approaches and the outcome was then further discussed and refined in two consensus meetings with over 200 stakeholders. The key recommendations include: focusing on improving existing methods rather than favoring de novo design; combining hazard testing with toxicokinetics predictions; developing integrated test strategies; incorporating new high content endpoints to classical assays; evolving test validation procedures; promoting collaboration and data-sharing of different industrial sectors; integrating new disciplines, such as systems biology and high throughput screening; and involving regulators early on in the test development process. A focus on data quality, combined with increased attention to the scientific background of a test method, will be important drivers. Information from each test system should be mapped along adverse outcome pathways. Finally, quantitative information on all factors and key events will be fed into systems biology models that allow a probabilistic risk assessment with flexible

  11. Sperm toxicity testing: UK best practice guideline from the Association of Biomedical Andrologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Woodward, B; Tomlinson, M

    2018-02-09

    In order to ensure the quality and integrity of diagnostic semen analysis results, materials used should be tested to ensure that they do not interfere with sperm function. As a toxicity test, complex sperm function testing may be considered controversial, since the fertilizing capacity of single sperm can never be assured. In preference, sperm motility offers a unique means of assessing the toxicity of reagents and materials before they are used in routine practice. Motility is the semen parameter most likely to be influenced by the external environment. Indeed, it is the main reason that laboratories insist on supplying their own approved specimen containers and ensuring that patients, as far as possible, adhere to strict conditions for sample collection and transport prior to testing. This differs to other indirect tests of toxicity such as the mouse embryo assay, whereby the rate of mouse pre-implantation embryo development to the blastocyst stage is compared. This guideline is aimed at health care scientists who deal with andrology in both general pathology and specialised fertility laboratories, and provides a model approach to sperm toxicity testing. For assisted reproduction clinics, the same methodology can be used to test any consumables that are used for sperm processing, and as an indirect guide for any consumables that come into direct contact with oocytes and pre-implantation embryos.

  12. A discussion of the impact of US chemical regulation legislation on the field of toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristie; Beck, Nancy; Sandusky, Chad; Willett, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Proposals for revising the principal United States law governing industrial chemicals, the Toxic Substances Control Act, have been under consideration in the US Congress for the past several years, and some version of such legislation may be passed in the near future. Concurrently, a desire to move away from current testing methods for ethical, scientific, and practical reasons has led to multi-million dollar investments in in vitro and computational toxicology methods and programs. Legislative language has the potential to endorse this transition and facilitate its fruition, or conversely enshrine in vivo testing methods for the foreseeable future. New legislation also has the potential to substantially increase the numbers of animals used in toxicity tests in the near term. However, there are a number of policies that, used effectively, can reduce the overall number of animals used in new toxicity tests. We present recent legislative proposals in the context of current testing programs and discuss their potential impacts on animal use, test method innovation, and achievement of desired legislative objectives. Discussions like these are essential to judiciously select policies that reduce the use of animals in toxicity testing and protect human health and the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fracture Testing with Surface Crack Specimens. [especially the residual tensile strength test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recommendations are given for the design, preparation, and static fracture testing of surface crack specimens. The recommendations are preceded by background information including discussions of stress intensity factors, crack opening displacements, and fracture toughness values associated with surface crack specimens. Cyclic load and sustained load tests are discussed briefly.

  14. Quick, portable toxicity testing of marine or terrigenous fluids, sediments, or chemicals with bioluminescent organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L. [Lumitox Gulf L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A hand-held, battery-operated instrument, which measures bioluminescence inhibition of the microscopic marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula, is capable of field-testing substances for toxicity. The organism is sensitive to ppb of strong toxicants. It tolerates some solvents in concentrations necessary for testing lipophylic samples. A test consumes only micrograms of sample. This method requires no adjustments for salinity, pH, color, or turbidity. It has been used successfully to test oil-well drilling fluids, brines produced with oil, waters and sediments from streams and lakes and petroleum-plant effluents containing contaminants such as benzene. The test is non-specific; however, if the substance is known, the end-point effects a direct measurement of its concentration. One-hour toxicity screening tests in the field produce results comparable to the standard four-hour laboratory test. Keeping the sample in the dark during incubation and testing, together with shortness of the overall procedure, eliminates anomalies from light-sensitive substances. Day-to-day variation, as well as among test replicates, is less than 10%. This quick method yields results comparable with a quick test that uses Photobacterium phosphoria, and with 96-hour tests that use Mysidopsis bahia, Artemia salina, Gonyaulax polyedra, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Cyprinodon variegatus.

  15. A Lymnaea stagnalis Embryo Test for Toxicity Bioindication of Acidification and Ammonia Pollution in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mazur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study leading to a new acute toxicity test on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide were used as waterborne toxicants in laboratory experiments. The exposure time was 24 h. Tests were conducted in 5–10 replications for each toxicant. The toxicity of the substances was classified according to different scales and the test’s sensitivity was compared to that of the commonly used bioindicator Daphnia magna Straus. The assessment of toxicity impact was supported by microscopic observations. The probit method was used as a parametric statistical procedure to estimate LC50 and the associated 95% confidence interval. Our study showed that the early developmental stages of Lymnaea stagnalis are very sensitive bioindicators, making it possible to detect even very low levels of the above-mentioned water toxicants. The highest toxicity is shown by ammonium hydroxide with LC50/24h values, respectively, 24.27 for embryos and 24.72 for juvenile forms, and the lowest is shown by nitric acid ions with LC50/24h values, respectively, 105.19 for embryos and 170.47 for juvenile forms. It is highly cost-effective due to simple and efficient breeding and the small size of the organisms in the bioassay population. Compared with Daphnia magna, relatively low concentrations of toxicants caused a lethal effect on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail. Owing to their common occurrence and sensitivity, early developmental forms of Lymnaea stagnalis can be a valuable new tool in biomonitoring of the freshwater environment.

  16. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzic, Nihad; Begagic, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlovic, Muhamed

    2014-08-27

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow's milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level - MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  17. Toxicity evaluation with the microtox® test to assess the impact of in situ oiled shoreline treatment options: natural attenuation and sediment relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Wohlgeschaffen, Gary; Tremblay, Gilles H.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Sergy, Gary A.; Prince, Roger C.; Guenette, Chantal C.; Owens, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the toxicity levels of beach sediment, nearshore water, and bottom sediment samples were monitored with the Microtox® Test to evaluate the two in situ oil spill treatment options of natural attenuation (natural recovery––no treatment) and sediment relocation (surf washing). During a series of field trials, IF-30 fuel oil was intentionally sprayed onto the surface of three mixed sediment (pebble and sand) beaches on the island of Spitsbergen, Svalbard, Norway (78°56′ N, 16°45′ E). At a low wave-energy site (Site 1 with a 3-km wind fetch), where oil was stranded within the zone of normal wave action, residual oil concentrations and beach sediment toxicity levels were significantly reduced by both options in less than five days. At Site 3, a higher wave-energy site with a 40-km wind fetch, oil was intentionally stranded on the beach face in the upper intertidal/supratidal zones, above the level of normal wave activity. At this site under these experimental conditions, sediment relocation was effective in accelerating the removal of the oil from the sediments and reducing the Microtox® Test toxicity response to background levels. In the untreated (natural attenuation) plot at this site, the fraction of residual oil remaining within the beach sediments after one year (70%) continued to generate a toxic response. Chemical and toxicological analyses of nearshore sediment and sediment-trap samples at both sites confirmed that oil and suspended mineral fines were effectively dispersed into the surrounding environment by the in situ treatments. In terms of secondary potential detrimental effects from the release of stranded oil from the beaches, the toxicity level (Microtox® Test) of adjacent nearshore sediment samples did not exceed the Canadian regulatory limit for dredged spoils destined for ocean disposal.

  18. Toxicity testing of marine, terrestrial, solid, liquid, clear, and turbid samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L. [Lumitox Gulf L.C., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A novel, patented toxicity testing procedure that compares the light generated by the naturally bioluminescent marine dinoflagellate alga, Pyrocystis lunula, in the presence of toxins, to light from a non-toxic control, is sensitive in parts per billion to all substances considered toxic to which it has been subjected: chemical warfare agents, metals, detergents, pesticides, herbicides, anticancer drugs, oil-well drilling fluids and produced waters, marine antifouling paints, and others. Preparation and testing time is less than eight hours. Variability is 10% or less. Solids and turbid or darkly colored samples can be tested without correction. Small sample substrates (10 to 50{mu}l) in the buffered 3ml test medium do not significantly affect pH or salinity, which permits testing of marine or terrestrial samples without special preparation. Also, the organism is insensitive to selected solvents for lipophyllic test substances. EC{sub 50} of sodium lauryl (dodecyl) sulphate is 3.7 ppm, and correlation with the Mysid LC{sub 50} EPA 30,000 ppm toxicity limit is 63% light inhibition.

  19. Evaluation of bleached kraft mill process water using Microtox(R), Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Menidia beryllina toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, D P; Beckham, N; Fournie, J W; Deardorff, T L

    1997-05-01

    To determine whether a 7- to 10-d embryo toxicity/teratogenicity test with the inland silverside fish, Menidia beryllina, is a sensitive indicator for evaluation of bleached kraft mill effluents, we compared this test with the Microtox(R) 15-min acute toxicity test and the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-d chronic toxicity test. Water samples used in each test were collected from three areas in a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill using a 100% chlorine dioxide bleaching process: 1) river water prior to use in the mill; 2) the combined acid/base waste stream from the pulping process prior to biological treatment in the aerated stabilization basin (ASB); and 3) the effluent from the ASB with a retention time of approximately 11 d. Relative toxicity determined by the three tests for each water sampling location was compared. All three toxicity tests were predictive indicators of toxicity; however, the C. dubia and M. beryllina tests were the more similar and sensitive indicators of toxicity. Process water (ASB influent) prior to biological treatment in the ASB was toxic at all concentrations using the Microtox(R) and C. dubia tests. The fish embryo test showed no toxicity at 1% concentrations, slight toxicity at 10%, and acute toxicity at the 100% ASB influent concentration. Tests with biologically-treated ASB effluent indicated a substantial reduction in observed toxicity to Microtox(R) bacteria, C. dubia, and M. beryllina. No toxic responses were observed in any test at a 1% ASB effluent concentration which was the approximate effluent concentration in the receiving river following mixing. No relationship was found among any toxicological response and effluent levels of adsorbable organic halides, polychlorinated phenolic compounds, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, total suspended solids, color, chemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon.

  20. Assessing contaminant sensitivity of endangered and threatened aquatic species: Part III. Effluent toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Hardesty, D.K.; Henke, C.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Whites, D.W.; Augspurger, T.; Canfield, T.J.; Mount, D.R.; Mayer, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity tests using standard effluent test procedures described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were conducted with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and seven threatened and endangered (listed) fish species from four families: (1) Acipenseridae: shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum); (2) Catostomidae; razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus); (3) Cyprinidae: bonytail chub (Gila elegans), Cape Fear shiner (Notropis mekistocholas) Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius), and spotfin chub (Cyprinella monacha); and (4) Poecillidae: Gila topminnow (Poeciliopsis occidentalis). We conducted 7-day survival and growth studies with embryo-larval fathead minnows and analogous exposures using the listed species. Survival and reproduction were also determined with C. dubia. Tests were conducted with carbaryl, ammonia-or a simulated effluent complex mixture of carbaryl, copper, 4-nonylphenol, pentachlorophenol and permethrin at equitoxic proportions. In addition, Cape Fear shiners and spotfin chub were tested using diazinon, copper, and chlorine. Toxicity tests were also conducted with field-collected effluents from domestic or industrial facilities. Bonytail chub and razorback suckers were tested with effluents collected in Arizona whereas effluent samples collected from North Carolina were tested with Cape Fear shiner, spotfin chub, and shortnose sturgeon. The fathead minnow 7-day effluent test was often a reliable estimator of toxic effects to the listed fishes. However, in 21 % of the tests, a listed species was more sensitive than fathead minnows. More sensitive species results varied by test so that usually no species was always more or less sensitive than fathead minnows. Only the Gila topminnow was consistently less sensitive than the fathead minnow. Listed fish species were protected 96% of the time when results for both fathead minnows and C. dubia were considered, thus reinforcing the value of standard whole

  1. Review of the use of Ceramium tenuicorne growth inhibition test for testing toxicity of substances, effluents, products sediment and soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Britta

    2017-08-01

    A growth inhibition test has been developed based on two clones of the red macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, one originating from 7 PSU and the other from 20 PSU. The species can be adapted to different salinities and the test can be carried out between 4 and 32 PSU. This test became an ISO standard in 2010 (ISO 107 10) for testing of chemicals and water effluents. In this study new and published data has been compiled on toxicity of single substances, waste waters from pulp mills, leachates from antifouling paints, harbour sediments and soil used for maintenance of leisure boats. The results show that the alga is sensitive to both metals and organic compounds and to biocides used in antifouling paints. By testing leachates from antifouling paints these could be ranked according to their toxicity. Similarly, the toxicity of waste waters from pulp mills was determined and the efficiency of secondary treatment evaluated. Further, the test method proved useful to test the toxicity in sediment samples. Sediments from small town harbours and ship lanes were shown to be harmful and compounds originating from antifouling paints were responsible for a large part of the inhibiting effect. The alga proved to be sensitive to contaminants leaking from boat yard soil. The growth inhibition test is a robust test that has high repeatability and reproducibility and easily can be applied on water, soil and sediment samples without being too costly. The species is found worl-wide in temperate waters, which makes the results relevant for large areas. In the Baltic Sea C. tenuicorne is the most common red alga species and is thus particularly relevant for this area. The overall results show that contaminants from boat activities and the use of antifouling paints in particular pose a threat to the environment.

  2. Toxicity of Aqueous Fullerene nC60 to Activated Sludge: Nitrification Inhibition and Microtox Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongkui Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing production and use of fullerene nanomaterials raised their exposure potential to the activated sludge during biological wastewater treatment process. In this study, the toxicity of aqueous nanoscaled C60 (nC60 to activated sludge was investigated using nitrification inhibition and Microtox test. The test solutions of nC60 were prepared using two methods: long stirring (Stir/nC60 and toluene exchange (Tol/nC60. The nC60 aggregation in test medium was also evaluated for toxicity assessment. The results showed that the nC60 aggregation behaved differently in two test mediums during the incubation periods. The nC60 toxicity was greatly influenced by the preparation method. Stir/nC60 presented no significant toxicity to both the nitrification sludge and bioluminescent bacteria at the maximum concentration studied. In contrast, the EC20 of Tol/nC60 was obtained to be 4.89 mg/L (3 h for the nitrification inhibition and 3.44 mg/L (30 min for Microtox test, respectively.

  3. A survey of the Maralinga atomic weapons testing range for residual plutonium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.R.

    1979-06-01

    Residual plutonium levels in soil, flora, fauna and the air of the Maralinga (South Australia) Atomic Weapons Testing Range are presented and discussed. It is shown that only on rare occasions (and possibly never) would the plutonium concentration in air from wind resuspended dust exceed the maximum allowable concentration for continuous exposure of the general public. In the case of artificially resuspended dust, this maximum concentration could be exceeded for short periods, but the accompanying dust level would be such that working conditions would be uncomfortable, if not intolerable. Potential hazards from other possible exposure routes are so low that they are of no consequence

  4. GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST FOR THE ACCELERATED FAILURE TIME MODEL BASED ON MARTINGALE RESIDUALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 40-59 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 261315/2011 Keywords : accelerated failure time model * survival analysis * goodness-of-fit Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/novak-goodness-of-fit test for the aft model based on martingale residuals.pdf

  5. TECHNOLOGICAL TESTS USING QUARTZITE RESIDUES AS COMPONENT OF CERAMIC MASS AT THE PORCELAIN STONEWARE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcondes Mendes Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate through technological tests the use of quartzite residues as component at the the production of porcelain stoneware. Were collected five samples of quartzites called of green quartzite, black quartzite, pink quartzite, goldy quartzite, white quartzite. After, the raw materials were milled, passed by a sieve with a Mesh of 200# (Mesh and characterized by chemical analysis in fluorescence of x-rays and also analysis of the crystalline phases by diffraction of x-rays. The porcelain tiles mass is composed of five formulations containing 57% of feldspar, 37% of clay and 6% of residues of quartzite with different coloration. For the preparation of the specimens, it was used uniaxial pressing, which afterwards were synthesized at 1150°C, 1200°C and 1250°C. After the sintering, the specimens were submit for tests of technological characterization like: water absorption, linear shrinkage, apparently porosity, density and flexural strain at three points. The results presented in the fluorescence of x-rays showed a high-content of iron oxide on black quartzite that is why it was discarded the utilization of it in porcelain stoneware. All quartzite formulations had low water absorption achieved when synthesized at 1200°C, getting 0.1 to 0.36% without having gone through the atomization process. At the tests of flexural strain, all the quartzite had in acceptance limits, according to the European norm EN 100, overcoming 27 MPA at 1200°C

  6. Determination of Leacheability of U, Th and Heavy Metals of Water Leached Purification (WLP) Residue and Soil from Bauxite Mining Area using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aminah Omar; Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to analyse the leachability of U, Th and heavy metals Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Mn, Zn, Ba, Se, Cr and Fe of water leached purification (WLP) residue gathered from Lynas Malaysia Sdn Bhd and soil from bauxite mining area, Kuantan. Their toxicity was assessed using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The concentration of the elements studied was analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from the analysis indicated that the concentrations for all the elements studied in this project are well below than the TCLP regulatory limit. The concentrations of U and Th in leached solution were between 0.01 - 0.20 Bq/ kg. The concentrations of the multi elements were mostly between 0.02 - 1471 μg/ l, but certain elements such as Fe had concentration as high as 4707 μg/ l. Hence, it can be concluded that the WLP residue from Lynas and soil from bauxite mining area are very stable in the environment and does not pose any environmental problem. (author)

  7. Acute Toxicity of Fresh and Aged Residues of Pesticides to the Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata and to the HLB-Bacteria Vector Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, V H; Alves, G R; Moral, R A; Demétrio, C G B; Yamamoto, P T

    2017-12-08

    One method for controlling the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the putative causal agent of Huanglongbing, uses the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). However, the general intensive use of insecticides has reduced the numbers of this parasitoid. This study evaluated the effect of the residual action of 24 insecticides on T. radiata and also determined the differential toxicity of insecticides to D. citri and T. radiata, using three bioassays. In the first, when adults of the parasitoid were exposed to residues of the 24 insecticides, ten were considered short-life (class 1), six slightly persistent (class 2), five moderately persistent (class 3), and three insecticides were considered persistent (class 4), under the IOBC/WPRS classification system. The second bioassay evaluated the sublethal concentrations of the persistent insecticides (formetanate, dimethoate, spinosad). Increasing the concentrations of the insecticides increased the number that were classified as persistent. In the third bioassay, evaluation of the differential toxicity of eight insecticides to the ACP and the parasitoid showed that chlorpyrifos and bifenthrin were more harmful to T. radiata. Therefore, these two insecticides are not recommended for application at the time of parasitoid release. Cypermethrin, imidacloprid, and dimethoate caused higher mortality of D. citri and are most often recommended in IPM programs. The choice of an insecticide for the control of citrus pests must be made with care, aiming to preserve the natural enemies in the ecosystem, and thereby contribute to the success of biological control.

  8. Larvicidal activity of ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils and blends of their constituents against mosquito, Aedes aegypti , acute toxicity on water flea, Daphnia magna , and aqueous residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Hye-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-06-13

    This study evaluated the larvicidal activity of 20 plant essential oils and components from ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ) and Peru balsam ( Myroxylon pereira ) oils against the mosquito, Aedes aegypti . Of the 20 plant essential oils, ajowan and Peru balsam oils at 0.1 mg/mL exhibited 100 and 97.5% larval mortality, respectively. At this same concentration, the individual constituents, (+)-camphene, benzoic acid, thymol, carvacrol, benzyl benzonate, and benzyl trans-cinnamate, caused 100% mortality. The toxicity of blends of constituents identified in two active oils indicated that thymol and benzyl benzoate were major contributors to the larvicidal activity of the artificial blend. This study also tested the acute toxicity of these two active oils and their major constituents against the water flea, Daphnia magna . Peru balsam oil and benzyl trans-cinnamate were the most toxic to D. magna. Two days after the treatment, residues of ajowan and Peru balsalm oils in water were 36.2 and 85.1%, respectively. Less than 50% of benzyl trans-cinnamate and thymol were detected in the water at 2 days after treatment. The results show that the essential oils of ajowan and Peru balsam and some of their constituents have potential as botanical insecticides against Ae. aegypti mosquito larvae.

  9. PAH toxicity at aqueous solubility in the fish embryo test with Danio rerio using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Best, Nina; Fernqvist, Margit Møller

    2014-01-01

    As part of the risk assessment process within REACh, prior to manufacturing and distribution of chemical substances their (eco)toxicological impacts have to be investigated. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish Danio rerio has gained a high significance as an in vitro alternative...

  10. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Mode of Action Frameworks in Toxicity Testing and Chemical Risk Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, legislative mandates worldwide are requiring systematic consideration of much larger numbers of chemicals. This necessitates more efficient and effective toxicity testing, as a basis to be more predictive in a risk assessment context. This in turn requires much more emphasis early in the

  12. ISSUES IN DEVELOPING A TWO-GENERATION AVIAN TOXICITY TEST WITH JAPANESE QUAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a subgroup of the OECD Expert Group on Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Effects in Birds, we reviewed unresolved methodological issures important for the development of a two-generation toxicity test, discussed advantages and disadvantages of alternative approaches, and prop...

  13. Developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds in a zebrafish embryotoxicity test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jomaa, B.; Hermsen, S.A.B.; Kessels, M.Y.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Peijenburg, A.C.M.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Piersma, A.H.; Rietjens, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to concentration ranges of selected thyroid-active model compounds in order to assess the applicability of zebrafish-based developmental scoring systems within an alternative testing strategy to detect the developmental toxicity of thyroid-active compounds. Model

  14. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicit...

  15. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing: Perspectives from a global workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940’s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that ...

  16. Effect of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether in Standard Tests for Mutagenicity and Environmental Toxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vosáhlíková, M.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Demnerová, K.; Pazlarová, Jarmila

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2006), s. 599-605 ISSN 1520-4081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : toxicity * mtbe * ames test Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2006

  17. A high throughput passive dosing format for the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergauwen, Lucia; Nørgaard Schmidt, Stine; Stinckens, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    High throughput testing according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity (FET) test (OECD Testing Guideline 236) is usually conducted in well plates. In the case of hydrophobic test substances, sorptive and evaporative losses often result in declining and poorly controlled exposure conditions. Therefore......, our objective was to improve exposure conditions in FET tests by evaluating a passive dosing format using silicone O-rings in standard 24-well polystyrene plates. We exposed zebrafish embryos to a series of phenanthrene concentrations until 120 h post fertilization (hpf), and obtained a linear...

  18. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  19. 78 FR 66700 - Toxic Substances Control Act Chemical Testing; Receipt of Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ...] [4-(phenylimino)- antifouling paint agents; n-Octanol/Water Partition 0441 2,5-cyclohexadien-1.... polymerization inhibitor Ready Biodegradation; for styrene; in industry Acute Toxicity to product finishes... Melting Point, Boiling coatings; flame-proofing Point, Vapor Pressure, and cross-linking agent and Water...

  20. Stress Free Temperature Testing and Residual Stress Calculations on Out-of-Autoclave Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah; Tate, LaNetra C.; Danley, Susan; Sampson, Jeff; Taylor, Brian; Miller, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Future launch vehicles will require the incorporation large composite parts that will make up primary and secondary components of the vehicle. NASA has explored the feasibility of manufacturing these large components using Out-of-Autoclave impregnated carbon fiber composite systems through many composites development projects. Most recently, the Composites for Exploration Project has been looking at the development of a 10 meter diameter fairing structure, similar in size to what will be required for a heavy launch vehicle. The development of new material systems requires the investigation of the material properties and the stress in the parts. Residual stress is an important factor to incorporate when modeling the stresses that a part is undergoing. Testing was performed to verify the stress free temperature with two-ply asymmetric panels. A comparison was done between three newly developed out of autoclave IM7 /Bismalieimide (BMI) systems. This paper presents the testing results and the analysis performed to determine the residual stress of the materials.

  1. A comparison of equilibrium partitioning and critical body residue approaches for predicting toxicity of sediment-associated fluoranthene to freshwater amphipods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, S.K. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Limnology and Ecosystem Research; Landrum, P.F. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory predicts that the effects of organic compounds in sediments can be assessed by comparison of organic carbon-normalized sediment concentrations and estimated pore-water concentrations to effects determined in water-only exposures. A complementary approach, the critical body residue (CBR) theory, examines actual body burdens in relation to toxic effects. Critical body residue theory predicts that the narcotic effects of nonpolar compounds should be essentially constant for similar organisms, and narcosis should be observed at body burdens of 2 to 8 {micro}mol/g tissue. This study compares these two approaches for predicting toxicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fluoranthene. The freshwater amphipods Hyalella azteca and Diporeia spp. were exposed for up to 30 d to sediment spiked with radiolabeled fluoranthene at concentrations of 0.1 (trace) to 3.940 nmol/g dry weight (= 346 {micro}mol/g organic carbon). Mean survival of Diporeia was generally high (>70%) and not significantly different from that of control animals. This result agrees with EqP predictions, because little mortality was observed for Diporeia in 10-d water-only exposures to fluoranthene in previous studies. After 10-d exposures, mortality of H. azteca was not significantly different from that of controls, even though measured interstitial water concentrations exceeded the previously determined 10-d water-only median lethal concentration (LC50). Equilibrium partitioning overpredicted fluoranthene sediment toxicity in this species. More mortality was observed for H. azteca at later time points, and a 16-d LC50 of 3.550 nmol/g dry weight sediment (291 {micro}mol/g organic carbon) was determined. A body burden of 1.10 {micro}mol fluoranthene-equivalents/g wet weight in H. azteca was associated with 50% mortality after 16-d exposures. Body burdens as high as 5.9 {micro}mol/g wet weight resulted in little mortality in Diporeia.

  2. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  3. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue From Cleanroom Wipers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from wipers used in assembly, cleaning, or testing of spacecraft, but not from those used for analytical surface sampling of hardware. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from cleanroom wipers using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extractive qualities. Alternative solvents may be selected, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Isolation and toxicity test of Bacillus thuringiensis from Sekayu region soil, South Sumatra on Spodopteralitura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriani, S. R.; Pujiastuti, Y.; Irsan, C.; Damiri, N.; Nugraha, S.; Sembiring, E. R.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain bacterial isolates B. thuringiensis potential as a biological control against pests Spodoptera litura. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Pest and Disease Department, Agricultural Faculty of Sriwijaya University, Campus Inderalaya Ogan Ilir, South Sumatera, from March to June 2017. The study was conducted with survey method and laboratory trial. The results showed that of the 50 soil samples from three villages selected through morphological observation, reaction staining, KOH test, catalase test, producing 13 bacterial isolates. Screening of the 13th toxicity of the isolates suspected B. thuringiensis against S. litura larvae was investigated. Based on the toxicity screening test the following facts were obtained: five isolates ie KJ2M2, KJ3E1, KJ3JB1, KJ3D3 and KJ3D5 were lower toxicity than Dipel, two isolates ie KJ3K4 and KJ3D3 which had the same toxicity to Dipel. Five isolates the KJ3E3, KJ3BW5, KJ3JB5, KJ3D1 and LC2, LC3 known to have effectiveness until the seventh day reached 40%. There was one isolate that is KJ3BW5 which was more effective compared to Dipel as comparison.

  5. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, E.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Rabeni, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition at the start of a test. We evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl2, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl2 (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  6. Residual radioactivity guidelines for the heavy water components test reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B. Smith, R.; McNeil, J.

    1997-04-01

    Guidelines were developed for acceptable levels of residual radioactivity in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility at the conclusion of its decommissioning. Using source terms developed from data generated in a detailed characterization study, the RESRAD and RASRAD-BUILD computer codes were used to calculate derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for the radionuclides that will remain in the facility. The calculated DCGLs, when compared to existing concentrations of radionuclides measured during a 1996 characterization program, indicate that no decontamination of concrete surfaces will be necessary. Also, based on the results of the calculations, activated concrete in the reactor biological shield does not have to be removed, and imbedded radioactive piping in the facility can remain in place. Viewed in another way, the results of the calculations showed that the present inventory of residual radioactivity in the facility (not including that associated with the reactor vessel and steam generators) would produce less than one millirem per year above background to a hypothetical individual on the property. The residual radioactivity is estimated to be approximately 0.04 percent of the total inventory in the facility as of March, 1997. According to the results, the only radionuclides that would produce greater than 0.0.1-millirem per year are Am-241 (0.013 mrem/yr at 300 years), C-14 (0.022 mrem/yr at 1000 years) and U-238 (0.034 mrem/yr at 6000 years). Human exposure would occur only through the groundwater pathways, that is, from water drawn from, a well on the property. The maximum exposure would be approximately one percent of the 4 millirem per year ground water exposure limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 11 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Leachates draining from controlled municipal solid waste landfill: Detailed geochemical characterization and toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavakala, Bienvenu K; Le Faucheur, Séverine; Mulaji, Crispin K; Laffite, Amandine; Devarajan, Naresh; Biey, Emmanuel M; Giuliani, Gregory; Otamonga, Jean-Paul; Kabatusuila, Prosper; Mpiana, Pius T; Poté, John

    2016-09-01

    Management of municipal solid wastes in many countries consists of waste disposal into landfill without treatment or selective collection of solid waste fractions including plastics, paper, glass, metals, electronic waste, and organic fraction leading to the unsolved problem of contamination of numerous ecosystems such as air, soil, surface, and ground water. Knowledge of leachate composition is critical in risk assessment of long-term impact of landfills on human health and the environment as well as for prevention of negative outcomes. The research presented in this paper investigates the seasonal variation of draining leachate composition and resulting toxicity as well as the contamination status of soil/sediment from lagoon basins receiving leachates from landfill in Mpasa, a suburb of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Samples were collected during the dry and rainy seasons and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, soluble ions, toxic metals, and were then subjected to toxicity tests. Results highlight the significant seasonal difference in leachate physicochemical composition. Affected soil/sediment showed higher values for toxic metals than leachates, indicating the possibility of using lagoon system for the purification of landfill leachates, especially for organic matter and heavy metal sedimentation. However, the ecotoxicity tests demonstrated that leachates are still a significant source of toxicity for terrestrial and benthic organisms. Therefore, landfill leachates should not be discarded into the environment (soil or surface water) without prior treatment. Interest in the use of macrophytes in lagoon system is growing and toxic metal retention in lagoon basin receiving systems needs to be fully investigated in the future. This study presents useful tools for evaluating landfill leachate quality and risk in lagoon systems which can be applied to similar environmental compartments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  9. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  10. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    NPs with a nominal size of 30 nm, the resulting dose-response relationships from tests without (A) and with (B) the pre-suspension step are illustrated in figure 1. Without the pre-suspension step, poorly reproducible results were obtained and it was not possible to produce comparable EC50 values from the three test......In recent years, the ecotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been studied intensively due to their high toxicity and extensive use in consumer products. However, the field of aquatic nanotoxicology is generally challenged by poor reproducibility, lack of dose-response relationships...... runs. Introduction of the presuspension step resulted in a higher degree of reproducibility and in more comparable EC50 values, indicating better control of the processes affecting AgNPs during the 2h testing. Moreover, the algal toxicity of AgNPs increased when extending the pre-suspension step period...

  11. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for baseline toxicity and specific modes of action as a tool to improve interpretation of ecotoxicity testing of environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Bramaz, Nadine; Mueller, Jochen F; Quayle, Pamela; Rutishauser, Sibylle; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M

    2008-05-01

    The toxic equivalency concept is a widely applied method to express the toxicity of complex mixtures of compounds that act via receptor-mediated mechanisms such as induction of the arylhydrocarbon or estrogen receptors. Here we propose to extend this concept to baseline toxicity, using the bioluminescence inhibition test with Vibrio fischeri, and an integrative ecotoxicity endpoint, algal growth rate inhibition. Both bioassays were validated by comparison with literature data and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for baseline toxicity were developed for all endpoints. The novel combined algae test, with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, allows for the simultaneous evaluation of specific inhibition of photosynthesis and growth rate. The contributions of specific inhibition of photosynthesis and non-specific toxicity could be differentiated by comparing the time and endpoint pattern. Photosynthesis efficiency, measured with the saturation pulse method after 2 h of incubation, served as indicator of specific inhibition of photosynthesis by photosystem II inhibitors. Diuron equivalents were defined as toxicity equivalents for this effect. The endpoint of growth rate over 24 h served to derive baseline toxicity equivalent concentrations (baseline-TEQ). By performing binary mixture experiments with reference compounds and complex environmental samples from a sewage treatment plant and a river, the TEQ concept was validated. The proposed method allows for easier interpretation and communication of effect-based water quality monitoring data and provides a basis for comparative analysis with chemical analytical monitoring.

  12. Influence of potentially confounding factors on sea urchin porewater toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Nipper, M.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of potentially confounding factors has been identified as a concern for interpreting sea urchin porewater toxicity test data. The results from >40 sediment-quality assessment surveys using early-life stages of the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were compiled and examined to determine acceptable ranges of natural variables such as pH, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon on the fertilization and embryological development endpoints. In addition, laboratory experiments were also conducted with A. punctulata and compared with information from the literature. Pore water with pH as low as 6.9 is an unlikely contributor to toxicity for the fertilization and embryological development tests with A. punctulata. Other species of sea urchin have narrower pH tolerance ranges. Ammonia is rarely a contributing factor in pore water toxicity tests using the fertilization endpoint, but the embryological development endpoint may be influenced by ammonia concentrations commonly found in porewater samples. Therefore, ammonia needs to be considered when interpreting results for the embryological development test. Humic acid does not affect sea urchin fertilization at saturation concentrations, but it could have an effect on the embryological development endpoint at near-saturation concentrations. There was no correlation between sediment total organic carbon concentrations and porewater dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Because of the potential for many varying substances to activate parthenogenesis in sea urchin eggs, it is recommended that a no-sperm control be included with every fertilization test treatment. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  13. Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus in situ toxicity tests assessing the wastewater treatment efficacy of constructed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barjaktarovic, L. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Nix, P. [EVS Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Gulley, J.

    1995-12-31

    In situ toxicity tests were designed for Ceriodaphnia dubia and Chironomus tentans as part of a larger study designed to assess the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater produced by oil production at Suncor OSG. The artificial wetlands were 50m long by 3m wide, with three replicates of the control and the treatment. Each wetland had four sample sites equidistant along its length, creating a gradient of treatment from site A being the most toxic to site D being the least toxic. Each test was conducted twice during the summer of 1994. Both the Ceriodaphnia and Chironomus test cages were a flow through design to allow for maximal exposure to the water within the wetlands. Mortality and reproduction were used as endpoints for Ceriodaphnia, whereas mortality and growth were used as endpoints for the Chironomus test. Test durations were fifteen and ten days respectively. Chironomus had very high mortality along the entire wetlands whereas Ceriodaphnia survival and fecundity increased along the length of the treatment wetlands. Both organisms had low mortality and high growth/fecundity in the control wetlands.

  14. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. PMID:29329313

  15. Development of a field testing protocol for identifying Deepwater Horizon oil spill residues trapped near Gulf of Mexico beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident, one of the largest oil spills in U.S. history, contaminated several beaches located along the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) shoreline. The residues from the spill still continue to be deposited on some of these beaches. Methods to track and monitor the fate of these residues require approaches that can differentiate the DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues. This is because, historically, the crude oil released from sources such as natural seeps and anthropogenic discharges have also deposited other types of petroleum residues on GOM beaches. Therefore, identifying the origin of these residues is critical for developing effective management strategies for monitoring the long-term environmental impacts of the DWH oil spill. Advanced fingerprinting methods that are currently used for identifying the source of oil spill residues require detailed laboratory studies, which can be cost-prohibitive. Also, most agencies typically use untrained workers or volunteers to conduct shoreline monitoring surveys and these worker will not have access to advanced laboratory facilities. Furthermore, it is impractical to routinely fingerprint large volumes of samples that are collected after a major oil spill event, such as the DWH spill. In this study, we propose a simple field testing protocol that can identify DWH oil spill residues based on their unique physical characteristics. The robustness of the method is demonstrated by testing a variety of oil spill samples, and the results are verified by characterizing the samples using advanced chemical fingerprinting methods. The verification data show that the method yields results that are consistent with the results derived from advanced fingerprinting methods. The proposed protocol is a reliable, cost-effective, practical field approach for differentiating DWH residues from other types of petroleum residues.

  16. Computational systems biology and dose-response modeling in relation to new directions in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Andersen, Melvin E; Conolly, Rory B

    2010-02-01

    The new paradigm envisioned for toxicity testing in the 21st century advocates shifting from the current animal-based testing process to a combination of in vitro cell-based studies, high-throughput techniques, and in silico modeling. A strategic component of the vision is the adoption of the systems biology approach to acquire, analyze, and interpret toxicity pathway data. As key toxicity pathways are identified and their wiring details elucidated using traditional and high-throughput techniques, there is a pressing need to understand their qualitative and quantitative behaviors in response to perturbation by both physiological signals and exogenous stressors. The complexity of these molecular networks makes the task of understanding cellular responses merely by human intuition challenging, if not impossible. This process can be aided by mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the networks and their dynamic behaviors. A number of theoretical frameworks were developed in the last century for understanding dynamical systems in science and engineering disciplines. These frameworks, which include metabolic control analysis, biochemical systems theory, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory, can greatly facilitate the process of organizing, analyzing, and understanding toxicity pathways. Such analysis will require a comprehensive examination of the dynamic properties of "network motifs"--the basic building blocks of molecular circuits. Network motifs like feedback and feedforward loops appear repeatedly in various molecular circuits across cell types and enable vital cellular functions like homeostasis, all-or-none response, memory, and biological rhythm. These functional motifs and associated qualitative and quantitative properties are the predominant source of nonlinearities observed in cellular dose response data. Complex response behaviors can arise from toxicity pathways built upon combinations of network motifs. While the field of computational cell

  17. Residual-strength tests of L-1011 vertical fin components after 10 and 20 years of simulated flight service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, O. F.

    1984-01-01

    Part of the NASA/ACEE Program was to determine the effect of long-term durability testing on the residual strength of graphite-epoxy cover panel and spar components of the Lockheed L-1011 aircraft vertical stabilizer. The results of these residual strength tests are presented herein. The structural behavior and failure mode of both cover panel and spar components were addressed, and the test results obtained were compared with the static test results generated by Lockheed. The effect of damage on one of the spar specimens was described.

  18. Toxicity Testing of Restorative Dental Materials Using Brine Shrimp Larvae (Artemia salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar M. Milhem

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of extracts of different composites, glass ionomer cement (GICs and compomers on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. Ethanolic extracts of four dental composites (Z-100; Solitaire 2; Filtek P60 and Synergy, a conventional GIC (Ketac-Fil, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, two compomers (F2000; Dyract AP, and a flowable compomer (Dyract Flow were prepared from each material. Following evaporation of the ethanol, the extracts were resuspended in distilled water, which was then used to test the effects on the viability of brine shrimp larvae. For the composites, the extract of Synergy was the least toxic (88% viability followed by the extracts of Solitaire 2, Z100 and P60 (75%, 67.5% and 50% viability, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the resin composite materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the composite groups by Tukey's pairwise multiple-comparison test (α =0.05 showed that the extract of Synergy was significantly less toxic than the extracts of all the other materials except that of Solitaire 2. The compomers showed 100% lethality, while the percentage of viable larvae for the extracts of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer were 32.3%, and 37.0%, respectively. One-way ANOVA revealed highly significant differences between the groups of materials (p<0.001. Follow-up comparison between the groups by Tukey's test (α = 0.05 showed that the toxic effect of the extracts of the compomers were significantly greater than that of Ketac-Fil, and Vitremer. The differences in the toxic effects of Vitremer and Ketac-Fil were not statistically significant. In conclusion, the toxicity of composite materials varied according to their chemical composition. Compomers were the most lethal materials to brine shrimp larvae followed by GICs and then composites.

  19. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  1. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  2. A microfluidic gradient maker for toxicity testing of bupivacaine and lidocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirella, Annalisa; Marano, Mauro; Vozzi, Federico; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2008-12-01

    A great deal of effort is being dedicated to the development of new devices able to conduct effective in vitro toxicology analyses. This paper describes the use of a microfluidic gradient maker for the toxicological analysis of two conventional local anesthetics, bupivacaine and lidocaine on cell cultures. The microfluidic device was designed and simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics and the concentration gradient in the microfluidic network was analysed through a fluidodynamic and diffusive study. Subsequently the device was fabricated with soft lithography, casting PDMS in a master to obtain channels about 250 microm deep. Both drugs were tested on C2C12 myoblasts and an analysis was performed using propidium iodide staining followed by an imaging processing routine to obtain quantitative dose-response profiles in the gradient maker. The system was critically compared with microwell-based toxicity testing. The results show that the GM is a more sensitive method for detection of cell toxicity, and compared with testing of drug toxicity using microwells with individual cell cultures, allows one shot testing with a single cell culture exposed to a large number of concentrations. However, the flow rates required to obtain a suitable concentration range across the device may damage shear sensitive cells.

  3. Modified whole effluent toxicity test to assess and decouple wastewater effects from environmental gradients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Sauco

    Full Text Available Environmental gradients and wastewater discharges produce aggregated effects on marine populations, obscuring the detection of human impact. Classical assessment methods do not include environmental effects in toxicity tests designs, which could lead to incorrect conclusions. We proposed a modified Whole Effluent Toxicity test (mWET that includes environmental gradients in addition to effluent dilutions, together with the application of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM to assess and decouple those effects. We tested this approach, analyzing the lethal effects of wastewater on a marine sandy beach bivalve affected by an artificial canal freshwater discharge used for rice crops irrigation. To this end, we compared bivalve mortality between canal water dilutions (CWd and salinity controls (SC: without canal water. CWd were prepared by diluting the water effluent (sampled during the pesticide application period with artificial marine water. The salinity gradient was included in the design by achieving the same final salinities in both CWd and SC, allowing us to account for the effects of salinity by including this variable as a random factor in the GLMM. Our approach detected significantly higher mortalities in CWd, indicating potential toxic effects of the effluent discharge. mWET represents an improvement over the internationally standardized WET tests, since it considers environmental variability and uses appropriate statistical analyses.

  4. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow's milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihad Fejzic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis.  Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx, Rosa Charm β Lactam test and Inhibition MRL test. Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb. In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR. Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues.

  5. Evaluation of a methodology for toxicity testing of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons on marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Birch, Gavin; Warne, Michael St J; Krassoi, Rick

    2009-06-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of sealed containers for toxicity testing to prevent loss of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCHs) with a range of Australian marine organisms including: micro-algae; sea urchin and oyster larvae in 44 mL sealed vials and fish larvae; amphipods; and juvenile polychaetes in 1 L sealed jars. Vials prevented volatilisation of VCHs during testing. Jars were less effective, with average losses of 46%. Growth and development of algae, sea urchins and oysters in vials was acceptable, indicating suitability of the methodology. Jars were suitable for amphipods and polychaetes; however, further evaluation of the fish test is required.

  6. Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates : summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. Waynon; Finley, Mack T.

    1980-01-01

    Acute toxicity is a major subject of research at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory for evaluating the impact of toxic chemicals on fishery resources. The Laboratory has played a leading role in developing research technology for toxicity testing and data interpretation. In 1965-78, more than 400 chemicals were tested against a variety of invertebrates and fish species representative of both cold- and warm-water climates.The use of acute toxicity tests for assessing the potential hazard of chemical contaminants to aquatic organisms is well documented (Boyd 1957; Henderson et al. 1960; Sanders and Cope 1966; Macek and McAllister 1970). Static acute toxicity tests provide rapid and (within limits) reproducible concentration-response curves for estimating toxic effects of chemicals on aquatic organisms. These tests provide a database for determining relative toxicity of a large number of chemicals to a variety of species and for estimating acute effects of chemical spills on natural aquatic systems; they also assist in determining priority and design of additional toxicity studies.Acute toxicity tests usually provide estimates of the exposure concentration causing 50% mortality (LC50) to test organisms during a specified period of time. For certain invertebrates, the effective concentration is based on immobilization, or some other identifiable endpoint, rather than on lethality. The application of the LC50 has gained acceptance among toxicologists and is generally the most highly rated test for assessing potential adverse effects of chemical contaminants to aquatic life (Brungs and Mount 1978; American Institute for Biological Sciences 1978a).The literature contains numerous papers dealing with the acute toxicity of chemicals to freshwater organisms. However, there is a tremendous need for a concise compendium of toxicity data covering a large variety of chemicals and test species. This Handbook is a compilation of a large volume of acute toxicity data

  7. RESIDUAL RESOURCE STUDY OF DEFECTIVE RAILS FOR TYPE P 50 CYCLE TEST OF ENDURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Yosyfovych

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is devoted to the study and evaluation of residual life for defective rails P50 operated on the roads of the Kyiv subway, which are taken out of service because of defects 11.1-2 on the side of the rolling surface of the rail head. Methodology. The studies were performed with the use of experimental methods: testing of samples of defective rails in the cyclical strength of the pulse machine and testing of defective rails in the static load limit on the hydraulic vertical press. Findings. The performed experiments indicate that on the tests basis in 2 million cycles is only a small development (increase in size 0.5-0.7 mm of existing code defects 11.2 as a result of shedding the particles of crumble out metal on the side of the rails head of working prototypes. The intensity and the catastrophic development of defects, such as 11.2, or transformation of these defects in defects such as 21.2 or 30G.2 did not happen in any case. Originality. For the first time in Ukraine with the theoretical calculations substantiated the greater possibility of defects formation of contact fatigue origin in the form of spall and jag of metal on the surface of the rail, at the edge of the head. It is the result of the creation of a high degree of stress nonequilibrium compression in this area, due to the high values of principal normal stresses and appearance of large shear stresses in the body of the head at a depth of 2.5-3.5 mm, exceeding the yield strength and metal endurance. The tests of experimental prototypes of defective rails on high cycle endurance (based № = 2,1h10 cycles with periodic defectoscopic control were conducted. Practical value. In experiments, the new data of the resistance ability to spall rail defects on the surface of the head of rolling on the code 11.1-2 long-term cyclic loading equal to operational magnitude at the wheel load test of 2 million cycles was obtained. That is, the defective rails can have residual life

  8. Use of adverse outcome pathways in chemical toxicity testing: potential advantages and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseong Jeong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Amid revolutionary changes in toxicity assessment brought about by increasing regulation of chemicals, adverse outcome pathways (AOPs have emerged as a useful framework to assess adverse effect of chemicals using molecular level effect, which aid in setting environmental regulation policies. AOPs are biological maps that describe mechanisms linking molecular initiating event to adverse outcomes (AOs at an individual level. Each AOP consists of a molecular initiating event, key events, and an AO. AOPs use molecular markers to predict endpoints currently used in risk assessment, promote alternatives to animal model-based test methods, and provide scientific explanations for the effects of chemical exposures. Moreover, AOPs enhance certainty in interpreting existing and new information. The application of AOPs in chemical toxicity testing will help shift the existing paradigm of chemical management based on apical endpoints toward active application of in silico and in vitro data.

  9. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36 degrees C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components

  10. Full-thickness human skin explants for testing the toxicity of topically applied chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M.; Rikimaru, T.; Yano, T.; Moore, K.G.; Pula, P.J.; Schofield, B.H.; Dannenberg, A.M. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a model organ-culture system for testing the toxicity of chemical substances that are topically applied to human skin. In this system, the viable keratinocytes in the full-thickness skin explants are protected by the same keratinized layer as skin remaining on the donor, and toxicity can be assessed microscopically and/or biochemically. The human skin specimens were discards from a variety of surgical procedures. They were cut into full-thickness 1.0-cm2 explants, and briefly exposed to the military vesicant sulfur mustard (SM), which was used as a model toxicant. The explants were then organ cultured in small Petri dishes for 24 h at 36 degrees C. In the 0.03-1.0% dosage range, a straight-line dose-response relationship occurred between the concentration of SM applied and the number of paranuclear vacuoles seen histologically in the epidermis. Within the same SM dosage range, there was also a proportional decrease in 14C-leucine incorporation by the explants. Thus, the number of paranuclear vacuoles reflected decreases in protein synthesis by the injured epidermal cells. The epidermis of full-thickness untreated (control) human skin explants usually remained viable for 7 d when stored at 4 degrees C in culture medium. During storage, a relatively small number of paranuclear vacuoles developed within the epidermis, but the explants were still quite satisfactory for testing SM toxicity. Incubation (for 4 or 24 h at 36{degrees}C) of such control skin explants reduced (often by 50%) the small number of paranuclear vacuoles produced during 4-7 d of storage. This reduction was probably caused by autolysis of many of the vacuolated cells. Two types of paranuclear vacuoles could be identified by both light and electron microscopy: a storage type and a toxicant type. The storage type seemed to be caused by autolysis of cell components.

  11. Development of an international harmonization scheme for salt water fish toxicity tests

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E.; Amavis, R.; Cabridenc, R.; Gilliard, C.; Schubert, R.

    1984-01-01

    The proceeding deterioration of the marine environment demonstrates the need and the urgency to take appropriate measures. To obtain significant results all the practical efforts made so far must be sustained by national and international conventions and wherever necessary even by more strict regulations. One of the major objectives of the administrative and scientific authorities involved is to establish an harmonized scheme for toxicity testing on marine organisms under controlled laborator...

  12. Acute toxicity test of ethanol extract of djenkols (Archidendron pauciflorum fruit peel against female Wistar rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADIHAH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Madihah, Ratningsih N, Malini DM, Faiza AH, Iskandar J. 2017. Acute toxicity test of ethanol extract of djenkols (Archidendron pauciflorum fruit peel against female Wistar rat. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 33-38. Ethanol extract of djenkol (Archidendron pauciflorum (Benth. I. C. Nielsen fruit peel at a dose 150 mg/kg BW has been shown to decrease blood glucose level in hyperglycemic rats. The next preclinical step in the development of djenkol as antidiabetic herbal medicine is acute toxicity test. The purposes of this study were to obtain the lethal dose 50 (LD50 of ethanol extract djenkol fruit peel and to observe the histopathology of rat liver as the result of the toxicity. Acute toxicity test method was adapted from OECD 423:2001 guideline and the limit dose was 5000 mg/kg bb. The animals (female Wistar, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 were orally administered a single dose of the extract at 5500, 6900, 8200, 9100, 12900, and 17500 mg/kg BW. Symptoms of toxicity, weight change, and mortality were noted for 14 days, whereas liver histopathology was observing at the end of test periods. The result showed that ethanol extract of djengkol fruit peel treatment up to dose 9100 mg/kg BW did not cause symptoms of toxicity and weight loss. Probit analysis of the mortality estimated that the LD50 was 15.382,412 mg/kg BW, thus categorized as a practically nontoxic substance. Lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL was detected at dose 5.500 mg/kg BW, which caused mild damage to liver tissue, in the form of necrosis of hepatocytes and widening of central vein diameter, but the arrangement of hepatocytes and sinusoids were normal. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of ethanol extract of djenkol fruit peel under dose 5500 mg/kg BW was safe to be used, so it can be developed as standardized herbal medicine for anti-diabetes.

  13. Evaluation of the toxicity of Araribá (Centrolobium tomentosum using brine Shrimp test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carlos de Sá Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the dawn of medicine, man has used natural products for the treatment of disease. There has been a recent increase in studies of the therapeutic characteristics plants in popular use in many places of the world. In this context, the species Centrolobium tomentosum, Fabaceae, known popularly as Araribá or Araruva, is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an astringent for wound treatment and bruises due to the large amount of tannins contained in the bark. This work used toxicity tests to assess the biological activity of ethanolic extracts from C. tomentosum with the specific objectives of obtaining concentrated extracts from the bark and wood of this species and determining the total phenols and tannins present in these extracts. We collected araribá samples in order to obtain ethanolic extracts through the percolation process. We then made a qualitative chemical identification of hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins. We used the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the phenols quantification and the casein precipitation method for the tannins determination. The toxicity of extracts was evaluated using the brine shrimp bioassay (Artemia salina, in which the C. tomentosum bark extract showed moderate toxicity, with estimated LC50 = 416 μg.ml-1, whereas the leaves and wood extracts of this species showed low toxicity with LC50 = 537 μg.ml-1 and 826 μg.ml-1, respectively.

  14. Implications for toxicity tests with amphipod Gammarus aequicauda: effects of temperature and salinity on life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prato, E; Biandolino, F; Scardicchio, C

    2008-12-01

    This study explored the effect of temperature and salinity on the life cycle of Gammarus aequicauda in order to establish temperature and salinity ranges advantageous for chronic toxicity testing. A broad range of salinity-temperature conditions (salinities of 10, 20 and 36 per thousand, and temperatures of 10, 18 and 24 degrees C combined in nine different treatments) significantly influenced various reproductive aspects of G. aequicauda reared in the laboratory, from newly released juveniles to first brood production by mature adults. There was a significant linear regression between the brood size and the body size of the female. The number of juveniles released per female was highest at 10 degrees C and lowest at 24 degrees C. The temperature and salinity variations had a significant effect on the fecundity of G. aequicauda. A high temperature led to a faster individual growth and a quicker sexual development than a lower temperature. A temperature acceptable for chronic toxicity tests can be 18 degrees C, at which an acceleration of the life cycle without a lowering of the amphipod's performance was observed. Regarding salinity, results from this study showed that salinities down to 36 per thousand may also be used in sediment toxicity tests with G. aequicauda, so providing a proper and gradual acclimation.

  15. RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS H-14 (VCRC B17 IN SOME TYPES OF BREEDING PLACES OF AEDES AEGYPTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamun Salamun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis H-14, adalah agensia mikrobial yang sangat spesifik terhadap serangga sasaran, aman terhadap golongan mamalia, dan tidak mencemari lingkungan, sehingga dapat dikembangkan sebagai agensia untuk pengendalian vektor, khususnya vektor demam berdarah dengue di Indonesia. Toksisitas residual B. thuringiensis H-14 (VCRC B17 terhadap larva instar III Aedes aegypti pada beberapa tipe tempat penampung air telah dievaluasi di dalam laboratorium. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa angka kematian larva uji lebih dari 80% oleh pengaruh B. thuringiensis H-14 (VCRC B17 pada konsentrasi antara 1 sampai 25 mg/l di dalam tipe tempat penampung air dari semen, tanah liat, dan plastik masing-masing adalah 16 sampai 60 hari, 18 sampai 36 hari, dan 12 sampai 42 hari.

  16. Evaluation of the toxic effect of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A (BPA) in the acute and chronic toxicity tests with Pomacea lineata gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, André Lucas Correa; Soares, Priscila Rafaela Leão; da Silva, Stephannie Caroline Barros Lucas; da Silva, Marília Cordeiro Galvão; Santos, Thamiris Pinheiro; Cadena, Marilia Ribeiro Sales; Soares, Pierre Castro; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plasticizer and a risk when it interacts with organisms, and can cause changes in the development and reproduction of them. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of BPA, by acute and chronic toxicity tests with neonates and adults of Pomacea lineata. Adults and neonates were divided into groups exposed to BPA (1-20mg/L), or 17β-estradiol (1mg/L) and control in the acute and chronic toxicity tests. Behavior, heart rate, reproduction and hemolymph biochemical analysis were measured. In the acute toxicity test, the 96-h LC 50 with adults was 11.09 and with neonates was 3.14mg/L. In this test, it was observed lethargic behavior and an increase of 77.6% of aspartate aminotransferase in the adults' hemolymph (ptest, it was observed behaviors associated with reproduction, as Copulate, in the groups exposed to BPA. The results that were found in this study proved that BPA is a potentially toxic agent to Pomacea lineata according to biological parameters evaluated. These data contribute to the understanding of BPA toxic effects' in the aquatic invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Co-gasification of sewage sludge and woody biomass in a fixed-bed downdraft gasifier: toxicity assessment of solid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Le; Maneerung, Thawatchai; Ng, Jingwen Charmaine; Neoh, Koon Gee; Bay, Boon Huat; Tong, Yen Wah; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2015-02-01

    As the demand for fossil fuels and biofuels increases, the volume of ash generated will correspondingly increase. Even though ash disposal is now strictly regulated in many countries, the increasing volume of ash puts pressure on landfill sites with regard to cost, capacity and maintenance. In addition, the probability of environmental pollution from leakage of bottom ash leachate also increases. The main aim of this research is to investigate the toxicity of bottom ash, which is an unavoidable solid residue arising from biomass gasification, on human cells in vitro. Two human cell lines i.e. HepG2 (liver cell) and MRC-5 (lung fibroblast) were used to study the toxicity of the bottom ash as the toxins in the bottom ash may enter blood circulation by drinking the contaminated water or eating the food grown in bottom ash-contaminated water/soil and the toxic compounds may be carried all over the human body including to important organs such as lung, liver, kidney, and heart. It was found that the bottom ash extract has a high basicity (pH = 9.8-12.2) and a high ionic strength, due to the presence of alkali and alkaline earth metals e.g. K, Na, Ca and Mg. Moreover, it also contains concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Zn, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Mo) and non-toxic organic compounds. Although human beings require these trace elements, excessive levels can be damaging to the body. From the analyses of cell viability (using MTS assay) and morphology (using fluorescence microscope), the high toxicity of the gasification bottom ash extract could be related to effects of high ionic strength, heavy metals or a combination of these two effects. Therefore, our results suggest that the improper disposal of the bottom ash wastes arising from gasification can create potential risks to human health and, thus, it has become a matter of urgency to find alternative options for the disposal of bottom ash wastes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative analysis and reduction of the eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals for the fine fraction of automobile shredder residue (ASR) using H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Chang, Yoon-Young

    2016-02-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) fraction (size <0.25mm) can be considered as hazardous due to presence of high concentrations of heavy metals. Hydrogen peroxide combined with nitric acid has been used for the recovery of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd and Cr) from the fine fraction of ASR. A sequential extraction procedure has also been used to determine the heavy metal speciation in the fine fraction of ASR before and after treatment. A risk analysis of the fine fraction of ASR before and after treatment was conducted to assess the bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals. These results showed that the recovery of heavy metals from ASR increased with an increase in the hydrogen peroxide concentration. A high concentration of heavy metals was found to be present in Cbio fractions (the sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions) in the fine fraction of ASR, indicating high toxicity risk. The Cbio rate of all selected heavy metals was found to range from 8.6% to 33.4% of the total metal content in the fine fraction of ASR. After treatment, Cbio was reduced to 0.3-3.3% of total metal upon a treatment with 2.0% hydrogen peroxide. On the basis of the risk assessment code (RAC), the environmental risk values for heavy metals in the fine fraction of ASR reflect high risk/medium risk. However, after treatment, the heavy metals would be categorized as low risk/no risk. The present study concludes that hydrogen peroxide combined with nitric acid is a promising treatment for the recovery and reduction of the eco-toxicity risk of heavy metals in ASR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicidade residual de alguns agrotóxicos recomendado na agricultura sobre Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae Residual toxicity of some pesticides recommended for citrus orchards on the predaceous mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor (Acari: phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Zatti da Silva

    2007-04-01

    ão necessários para se compreender melhor o efeito desses agrotóxicos sobre o ácaro predador.This study was carried out to evaluate the residual toxicity of some pesticides used in citrus orchards, on Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor under laboratory conditions. The residual contact bioassay method was adopted. Citrus leaves of the variety "Pêra" were sprayed in a Potter tower. The products' residual toxicity was evaluated at two hours and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 days after treatment. Ten adult females of N. californicus were transferred to each arena together with an enough amount of Tetranychus urticae to feed the predator. Mortality evaluations were performed at 72 hours after transferring the predaceous mites to the arenas. The pesticides acrinathrin, deltamethrin, dinocap, sulphur, fenpropathrin, fenbutatin oxide and propargite did not cause significant mortalities to the adults of N. californicus. Abamectim, azocyclotin and cyhexatin caused mortalities of 29.8, 24.0 and 34.1%, respectively, for N. californicus adults exposed to two-hour pesticide residues. Dicofol, pyridaben and chlorfenapyr caused 100% of mortality to the predators exposed to the two-hour acaricide residues. Abamectin provoked significant mortalities for a period shorter than one day. Residues of azocyclotin, cyhexatin, dicofol, pyridaben and chlorfenapyr caused significant mortalities for periods of 1, 1, 10, 10 and 21 days, respectively. The results of this study provided basic information for choosing the adequate pesticides to be used in citrus orchards in which N. californicus is present, or in those the predator will be released. The results are also useful for the decision of the best releasing time for N. californicus in the field, after pesticide applications. Studies carried out in the field are still necessary to understand better the effect of these pesticides under the predaceous mite.

  20. Rapid toxicity assessment of sediments from estuarine ecosystems: A new tandem in vitro testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B.T. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States); Long, E.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, Seattle, WA (United States). Coastal Monitoring and Bioeffects Assessment Div.

    1998-06-01

    Microtox{reg_sign} and Mutatox{reg_sign} were used to evaluate the acute toxicity and genotoxicity, respectively, of organic sediment extracts from Pensacola Bay and St. Andrew Bay, two estuaries that cover about 273 and 127 km{sup 2}, respectively, along the Gulf coast of Florida, USA. The sensitivity and selectivity of these two bioluminescent toxicity assays were demonstrated in validation studies with over 50 pesticides, genotoxins, and industrial pollutants, both as single compounds and in complex mixtures. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of insecticides, petroleum products, and polychlorinated biphenyls determined by Microtox all tended to group around the mean EC50 value of 1.2 (0.8) mg/L. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sensitivity of Mutatox was in general similar to that reported in the Ames test. Surficial sediment samples were collected, extracted with dichloromethane, evaporated and concentrated under nitrogen, dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide, assayed for acute toxicity and genotoxicity, and compared with reference sediments. Samples with low EC50 values, and determined to be genotoxic, were detected in Massalina Bayou, Watson Bayou, East Bay, and St. Andrew Bay-East in St. Andrew Bay as well as Bayou Grande, Bayou Chico, and Bayou Texas in Pensacola Bay. An overview of these data sets analyzed by Spearman rank correlation showed a significant correlation between acute toxicity and genotoxicity. Microtox and Mutatox in tandem was a sensitive, cost-effective, and rapid screening tool that identified troublesome areas of pollution and assessed the potential sediment toxicity of lipophilic contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    on effects of potential endocrine disrupters on crustacean development and reproduction have been published since the beginning of the nineties. However, most crustacean toxicity test protocols routinely used so far have not been designed with endocrine-specific endpoints in mind. The main objectives...... of effective concentrations (ECx). After having demonstrated that larval development of A. tonsa was a very sensitive endpoint for evaluating effects of chemicals that might interfere with the endocrine system of crustaceans, the larval development test has been applied to two groups of emerging environmental...

  2. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne

    2008-01-01

    Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms....... Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long...

  3. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of solvent extractable nonvolatile residue (NVR) from gloves used in cleanrooms where spacecraft are assembled, cleaned, or tested. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which can be extracted from gloves using a specified solvent that has been selected for its extracting qualities, or because it is representative of solvents used in the particular facility. Alternative solvents may be used, but since their use may result in different values being generated, they must be identified in the procedure data sheet. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1998-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  5. [Isoproterenol stress test for the evaluation of the residual stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Fukuda, T; Kashima, I; Sato, M; Miura, M; Ueda, H; Yoshiba, S

    2001-07-01

    Hemodynamic changes of the right side of the heart during isoproterenol stress test were assessed and analyzed in 36 patients who underwent definitive repair of tetralogy of Fallot or double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis. Patients having atresia of the pulmonary artery were excluded from the study. 24 of the patients had previously undergone reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) with preserving the pulmonary valvar annulus (group N), whilst the remaining 12 patients had undergone transannular enlargement of RVOT with a patch (group T). Preservation of the pulmonary valvar annulus was determined when the intra-operative measurement of diameter of the pulmonary valvar annulus showed values greater than 90% of normal. In both groups, the isoproterenol infusion increased the right to left ventricular peak pressure (RVP/LVP) ratio, pressure gradient between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery (RV-mPAP), and pressure gradient between the main pulmonary artery and peripheral pulmonary artery (m-pPAP). These values were significantly higher than those measured at rest. When comparisons were made between groups, RV-mPAP of group N was significantly higher than that of group T, both at rest and during stress test. By contrast, m-pPAP of group T was significantly higher than that of group N, both at rest and during stress test. Although no significant difference was found between the groups in RVP/LVP at rest and during stress test, RVP/LVP of both groups increased to the level of more than 0.6 after the isoproterenol infusion. These results led us to conclude that preservation of the pulmonary valvar annulus was better to be applied only to the patients who fulfilled our criterions. Additionally, in the setting of patch reconstruction of the pulmonary artery, every effort should be made so as not to leave the residual stenosis of the peripheral pulmonary artery.

  6. The role of in vitro methods as alternatives to animals in toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María Aranzazu; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that animal testing should be reduced, refined or replaced as far as it is practicably possible. There are also a wide variety of in vitro models, which are used as screening studies and mechanistic investigations. The ability of an in vitro assay to be reliable, biomedically, is essential in pharmaceutical development. Furthermore, it is necessary that cells used in in vitro testing mimic the phenotype of cells within the human target tissue. The focus of this review article is to identify the key points of in vitro assays. In doing so, the authors take into account the chemical agents that are assessed and the integrated in vitro testing strategies. There is a transfer of toxicological data from primary in vivo animal studies to in vitro assays. The key element for designing an integrated in vitro testing strategy is summarized as follows: exposure modeling of chemical agents for in vitro testing; data gathering, sharing and read-across for testing a class of chemical; a battery of tests to assemble a broad spectrum of data on different mechanisms of action to predict toxic effects; and applicability of the test and the integrated in vitro testing strategies and flexibility to adjust the integrated in vitro testing strategies to test substance. While these methods will be invaluable if effective, more studies must be done to ensure reliability and suitability of these tests for humans.

  7. Structure-activity relationships for chloro- and nitrophenol toxicity in the pollen tube growth test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueuermann, G. [UFZ Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Ecotoxicology; Somashekar, R.K. [Bangalore Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kristen, U. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Botanik

    1996-10-01

    Acute toxicity of 10 chlorophenols and 10 nitrophenols with identical substitution patterns is analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG) test. Concentration values of 50% growth inhibition (IC50) between 0.1 and 300 mg/L indicate that the absolute sensitivity of this alternative biotest is comparable to conventional aquatic test systems. Analysis of quantitative structure-activity relationships using lipophilicity (log K{sub ow}), acidity (pK{sub a}), and quantum chemical parameters to model intrinsic acidity, solvation interactions, and nucleophilicity reveals substantial differences between the intraseries trends of log IC50. With chlorophenols, a narcotic-type relationship is derived, which, however, shows marked differences in slope and intercept when compared to reference regression equations for polar narcosis. Regression analysis of nitrophenol toxicity suggests interpretation in terms of two modes of action: oxidative uncoupling activity is associated with a pK{sub a} window from 3.8 to 8.5, and more acidic congeners with diortho-substitution show a transition from uncoupling to a narcotic mode of action with decreasing pK{sub a} and log K{sub ow}. Model calculations for phenol nucleophilicity suggest that differences in the phenol readiness for glucuronic acid conjugation as a major phase-II detoxication pathway have no direct influence on acute PTG toxicity of the compounds.

  8. Comparative rice seed toxicity tests using filter paper, growth pouch-tm, and seed tray methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W.

    1993-01-01

    Paper substrate, especially circular filter paper placed inside a Petri dish, has long been used for the plant seed toxicity test (PSTT). Although this method is simple and inexpensive, recent evidence indicates that it gives results that are significantly different from those obtained using a method that does not involve paper, especially when testing metal cations. The study compared PSTT using three methods: filter paper, Growth Pouch-TM, and seed tray. The Growth Pouch-TM is a commercially available device. The seed tray is a newly designed plastic receptacle placed inside a Petri dish. The results of the Growth Pouch-TM method showed no toxic effects on rice for Ag up to 40 mg L-1 and Cd up to 20 mg L-1. Using the seed tray method, IC50 (50% inhibitory effect concentration) values were 0.55 and 1.4 mg L-1 for Ag and Cd, respectively. Although results of filter paper and seed tray methods were nearly identical for NaF, Cr(VI), and phenol, the toxicities of cations Ag and Cd were reduced by using the filter paper method; IC50 values were 22 and 18 mg L-1, respectively. The results clearly indicate that paper substrate is not advisable for PSTT.

  9. A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pomeren, Marinda; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Brun, Nadja R; Vijver, Martina G

    2017-11-06

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (eco)toxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.

  10. Acute toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Daphnia magna under different test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thit, Amalie; Huggins, Krista; Selck, Henriette

    2017-01-01

    suspensions changed in a way similar to what is known for dissolved Cu: first in ISO standard test conditions (pH 7.8), second with slight acidity (pH 6.5), third in the presence of citric acid, and fourth in the presence of humic acid. For all four exposure conditions, the toxicity of Cu employed...... in the three forms followed the same sequence, i.e., CuSO4 > monodispersed 6 nm CuO ≫ poly-dispersed CuO. The toxicity of all Cu forms decreased from pH 6.5, ≫ pH 7.8, > pH 7.8 + citric acid, to ≫ pH 7.8 + humic acid. This pattern is in agreement with concentrations of Cu2+ calculated using the equilibrium...

  11. Pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals toxicity assessments in evaluating unpasteurized raw milk quality through biochemical tests collected from dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the hygienic quality by determining the presence of predominant pathogenic microbial contaminants (contagious or environmental and indiscriminate heavy metals contained in unpasteurized milk samples collected from cattle specie of cow. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected in October, 2014 from different regions of District Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan and cultured on the selective media plates according to the manufacturer instructions to observe pathogenic microbial flora and confirm it with relevant biochemical tests to specify bacterial specie. Results: Milk samples analyzed on MacConkey and nutrient agar media were found contaminated mostly with coliform, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus vulgaris. Similarly, result of the heavy metals analysis performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer flame photometry showed that raw milk contains heavy metals residues of lead and cadmium contents at higher levels while copper, zinc and chromium were observed lower than permissible limits whereas manganese within specified recommended values. Conclusions: Microbial contamination of milk and toxic metals is mainly accredited to the scrupulous unhygienic measures during processing of milk exhibiting a wide array of hazardous impacts on human health.

  12. Refinement, Reduction, and Replacement of Animal Toxicity Tests by Computational Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kevin A

    2016-12-01

    Widespread public and scientific interest in promoting the care and well-being of animals used for toxicity testing has given rise to improvements in animal welfare practices and views over time, as well as laws and regulations that support means to reduce, refine, and replace animal use (known as the 3Rs) in certain toxicity studies. One way these regulations continue to achieve their aim is by promoting the research, development, and application of alternative testing approaches to characterize potential toxicities either without animals or with minimal use. An important example of an alternative approach is the use of computational toxicology models. Along with the potential capacity to reduce or replace the use of animals for the assessment of particular toxicological endpoints, computational models offer several advantages compared to in vitro and in vivo approaches, including cost-effectiveness, rapid availability of results, and the ability to fully standardize procedures. Pharmaceutical research incorporating the use of computational models has increased steadily over the past 15 years, likely driven by the motivation of companies to screen out toxic compounds in the early stages of development. Models are currently available to aid in the prediction of several important toxicological endpoints, including mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, eye irritation, hepatotoxicity, and skin sensitization, albeit with varying degrees of success. This review serves to introduce the concepts of computational toxicology and evaluate their role in the safety assessment of compounds, while also highlighting the application of in silico methods in the support of the goal and vision of the 3Rs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of Complex Toxicity of Canbon Nanotubes and Sodium Pentachlorophenol Based on Earthworm Coelomocytes Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    Full Text Available As a standard testing organism in soil ecosystems, the earthworm Eisenia fetida has been used widely in toxicity studies. However, tests at the individual level are time- and animal-consuming, with limited sensitivity. Earthworm coelomocytes are important for the assimilation and elimination of exogenous compounds and play a key role in the processes of phagocytosis and inflammation. In this study, we explored an optimal condition to culture coelomocytes of E. fetida in vitro and investigated the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and sodium pentachlorophenol (PCP-Na using coelomocytes via evaluating lethal toxicity, oxidative stress, membrane damage, and DNA damage. The results showed that coelomocytes can be successfully cultured in vitro in primary under the RPMI-1640 medium with 2-4×104 cells/well (1-2×105 cells/mL in 96-well plates at 25°C without CO2. Both MWCNTs and PCP-Na could cause oxidative damage and produce ROS, an evidence for lipid peroxidation with MDA generation and SOD and CAT activity inhibition at high stress. The two chemicals could separately damage the cell membrane structure, increasing permeability and inhibiting mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. In addition, our results indicate that PCP-Na may be adsorbed onto MWCNTs and its toxicity on earthworm was accordingly alleviated, while a synergetic effect was revealed when PCP-Na and MWCNTs were added separately. In summary, coelomocyte toxicity in in vitro analysis is a sensitive method for detecting the adverse effects of carbon nanotubes combined with various pollutants.

  14. Development and validation of OECD test guidelines on mollusc reproductive toxicity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Holbech, Henrik; hutchinson, tom

    Validated guidelines in line with the OECD Conceptual Framework for the Testing and Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDTA) have been developed for rodents, amphibians, fish, aquatic insects and crustaceans. Only aquatic arthropods have been considered in this test battery although...... Framework. The guideline project is led by a consortium of experts (Germany/United- Kingdom/France/Denmark) from academia, industry and government stakeholders. To date, expert knowledge has been gathered and formed the basis of draft standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the culture and test...

  15. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  16. Comparison of four microbiological inhibition tests for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gondová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study compares two existing microbiological inhibition tests, Screening Test for Antibiotic Residues (STAR and Premi®Test with two recently introduced tests, Nouws Antibiotic Test (NAT and Total Antibiotics for the screening of antimicrobial residues in the tissues of food-producing animals. In the negative or positive sample classification based on inhibition of the growth of test strain sensitive to many antibiotics and sulphonamides, out of 142 samples obtained from slaughterhouses and retail operations, 39 samples yielded a positive result in one or more tests: 4 samples in four tests, 14 samples in three tests, 13 samples in two tests, and 8 samples in one test. As for the numbers of observed positive samples, the descending sequence of tests was: STAR, Total Antibiotics, Premi®Test, NAT. The growth inhibition was observed in three out of seven test strains, namely Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341, and Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis. Considering the test strains sensitivity and no inhibition on the Bacillus pumilus NCIMB 10822 NAT test plates, our preliminary conclusion is that the animal samples are suspected for the presence of tetracycline, macrolide, and b-lactam antibiotics.

  17. Development of a suitable test method for evaluating the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.L. [Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Scroggins, R. [Environment Canada, Gloucester, Ontario (Canada). Method Development and Application Section

    1995-12-31

    Environment Canada has embarked on a five year program to develop, standardize, and validate a battery of soil toxicity tests which can be used to assess the relative toxicity of contaminants in soils to terrestrial organisms. These tests must be applicable to soil conditions typically found in Canadian environments and the test species must be representative of the species of soil invertebrates or plants inhabiting soil ecosystems in Canada. One of the toxicity tests being developed is designed to assess the toxicity of contaminated soils to earthworms. Five of the potential test species belong to the Lumbricidae family and include the Canadian worm (Allobophora calignosa/Aporrectodea tuberculate), the European bark worm (Dendrodtilus rubidus (rubida)), the pink soil worm (Eisenia rosea), the red marsh worm (Lumbricus rubellus), and the Canadian night crawler or dew worm (Lumbricus terrestris). The sixth species, the white pot worm (Enchytraeus albidus), belongs to the Enchytraeidae family. Further assessment reduced the number of representative species to three. Most earthworm test methods have been developed to assess the toxicity of chemically-spiked artificial soils to Eisenia fetida or E. andrei. Test methods have also been developed to assess the relative toxicity of contaminated soils from hazardous waste sites. Comparative acute toxicity data for three species of earthworm exposed to a hydrocarbon contamination will be presented. Comparative toxicity data for the same three species of earthworm will also be presented using test procedures and conditions that have been modified to accommodate biological differences among the species of earthworm. Recommendations regarding test design, methods, and conditions optimal for each test species will be summarized and discussed with respect to the precision of test results.

  18. Testing WHAM-FTOX with laboratory toxicity data for mixtures of metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Ag, Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, Edward; Lofts, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The Windermere humic aqueous model using the toxicity function (WHAM-FTOX ) describes cation toxicity to aquatic organisms in terms of 1) accumulation by the organism of metabolically active protons and metals at reversible binding sites, and 2) differing toxic potencies of the bound cations. Cation accumulation (νi , in mol g(-1) ) is estimated through calculations with the WHAM chemical speciation model by assuming that organism binding sites can be represented by those of humic acid. Toxicity coefficients (αi ) are combined with νi to obtain the variable FTOX (= Σ αi νi ) which, between lower and upper thresholds (FTOX,LT , FTOX,UT ), is linearly related to toxic effect. Values of αi , FTOX,LT , and FTOX,LT are obtained by fitting toxicity data. Reasonable fits (72% of variance in toxic effect explained overall) were obtained for 4 large metal mixture acute toxicity experiments involving daphnids (Cu, Zn, Cd), lettuce (Cu, Zn, Ag), and trout (Zn, Cd, Pb). Strong nonadditive effects, most apparent in results for tests involving Cd, could be explained approximately by purely chemical competition for metal accumulation. Tentative interpretation of parameter values obtained from these and other experimental data suggests the following order of bound cation toxicity: H < Al < (Cu Zn Pb UO2 ) < (Cd Ag). Another trend is a strong increase in Cd toxicity relative to that of Zn as organism complexity increases (from bacteria to fish). © 2014 SETAC.

  19. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z.; Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  20. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact testing of the residual limb: System response to changes in prosthetic stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, Erin; Stine, Rebecca; Gard, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Currently, it is unknown whether changing prosthetic limb stiffness affects the total limb stiffness and influences the shock absorption of an individual with transtibial amputation. The hypotheses tested within this study are that a decrease in longitudinal prosthetic stiffness will produce (1) a reduced total limb stiffness, and (2) reduced magnitude of peak impact forces and increased time delay to peak force. Fourteen subjects with a transtibial amputation participated in this study. Prosthetic stiffness was modified by means of a shock-absorbing pylon that provides reduced longitudinal stiffness through compression of a helical spring within the pylon. A sudden loading evaluation device was built to examine changes in limb loading mechanics during a sudden impact event. No significant change was found in the peak force magnitude or timing of the peak force between prosthetic limb stiffness conditions. Total limb stiffness estimates ranged from 14.9 to 17.9 kN/m but were not significantly different between conditions. Thus, the prosthetic-side total limb stiffness was unaffected by changes in prosthetic limb stiffness. The insensitivity of the total limb stiffness to prosthetic stiffness may be explained by the mechanical characteristics (i.e., stiffness and damping) of the anatomical tissue within the residual limb.

  2. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  3. Transgenic Mouse Models Transferred into the Test Tube: New Perspectives for Developmental Toxicity Testing In Vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Josephine; Luch, Andreas; Oelgeschläger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Despite our increasing understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling embryogenesis, the identification and characterization of teratogenic substances still heavily relies on animal testing. Embryonic development depends on cell-autonomous and non-autonomous processes including spatiotemporally regulated extracellular signaling activities. These have been elucidated in transgenic mouse models harboring easily detectable reporter genes under the control of evolutionarily conserved signaling cascades. We propose combining these transgenic mouse models and cells derived thereof with existing alternative toxicological testing strategies. This would enable the plausibility of in vitro data to be verified in light of in vivo data and, ultimately, facilitate regulatory acceptance of in vitro test methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photocatalytic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Intermediates identification and toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, O.T.; Chung, W.K.; Wong, K.H.; Chow, Alex T.; Wong, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hydrophobic pollutants and their low water solubility limits their degradation in aqueous solution. The presence of water-miscible solvent such as acetone can increase the water solubility of PAHs, however acetone will also affect the degradation of PAH. In this study the effects of acetone on the photocatalytic degradation efficiency and pathways of 5 selected PAHs, namely naphthalene (2 rings), acenaphthylene (3 rings), phenanthrene (3 rings), anthracene (3 rings) and benzo[a]anthracene (4 rings) were investigated. The Microtox toxicity test was used to determine whether the PCO system can completely detoxify the parental PAHs and its intermediates. The addition of 16% acetone can greatly alter the degradation pathway of naphthalene and anthracene. Based on intermediates identified from degradation of the 5 PAHs, the location of parental PAHs attacked by reactive free radicals can be correlated with the localization energies of different positions of the compound. For toxicity analysis, irradiation by UV light was found to induce acute toxicity by generating intermediates/degradation products from PAHs and possibly acetone. Lastly, all PAHs (10 mg l -1 ) can be completely detoxified by titanium dioxide (100 mg l -1 ) within 24 h under UVA irradiation (3.9 mW cm -2 ).

  5. Acute toxicity and inactivation tests of CO2 on invertebrates in drinking water treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Jin-Song; Liu, Li-Jun; Zhao, Jian-Shu; Li, Tuo

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the esthetic problem caused by invertebrates, researchers are recently starting to be more aware of their potential importance in terms of public health. However, the inactivation methods of invertebrates which could proliferate in drinking water treatment systems are not well developed. The objective of this study is to assess the acute toxicity and inactivation effects of CO2 on familiar invertebrates in water treatment processes. The results of this study revealed that CO2 has a definite toxicity to familiar invertebrates. The values of 24-h LC50 (median lethal concentration) were calculated for each test with six groups of invertebrates. The toxicity of CO2 was higher with increasing concentrations in solution but was lower with the increase in size of the invertebrates. Above the concentration of 1,000 mg/L for the CO2 solution, the 100% inactivation time of all the invertebrates was less than 5 s, and in 15 min, the inactivation ratio showed a gradient descent with a decline in concentration. As seen for Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, by dosing with a sodium bicarbonate solution first and adding a dilute hydrochloric acid solution 5 min later, it is possible to obtain a satisfactory inactivation effect in the GAC (granular activated carbon) filters.

  6. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  7. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as a novel approach to providing effect-based endpoints in duckweed toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Xin; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Guo-Yong; Liu, You-Sheng; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Pan, Chang-Gui; Tian, Fei; Martin, Francis L

    2017-02-01

    Traditional duckweed toxicity tests only measure plant growth inhibition as an endpoint, with limited effects-based data. The present study aimed to investigate whether Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy could enhance the duckweed (Lemna minor L.) toxicity test. Four chemicals (Cu, Cd, atrazine, and acetochlor) and 4 metal-containing industrial wastewater samples were tested. After exposure of duckweed to the chemicals, standard toxicity endpoints (frond number and chlorophyll content) were determined; the fronds were also interrogated using FTIR spectroscopy under optimized test conditions. Biochemical alterations associated with each treatment were assessed and further analyzed by multivariate analysis. The results showed that comparable x% of effective concentration (ECx) values could be achieved based on FTIR spectroscopy in comparison with those based on traditional toxicity endpoints. Biochemical alterations associated with different doses of toxicant were mainly attributed to lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and carbohydrate structural changes, which helped to explain toxic mechanisms. With the help of multivariate analysis, separation of clusters related to different exposure doses could be achieved. The present study is the first to show successful application of FTIR spectroscopy in standard duckweed toxicity tests with biochemical alterations as new endpoints. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:346-353. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Acute Toxicity Test of Soursop Leaves (Annona muricata) on Liver and Kidney of Switzerland Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Astika Widy Utomo; Neni Susilaningsih; Desy Armalina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The soursoup leaves extract (Annona muricata) has widely been used as traditional medicine for cancer. No studies have been conduct to investigate the safety of the extract. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the acute oral toxicity test of soursoup leaves extract (Annona muricata) on Swiss mice’s liver and kidney. Methods: Twenty four mice were divided into 4 groups. Group I was control group, while group II-IV was given soursoup leaves extract as ...

  9. Microfluidic devices for stem-cell cultivation, differentiation and toxicity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Holger; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Kurtz, Andreas; Mrowka, Ralf; Wölfl, Stefan; Gärtner, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    The development of new drugs is time-consuming, extremely expensive and often promising drug candidates fail in late stages of the development process due to the lack of suitable tools to either predict toxicological effects or to test drug candidates in physiologically relevant environments prior to clinical tests. We therefore try to develop diagnostic multiorgan microfluidic chips based on patient specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) technology to explore liver dependent toxic effects of drugs on individual human tissues such as liver or kidney cells. Based initially on standardized microfluidic modules for cell culture, we have developed integrated microfluidic devices which contain different chambers for cell/tissue cultivation. The devices are manufactured using injection molding of thermoplastic polymers such as polystyrene or cyclo-olefin polymer. In the project, suitable surface modification methods of the used materials had to be explored. We have been able to successfully demonstrate the seeding, cultivation and further differentiation of modified iPS, as shown by the use of differentiation markers, thus providing a suitable platform for toxicity testing and potential tissue-tissue interactions.

  10. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  11. Comparative analysis of the toxic effects of natural toxins and harmful substances produced by conventional processing methods or by irradiation and of toxicity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlhelm, H.; Arndt, K.; Groeger, G.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    In this review, tasks and methods of food toxicology as well as the application of the different toxicity tests for the risk assessment of food ingredients are described. Particular reference is made to short-term genotoxicity tests. Enzymatic digestion and extraction methods for complex foodstuffs which are used in the toxicological testing of foods in in vitro systems are described. Radiolytic products which result from irradiation of foods or components of foodstuffs and corresponding results of toxicity testing are reviewed. Foodstuffs irradiated with doses of up to 10 kGy are regarded as toxicologically safe. A survey of the toxicologically tested irradiated foodstuffs as well as the applied maximum doses are given in tables at the end of chapter 8. Among the great number of toxicological studies of irradiated foods those are especially mentioned which have given rise to discussions on the health risks involved. In addition, the difficulties associated with the testing of toxicity of irradiated foodstuffs in feeding experiments are discussed. Short-term tests used to establish the benotoxicity of irradiated foods and essential results of toxicological testing are also presented in tables. An overview is given of the occurrence, frequency and health risks of natural toxins in foods and harmful substances produced by conventional methods of cooking and preservation, in order to enable a comparison with the health risks of irradiated foods. The relevance of animal experiments and in vitro investigations for the prediction of toxic effects of harmful substances of foodstuffs in man is discussed in the final chapter. (VHE) [de

  12. Maximum dosage level in testing low-toxicity chemicals for carcinogenicity in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, A; Helton, E D

    1993-01-01

    Owing to the lack of sufficient theoretical and empirical information, the initial guidelines regarding animal carcinogenicity testing of chemicals adopted the most conservative approach possible. One of the recommendations was that non-toxic chemicals be tested at a level as high as 5% of the diet. Since then, a wealth of information has been accumulated, which indicates that such highly exaggerated dosage levels are not only unnecessary but produce scientifically misleading and regulatorily detrimental results that impede the development and evaluation of useful chemicals, including human drugs. This paper presents the rationale supporting the necessity of revision of the outdated maximum level of dietary exposure from 5% to 1% or 1000 mg kg-1 day-1 when the test chemical is administered in drinking water or by gavage.

  13. Studies by nuclear and physico-chemical methods of tissue's metallic contamination located around biomaterials. Toxicity measurements of several biomaterials residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibert, Geoffroy

    2004-01-01

    Implants used as biomaterials fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and occasionally bio-activity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bio-ceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. These debris develop different problems: toxicity, inflammatory reactions, prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters which have an influence on tissue response. We characterize metallic contamination coming from knee prosthesis into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviours, content, size and nature of debris. The PIXE-RBS and STEM-EDXS methods, that we used, are complementary, especially about characterization scale. Debris contamination distributed in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrate on several thousands μm in tissue. Solid metallic particles, μm, are found in the most polluted samples, for both kinds of alloys TA6V and CrCoMo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the in vivo mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TA6V debris and chemical evolution of CrCoMo debris. Complementary measures of TA6V grains, on a nano-metric scale by STEM-EDXS, show a dissolution of coarse grain (μm) in smaller grains (nm). Locally, TA6V grains of a phase are detected and could indicate a preferential dissolution of β phase (grain boundaries) with dropping of Al and V, both toxic and carcinogenic elements. A thin target protocol development correlates PIXE and histological analysis on the same zone. This protocol allows to locate other pathologies in relationship with weaker metal contamination, μg/g, thanks to the great sensitivity of PIXE method. Harmlessness with respect to the residual radioactivity of several natural or synthetic biomaterials is established, using ultra low background noise γ detection system. (author)

  14. Toxicity tests based on predator-prey and competitive interactions between freshwater macroinvertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.J.; Blockwell, S.J.; Pascoe, D. [Univ. of Wales Coll. of Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Simple multi-species toxicity tests based on the predation of Daphnia magna Straus by Hydra oligactis (Pallas) and competition between Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) were used to determine the effects of three reference chemicals. Criteria examined included functional responses; time to first captures; handling times (predator/prey systems) and co-existence and growth. The tests which proved most practicable and sensitive (lowest observed effects 0.1, 21, and 80 {micro}g/l for lindane, copper and 3,4 dichloroaniline, respectively) were: (1) predator-prey tests: determining changes in the size-structure of predated D. magna populations and (2) competition tests: measuring the feeding rate of G. pulex competing with A. aquaticus, using a bioassay based on the time-response analysis of the consumption of Artemia salina eggs. The concentration of a chemical which affected particular response criteria was fond to depend on the test system employed. Results of the tests indicated that effects were often not dose-related and that a given criterion could be variously affected by different test concentrations. The complex pattern of responses may be explained in terms of the differential sensitivity of the interacting species and perhaps subtle alteration in strategies. The sensitivity of the bioassay endpoints is compared to those of a range of single species tests, and their value for predicting the impact pollutants may have upon natural freshwater ecosystems is discussed.

  15. Uptake, translocation and elimination in sediment-rooted macrophytes: A model-supported analysis of whole sediment toxicity test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, N.J.; Arts, G.H.P.; Focks, A.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes is crucial for the development of sediment toxicity tests using macrophytes. Here we explore bioaccumulation in sediment-rooted macrophytes by tracking and modelling chemical flows of chlorpyrifos, linuron, and six PCBs in

  16. Untargeted metabolomics of neuronal cell culture: A model system for the toxicity testing of insecticide chemical exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayton, Sarah; Maker, Garth L; Mullaney, Ian; Trengove, Robert D

    2017-12-01

    Toxicity testing is essential for the protection of human health from exposure to toxic environmental chemicals. As traditional toxicity testing is carried out using animal models, mammalian cell culture models are becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to animal testing. Combining the use of mammalian cell culture models with screening-style molecular profiling technologies, such as metabolomics, can uncover previously unknown biochemical bases of toxicity. We have used a mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize for the first time the changes in the metabolome of the B50 cell line, an immortalised rat neuronal cell line, following acute exposure to two known neurotoxic chemicals that are common environmental contaminants; the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin and the organophosphate insecticide malathion. B50 cells were exposed to either the dosing vehicle (methanol) or an acute dose of either permethrin or malathion for 6 and 24 hours. Intracellular metabolites were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using principal components analysis, we selected the key metabolites whose abundance was altered by chemical exposure. By considering the major fold changes in abundance (>2.0 or culture metabolomics to detect finer metabolic effects of acute exposure to known toxic chemicals, and validate the need for further development of this process in the application of trace-level dose and chronic toxicity studies, and toxicity testing of unknown chemicals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda van Pomeren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles (NPs differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (ecotoxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.

  18. Assessment of Grape, Plum and Orange Synthetic Food Flavourings Using in vivo Acute Toxicity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Monize Sousa Sales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the acute toxicity of synthetic grape, plum and orange flavourings in root meristem cells of Allium cepa at the doses of 3.5, 7.0 and 14.0 mL/kg and exposure times of 24 and 48 h, and in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice treated orally for seven days with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring. The results of the plant test showed that grape, plum and orange flavourings, at both exposure times, inhibited cell division and promoted the formation of a significant number of micronuclei and mitotic spindle changes. These alterations were observed in at least one exposure time analysed, demonstrating a significant cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic activity. In mouse bioassay, animals treated with 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mL/kg of flavouring died before the seventh day of treatment. The amounts of 0.5 and 1.0 mL/kg of the three additives were cytotoxic to erythrocytes, and treatment with the grape flavouring significantly induced the formation of micronucleated cells in the bone marrow of animals. Therefore, under the study conditions, the grape, plum and orange flavouring additives promoted significant toxicity to cells of the test systems used.

  19. Short communication: Detection limits of non-beta-lactam antibiotics in goat's milk by microbiological residues screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, D; Contreras, A; Sánchez, A; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Morales, C T; de la Fe, C; Guirao, I; Gonzalo, C

    2009-09-01

    This study compares the performance of 4 antimicrobial residue screening tests [brilliant black reduction test AiM (Analytik in Milch Produktions- und Vertriebs GmbH, München, Germany), Delvotest MCS (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), Eclipse 100 test (ZEU-Inmunotec SL, Zaragoza, Spain), and Copan Milk Test (Copan Italia S.p.a., Brescia, Italy)] used to detect 20 antimicrobial agents (aminoglycosides, macrolides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and quinolones) in goat's milk, according to International Dairy Federation guidelines. Composite milk samples from 30 antibiotic-free goats were used to prepare spiked milk samples and 11,520 analytical determinations were carried out. According to a logistic regression model, agreement coefficients were greater than 98% for most of the antibiotics, with higher b values obtained for macrolides. Neither tetracyclines nor quinolones were detected at European Union maximum residue limits. Only the Copan Milk Test and the Delvotest MCS were able to detect 3 antimicrobials below their maximum residue limits (neomycin, tylosin, and sulfadimethoxine). Given that these tests are used in control programs for goat's milk, our results indicate their sensitivity would need to be improved to guarantee safety for consumers.

  20. Toxicity of two imidazolium ionic liquids, [bmim][BF4] and [omim][BF4], to standard aquatic test organisms: Role of acetone in the induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarpali, Vasiliki; Dailianis, Stefanos

    2015-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs), [bmim][BF4] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) and [omim][BF4] (1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate), in battery of standard aquatic toxicity test organisms. Specifically, exposure of the algae Scenedesmus rubescens, crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis and bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis to different concentrations of [bmim][BF4], [omim][BF4] and/or a binary mixture of [bmim][BF4]-[omim][BF4] (1:1) with or without acetone (carrier solvent), revealed that solvent can differentially mediate ILs' toxic profile. Acetone's ability to differentially affect ILs' cation's alkyl chain length, as well as the hydrolysis of [BF4(-)] anions was evident. Given that the toxic potency of the tested ILs seemed to be equal or even higher (in some cases) than those of conventional organic solvents, the present study revealed that the characterization of imidazolium-based ILs as "green solvents" should not be generalized, at least in case of their natural occurrence in mixtures with organic solvents, such as acetone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal changes in the tests of fish Puntius ticto, and their relation to heavy metal toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pundir, R. (Holkar Science College, Indore (India)); Saxena, A.B. (Vikram Univ., Ujjain (India))

    1990-08-01

    An integrated hypothesis explaining the implications of environmental influence on the reproductive process has not emerged owing to paucity of data. Nevertheless, evidence is at hand to show that favorable physiological disposition for reproduction is brought about with external and internal factors through the mediation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms. It is now clear that the environmental factors impinge on the exteroreceptors and through them affect the central nervous system, the hypothalamus, the pituitary and finally the gonad. Another endogenous factor is the internal rhythm, which is known to regulate at least in part the seasonal reproductive activity. A review of literature reveals that comparatively much work has been done on the structure and seasonal changes of the testes of fishes. The aim of the present study is to observe seasonal changes in the testes of fish Puntius ticto and their relation to heavy metal toxicity.

  2. Extraction, identification and quantification of heavy metals in Venice lagoon sediments using toxicity tests with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarini, F.; Rampazzo, G.; Volpi Ghirardini, A.; Sperni, L.; Salizzato, M.; Pavoni, B. [Venice Univ., Venice (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali

    2000-02-01

    Sediments are the major sink for metal pollutants in the aquatic ecosystem but also an important source for the release of them in the water. In order to assess the contribution of heavy metals to the total sediment toxicity, a methodology that permits to integrate the chemical approach with a direct toxicological approach has been ste up. Toxicological results using Microtox test are compared with analytical results. [Italian] I sedimenti sono il principale deposito per contaminanti metalli nel''ecosistema acquatico, ma anche una fonte importnate di rilascio nell'acqua. Al fine di valutare il contributo dei metalli pesanti alla tossicita' totale del sedimento, e' stata messa a punto una metodologia che permette di integrare l'appoccio chimico con un approccio tossicologico diretto. I risultati dei test di tossicita' Microtox vengono confrontati con i risultati analitici.

  3. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  4. Leach and EP [extraction procedure] toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ( 60 Co, 90 Sr, 99Tc, 129I, 137Cs, and 241 Am), stable major components (NO 3 - , NO 2 - , F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 99 Tc, 3 to 7 x 10 -8 cm 2 /sec for 129 I, 4 to 6 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 x 10 -9 cm 2 /sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for 99 Tc and 129 I are 7.4 ± 1.2 and 7.6 ± 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Residual stress state in pipe cut ring specimens for fracture toughness testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damjanovic, Darko [J.J. Strossmayer Univ. of Osijek, Slavonski Brod (Croatia). Mechanical Engineering Faculty; Kozak, Drazan [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. for Mechanical Design; Marsoner, Stefan [Materials Center, Leoben (Austria).; Gubeljak, Nenad [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Chair of Mechanics

    2017-07-01

    Thin-walled pipes are not suitable for measuring fracture toughness parameters of vital importance because longitudinal crack failure is the most common failure mode in pipes. This is due to the impossibility to manufacture standard specimens for measuring fracture toughness, such as SENB or CT specimens, from the thin wall of the pipe. Previous works noticed this problem, but until now, a good and convenient solution has not been found or developed. To overcome this problem, very good alternative solution was proposed, the so-called pipe ring notched bend specimen (PRNB) [1-5]. Until now, only the idealized geometry PRNB specimen is analyzed, i. e., a specimen which is not cut out from an actual pipe but produced from steel plate. Based on that, residual stresses are neglected along with the imperfections in geometry (elliptical and eccentricity). The aim of this research is to estimate the residual stress state(s) in real pipes used in the boiler industry produced by hot rolling technique. These types of pipes are delivered only in normalized condition, but not stress relieved. Therefore, there are residual stresses present due to the manufacturing technique, but also due to uneven cooling after the production process. Within this paper, residual stresses are estimated by three methods: the incremental hole drilling method (IHMD), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the splitting method (SM). Knowing the residual stress state in the ring specimen, it is possible to assess their impact on fracture toughness measured on the corresponding PRNB specimen(s).

  6. Heterocyclic compounds: toxic effects using algae, daphnids, and the Salmonella/microsome test taking methodical quantitative aspects into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisentraeger, Adolf; Brinkmann, Corinna; Hollert, Henner; Sagner, Anne; Tiehm, Andreas; Neuwoehner, Judith

    2008-07-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen (NSO-HET), have been detected in air, soil, sewage sludge, marine environments, and freshwater sediments. Since toxicity data on this class of substances are scarce, the present study focuses on possible implications NSO-HET have for ecotoxicity (algae and daphnids) and mutagenicity (Salmonella/microsome test). A combination of bioassays and chemical-analytical quantification of the test compounds during toxicity assays should aid in determination of the hazard potential. Samples of the test concentrations of 14 NSO-HET were taken at the beginning and end of the bioassays; these samples were then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The toxicity potential of the substances was evaluated and compared with the toxicity calculated with the nominal concentrations. Significantly different results were obtained primarily for volatile or highly hydrophobic NSO-HET. The concentration of heterocyclic hydrocarbons can change significantly during the algae and Daphnia test. The EC50 values (effective concentration value: the concentration of a chemical that is required to produce a 50% effect) calculated with the nominal concentrations underestimate the toxicity by a factor of up to 50. Prioritizing the tested compounds according to toxicity, the mutagenic and toxic compounds quinoline, 6-methylquinoline, and xanthene have to be listed first. The greatest ecotoxic potential on algae and daphnids was determined for dibenzothiophene followed by acridine. In the Daphnia magna immobilization test, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, 2-methylbenzofuran, and 2,3-dimethylbenzofuran and also carbazole are ecotoxicologically relevant with EC50 values below 10 mg/L. These substances are followed by indole with a high ecotoxic effect to daphnids and less effect to algae. Only minor toxic effects were observed for 2-methylpyridine and 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine.

  7. Residual Limb Hyperhidrosis Managed by Botulinum Toxin Injections, Enhanced by the Iodine-Starch Test: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Colby R; Godfrey, Bradeigh

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhidrosis of the residual limb is a common condition affecting patients with amputations. The iodine-starch test is used by dermatologists to identify focal areas of hyperhidrosis before treatment with botulinum toxin. Here, we describe a case of a patient with a transtibial amputation with moderate-to-severe hyperhidrosis who received intradermal botulinum toxin injections to treat residual limb hyperhidrosis, with particular emphasis given to the utility of the iodine-starch test in managing this common condition. The iodine-starch test successfully identified hyperhidrotic areas before treatment as well as confirmed the physiologic anhidrotic effect of the botulinum toxin treatment. V. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Residual N effect of long-term applications of cattle slurry using winter wheat as test crop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez, Alfonso; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Rasmussen, Jim

    2018-01-01

    climatic conditions, substantiating that more test years are needed when estimating residual N effects. The residual value of N added previously with NPK was negligible. In the first year, grain yields at N optimum were similar for NPK and SLU, but the amount of fertilizer N needed to reach optimum yield......Prediction of optimum fertilizer N requirements depends on reliable estimates of the residual value of N accumulated in soil from historical inputs of mineral fertilizers and animal manures. Using plots embedded in the Askov long-term experiments and treated since 1973 with different rates of N...... in cattle slurry (50, 100 and 150 kg total-N ha−1 termed ½, 1 and 1½ SLU), we estimated the residual N value over two consecutive growth periods (2014/2015 and 2015/2016). We used winter wheat as test crop and soils with a history of mineral fertilizers only (1 PK (no N)) and 1 NPK (100 kg N ha−1...

  9. Residual Strength Pressure Tests and Nonlinear Analyses of Stringer- and Frame-Stiffened Aluminum Fuselage Panels with Longitudinal Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard D.; Rouse, Marshall; Ambur, Damodar R.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The results of residual strength pressure tests and nonlinear analyses of stringer- and frame-stiffened aluminum fuselage panels with longitudinal cracks are presented. Two types of damage are considered: a longitudinal crack located midway between stringers, and a longitudinal crack adjacent to a stringer and along a row of fasteners in a lap joint that has multiple-site damage (MSD). In both cases, the longitudinal crack is centered on a severed frame. The panels are subjected to internal pressure plus axial tension loads. The axial tension loads are equivalent to a bulkhead pressure load. Nonlinear elastic-plastic residual strength analyses of the fuselage panels are conducted using a finite element program and the crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. Predicted crack growth and residual strength results from nonlinear analyses of the stiffened fuselage panels are compared with experimental measurements and observations. Both the test and analysis results indicate that the presence of MSD affects crack growth stability and reduces the residual strength of stiffened fuselage shells with long cracks.

  10. Study of residual stresses in CT test specimens welded by electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papushkin, I. V.; Kaisheva, D.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Angelov, V.; Petrov, P.

    2018-03-01

    The paper reports result of residual stress distribution studies in CT specimens reconstituted by electron beam welding (EBW). The main aim of the study is evaluation of the applicability of the welding technique for CT specimens’ reconstitution. Thus, the temperature distribution during electron beam welding of a CT specimen was calculated using Green’s functions and the residual stress distribution was determined experimentally using neutron diffraction. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction experiments were performed on a Fourier stress diffractometer at the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in FLNP JINR (Dubna, Russia). The neutron diffraction data estimates yielded a maximal stress level of ±180 MPa in the welded joint.

  11. Elimination of Whole Effluent Toxicity NPDES Permit Limits through the Use of an Alternative Testing Species and Reasonable Potential Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAYNE, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    The cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia), is required by the State of South Carolina to be used in whole effluent toxicity (WET) compliance tests in order to meet limits contained within National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) experienced WET test failures for no clear reason over a long period of time. Toxicity identification examinations on effluents did not indicate the presence of toxicants; therefore, the WET test itself was brought under suspicion. Research was undertaken with an alternate cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (D. ambigua). It was determined that this species survives better in soft water, so approval was obtained from regulating authorities to use this ''alternate'' species in WET tests. The result was better test results and elimination of non-compliances. The successful use of D. ambigua allowed WSRC to gain approval from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to remove WET limits from the NPDES permit

  12. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  13. An Exploratory Analysis of Stream Teratogenicity and Human Health Using Zebrafish Whole-Sediment Toxicity Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dellinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos was adapted to serve as an indicator of teratogenic stress within river sediments. Sediment samples were collected from Lake Michigan tributary watersheds. Sediment contact assay responses were then compared to prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD and vital statistic birth indicators aggregated from civil divisions associated with the watersheds. Significant risk relationships were detected between variation in early life-stage (ELS endpoints of zebrafish embryos 72 h post-fertilization and the birth prevalence of human congenital heart disease, low birthweight and infant mortality. Examination of principal components of ELS endpoints suggests that variance related to embryo heart and circulatory malformations is most closely associated with human CHD prevalence. Though toxicity assays are sometimes used prospectively, this form of investigation can only be conducted retrospectively. These results support the hypothesis that bioassays normally used for ecological screening can be useful as indicators of environmental stress to humans and expand our understanding of environmental–human health linkages.

  14. Organic micropollutant contamination of Po-Lambro riverwaters: Results of toxicity test with vibrio fischeri. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzella, L.; Gronda, A.

    1995-01-01

    The toxicity or organic micropollutant content in Lambro and Po water samples (Italy) was evaluated with LUMIStox system, a bacterial test that makes use of the bioluminescent specie of vibrio fischeri. Different concentration techniques (XAD-2, C-18 and carbopack B) were compared in order to verify the efficiency recovery of toxic compounds. The carbopack B procedure demonstrated to be the best one both for the quantitative point of view and for the variety of the isolated compounds (acid, basic and neutral micropollutants)

  15. Evaluation of an Automated Fish Ventilatory Monitoring System in a Short-Term Screening Test for Chronic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Laboratory (USAMBRDL) is investigating environmental effects of Army-relevant mate- rials. The Aquatic Toxicology Section of USAMBRDL has, as one of its...possible use in screening tests for chronic toxicity. In: J.G. Eaton, P.R. Parrish, and A.C. Hendricks, Aquatic Toxicology : Third Conference. ASTH STP 707...Respiratory activity of fish as a predictor of chronic fish toxicity values for surfactants. In: L.L. Marking and R.A. Kimerle, eds. Aquatic Toxicology : Second

  16. Perspectives on Validation of High-Throughput Assays Supporting 21st Century Toxicity Testing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Richard; Kavlock, Robert; Martin, Matt; Reif, David; Houck, Keith; Knudsen, Thomas; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Whelan, Maurice; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher; Daston, George; Hartung, Thomas; Fowle, John R.; Wooge, William; Tong, Weida; Dix, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary In vitro, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays are seeing increasing use in toxicity testing. HTS assays can simultaneously test many chemicals, but have seen limited use in the regulatory arena, in part because of the need to undergo rigorous, time-consuming formal validation. Here we discuss streamlining the validation process, specifically for prioritization applications in which HTS assays are used to identify a high-concern subset of a collection of chemicals. The high-concern chemicals could then be tested sooner rather than later in standard guideline bioassays. The streamlined validation process would continue to ensure the reliability and relevance of assays for this application. We discuss the following practical guidelines: (1) follow current validation practice to the extent possible and practical; (2) make increased use of reference compounds to better demonstrate assay reliability and relevance; (3) deemphasize the need for cross-laboratory testing, and; (4) implement a web-based, transparent and expedited peer review process. PMID:23338806

  17. Tests of rhodamine WT dye for toxicity to oysters and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Garald G.

    1973-01-01

    Because of the toxicity to oyster larvae and eggs of rhodamine B dye in concentrations greater than 1 mg/l in earlier tests, there was a concern that rhodamine WT, a similar tracer dye, would have a detrimental effect on marine life being developed under the aquaculture program of the Lummi Indian Tribe near Bellingham, Wash. Tests showed that 48-hour exposures at 24° C of 11,000 oyster eggs per liter and 6,000 12-day-old larvae per liter, in sea water with concentrations of rhodamine WT ranging from 1 μg/l to 10 mg/l, resulted in development of the eggs to normal straight-hinge larvae and no abnormalities in the larvae development. Tests made on the smolt of both silver salmon and Donaldson trout, with the fish held for 17.5 hours in a tankfull of sea water with a dye concentration of 10 mg/l at 22°C showed no mortalities or respiratory problems. With the concentration increased to 375 mg/l, and the time extended an additional 3.2 hours, still no mortalities or abnormalities were noted. The fish remained healthy in dye-free water when last checked a month after the test.

  18. Toxicity of sediments from lead-zinc mining areas to juvenile freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) compared to standard test organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; May, Thomas W.; Wang, Ning; MacDonald, Donald D.; Roberts, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests compared chronic effects on survival, growth, and biomass of juvenile freshwater mussels (28-d exposures with Lampsilis siliquoidea) to the responses of standard test organisms—amphipods (28-d exposures with Hyalella azteca) and midges (10-d exposures with Chironomus dilutus)—in sediments from 2 lead–zinc mining areas: the Tri-State Mining District and Southeast Missouri Mining District. Mussel tests were conducted in sediments sieved to <0.25 mm to facilitate recovery of juvenile mussels (2–4 mo old). Sediments were contaminated primarily with lead, zinc, and cadmium, with greater zinc and cadmium concentrations in Tri-State sediments and greater lead concentrations in southeast Missouri sediments. The frequency of highly toxic responses (reduced 10% or more relative to reference sites) in Tri-State sediments was greatest for amphipod survival (25% of samples), midge biomass (20%), and mussel survival (14%). In southeast Missouri sediments, the frequency of highly toxic samples was greatest for mussel biomass (25%) and amphipod biomass (13%). Thresholds for metal toxicity to mussels, expressed as hazard quotients based on probable effect concentrations, were lower for southeast Missouri sediments than for Tri-State sediments. Southeast Missouri sites with toxic sediments had 2 or fewer live mussel taxa in a concurrent mussel population survey, compared with 7 to 26 taxa at reference sites. These results demonstrate that sediment toxicity tests with juvenile mussels can be conducted reliably by modifying existing standard methods; that the sensitivity of mussels to metals can be similar to or greater than standard test organisms; and that responses of mussels in laboratory toxicity tests are consistent with effects on wild mussel populations.

  19. Antioxidant, Antibacterial activity and Brine shrimp toxicity test of some Mountainous Lichens from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Paudel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of twenty four lichen species belonging to six families were collected from mountainous region of Nepal. The methanol extracts of each species were tested for antimicrobial and antioxidant activitiesin vitro. It was found that extracts of twenty one lichen species were active againstB. subtilis and seven species were active againstS. aureus. Similarly, in DPPH assay, three speciesPeltigera sp.,Cladonia sp., andCanoparmelia sp. showed comparable activity with commercial standard, BHA. In ABTS+ assay, extracts ofParmoterma sp.,Ramalina sp.,Peltigera sp. andCladonia sp. showed stronger activity than ascorbic acid. The observed data after comparison with previously published reports indicated that the high altitude lichens contain stronger antioxidant and antibacterial constituents. Similarly, the methanol extracts ofHeterodermia sp. andRamalina sp. showed comparable toxicity effect with commercial standard berberine chloride indicating a potent source of anticancer drugs.

  20. Toxicity testing and chemical analyses of recycled fibre-based paper for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Mona-Lise; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Vinggaard, Anne

    2002-01-01

    of the paper products were extracted with either 99% ethanol or water. Potential migrants in the extracts were identified and semiquantified by GC-1R-MS or GC-HRMS. In parallel to the chemical analyses, a battery of four different in vitro toxicity tests with different endpoints were applied to the same...... for microbial content and, in general, the microbiological load was quite low. The following microorganisms were counted and identified on both surface and homogenized pulp samples: the total number of aerobic bacteria, the number of aerobic and anaerobic spore formers, the number of Bacillus cereus....../thuringiensis, and the number of yeast and moulds. The chemical analyses showed a significantly higher amount and different composition pattern of chemicals extracted with ethanol compared with water. Analyses of the ethanol extracts showed a distinctly smaller number and lower concentrations of chemicals in extracts prepared...

  1. Working in partnership to advance the 3Rs in toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Anthony M.; Creton, Stuart; Chapman, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Toxicological assessment of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical chemicals is a regulatory requirement to ensure all compounds likely to be exposed to humans or the environment are safe. These studies rely on the use of large numbers of animals and involve a number of assumptions and extrapolations that remain controversial in assuring consumer safety. The UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) has taken a collaborative approach to identify opportunities for implementation of the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) to drive innovation and support animal welfare in toxicity testing. This review highlights the mechanisms by which the NC3Rs is working with the pharmaceutical and chemical industries and regulatory authorities to achieve these goals.

  2. Bio-testing integral toxicity of corrosion inhibitors, biocides and oil hydrocarbons in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugunov, V.A.; Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Fomchenkov, V.M.; Novikov, I.A. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In recent years bioassays have been widely used for assessing levels of contamination of the environment. This is due to the fact that test-organisms provide a general response to toxicants present in samples. Based on microorganisms as test objects, it is possible to develop cheap, sensitive and rapid assays to identify environmental xenobiotics and toxicants. The objective of the research was to develop different microbiological assays for assessing integral toxicity of water environments polluted with corrosion inhibitors, biocides and hydrocarbons in oil- and gas-processing industry. Bio-luminescent, electro-orientational, osmo-optic and microorganism reducing activity assays were used for express evaluation of integral toxicity. They are found to determine promptly integral toxicity of water environments containing various pollutants (oil, oil products, corrosion inhibitors, biocides). Results conclude that the assays may be used for analyzing integral toxicity of water polluted with hydrocarbons, as well as for monitoring of water changes as a result of biodegradation of pollutants by microorganisms and their associations. Using a kit of different assays, it is also possible to evaluate ecological safety of biocides, corrosion inhibitors, and their compositions. Bioassays used as a kit are more effective than each assay individually, allowing one to get complete characterization of a reaction of bacterial test organisms to different environments. (authors)

  3. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    In the 21st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  4. A new tropical algal test to assess the toxicity of metals in freshwaters. Supervising Scientists Report 133

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.; Stauber, J.; Markich, S.; Lim, R.

    1998-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and uranium (U) are of potential ecotoxicological concern to tropical Australian freshwater biota as a result of mining impacts. No local data on the toxicity of these metals to tropical freshwater algae are currently available. The aim of this study was to develop a toxicity test for an Australian tropical freshwater alga that can be added to the suite of tests currently available for tropical freshwater invertebrates and fish. This toxicity test was used to investigate the toxicity of Cu and U to the alga Chlorella sp (new species) in a synthetic softwater and to specifically determine the effect of pH on metal toxicity over the range typically found in soft fresh surface waters in tropical northern Australia. A growth inhibition toxicity test was successfully developed for this alga, which was isolated from Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, prior to conducting the toxicity testing. Key environmental parameters including light, temperature and nutrients were optimised to obtain acceptable algal growth rates over 72 hours. HEPES buffer (2 mM at pH 6.5) was found to be a suitable and practical option for pH control that could be incorporated in the test protocol for Chlorella sp. The results obtained in this study confirmed a lack of toxic effects by HEPES on the algae, as well as negligible complexation with both Cu and U. Adequate pH control (ie -1 ) than U (13 μg L -1 ), and more sensitive than other Australian tropical freshwater species, with an order of sensitivity: Alga ≥Crustacea > Cnidaria > Mollusca > Chordata. The toxicity of Cu and U was highly pH-dependent. Copper concentrations needed to inhibit growth by 50% (72 h EC 50 ) increased from 1.5 to 35 μg Cu L -1 as the pH decreased from 6.5 to 5.7. The 72 h EC 50 for U increased from 44 to 78 μg U L -1 over the same pH range. Decreased toxicity at pH 5.7 was due to lower concentrations of cell-bound and intracellular Cu and U compared to that at pH 6.5. These results are explained

  5. DETECTION OF LASALOCID RESIDUES IN THE TISSUES OF BROILER CHICKENS BY A NEW SCREENING TEST TOTAL ANTIBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Levkut, ml.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the microbial growth inhibition test Total antibiotics for the screening of lasalocid residues in the tissues of broiler chickens after its oral administration in medicated feed. The residues were investigated throughout the 5-day withdrawal period /WP/ and also on day 6 representing the first day following the WP. All broiler chicken tissues were positive for lasalocid. The breast muscle was positive (the presence of residues at/above the detection limit /LOD/ of method up to day 1 of the WP, the thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, skin and fat up to day 3 of the WP and the liver and kidneys up to day 4 of the WP. When evaluating the dubious results (the presence of residues just below the LOD of method, the breast muscle was suspect positive up to day 3 of the WP and the gizzard, skin and fat up to day 4 of the WP. No positive or dubious results were detected on day 5 of the WP. The LOD of Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis for maduramycin was 500 µg.l-1.doi:10.5219/140

  6. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Clewell, Harvey; Kimber, Ian; Rossi, Annamaria; Blaauboer, Bas; Burrier, Robert; Daneshian, Mardas; Eskes, Chantra; Goldberg, Alan; Hasiwa, Nina; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Jaworska, Joanna; Knudsen, Thomas B; Landsiedel, Robert; Leist, Marcel; Locke, Paul; Maxwell, Gavin; McKim, James; McVey, Emily A; Ouédraogo, Gladys; Patlewicz, Grace; Pelkonen, Olavi; Roggen, Erwin; Rovida, Costanza; Ruhdel, Irmela; Schwarz, Michael; Schepky, Andreas; Schoeters, Greet; Skinner, Nigel; Trentz, Kerstin; Turner, Marian; Vanparys, Philippe; Yager, James; Zurlo, Joanne; Hartung, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. Based on a major analysis of the status of alternative methods (Adler et al., 2011) and its independent review (Hartung et al., 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. Five whitepapers were commissioned addressing toxicokinetics, skin sensitization, repeated-dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive toxicity testing. An expert workshop of 35 participants from Europe and the US discussed and refined these whitepapers, which were subsequently compiled to form the present report. By prioritizing the many options to move the field forward, the expert group hopes to advance regulatory science.

  7. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil (LSC) and Chemically Dispersed LSC to Two Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Test Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency released peer reviewed results from the second phase of its independent toxicity testing on mixtures of eight oil dispersants with Louisiana Sweet Crude Oil. EPA conducted the tests as part of an effort to ensure that EPA decisions remain grounded ...

  9. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... revised UDP for acute oral systemic toxicity as a replacement for the conventional test. The revised oral...) Test Guideline 425 in 2001 (OECD, 2001). The oral UDP reduces animal use by up to 70% compared to the... by multiple agencies, can involve large numbers of animals, and can result in significant pain and...

  10. Using equilibrium passive dosing to maintain stable exposure concentrations of triclosan in a 6-week toxicity test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobek, A.; Ribbenstedt, A.; Mustajärvi, L.

    2015-01-01

    toxicity tests. Yet, the European Commission’s criteria for chemicals’ risk assessments aim at protecting higher levels in the environment. To achieve protection of populations and ecosystems, reliable long-term ecotoxicologial tests are needed. In this study, we used equilibrium passive dosing to maintain...

  11. Tip-filter tests on paraffin removal from Luetzkendorf Paraffingatsch and Zeitz separator residue hydrogenated in a small unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel

    1943-04-21

    By the propane process, deparaffining tests were conducted on hydrogenated products made from Luetzkendorf and Zeitz residues. A table provided information as to raw materials, hydrogenation temperature, catalyst, pressure, input, and gas used. The report stated that all materials were deparaffined by heating each 300 g, in which 1.5 g filtering agent A was dissolved together with 600 g propane, to 70/sup 0/C in the tip-filter. Then the mixture was cooled to -40/sup 0/C, filtered under 0.2 atmospheres of nitrogen, and 1 to 3 g removed for a paraffin test. The rest of the paraffin was immediately mixed with 600 g propane. This was stirred for 10 minutes at -40/sup 0/C, and filtered again under 0.2 atmospheres nitrogen. All products tested gave good results in the tip-filter. Properties of products resulting from the deparaffination were discussed. These included specific gravity, paraffin melting points and how hydrogenation temperatures affected specific gravity. Tables attached gave information resulting from processes run on the residues. Luetzkendorf Paraffingatsch (paraffin sludge from Fischer--Tropsch synthesis) gave 44.6% to 49% (by weight) paraffin when hydrogenated at temperatures between 14.5 and 20.5 millivolts; at higher temperatures, the specific gravity of the oil fell off increasingly strongly and that of the paraffin not so strongly. Hydrogenation of Zeitz residue didn't seem to change the properties of its paraffins very greatly, but the paraffin content was increased a bit (from 43.5% to more than 48%). Hydrogenating Zeitz residue with higher throughput and less gas injected gave slightly lower yield of paraffin, and the specific gravity of the paraffin was lower, whereas that of the oil was higher.

  12. Estimation of bisphenol A-Human toxicity by 3D cell culture arrays, high throughput alternatives to animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Woo; Oh, Woo-Yeon; Yi, Sang Hyun; Ku, Bosung; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yang, Mihi

    2016-09-30

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and has been extensively tested in animals to predict human toxicity. In order to reduce the use of animals for toxicity assessment and provide further accurate information on BPA toxicity in humans, we encapsulated Hep3B human hepatoma cells in alginate and cultured them in three dimensions (3D) on a micropillar chip coupled to a panel of metabolic enzymes on a microwell chip. As a result, we were able to assess the toxicity of BPA under various metabolic enzyme conditions using a high-throughput and micro assay; sample volumes were nearly 2,000 times less than that required for a 96-well plate. We applied a total of 28 different enzymes to each chip, including 10 cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), 10 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), 3 sulfotransferases (SULTs), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Phase I enzyme mixtures, phase II enzyme mixtures, and a combination of phase I and phase II enzymes were also applied to the chip. BPA toxicity was higher in samples containing CYP2E1 than controls, which contained no enzymes (IC50, 184±16μM and 270±25.8μM, respectively, palternative to animal testing for estimating BPA toxicity via human metabolic systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variability of sediment-contact tests in freshwater sediments with low-level anthropogenic contamination - Determination of toxicity thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoess, S., E-mail: hoess@ecossa.d [Ecossa, Giselastr. 6, 82319 Starnberg (Germany); Institute of Biodiversity - Network (IBN), Dreikronengasse 2, 93047 Regensburg (Germany); Ahlf, W., E-mail: ahlf@tu-harburg.d [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Fahnenstich, C. [Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, Eissendorfer Str. 40, 21071 Hamburg (Germany); Gilberg, D., E-mail: d-gilberg@ect.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hollert, H., E-mail: henner.hollert@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Melbye, K. [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Meller, M., E-mail: m-meller@ecotox-consult.d [ECT Oekotoxikologie, Boettgerstr. 2-14, 65439 Floersheim (Germany); Hammers-Wirtz, M., E-mail: hammers-wirtz@gaiac.rwth-aachen.d [Research Institute for Ecosystem Analysis and Assessment (gaiac), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Heininger, P., E-mail: heininger@bafg.d [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG), Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56070 Koblenz (Germany); Neumann-Hensel, H., E-mail: hensel@fintelmann-meyer.d [Dr. Fintelmann and Dr. Meyer, Mendelssohnstr. 15D, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ottermanns, R., E-mail: ottermanns@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Ratte, H.-T., E-mail: toni.ratte@bio5.rwth-aachen.d [Chair for Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology 5), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    Freshwater sediments with low levels of anthropogenic contamination and a broad range of geochemical properties were investigated using various sediment-contact tests in order to study the natural variability and to define toxicity thresholds for the various toxicity endpoints. Tests were performed with bacteria (Arthrobacter globiformis), yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus), higher plants (Myriophyllum aquaticum), and the eggs of zebrafish (Danio rerio). The variability in the response of some of the contact tests could be explained by particle size distribution and organic content. Only for two native sediments could a pollution effect not be excluded. Based on the minimal detectable difference (MDD) and the maximal tolerable inhibition (MTI), toxicity thresholds (% inhibition compared to the control) were derived for each toxicity parameter: >20% for plant growth and fish-egg survival, >25% for nematode growth and oligochaete reproduction, >50% for nematode reproduction and >60% for bacterial enzyme activity. - Sediment-contact tests require toxicity thresholds based on their variability in native sediments with low-level contamination.

  14. Amphipod and Sea Urchin tests to assess the toxicity of Mediterranean sediments: the case of Portmán Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cesar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The sediment formed by the tailings of an abandoned mine, which discharged into Portmán Bay, Murcia, SE-Spain, was tested to establish a possible gradient of heavy metals. The results were compared with tolerance limits of what was calculated from control sites. Whole sediment toxicity tests were performed on two amphipod species, Gammarus aequicauda and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, while sediment-water interface and porewater toxicity tests were performed on three sea urchins species, Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of these marine organisms was evaluated by exposure tests using the reference substances: ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7, sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25NaO4S and zinc sulfate (ZnSO4. The concentration of heavy metals decreased along the pollution gradient. Amphipod 10 day acute toxicity tests clearly demonstrated the gradient of toxicity. The sediment-water interface tests conducted with sea urchins also pointed to a pollution gradient and were more sensitive than the tests involving amphipods.

  15. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Combustion Tests of Rocket Motor Washout Material: Focus on Air toxics Formation Potential and Asbestos Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. C. Sclippa; L. L. Baxter; S. G. Buckley

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the suitability of cofiring as a recycle / reuse option to landfill disposal for solid rocket motor washout residue. Solid rocket motor washout residue (roughly 55% aluminum powder, 40% polybutadiene rubber binder, 5% residual ammonium perchlorate, and 0.2-1% asbestos) has been fired in Sandia's MultiFuel Combustor (MFC). The MFC is a down-fired combustor with electrically heated walls, capable of simulating a wide range of fuel residence times and stoichiometries. This study reports on the fate of AP-based chlorine and asbestos from the residue following combustion.

  17. Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, Kimberly R., E-mail: kimberly.doherty@quintiles.com [Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States); Wappel, Robert L.; Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M. [Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States); Kramer, James W.; Brown, Arthur M. [ChanTest Corporation, 14656 Neo Parkway, Cleveland, OH 44128 (United States); Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah [Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, and an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and

  18. Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Kimberly R.; Wappel, Robert L.; Talbert, Dominique R.; Trusk, Patricia B.; Moran, Diarmuid M.; Kramer, James W.; Brown, Arthur M.; Shell, Scott A.; Bacus, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, and an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and

  19. Evaluation of toxic potential of acephate and chlorpyrifos by dominant lethal test on Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhinder, Preety; Chaudhry, Asha

    2013-05-01

    The present paper deals with the toxicity evaluation of pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos by applying dominant lethal test (DLT) on mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus taken as an experimental model. For this, the adult male mosquitoes emerging from LC20 treated larval stock were allowed to crossmate with normal virgin females under controlled conditions of mosquito rearing laboratory along with the parallel controls, separately for each pesticide. The eggs obtained from such females were allowed to hatch after which they were examined under suitable magnification. The number of unhatched eggs was taken as the measure for calculating the dominant lethality caused by the pesticides and the data was analyzed statistically by applying Student's t-test. The statistical analysis of the results for acephate treated groups was 9.49 +/- 1.50 as against 3.92 +/- 0.41 in the control groups and chlorpyrifos treated groups gave the value 9.94 +/- 1.92 as against 4.26 +/- 0.35 in the control groups. The results indicated that these pesticides induced significant (p < 0.05) dominant lethality.

  20. Is There a Space-Based Technology Solution to Problems with Preclinical Drug Toxicity Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Timothy; Allen, Patricia; Birdsall, Holly

    2016-07-01

    Even the finest state-of-the art preclinical drug testing, usually in primary hepatocytes, remains an imperfect science. Drugs continue to be withdrawn from the market due to unforeseen toxicity, side effects, and drug interactions. The space program may be able to provide a lifeline. Best known for rockets, space shuttles, astronauts and engineering, the space program has also delivered some serious medical science. Optimized suspension culture in NASA's specialized suspension culture devices, known as rotating wall vessels, uniquely maintains Phase I and Phase II drug metabolizing pathways in hepatocytes for weeks in cell culture. Previously prohibitively expensive, new materials and 3D printing techniques have the potential to make the NASA rotating wall vessel available inexpensively on an industrial scale. Here we address the tradeoffs inherent in the rotating wall vessel, limitations of alternative approaches for drug metabolism studies, and the market to be addressed. Better pre-clinical drug testing has the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of one of the most common problems in modern medicine: adverse events related to pharmaceuticals.

  1. Body-on-a-chip systems for animal-free toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Gretchen J; Esch, Mandy B; Stokol, Tracy; Hickman, James J; Shuler, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Body-on-a-chip systems replicate the size relationships of organs, blood distribution and blood flow, in accordance with human physiology. When operated with tissues derived from human cell sources, these systems are capable of simulating human metabolism, including the conversion of a prodrug to its effective metabolite, as well as its subsequent therapeutic actions and toxic side-effects. The system also permits the measurement of human tissue electrical and mechanical reactions, which provide a measure of functional response. Since these devices can be operated with human tissue samples or with in vitro tissues derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), they can play a significant role in determining the success of new pharmaceuticals, without resorting to the use of animals. By providing a platform for testing in the context of human metabolism, as opposed to animal models, the systems have the potential to eliminate the use of animals in preclinical trials. This article will review progress made and work achieved as a direct result of the 2015 Lush Science Prize in support of animal-free testing. 2016 FRAME.

  2. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  3. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Christopher G; May, Thomas W; Ivey, Chris D; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily Rogevich

    2013-11-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd ) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic. © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Residual radioactive contamination of the Maralinga range from nuclear weapons tests conducted in 1956 and 1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Duggleby, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Wise, K.N.

    1978-12-01

    Detailed geographical distributions and concentrations of long-lived radionuclides remaining from the major trials of nuclear weapons conducted at Maralinga in 1956 and 1957 are presented. It is shown that residual contamination due to fission products - mainly strontium-90, caesium-137 and europium-155 - are well below levels that could constitute a health hazard to occupants of the area. In the regions near the ground zeroes however, long-lived neutron activation products in soil - mainly cobalt-60 and europium-152 - are present in sufficient abundance to give rise to gamma-radiation dose-rates up to 2 milliroentgen per hour, which exceed maximum recommended dose-rates for continuous occupancy

  5. Protocol Development and Equivalency Testing of the FACTS Procedure for Chlorine Residual Determination in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-15

    l1 no . P .3tion was for electrode Aand sample 5. the B *Oe~~.1~.,.i.1 oidO I 1000611 ll600*0*l0 6i61 salu01II l.,0000 electrode determined a value...probability ant Residuals Pro. AW1A WQTC Dihaloacetanitriles b Chlorination , lev el ! in he uset] For a 95 percent Louisville Ky iDec 1978, Natural Waters Pro...Free As aitable Chlorine and Health Effects Pacifi, (;rn,. Cat!percent signific:an:e 1e el . i = 0 01 is DPD-Coiorimetrc DPD-Sleadifa( and Oct 19811 In

  6. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Autoclave sterilization produces acrylamide in rodent diets: implications for toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaddle, Nathan C; Churchwell, Mona I; McDaniel, L Patrice; Doerge, Daniel R

    2004-06-30

    Acrylamide (AA) is a neurotoxic and carcinogenic contaminant that is formed during the cooking of starchy foods. Assessment of human risks from toxicants is routinely performed using laboratory rodents, and such testing requires careful control of unintended exposures, particularly through the diet. This study describes an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry that was used to measure endogenous AA in rodent diets and to survey a number of commercial products for contamination. Method sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of endogenous levels of AA in raw diets below 20 ppb. Autoclaving a standard rodent diet (NIH-31) increased the AA content 14-fold, from 17 to 240 ppb. A nutritionally equivalent diet that was sterilized by irradiation was found to contain approximately 10 ppb of AA (NIH-31IR). A toxicokinetic study of AA and its epoxide metabolite, glycidamide, was performed by switching mice from NIH-31IR to the autoclaved diet for a 30 min feeding period (average AA dose administered was 4.5 microg/kg of body weight). The concentrations of AA and glycidamide were measured in serum collected at various times. The elimination half-lives and the areas under the respective concentration-time curves were similar for AA and glycidamide. Mice maintained on autoclaved NIH-31 diet, but otherwise untreated, showed elevated steady state levels of a glycidamide-derived DNA adduct in liver relative to mice maintained on the irradiated diet. This study demonstrates that a heat sterilization procedure used in laboratory animal husbandry (i.e., autoclaving) can lead to the formation of significant levels of AA in basal diets used for toxicity testing. AA in rodent diets is bioavailable, is distributed to tissues, and is metabolically activated to a genotoxic metabolite, which produces quantifiable cumulative DNA damage. Although the contribution of endogenous AA to the incidence of tumors in multiple organs of

  8. Screening of Toxic Effects of Bisphenol A and Products of Its Degradation: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryo Test and Molecular Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Katerina; Siudem, Pawel; Zawada, Katarzyna; Kurkowiak, Justyna

    2016-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an endocrine-disrupting compound even at a low concentration. Degradation of BPA could lead to the formation of toxic products. In this study, we compare the toxicity of BPA and seven intermediate products of its degradation. The accuracy of three molecular docking programs (Surflex, Autodock, and Autodock Vina) in predicting the binding affinities of selected compounds to human (ERα, ERβ, and ERRγ) and zebrafish (ERα, ERRγA, and ERRγB) estrogen and estrogen-related receptors was evaluated. The docking experiments showed that 4-isopropylphenol could have similar toxicity to that of BPA due to its high affinity to ERRγ and ERRγB and high octanol-water partitioning coefficient. The least toxic compounds were hydroquinone and phenol. Those compounds as well as BPA were screened in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test. 4-isopropylphenol had the strongest toxic effect on zebrafish embryos and caused 100% lethality shortly after exposure. BPA caused the delay in development, multiple deformations, and low heartbeats (30 bps), whereas hydroquinone had no impact on the development of the zebrafish embryo. Thus, the results of zebrafish screening are in good agreement with our docking experiment. The molecular docking could be used to screen the toxicity of other xenoestrogens and their products of degradation.

  9. Standardizing acute toxicity data for use in ecotoxicology models: influence of test type, life stage, and concentration reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Sandy; Vivian, Deborah N; Barron, Mace G

    2009-10-01

    Ecotoxicological models generally have large data requirements and are frequently based on existing information from diverse sources. Standardizing data for toxicological models may be necessary to reduce extraneous variation and to ensure models reflect intrinsic relationships. However, the extent to which data standardization is necessary remains unclear, particularly when data transformations are used in model development. An extensive acute toxicity database was compiled for aquatic species to comprehensively assess the variation associated with acute toxicity test type (e.g., flow-through, static), reporting concentrations as nominal or measured, and organism life stage. Three approaches were used to assess the influence of these factors on log-transformed acute toxicity: toxicity ratios, log-linear models of factor groups, and comparison of interspecies correlation estimation (ICE) models developed using either standardized test types or reported concentration type. In general, median ratios were generally less than 2.0, the slopes of log-linear models were approximately one for well-represented comparisons, and ICE models developed using data from standardized test types or reported concentrations did not differ substantially. These results indicate that standardizing test data by acute test type, reported concentration type, or life stage may not be critical for developing ecotoxicological models using large datasets of log-transformed values.

  10. Standard test method for verifying the alignment of X-Ray diffraction instrumentation for residual stress measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the preparation and use of a flat stress-free test specimen for the purpose of checking the systematic error caused by instrument misalignment or sample positioning in X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement, or both. 1.2 This test method is applicable to apparatus intended for X-ray diffraction macroscopic residual stress measurement in polycrystalline samples employing measurement of a diffraction peak position in the high-back reflection region, and in which the θ, 2θ, and ψ rotation axes can be made to coincide (see Fig. 1). 1.3 This test method describes the use of iron powder which has been investigated in round-robin studies for the purpose of verifying the alignment of instrumentation intended for stress measurement in ferritic or martensitic steels. To verify instrument alignment prior to stress measurement in other metallic alloys and ceramics, powder having the same or lower diffraction angle as the material to be measured should be prepared in similar fashion...

  11. The Galeta Oil Spill. III. Chronic Reoiling, Long-term Toxicity of Hydrocarbon Residues and Effects on Epibiota in the Mangrove Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Sally C.; Garrity, Stephen D.; Burns, Kathryn A.

    1994-04-01

    In April 1986, 75 000-100 000 barrels of medium-weight crude oil (˜ 10 000-13 500 metric tons) spilled into Bahía las Minas, a large mangrove-lined bay on the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Between 1986 and 1991, biological and chemical effects of this spill were studied. The epibiota of fringing mangroves ( Rhizophora mangle L.) were examined in three habitats: (1) the shoreward margins of reef flats that fronted the open sea, (2) the edges of channels and lagoons, and (3) the banks of streams and man-made cuts that drained interior mangroves or uplands into lagoons. Chemical analyses of bivalves collected from submerged prop roots (oysters and false mussels) and records of slicks and tarry deposits on artificial roots documented chronic reoiling. Each habitat was repeatedly oiled between 1986 and 1991, with petroleum residues identified as the oil spilled in 1986. There was a decline in the release of tarry oils recorded as slicks and on roots over time, but not in tissue burdens of hydrocarbons in bivalves. This suggested that the processes that released these different types of oil residues were at least partially independent and that toxic hydrocarbons were likely to be released from sediments over the long term. The submerged prop roots of fringing mangroves in each habitat had a characteristic epibiota. On the open coast, roots were covered with a diverse assemblage of sessile invertebrates and algae. In channels, the most abundant species on roots was the edible oyster Crassostrea virginica ( rhizophorae morph). In streams, the false mussel Mytilopsis sallei covered the most space on roots. Cover of sessile invertebrates was significantly reduced at oiled compared with unoiled sites on the open coast for 4 years after oiling, while oysters and false mussels were reduced in cover at oiled sites in channels and streams through at least 1991, when observations ended. False mussels transplanted from an unoiled stream to oiled and unoiled streams were

  12. Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt-Van der Zalm, J.P.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were

  13. The pH dependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of chloroquine tested on S. viminalis (basket willow)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Trapp, Stefan; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    (hydroxymethyl) – aminomethane (pH 8 and 9). Concentrations were determined with spectrophotometer. Toxicity was derived from calculations of normalized transpiration over time, and RCF (root concentration factor) values were calculated. Increasing BCF values were found for increasing pH levels, and the toxicity...

  14. Polymers with tunable toxicity: a reference scale for cytotoxicity testing of biomaterial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knetsch, Menno L W; Olthof, Nadine; Koole, Leo H

    2007-09-15

    A series of copolymers, with varying ratio di-methylamino-ethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA) and methyl-methacrylate (MMA), was designed as a potential scale for cytotoxicity. These copolymers were characterized for toxicity of their surface. The surfaces of washed copolymers display increasing toxicity with increasing DMAEMA content. The toxicity was observed for three different cell-types, namely mouse fibroblasts, human endothelial cells and human osteoblast-like cells. With an increasing toxic surface, cell growth was inhibited as was indicated by the proliferation marker Ki-67. Staining for F-actin revealed that with increasing DMAEMA, cells adopted a more and more round morphology, resulting in decreased surface-contact area. Immuno-staining for phospho-tyrosine or vinculin demonstrated gradual loss of focal adhesions on increasingly toxic surfaces. Surprisingly loss of focal adhesions coincided with an increase in paxillin and vinculin protein, indicating cells try compensating for loss of adhesion. This series of copolymers may have potential as a cytotoxicity scale. They provoke cellular responses ranging from highly toxic to completely non-toxic, with some showing intermediate toxicity. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A ten year summary of concurrent ambient water column and sediment toxicity tests in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: 1990-1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D; Alden, Raymond W

    2002-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the relative toxicity of ambient areas in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by using a suite of concurrent water column and sediment toxicity tests at seventy-five ambient stations in 20 Chesapeake Bay rivers from 1990 through 1999. Spatial and temporal variability was examined at selected locations throughout the 10 yr study. Inorganic and organic contaminants were evaluated in ambient water and sediment concurrently with water column and sediment tests to assess possible causes of toxicity although absolute causality can not be established. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to develop a multiple endpoint toxicity index (TOX-INDEX) at each station for both water column and sediment toxicity data. Water column tests from the 10 yr testing period showed that 49% of the time, some degree of toxicity was reported. The most toxic sites based on water column results were located in urbanized areas such as the Anacostia River, Elizabeth River and the Middle River. Water quality criteria for copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were exceeded at one or more of these sites. Water column toxicity was also reported in localized areas of the South and Chester Rivers. Both spatial and temporal variability was reported from the suite of water column toxicity tests. Some degree of sediment toxicity was reported from 62% of the tests conducted during the ten year period. The Elizabeth River and Baltimore Harbor stations were reported as the most toxic areas based on sediment results. Sediment toxicity guidelines were exceeded for one or more of the following metals at these two locations: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. At the Elizabeth River stations nine of sixteen semi-volatile organics and two of seven pesticides measured exceeded the ER-M values in 1990. Ambient sediment toxicity tests in the Elizabeth River in 1996 showed reduced toxicity. Various semi-volatile organics exceeded the ER-M values at a

  16. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theunissen, P.T.; Robinson, J.F.; Pennings, J.L.A.; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  17. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theunissen, P.T., E-mail: Peter.Theunissen@rivm.nl [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Robinson, J.F. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Pennings, J.L.A. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Herwijnen, M.H. van [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kleinjans, J.C.S. [Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Piersma, A.H. [Laboratory for Health Protection Research, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  18. Monte Carlo testing in spatial statistics, with applications to spatial residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrkvička, Tomáš; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Myllymäki, Mari

    2016-01-01

    with an appropriate type I error probability. Two novel examples are given on their usage. First, in addition to the test based on a classical one-dimensional summary function, the goodness-of-fit of a point process model is evaluated by means of the test based on a higher dimensional functional statistic, namely......This paper reviews recent advances made in testing in spatial statistics and discussed at the Spatial Statistics conference in Avignon 2015. The rank and directional quantile envelope tests are discussed and practical rules for their use are provided. These tests are global envelope tests...

  19. Disrupting self-assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic protein oligomers by "molecular tweezers" - from the test tube to animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Aida; Bitan, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of research, therapy for diseases caused by abnormal protein folding and aggregation (amyloidoses) is limited to treatment of symptoms and provides only temporary and moderate relief to sufferers. The failure in developing successful disease-modifying drugs for amyloidoses stems from the nature of the targets for such drugs - primarily oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins, which are distinct from traditional targets, such as enzymes or receptors. The oligomers are metastable, do not have well-defined structures, and exist in dynamically changing mixtures. Therefore, inhibiting the formation and toxicity of these oligomers likely will require out-of-the-box thinking and novel strategies. We review here the development of a strategy based on targeting the combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that are key to the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins using lysine (K)-specific "molecular tweezers" (MTs). Our discussion includes a survey of the literature demonstrating the important role of K residues in the assembly and toxicity of amyloidogenic proteins and the development of a lead MT derivative called CLR01, from an inhibitor of protein aggregation in vitro to a drug candidate showing effective amelioration of disease symptoms in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  20. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... for environmental sustainable alternatives exists and electrodialysis could be such an alternative. The potential of electrodialysis for treating APC-residue is explored in this work by designing and testing a continuous-flow bench-scale reactor that can work with a high solids content feed solution. Experiments...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  1. Morphology-based mammalian stem cell tests reveal potential developmental toxicity of donepezil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Caroline G Y; Marikawa, Yusuke

    2014-11-01

    Various compounds, including therapeutic drugs, can adversely impact the survival and development of embryos in the uterus. Identification of such development-interfering agents is a challenging task, although multi-angle approaches--including the use of in vitro toxicology studies involving embryonic stem cells--should alleviate some of the current difficulties. In the present study, we utilized the in vitro elongation of embryoid bodies (EBs) derived from mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cell line P19C5 as a model of early embryological events, specifically that of gastrulation and axial patterning. From our study, we identified donepezil, a medication indicated for the management of Alzheimer's disease, as a potential developmental toxicant. The extent of P19C5 EB axial elongation was diminished by donepezil in a dose-dependent manner. Although donepezil is a known inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, interference of elongation was not mediated through this enzyme. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR revealed that donepezil altered the expression pattern of a specific set of developmental regulator genes involved in patterning along the anterior-posterior body axis. When tested in mouse whole embryo culture, donepezil caused morphological abnormalities including impaired somitogenesis. Donepezil also diminished elongation morphogenesis of EBs generated from human embryonic stem cells. These results suggest that donepezil interferes with axial elongation morphogenesis of early embryos by altering the expression pattern of regulators of axial development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo test for the screening of waste water quality and for testing the toxicity of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnsteiner, Franz

    2008-07-01

    The sensitivity of the zebrafish embryo test, a test proposed for routine waste water control, was compared with the acute fish toxicity test, in the determination of six types of waste water and ten different chemicals. The waste water was sampled from the following industrial processes: paper and cardboard production, hide tanning, metal galvanisation, carcass treatment and utilisation, and sewage treatment. The chemicals tested were: dimethylacetamide, dimethylsulphoxide, cadmium chloride, cyclohexane, hydroquinone, mercuric chloride, nickel chloride, nonylphenol, resmethrin and sodium nitrite. For many of the test substances, the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test results showed high correlations. However, there were certain environmentally-relevant substances for which the results of the zebrafish embryo test and the acute fish toxicity test differed significantly, up to 10,000-fold (Hg(2+) > 150-fold difference; NO(2)(-) > 300-fold; Cd(2+) > 200-fold; resmethrin > 10,000-fold). For the investigated waste water samples and chemicals, the survival rate of the zebrafish embryos showed high variations between different egg samples, within the range of the EC50 concentration. Subsequently, 5-6 parallel assays were deemed to be the appropriate number necessary for the precise evaluation of the toxicity of the test substances. Also, it was found that the sensitivities of different ontogenetic stages to chemical exposure differed greatly. During the first 12 hours after fertilisation (4-cell stage to the 5-somite stage), the embryos reacted most sensitively to test substance exposure, whereas the later ontogenetic stages showed only slight or no response, indicating that the test is most sensitive during the first 24 hours post-fertilisation.

  3. In Situ Estuarine and Marine Toxicity Testing: A Review, Including Recommendations for Future Use in Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    experiments to assess the toxicity of fenthion following aerial application to control adult salt marsh mosquitoes at an estuarine site in Florida...Genotoxicity testing in sediments: Progress in developing a transgenic polychaete model. ERDC/TN EEDP-01-45. Ireland DS, Burton GA, Jr., and Hess GG, 1996

  4. Acute sensitivity of freshwater mollusks and commonly tested invertebrates to select chemicals with different toxic models of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies indicate that freshwater mollusks are more sensitive than commonly tested organisms to some chemicals, such as copper and ammonia. Nevertheless, mollusks are generally under-represented in toxicity databases. Studies are needed to generate data with which to comp...

  5. A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing - t4 report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basketter, D.A.; Clewell, H.; Kimber, I.; Rossi, A.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Burrier, R.; Daneshian, M.; Eskes, C.; Goldberg, A.; Hasiwa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as

  6. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chroust, K.; Pavlová, M.; Prokop, Z.; Mendel, Jan; Božková, K.; Kubát, Z.; Zajíčková, V.; Damborský, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2007), s. 152-159 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : toxicity * wing spot test * QSAR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2007

  7. Evaluation and improvements of a mayfly, Neocloeon (Centroptilum) triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) toxicity test method - SETAC Europe 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recently published test method for Neocloeon triangulifer assessed the survival and growth of larval mayflies exposed to several reference toxicants (NaCl, KCl, and CuSO4). Results were not able to be replicated in subsequent experiments. To identify potential sources of variab...

  8. Study of four week repeated dose toxic test of Sweet Bee Venom in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seuk Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was performed to analyse four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet Bee Venom(Sweet BV extracted from the bee venom in Beagle dogs. Methods: All experiments were conducted under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP at Biotoxtech Company, a non-clinical study authorized institution. Male and female Beagle dogs of 5-6 months old were chosen for the pilot study of four week repeated dose toxicity of Sweet BV which was administered at the level of 0.56㎎/㎏ body weight which is eighty times higher than the clinical application dosage as the high dosage, followed by 0.28 and 0.14㎎/㎏ as midium and low dosage, respectively. Equal amount of excipient(normal saline to the Sweet BV experiment groups was administered as the control group every day for four weeks. Results: 1. No mortality was witnessed in all of the experiment groups. 2. All experiment groups were appealed pain sense in the treating time compared to the control group, and hyperemia and movement disorder were observed around the area of administration in all experiment groups, and higher occurrence in the higher dosage treatment. 3. For weight measurement, Neither male nor female groups showed significant changes. 4. In the urine analysis, CBC and biochemistry didn't show any significant changes in the experiment groups compared with control group. 5. For weight measurement of organs, experiment groups didn't show any significant changes compared with control group. 6. To verify abnormalities of organs and tissues, thigh muscle which treated with Sweet BV, cerebrum, liver, lung, kidney, and spinal cords were removed and conducted histologocal observation with H-E staining. In the histologocal observation of thigh muscle, cell infiltration, inflammatory, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis were found in both thigh tissue. And the changes were depend on the dose of Sweet BV. But another organs were not detected in any abnormalities. 7

  9. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  10. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd, Larry D; Richardson, Kathryn J; Purssell, Roy A; Abu-Laban, Riyad B; Brubacher, Jeffery R; Lepik, Katherine J; Sivilotti, Marco L A

    2008-04-28

    The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1) to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2) to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the identification of patients requiring dialysis. In

  11. Simulation of the loss of residual heat removal system of an integral test facility using French computer code CATHARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshko, A.A.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic CATHARE V1.3U code has been used to simulate an International Standard Problem (ISP38) experiment conducted at BETHSY Integral Test Facility located in Grenoble, France. This experiment dealt with simulation of the loss of Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) during midloop operation. Overall, the code's prediction and experimental data were found to be in a reasonable qualitative agreement. However, the code underestimated the time of the core uncover and the actuation of the gravity feed injection. It was found that the code's model of the upward tee junction needs to be refined for the low pressure ranges

  12. Residual radionuclide concentrations and estimated radiation doses at the former French nuclear weapons test sites in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, P R; Moreno, J; Makarewicz, M; Louvat, D

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the level of residual radioactivity and evaluate the radiological conditions at the former French nuclear testing sites of Reggane and Taourirt Tan Afella in the south of Algeria, the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the government of Algeria, conducted a field mission to the sites in 1999. At these locations, France conducted a number of nuclear tests in the early 1960s. At the ground zero locality of the ''Gerboise Blanche'' atmospheric test (Reggane) and in the vicinity of a tunnel where radioactive lava was ejected during a poorly contained explosion (Taourirt Tan Afella), non-negligible levels of radioactive material could still be measured. Using the information collected and using realistic potential exposure scenarios, radiation doses to potential occupants and visitors to the sites were estimated.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Fish Early Life Stage Tests - Association of Toxic Ratios and Acute-To-Chronic Ratios with Modes of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Stefan; Schreiber, Rene; Armitage, James

    2018-01-01

    Fish early life stage (FELS) tests (OECD test guideline 210) are widely conducted to estimate chronic fish toxicity. In these tests, fish are exposed from the embryonic to the juvenile life stage. In order to analyse whether certain modes of action are related to high toxic ratios (TR, i.e., rati...

  14. Meta-Analysis of Fish Early Life Stage Tests - Association of Toxic Ratios and Acute-To-Chronic Ratios with Modes of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Stefan; Schreiber, Rene; Armitage, James

    2018-01-01

    Fish early life stage (FELS) tests (OECD test guideline 210) are widely conducted to estimate chronic fish toxicity. In these tests, fish are exposed from the embryonic to the juvenile life stage. In order to analyse whether certain modes of action are related to high toxic ratios (TR, i.e., ratios...

  15. Toxicity and residual control of Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae with Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner and insecticides Toxicidade e controle residual de Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae com Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner e inseticidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pedroso de Moraes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella L. is the most important worldwide pest of cruciferous plants and indiscriminate use of insecticides has led to the resistance of the species to different groups. This research was conducted to compare the toxicity and persistence of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis to P. xylostella larvae. Concentrations between 125 and 500g 100L-1 of water of the commercial products were evaluated and compared to the insect growth inhibitor diflubenzuron and to the neurotoxic pyrethroid deltamethrin. The efficacy of the insecticides was compared between treated plants kept indoor greenhouse and outdoor. Third instar larvae were more susceptible to B. thuringiensis than first instar ones. Agree and Dipel showed similar control rates of third instars until 10 days after treatment, but on the 15th day, Agree was significantly more efficient than Dipel. Both B. thuringiensis formulations showed a reduction in mortality after 10 days when the treated plants were exposed to natural weather conditions in comparison to the same treatments kept inside greenhouse. Dimilin (100g 100L-1 of water and deltamethrin (30ml of commercial product 100L-1 of water were not efficient to control third instar larvae of P. xylostella. This inefficiency cannot be attributed to a resistant population of P. xylostella since the larval population used in the experiments was not subjected to insecticide pressure, once the crop was organically cultivated all year round. The results showed that both formulations of B. thuringiensis are sound alternatives for the control of the diamondback moth in organically conducted cruciferous crops, considering the high residual control provided under subtropical weather conditions.Larvas de Plutella xylostella L. são as principais pragas de crucíferas cultivadas e o uso excessivo e indiscriminado de inseticidas tem levado a resistência da espécie para diferentes grupos de inseticidas. Este trabalho foi conduzido para

  16. Evaluation of critical body residue data for acute narcosis in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, L S; Arnot, J A; Mackay, D

    2013-10-01

    The Environmental Residue Effects Database was evaluated to identify critical body residues of organic chemicals causing acute baseline neutral narcosis in aquatic organisms. Over 15 000 records for >400 chemicals were evaluated. Mean molar critical body residues in the final data set of 161 records for 29 chemicals were within published ranges but varied within and among chemicals and species (~3 orders of magnitude), and lipid normalization did not consistently decrease variability. All 29 chemicals can act as baseline neutral narcotics, but chemicals and/or their metabolites may also act by nonnarcotic modes of action. Specifically, nonnarcotic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their biotransformation derivatives may be a significant source of variability. Complete testing of the narcosis-critical body residue hypothesis was confounded by data gaps for key toxicity modifying factors such as metabolite formation/toxicity, lipid content/composition, other modes of toxic action, and lack of steady-state status. Such problems impede determination of the precise, accurate toxicity estimates necessary for sound toxicological comparisons. Thus, neither the data nor the chemicals in the final data set should be considered definitive. Changes to testing designs and methods are necessary to improve data collection and critical body residue interpretation for hazard and risk assessment. Each of the toxicity metrics discussed-wet weight and lipid weight critical body residues, volume fraction in organism lipid, and chemical activity-has advantages, but all are subject to the same toxicity modifying factors. © 2013 SETAC.

  17. Change of residual stresses during plastic deformation under uniaxial tension test; Variacion de las tensiones residuales con la deformacion plastica en el ensayo de traccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J. A.; Jorba, J.; Roca, A.

    2001-07-01

    Hang of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses was studied by X Ray diffraction method as the applied plastic deformation, measured as A% was increased in a standard tension test. The starting material, hot rolling Armco iron, has values close to 0 MPa in longitudinal direction. But it reaches 600 MPa with only A=1,5%, this value remains constant until necking is produced. In transverse direction the stating values are 300 MPa, changes are small and residual stresses remain compressive until the end of tension test. In addition, studies of the changes of residual stresses with time and with misalignment between incident X Ray and drawing direction are presented. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Nondestructive Testing of Residual Stress on the Welded Part of Butt-welded A36 Plates Using Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongsuk Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most manufacturing processes, including welding, create residual stresses. Residual stresses can reduce material strength and cause fractures. For estimating the reliability and aging of a welded structure, residual stresses should be evaluated as precisely as possible. Optical techniques such as holographic interferometry, electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI, Moire interferometry, and shearography are noncontact means of measuring residual stresses. Among optical techniques, ESPI is typically used as a nondestructive measurement technique of in-plane displacement, such as stress and strain, and out-of-plane displacement, such as vibration and bending. In this study, ESPI was used to measure the residual stress on the welded part of butt-welded American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM A36 specimens with CO2 welding. Four types of specimens, base metal specimen (BSP, tensile specimen including welded part (TSP, compression specimen including welded part (CSP, and annealed tensile specimen including welded part (ATSP, were tested. BSP was used to obtain the elastic modulus of a base metal. TSP and CSP were used to compare residual stresses under tensile and compressive loading conditions. ATSP was used to confirm the effect of heat treatment. Residual stresses on the welded parts of specimens were obtained from the phase map images obtained by ESPI. The results confirmed that residual stresses of welded parts can be measured by ESPI.

  19. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  20. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroust, Karel; Pavlová, Martina; Prokop, Zbynek; Mendel, Jan; Bozková, Katerina; Kubát, Zdenek; Zajícková, Veronika; Damborský, Jiri

    2007-02-01

    Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  1. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing vegetation toxicity at the Savannah River Site - germination tests and root elongation trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Klaine, S.J.; Hook, D.D. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Plants form the basis of all ecosystems including wetlands. Although they are the most abundant life form and are the primary producers for all other organisms, they have received the least attention when it comes to environmental matters. Higher plants have rarely been used in ecotoxicity testing and may not respond in the same manner as algae, which have been used more frequently. The introduction of hazardous waste materials into wetland areas has the potential to alter and damage the ecological processes in these ecosystems. Measuring the impact of these contaminants on higher plants is therefore important and needs further research. Higher plants are useful for detecting both herbicidal toxicity and heavy metal toxicity. For phytotoxicity tests to be practical they must be simple, inexpensive, yet sensitive to a variety of contaminants. A difference between seed germination and root elongation tests is that seed germination tests measure toxicity associated with soils directly, while root elongation tests consider the indirect effects of water-soluble constituents that may be present in site samples.

  2. Toxicity of sediments potentially contaminated by coal mining and natural gas extraction to unionid mussels and commonly tested benthic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kunz, James L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kane, Cindy M.; Evans, R. Brian; Alexander, Steven; Walker, Craig; Bakaletz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Sediment toxicity tests were conducted to assess potential effects of contaminants associated with coal mining or natural gas extraction activities in the upper Tennessee River basin and eastern Cumberland River basin in the United States. Test species included two unionid mussels (rainbow mussel, Villosa iris, and wavy-rayed lampmussel, Lampsilis fasciola, 28-d exposures), and the commonly tested amphipod, Hyalella azteca (28-d exposure) and midge, Chironomus dilutus (10-d exposure). Sediments were collected from seven test sites with mussel communities classified as impacted and in proximity to coal mining or gas extraction activities, and from five reference sites with mussel communities classified as not impacted and no or limited coal mining or gas extraction activities. Additional samples were collected from six test sites potentially with high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and from a test site contaminated by a coal ash spill. Mean survival, length, or biomass of one or more test species was reduced in 10 of 14 test samples (71%) from impacted areas relative to the response of organisms in the five reference samples. A higher proportion of samples was classified as toxic to mussels (63% for rainbow mussels, 50% for wavy-rayed lampmussels) compared with amphipods (38%) or midge (38%). Concentrations of total recoverable metals and total PAHs in sediments did not exceed effects-based probable effect concentrations (PECs). However, the survival, length, or biomasses of the mussels were reduced significantly with increasing PEC quotients for metals and for total PAHs, or with increasing sum equilibrium-partitioning sediment benchmark toxic units for PAHs. The growth of the rainbow mussel also significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of a major anion (chloride) and major cations (calcium and magnesium) in sediment pore water. Results of the present study indicated that (1) the findings from laboratory tests were generally

  3. Effect In Vitro of Antiparasitic Drugs on Microbial Inhibitor Test Responses for Screening Antibiotic Residues in Goat's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, T; Beltrán, M C; Reybroeck, W; Molina, M P

    2015-09-01

    Microbial inhibitor tests are widely used to screen antibiotic residues in milk; however, these tests are nonspecific and may be affected by various substances capable of inhibiting the growth of the test microorganism. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of antiparasitic drugs in goat's milk on the microbial inhibitor test response. Raw antibiotic-free milk from Murciano-Granadina goats was supplemented with eight concentrations of seven antiparasitic substances (albendazole, 10 to 170 mg/kg; closantel, 1 to 140 mg/kg; diclazuril, 8 to 45 mg/kg; febendazole, 10 to 140 mg/kg; levamisole, 40 to 440 mg/kg; diazinon, 8 to 45 mg/kg; and ivermectin, 40 to 200 mg/kg). Twelve replicates for each concentration were analyzed with three microbial inhibitor tests: BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MSC, and Eclipse 100. The results were interpreted visually (negative or positive). Using a logistic regression model, the concentrations of the antiparasitic drugs producing 5% (IC5), 10% (IC10), and 50% (IC50) positive results were determined. In general, the Eclipse 100 test was less sensitive to the effect of antiparasitic substances; the inhibitory concentrations of almost all the drugs assayed were higher than those for other tests. Conversely, the BRT MRL test was most affected, with high levels of interference at lower antiparasitic drug concentrations. Closantel and diazinon interfered with all microbial tests at lower concentrations than did other drugs (IC5 = 1 to 26 and 12 to 20 mg/kg, respectively), and higher concentrations of levamisole and diclazuril (IC5 = 30 to 240 and 50 to 117 mg/kg, respectively) were required to produce 5% positive results. These findings indicate that microbial inhibitor tests can be affected by elevated concentrations of antiparasitic drugs in goat's milk.

  4. Acute oral toxicity test and phytochemistry of some West African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awobajo, F O; Omorodion-Osagie, E; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Adegoke, O A; Adeleke, T I

    2009-01-01

    Although there is increased acceptance and utilization of medicinal plants worldwide, many are used indiscriminately without recourse to any safety test. Thus, the need for toxicity tests to determine the safe dose for oral consumption. LD50 and phytochemistry of four medicinal plants of West Africa were investigated. Thirty male and non pregnant female Swiss albino mice weighing 20grams each were used for this study. They were divided into the Control (C), Oldenlandia corymbosa L. aqueous leaf-extract treated (OCG), Parquetina nigrescens aqueous leaf extract treated (PNG), Hybanthus enneaspermus aqueous leaf extract treated (HEG), Ficus carica leaf extract treated (FCG) and Sesamum indicum aqueous seeds extract treated group (SIG). Each group except the control was further divided into four sub-groups of six mice each, and were administered orally, graded doses (SI; 1, 2, 4 and 8, PN; 2.5, 5, 10 and 20, OC; 5, 10, 20 and 40, FC; 1, 2, 4 and 8, HE; 4, 8, 16, 32) of the aqueous extract of each plant (g/kg body weight) after 12 hours fasting. The dry aqueous leaf extracts of HE, OC, PN, FC all have dark brown colour and pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.2 while the seed extract of SI has a light brown color with pH of 7.0. Flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, anthocyanosides, saponin, and reducing sugar were present in all extracts, while cyanogenic glycoside was present only in HE. LD50 determination results obtained using Thompson and Finney methods were as follows; OC; 14.14 +/- 0.27 and 10.56 +/- 0.20, PN; 12.60 +/- 0.10 and 13.10 +/- 0.10, HE; 8.14 +/- 0.30 and 8.24 +/- 0.35, FC; 3.36 +/- 0.26 and 4.00 +/- 0.04, SI; 4.00 +/- 0.10 and 3.10 +/- 0.22 respectively (LD50 values are in g/kg body weight. The results of this study have provided an oral LD50 from where a safe dose can be chosen for further research into the merits of the consumption of these medicinal plants.

  5. Review of titanium dioxide nanoparticle phototoxicity: Developing a phototoxicity ratio to correct the endpoint values of toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are photoactive and produce reactive oxygen species under natural sunlight. Reactive oxygen species can be detrimental to many organisms, causing oxidative damage, cell injury, and death. Most studies investigating TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity did not consider photoactivation and performed tests either in dark conditions or under artificial lighting that did not simulate natural irradiation. The present study summarizes the literature and derives a phototoxicity ratio between the results of nano‐titanium dioxide (nano‐TiO2) experiments conducted in the absence of sunlight and those conducted under solar or simulated solar radiation (SSR) for aquatic species. Therefore, the phototoxicity ratio can be used to correct endpoints of the toxicity tests with nano‐TiO2 that were performed in absence of sunlight. Such corrections also may be important for regulators and risk assessors when reviewing previously published data. A significant difference was observed between the phototoxicity ratios of 2 distinct groups: aquatic species belonging to order Cladocera, and all other aquatic species. Order Cladocera appeared very sensitive and prone to nano‐TiO2 phototoxicity. On average nano‐TiO2 was 20 times more toxic to non‐Cladocera and 1867 times more toxic to Cladocera (median values 3.3 and 24.7, respectively) after illumination. Both median value and 75% quartile of the phototoxicity ratio are chosen as the most practical values for the correction of endpoints of nano‐TiO2 toxicity tests that were performed in dark conditions, or in the absence of sunlight. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:1070–1077. © 2015 The Author. Published by SETAC. PMID:25640001

  6. Comparative toxicity test of water-accommodated fractions of oils and oil dispersants to marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This reference method describes a simple procedure for comparing the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants, and mixtures thereof, to marine animals. It allows the toxicity of different dispersants to be rapidly compared to that of oil, or of a mixture of oil an oil dispersant. It is designed for routine monitoring and screening purposes and is not appropriate as a research method. The physical and chemical properties of oil dispersants create many difficulties in the measurements of their toxicity to marine organisms. Strictly speaking, their toxicity can only be accurately estimated using complex procedures and apparatus. (A relatively simple apparatus for preparing oil/water or oil/water/oil dispersant emulsions is described in Appendix B). Simpler methods can provide useful information, provided their limitations are clearly understood and taken into consideration in the assessment and application of their results. Some of the special considerations relating to the measurement of the toxicity of oil and oil dispersants are described in Appendix A. The Appendix also explains the rationale and limitations of the method described here. 3 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  7. p-Benzoquinone-mediated amperometric biosensor developed with Psychrobacter sp. for toxicity testing of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiang; Liu, Mian; Wang, Xin; Wu, Zhen; Yang, Lianzhen; Xia, Siqing; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jianfu

    2013-03-15

    A rapid and reliable p-benzoquinone-mediated amperometric biosensor (ToxTell) incorporated with Psychrobacter sp. to detect toxicities of heavy metal ions has been developed. This ToxTell biosensor relied on the real-time monitoring of inhibition effect for metabolism by toxicant to provide early detection and assessment of the degree of toxicity to living cells. The effect of growth phase on the sensitivity of Psychrobacter sp. biosensor was studied. The results showed that at the middle of the logarithmic phase or transition from logarithmic to stationary phase, the Psychrobacter sp. ToxTell biosensor had a higher sensitivity to toxicants. The effects of pH, salinity in respiratory substrates and incubation time on the performance of Psychrobacter sp. biosensor were also investigated. EC(50) values of Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cr(6+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) to Psychrobacter sp. determined at incubation time 30 min were 2.6 mg/L, 47.3 mg/L, 10.9 mg/L, 14.0 mg/L, 0.8 mg/L and 110.1 mg/L, respectively. The ToxTell microbial biosensor developed in this work demonstrated excellent storage stability for more than 60 days. The biosensor could incorporate different microbial species as biocomponent to reflect the comprehensive values for toxicants in real samples and the results therefore had high degree of validity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reflections on a career and on the history of genetic toxicity testing in the National Toxicology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Errol

    2017-07-01

    One of the highly visible aspects of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been its genetic toxicity testing program, which has been responsible for testing, and making publicly available, in vitro and in vivo test data on thousands of chemicals since 1979. What is less well known, however, is that this NTP program had its origin in two separate testing programs that were initiated independently at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) before the NTP was established. The NCI program was in response to the 1971 National Cancer Act which dramatically increased the NCI budget. In contrast, the NIEHS testing program can be traced back to a publication by Bruce Ames, not the one describing the mutagenicity assay he developed that became known as the Ames test, but because in 1975 he published an article showing that hair dyes were mutagenic. The protocols developed for these NCI contracts became the basis for the NTP Salmonella testing contracts that were awarded a few years later. These protocols, with their supporting NTP data, strongly influenced the initial in vitro OECD Test Guidelines. The background and evolution of the NTP genetic toxicity testing program is described, along with some of the more significant milestone discoveries and accomplishments from this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Food safety aspect : Toxicity test of gold fish pepes sterilized by gamma irradiation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubaidah Irawati; Kallista Rachmavika Putri; Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a physical preservation technique for foods using ionizing energy without impairing the products either natural characteristics or nutritive contents. Formation of free radicals and radiolytic products in irradiated foods may produce toxic substances, mutagen or carcinogenic that can affect the consumer health. Toxicity test as a part of food safety assays on gold fish (Cyprinus carpio ) pepes in a package and irradiated at the dose of 45 kGy under cryogenic condition was conducted through lymphocyte proliferation because lymphocyte cell is responsible for specific immune response and sensitive to unbalance condition between oxidant and anti oxidant in human body. Malonaldehyde content in the irradiated fish was also measured bearing in mind that malonaldehyde content could be used as indicator in the presence of free radicals and as oxidative damage indicator within the matrix of biological material. Dilution steps was done in all samples both in control and irradiated. Irradiation was conducted at three different times i.e., sample irradiated on 11 November 2006 (A), 14 June 2007(B), 5 April 2008 (C) and in 2008 (code: “no label”) (D), respectively. Proliferation of lymphocyte cell was assayed based on Stimulation Index value (SI), and free radical content of all samples was calculated based on malonaldehyde content (pmol/ml). The measurement of SI in sample without dilution showed that the highest value was found in sample B (1.356), but the lowest value was obtained in control (1.161); at one time dilution the highest value was obtained in sample D (1.344), the lowest was found in sample B (1.084) compared to control (1.259). At twice time dilution, the highest value was found in control (1.293), but the lowest was in sample D (0.984). The results of malonaldehyde content (pmol/ml) showed that sample without dilution has the highest quantity was found in sample A (0.1182 pmol/ml), but the lowest was in sample C (0.1178 pmol/ml) for

  10. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O. [Aquateam-Norwegian Water Technology Centre A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  11. The verification tests of residual radioactivity measurement and assessment techniques for buildings and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, T.; Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, Yukio; Nakazawa, M.; Makino, S.; Urayama, K.; Kawasaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the standard procedure for decommissioning a commercial nuclear power plant (CNPP) in Japan, controlled areas will be released for unrestricted use before the dismantling of a reactor building. If manual survey and sampling techniques were applied to measurement for unrestricted release on and in the extensive surface of the building, much time and much specialized labor would be required to assess the appropriateness of the releasing. Therefore the authors selected the following three techniques for demonstrating reliability and applicability of the techniques for CNPPs: (1) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution on the surface of buildings (ADB); (2) technique of assessing radioactive permeation distribution in the concrete structure of buildings (APB); (3) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution in soil (ADS). These tests include the techniques of measuring and assessing very low radioactive concentration distribution on the extensive surfaces of buildings and the soil surrounding of a plant with automatic devices. Technical investigation and preliminary study of the verification tests were started in 1990. In the study, preconditions were clarified for each technique and the performance requirements were set up. Moreover, simulation models have been constructed for several feasible measurement method to assess their performance in terms of both measurement test and simulation analysis. Fundamental tests have been under way using small-scale apparatuses since 1994

  12. Generation of toxic degradation products by sonication of Pluronic® dispersants: implications for nanotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruhung; Hughes, Tyler; Beck, Simon; Vakil, Samee; Li, Synyoung; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford K

    2013-11-01

    Poloxamers (known by the trade name Pluronic®) are triblock copolymer surfactants that contain two polyethylene glycol blocks and one polypropylene glycol block of various sizes. Poloxamers are widely used as nanoparticle dispersants for nanotoxicity studies wherein nanoparticles are sonicated with a dispersant to prepare suspensions. It is known that poloxamers can be degraded during sonication and that reactive oxygen species contribute to the degradation process. However, the possibility that poloxamer degradation products are toxic to mammalian cells has not been well studied. We report here that aqueous solutions of poloxamer 188 (Pluronic® F-68) and poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F-127) sonicated in the presence or absence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) can became highly toxic to cultured cells. Moreover, toxicity correlated with the sonolytic degradation of the polymers. These findings suggest that caution should be used in interpreting the results of nanotoxicity studies where the potential sonolytic degradation of dispersants was not controlled.

  13. UV-visible degradation of boscalid- structural characterization of photoproducts and potential toxicity using in silico tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rifai, A.; Jaber, F.; Lassalle, Y.; Kinani, A.; Souissi, Y.; Clavaguera, C.; Bourcier, S.; Bouchonnet, St.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Boscalid is a carboximide fungicide mainly used for vineyard protection as well as for tomato, apple, blueberry and various ornamental cultivations. The structural elucidation of by-products arising from the UV-visible photodegradation of boscalid has been investigated by gas chromatography/multi-stage mass spectrometry (GC/MSn) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) couplings. The potential toxicities of transformation products were estimated by in silico calculations. METHODS: Aqueous solutions of boscalid were irradiated up to 150 min in a self-made reactor equipped with a mercury lamp. Analyses were carried out using a gas chromatograph coupled with an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in both electron ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes and a liquid chromatograph coupled with a quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer operated in electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. Multiple-stage collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments were performed to establish dissociation pathways of ions. The QSAR (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship) T.E.S.T. program allowed the estimation of the toxicities of the by-products. RESULTS: Eight photoproducts were investigated. Chemical structures were proposed not only on the interpretation of multi-stage CID experiments, but also on kinetics data. These structures led us to suggest photodegradation pathways. Three photoproducts were finally detected in Lebanon in a real sample of grape leaves for which routine analysis had led to the detection of boscalid at 4 mg kg1. CONCLUSIONS: With one exception, the structures proposed for the photoproducts on the basis of mass spectra interpretation have not been reported in previous studies. In silico toxicity predictions showed that two photoproducts are potentially more toxic than the parent compound considering oral rat LD50 while five photoproducts may induce mutagenic toxicity. With the exception of one compound

  14. Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.

  15. Testing strategies for embryo-fetal toxicity of human pharmaceuticals. Animal models vs. in vitro approaches: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Chapin, Robert E; Haenen, Bert; Jacobs, Abigail C; Piersma, Aldert

    2012-06-01

    Reproductive toxicity testing is characterized by high animal use. For registration of pharmaceutical compounds, developmental toxicity studies are usually conducted in both rat and rabbits. Efforts have been underway for a long time to design alternatives to animal use. Implementation has lagged, partly because of uncertainties about the applicability domain of the alternatives. The reproductive cycle is complex and not all mechanisms of development can be mimicked in vitro. Therefore, efforts are underway to characterize the available alternative tests with regard to the mechanism of action they include. One alternative test is the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST), which has been studied since the late 1990s. It is a genuine 3R "alternative" assay as it is essentially animal-free. A meeting was held to review the state-of-the-art of various in vitro models for prediction of developmental toxicity. Although the predictivity of individual assays is improving, a battery of several assays is likely to have even higher predictivity, which is necessary for regulatory acceptance. The workshop concluded that an important first step is a thorough survey of the existing rat and rabbit studies, to fully characterize the frequency of responses and the types of effects seen. At the same time, it is important to continue the optimization of in vitro assays. As more experience accumulates, the optimal conditions, assay structure, and applicability of the alternative assays are expected to emerge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biocompatibility study of two diblock copolymeric nanoparticles for biomedical applications by in vitro toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain); Mariani, Valentina [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Cohen, Dror [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Madi, Lea [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Thevenot, Julie; Oliveira, Hugo [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Uboldi, Chiara; Giudetti, Guido; Coradeghini, Rosella [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Garanger, Elisabeth [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Rossi, François [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Oron, Miriam [Dead Sea Laboratories, AHAVA (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi [Tel-Aviv University, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine (Israel); Lecommandoux, Sébastien [ENSCPB, Université de Bordeaux (France); Ponti, Jessica [European Commission, Nanobiosciences Unit, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (Italy); Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Heredia, Pedro, E-mail: heredia@gaiker.es [GAIKER Technology Centre (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Drugs used for chemotherapy normally carry out adverse, undesired effects. Nanotechnology brings about new horizons to tackle cancer disease with a different strategy. One of the most promising approaches is the use of nanocarriers to transport active drugs. These nanocarriers need to have special properties to avoid immune responses and toxicity, and it is critical to study these effects. Nanocarriers may have different nature, but polypeptide-based copolymers have attracted considerable attention for their biocompatibility, controlled and slow biodegradability as well as low toxicity. Little has been done regarding specific nanocarriers toxicity. In this study, we performed a thorough toxicological study of two different block copolymer nanoparticles (NPs); poly(trimethylene carbonate)-block–poly(l-glutamic acid) (PTMC-b–PGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block–poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate) (PEG-b–PBLG) with sizes between 113 and 131 nm. Low blood–serum–protein interaction was observed. Moreover, general toxicity assays and other endpoints (apoptosis or necrosis) showed good biocompatibility for both NPs. Reactive oxygen species increased in only two cell lines (HepG2 and TK6) in the presence of PTMC-b–PGA. Cytokine production study showed cytokine induction only in one cell line (A549). We also performed the same assays on human skin organ culture before and after UVB light treatment, with a moderate toxicity after treatment independent of NPs presence or absence. Interleukin 1 induction was also observed due to the combined effect of PEG-b–PBLG and UVB light irradiation. Future in vivo studies for biocompatibility and toxicity will provide more valuable information, but, so far, the findings presented here suggest the possibility of using these two NPs as nanocarriers for nanomedical applications, always taking into account the application procedure and the way in which they are implemented.

  17. Evaluation of the bioactivities of some Myanmar medicinal plants using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabai; Khin Khin Win Aung; Nwe Ni Thin; Kyi Shwe; Tin Myint Htwe

    2001-01-01

    For a variety of toxic substances, brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) are usually used as a simple bioassay method and it is also applied for natural product research. The brine shrimp larvae (nauplii) are obtained by natural hatching method from Artemia cysts. By using the larvae, the results from these experiments lead to the lethal dose, LD 50 values of extracts of selected medicinal plants. Activities of a broad range of plant extracts are manifested as toxicity to the brine shrimp. Screening results with six plant extracts are compared with pure caffeine. This method is rapid, reliable, inexpensive and convenient. (author)

  18. Catecholamine Homeostasis in Tetrahymena species and High Throughput Toxicity Testing of Selected Chemicals and Ultrafine Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Ud-Daula, Md Asad

    2009-01-01

    96-well plate formate was used for the determination of toxicity to the CAs, 5-FU, PFCs and TiO2 nanoparticles in Tetrahymena species. Every compound of CAs depleted the total number of cells and consequently exhibited moderate toxicity. Dopamine strongly affected the natural noradrenaline synthesis. Moreover, this exogenous exposure of dopamine and L-DOPA at 0.12 ppm caused the formation of a novel metabolite by Tetrahymena. The molecular weight of this new metabolite was found to be 150 m/z...

  19. Quantitative structure-activity relationships and mixture toxicity of organic chemicals in Photobacterium phosphoreum: the Microtox test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermens, J.; Busser, F.; Leeuwangh, P.; Musch, A.

    1985-02-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were calculated for the inhibition of bioluminescence of Photobacterium phosphoreum by 22 nonreactive organic chemicals. The inhibition was measured using the Microtox test and correlated with the partition coefficient between n-octanol and water (Poct), molar refractivity (MR), and molar volume (MW/d). At log Poct less than 1 and greater than 3, deviations from linearity were observed. Introduction of MR and MW/d improved the quality of the relationships. The influences of MR or MW/d may be related with an interaction of the tested chemicals to the enzyme system which produces the light emission. The sensitivity of the Microtox test to the 22 tested compounds is comparable to a 14-day acute mortality test with guppies for chemicals with log Poct less than 4. The inhibition of bioluminescence by a mixture of the tested compounds was slightly less than was expected in case of concentration addition. The Microtox test can give a good estimate of the total aspecific minimum toxicity of polluted waters. When rather lipophilic compounds or pollutants with more specific modes of action are present, this test will underestimate the toxicity to other aquatic life.

  20. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  1. IMPACT TESTING OF THE RESIDUAL LIMB: SYSTEM RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN PROSTHETIC STIFFNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Boutwell, Erin; Stine, Rebecca; Gard, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Currently, it is unknown whether changing prosthetic limb stiffness affects the total limb stiffness and influences the shock absorption of an individual with transtibial amputation. The hypotheses tested within this study are that a decrease in longitudinal prosthetic stiffness will produce (1) a reduced total limb stiffness; and (2) reduced magnitude of peak impact forces and increased time delay to peak force. Fourteen subjects with a transtibial amputation participated in this study. Pros...

  2. Assessment of diazinon toxicity in sediment and water of constructed wetlands using deployed Corbicula fluminea and laboratory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouldin, J L; Farris, J L; Moore, M T; Smith, S; Cooper, C M

    2007-08-01

    Constructed wetlands for mitigation of nonpoint agricultural runoff have been assessed for their ability to decrease potential toxicity from associated contaminants. After a simulated runoff event, constructed wetlands positioned in series were used to measure the effects of the organophosphate insecticide diazinon. Water, sediment, and plant samples from five sites were analyzed for diazinon concentrations from 0.5 hours to 26 days; peak concentrations were measured in sediment after 0.5 hours (268.7 microg/kg) and in water and plant tissue after 3 hours (121.71 microg/L and 300.7 microg/kg, respectively). Cholinesterase activity and changes in shell growth were measured from Corbicula fluminea deployed at corresponding sites. Water collected after 9 hours from all wetland sites contained diazinon concentrations sufficient to cause toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, but not to Pimephales promelas. C. dubia survival was decreased in water sampled through 7 days from the site nearest runoff introduction, whereas C. fluminea deployed at this same site experienced 100% mortality after 26 days. Clams from lower sites survived wetland conditions, but growth and ChE activity were significantly decreased lower than that of clams from a control site. C. dubia exposed to water from these sites continued to have decreased survival throughout the 26-day sampling. Sediment sampled from 48 hours through 14 days at the lowest wetland site decreased the laboratory survival of Chironomus dilutus, and sediment from upper sites elicited an effect only on day 26. Although wetland concentrations of aqueous diazinon were decreased lower than toxic thresholds after 26 days, decreased ChE activity in deployed clams provided evidence of residual diazinon effects to deployed organisms.

  3. Water quality assessment in piracicamirim creek upstream and downstream a sugar and ethanol industry through toxicity tests with cladocerans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Grossi Botelho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An environmental impact study was conducted to determine the Piracicamirim's creek water quality in order to assess the influence of effluents from a sugar industry in this water body. For this, toxicity tests were performed with a water sample upstream and downstream the industry using the microcrustaceans Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Ceriodaphnia silvestrii as test organisms, as well as physical and chemical analysis of water. Results showed that physical and chemical parameters did not change during the sampling period, except for the dissolved oxygen. No toxicity was observed for D. magna and reproduction of C. dubia and C. silvestrii in both sampling points. Thus, the industry was not negatively impacting the quality of this water body.

  4. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Jessica U; Del Amo, Yolanda; Costes, Laurence; Medlin, Linda K

    2013-03-05

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae)-an FP7-funded EU project-used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU) as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR) and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3) and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  6. Testing a Microarray to Detect and Monitor Toxic Microalgae in Arcachon Bay in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda K. Medlin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs occur worldwide, causing health problems and economic damages to fisheries and tourism. Monitoring agencies are therefore essential, yet monitoring is based only on time-consuming light microscopy, a level at which a correct identification can be limited by insufficient morphological characters. The project MIDTAL (Microarray Detection of Toxic Algae—an FP7-funded EU project—used rRNA genes (SSU and LSU as a target on microarrays to identify toxic species. Furthermore, toxins were detected with a newly developed multiplex optical Surface Plasmon Resonance biosensor (Multi SPR and compared with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. In this study, we demonstrate the latest generation of MIDTAL microarrays (version 3 and show the correlation between cell counts, detected toxin and microarray signals from field samples taken in Arcachon Bay in France in 2011. The MIDTAL microarray always detected more potentially toxic species than those detected by microscopic counts. The toxin detection was even more sensitive than both methods. Because of the universal nature of both toxin and species microarrays, they can be used to detect invasive species. Nevertheless, the MIDTAL microarray is not completely universal: first, because not all toxic species are on the chip, and second, because invasive species, such as Ostreopsis, already influence European coasts.

  7. Rapid in vitro tests to determine the toxicity of raw wastewater and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-18

    Sep 18, 2012 ... toxicity of raw wastewater and treated sewage effluents from 3 sewage treatment plants in the Western Cape, South Africa. Raw wastewater and ... ing effective removal of genotoxins by all three sewage treatment plants investigated. Keywords: ..... have shown cytotoxicity of chlorinated drinking water pro-.

  8. Earthworm nano‐ecotoxicology: Towards an integrated approach in toxicity testing of metal nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Yuya; Pedersen, Henrik; Wang, Jing

    Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) belong to an emerging class of potential environmental pollutants. Of particular interest are the characteristics of NP toxicity under different exposure conditions e.g. cell culture, aquatic or soil media. NPs are thought to behave differently depending...

  9. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivato, Alberto; Gaspari, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration

  10. Standard procedure for testing acute toxic effects on bioluminescent bacteria; Saggio di tossicita` acuta con batteri bioluminescenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [CNR, Brugherio, Milan (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca Sulle Acque

    1996-06-01

    A standardized method for the determination of 15-30 min toxicity of `Vibrio fisheri` bioluminescent bacteria is evaluated. The proposed method can be applied for the analysis of liquid (superficial and drinking waters, eluates and wastes) and solid (sediments and muds) samples and permits the quantification of the EC50 and EC20 values and of the no-effective sample dilution. The results of a interlaboratory ring tests conducted with reference substances are illustrated.

  11. Developmental toxicity testing in the 21st century: the sword of Damocles shattered by embryonic stem cell assays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Andrea; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Liebsch, Manfred; Pirow, Ralph; Riebeling, Christian; Tralau, Tewes; Luch, Andreas

    2011-11-01

    Modern society faces an inherent dilemma. In our globalized society, we are spoilt for choice by an ever-increasing number of products, many of which are made of new materials and compound mixtures. At the same time, as consumers we got accustomed to the idea of a life minimized for risk, including our own exposure to chemicals from the environment or to compounds present in and released from everyday products. Chemical safety testing bridges these obviously diverging interests, and the corresponding legislation has hence been tremendously extended (e.g., introduction of the European legislation REACH in 2007). However, the underlying regulatory toxicology still relies mainly on animal testing, which is relatively slow, expensive, and ethically arguable. Meanwhile, recent years have seen a surge in efforts to develop alternative testing systems and strategies. Expectations are particularly high for the applicability of stem cells as test systems especially for developmental toxicity testing in vitro. For the first time in history, test systems can be based on differentiating cells and tissue progenitors in culture, thus bringing the 'vision of toxicity testing in the 21st century' a step closer.

  12. The ToxBank Data Warehouse: Supporting the Replacement of In Vivo Repeated Dose Systemic Toxicity Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohonen, Pekka; Benfenati, Emilio; Bower, David; Ceder, Rebecca; Crump, Michael; Cross, Kevin; Grafström, Roland C; Healy, Lyn; Helma, Christoph; Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Maggioni, Silvia; Miller, Scott; Myatt, Glenn; Rautenberg, Michael; Stacey, Glyn; Willighagen, Egon; Wiseman, Jeff; Hardy, Barry

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the SEURAT-1 (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing-1) research cluster, comprised of seven EU FP7 Health projects co-financed by Cosmetics Europe, is to generate a proof-of-concept to show how the latest technologies, systems toxicology and toxicogenomics can be combined to deliver a test replacement for repeated dose systemic toxicity testing on animals. The SEURAT-1 strategy is to adopt a mode-of-action framework to describe repeated dose toxicity, combining in vitro and in silico methods to derive predictions of in vivo toxicity responses. ToxBank is the cross-cluster infrastructure project whose activities include the development of a data warehouse to provide a web-accessible shared repository of research data and protocols, a physical compounds repository, reference or "gold compounds" for use across the cluster (available via wiki.toxbank.net), and a reference resource for biomaterials. Core technologies used in the data warehouse include the ISA-Tab universal data exchange format, REpresentational State Transfer (REST) web services, the W3C Resource Description Framework (RDF) and the OpenTox standards. We describe the design of the data warehouse based on cluster requirements, the implementation based on open standards, and finally the underlying concepts and initial results of a data analysis utilizing public data related to the gold compounds. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Construction of the Database of Rat Repeated-dose Toxicity Tests of Pesticides for the Toxicological Characterization of Hepatocyte Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akane; Masuda, Miyabi; Kawano, Takuya; Kitsunai, Yoko; Nakayama, Haruka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Uramaru, Naoto; Hosaka, Takuomi; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Yoshinari, Kouichi

    2017-01-01

    Liver and hepatocyte hypertrophy can be induced by exposure to chemical compounds, but the mechanisms and toxicological characteristics of these phenomena have not yet been investigated extensively. In particular, it remains unclear whether the hepatocyte hypertrophy induced by chemical compounds should be judged as an adaptive response or an adverse effect. Thus, understanding of the toxicological characteristics of hepatocyte hypertrophy is of great importance to the safety evaluation of pesticides and other chemical compounds. To this end, we have constructed a database of potentially toxic pesticides. Using risk assessment reports of pesticides that are publicly available from the Food Safety Commission of Japan, we extracted all observations/findings that were based on 90-day subacute toxicity tests and 2-year chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity tests in rats. Analysis of the database revealed that hepatocyte hypertrophy was observed for 37-47% of the pesticides investigated (varying depending on sex and testing period), and that centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy was the most frequent among the various types of hepatocyte hypertrophy in both the 90-day and 2-year studies. The database constructed in this study enables us to investigate the relationships between hepatocyte hypertrophy and other toxicological observations/findings, and thus will be useful for characterizing hepatocyte hypertrophy.

  14. Study on a 4-Week Recovery Test of Sweet Bee Venom after a 13-Week, Repeated, Intramuscular Dose Toxicity Test in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungsan Lim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:This study was performed to check for reversibility in the changes induced by a 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats. Methods:Fifteen male and 15 female SD rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of SBV (high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results:(1 Hyperemia and movement disorder were observed in the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test, but these symptoms were not observed during the recovery period. (2 The rats in the high-dose group showed no significant changes in weight compared to the control group. (3 No significant differences in the ophthalmic parameters, urine analyses, complete blood cell counts (CBCs, and biochemistry were observed among the recovery groups. (4 No changes in organ weights were observed during the recovery period. (5 Histological examination of the thigh muscle indicated cell infiltration, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis of muscle fiber, and fibrosis during the treatment period, but these changes were not observed during the recovery period. The fatty liver change that was observed during the toxicity test was not observed during the recovery period. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion:The changes that occurred during the 13-week, repeated, dose toxicity test are reversible, and SBV can be safely used as a treatment modality.

  15. The extended statistical analysis of toxicity tests using standardised effect sizes (SESs: a comparison of nine published papers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F W Festing

    Full Text Available The safety of chemicals, drugs, novel foods and genetically modified crops is often tested using repeat-dose sub-acute toxicity tests in rats or mice. It is important to avoid misinterpretations of the results as these tests are used to help determine safe exposure levels in humans. Treated and control groups are compared for a range of haematological, biochemical and other biomarkers which may indicate tissue damage or other adverse effects. However, the statistical analysis and presentation of such data poses problems due to the large number of statistical tests which are involved. Often, it is not clear whether a "statistically significant" effect is real or a false positive (type I error due to sampling variation. The author's conclusions appear to be reached somewhat subjectively by the pattern of statistical significances, discounting those which they judge to be type I errors and ignoring any biomarker where the p-value is greater than p = 0.05. However, by using standardised effect sizes (SESs a range of graphical methods and an over-all assessment of the mean absolute response can be made. The approach is an extension, not a replacement of existing methods. It is intended to assist toxicologists and regulators in the interpretation of the results. Here, the SES analysis has been applied to data from nine published sub-acute toxicity tests in order to compare the findings with those of the author's. Line plots, box plots and bar plots show the pattern of response. Dose-response relationships are easily seen. A "bootstrap" test compares the mean absolute differences across dose groups. In four out of seven papers where the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL was estimated by the authors, it was set too high according to the bootstrap test, suggesting that possible toxicity is under-estimated.

  16. Beta lactam antibiotics residues in cow’s milk: comparison of efficacy of three screening tests used in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzić, Nihad; Begagić, Muris; Šerić-Haračić, Sabina; Smajlović, Muhamed

    2014-01-01

    Beta lactam antibiotics are widely used in therapy of cattle, particularly for the treatment of mastitis. Over 95% of residue testing in dairies in Bosnia and Herzegovina is for Beta lactams. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of three most common screening tests for Beta lactam residues in cow’s milk in our country. The tests used in the study are SNAP β Lactam test (Idexx), Rosa Charm β Lactam test (Charm Sciences) and Inhibition MRL test (A&M). Study samples included: standardized concentrations of penicillin solution (0, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 ppb). In addition we tested milk samples from three equal size study groups (not receiving any antibiotic therapy, treated with Beta lactams for mastitis and treated with Beta lactams for diseases other than mastitis). Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each test, using standard penicillin concentrations with threshold value set at concentration of 4 ppb (Maximum residue level – MLR). Additionally we determined proportions of presumably false negative and false positive results for each test using results of filed samples testing. Agreement of test results for each test pair was assessed through Kappa coefficients interpreted by Landis-Koch scale. Detection level of all tests was shown to be well below MRL. This alongside with effects of natural inhibitors in milk contributed to finding of positive results in untreated and treated animals after the withholding period. Screening tests for beta lactam residues are important tools for ensuring that milk for human consumption is free from antibiotics residues. PMID:25172975

  17. Comparison of Toxicity of Sediments from Rivers with Different Levels of Anthropogenic Load (Middle Volga Region, Russia Based on Elutriate and Whole Sediment Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Stepanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of chemical characteristics and toxicity testing of whole sediment and elutri-ate have been performed with 35 samples taken during the monitoring of rivers in the Middle Volga region (Tatarstan, Russia in 2013. The locations analyzed are sites associated with agriculture, forestry, and petroleum hydrocarbons (oil production. The toxicity tests include: (1 Chlorella vulgaris (algal elutriate test, (2 Paramecium caudatum (ciliate elutriate test, (3 Daphnia magna (cladoceran whole sediment toxicity test, and (4 Heterocypris incongruens (ostracod whole sediment toxicity test. The concentrations of metals in 43% of sediment samples have been found to exceed probable effect concentration sediment quality guidelines (SQGs. However, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and organochlorine pesticides have turned out to be below SQGs in most sites. The correlation analysis has shown metal toxicity to daphnid reproduction and ostracod growth (R2 = 0.34–0.64 and ammonia (R2 = 0.49–0.54. A higher percentage of samples have shown toxicity in the whole sediment tests (86% compared to the elutriate tests (54%. A total of 91% of samples have demonstrated toxicity for at least one species. Toxicity has been most frequently observed for daphnid reproduction (83% of samples and ostracod growth (56% of samples compared to daphnid (23% survival, ostracod (11% survival, and ciliate reproduction (54% or algal growth (54%. The most polluted sediments have been registered in the area of oil production. The comparison of toxicity of the samples from different types of areas has indicated that 100% of samples from the oil production area, 94% of samples from the agricultural area, and 50% of samples from the forest area were toxic to at least one test organism.

  18. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    Full Text Available The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET. In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P, the hazard index (HI and the cancer risk index (RI were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As > cadmium (Cd > lead (Pb > copper (Cu > chromium (Cr, in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3 and 1.05 × 10(-3, respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1 and 2.80 × 10(-1, respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  19. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Binbin; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Qixing

    2014-01-01

    The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET). In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P), the hazard index (HI) and the cancer risk index (RI) were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As) > cadmium (Cd) > lead (Pb) > copper (Cu) > chromium (Cr), in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3) and 1.05 × 10(-3), respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ) of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1) and 2.80 × 10(-1), respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  20. Implementing Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C): Making safety decisions using toxicity pathways, and progress in a prototype risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin; Clewell, Rebecca; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matthew; Edwards, Sue; Fowler, Paul; Malcomber, Sophie; Nicol, Beate; Scott, Andrew; Scott, Sharon; Sun, Bin; Westmoreland, Carl; White, Andrew; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L

    2015-06-05

    Risk assessment methodologies in toxicology have remained largely unchanged for decades. The default approach uses high dose animal studies, together with human exposure estimates, and conservative assessment (uncertainty) factors or linear extrapolations to determine whether a specific chemical exposure is 'safe' or 'unsafe'. Although some incremental changes have appeared over the years, results from all new approaches are still judged against this process of extrapolating high-dose effects in animals to low-dose exposures in humans. The US National Research Council blueprint for change, entitled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy called for a transformation of toxicity testing from a system based on high-dose studies in laboratory animals to one founded primarily on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signalling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues. More recently, this concept of pathways-based approaches to risk assessment has been expanded by the description of 'Adverse Outcome Pathways' (AOPs). The question, however, has been how to translate this AOP/TT21C vision into the practical tools that will be useful to those expected to make safety decisions. We have sought to provide a practical example of how the TT21C vision can be implemented to facilitate a safety assessment for a commercial chemical without the use of animal testing. To this end, the key elements of the TT21C vision have been broken down to a set of actions that can be brought together to achieve such a safety assessment. Such components of a pathways-based risk assessment have been widely discussed, however to-date, no worked examples of the entire risk assessment process exist. In order to begin to test the process, we have taken the approach of examining a prototype toxicity pathway (DNA damage responses mediated by the p53 network) and constructing a strategy for the development of a pathway based risk assessment for a specific

  1. Implementing Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century (TT21C): Making safety decisions using toxicity pathways, and progress in a prototype risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeleye, Yeyejide; Andersen, Melvin; Clewell, Rebecca; Davies, Michael; Dent, Matthew; Edwards, Sue; Fowler, Paul; Malcomber, Sophie; Nicol, Beate; Scott, Andrew; Scott, Sharon; Sun, Bin; Westmoreland, Carl; White, Andrew; Zhang, Qiang; Carmichael, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment methodologies in toxicology have remained largely unchanged for decades. The default approach uses high dose animal studies, together with human exposure estimates, and conservative assessment (uncertainty) factors or linear extrapolations to determine whether a specific chemical exposure is ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’. Although some incremental changes have appeared over the years, results from all new approaches are still judged against this process of extrapolating high-dose effects in animals to low-dose exposures in humans. The US National Research Council blueprint for change, entitled Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategy called for a transformation of toxicity testing from a system based on high-dose studies in laboratory animals to one founded primarily on in vitro methods that evaluate changes in normal cellular signalling pathways using human-relevant cells or tissues. More recently, this concept of pathways-based approaches to risk assessment has been expanded by the description of ‘Adverse Outcome Pathways’ (AOPs). The question, however, has been how to translate this AOP/TT21C vision into the practical tools that will be useful to those expected to make safety decisions. We have sought to provide a practical example of how the TT21C vision can be implemented to facilitate a safety assessment for a commercial chemical without the use of animal testing. To this end, the key elements of the TT21C vision have been broken down to a set of actions that can be brought together to achieve such a safety assessment. Such components of a pathways-based risk assessment have been widely discussed, however to-date, no worked examples of the entire risk assessment process exist. In order to begin to test the process, we have taken the approach of examining a prototype toxicity pathway (DNA damage responses mediated by the p53 network) and constructing a strategy for the development of a pathway based risk assessment for a

  2. Report on tests using TTH-separator residue in a rotating filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenhut, O.

    1943-04-06

    Tests were conducted to verify earlier yield results and at the same time to ascertain the paraffin quality to be attained. The yields expected were reached using filtering agent A (Paraflow) and increased with use of asphalt instead as filtering agent. Specific gravity of the product paraffins as corrected to a filtering-agent-free basis was about 0.782 for both filtering agents. Distillation of 80% to 82% of the paraffins lowered the specific gravity to about 0.777 or 0.778. Complete removal of oils from the product paraffins would give specific gravity of 0.777 before distillation and 0.775 after; even this process did not give a specific gravity of 0.774 for distillate paraffin as Oppau wanted. Comparison of the specific gravities 0.775 for oil-free product and 0.777 to 0.778 as actually achieved showed that the filtration process was satisfactory, since oil content of the distillate paraffin was not supposed to exceed 3% to 4%. Complete removal of oil from the paraffin could not be accomplished even by use of comparatively high pressure and temperature. Results indicated that, while Zeitz had sufficient filter surfaces to handle an increased volume, their mixing procedures were responsible for lower than necessary yields. The comparison of Zeitz material to earlier material from Leuna showed a notable increase in total yield, but a drop in paraffin distillate quality, which indicated that Leuna material had undergone better hydrogenation. 6 tables, 2 graphs.

  3. In-vitro methods for testing dermal absorption and penetration of toxic gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Sharyn; Pisaniello, Dino; Edwards, John W; Bromwich, David; Reed, Sue; Logan, Michael; Baxter, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This technical note provides details of an experimental technique for in-vitro skin studies with atmospheric chemical challenge. There appear to be major evidence gaps in relation to dermal exposure of gases. We describe a modification of standard OECD protocols for an atmospheric delivery system which can be used to understand interaction of toxic gases and the skin. The system can be used to examine the mechanisms by which skin uptake occurs. Auxiliary components which allow for parameter variation such as temperature and relative humidity are also described. Methodology presented in this technical note uses examples of gas challenges (ammonia, chlorine) to illustrate its application to gases of differing physicochemical properties. This adapted protocol can be applied in the context of HAZMAT scenarios involving atmospheric toxic chemical release and dermal absorption potential under variable exposure conditions.

  4. Thallium-201 for cardiac stress tests: residual radioactivity worries patients and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Matthew J; Brown, Norman; Murray, David

    2012-12-01

    A 47-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in duress and stated he was "highly radioactive." There were no reports of nuclear disasters, spills, or mishaps in the local area. This report discusses the potential for thallium-201 (Tl-201) patients to activate passive radiation alarms days to weeks after nuclear stress tests, even while shielded inside industrial vehicles away from sensors. Characteristics of Tl-201, as used for medical imaging, are described. This patient was twice detained by Homeland Security Agents and searched after he activated radiation detectors at a seaport security checkpoint. Security agents deemed him not to be a threat, but they expressed concern regarding his health and level of personal radioactivity. The patient was subsequently barred from his job and sent to the hospital. Tl-201 is a widely used radioisotope for medical imaging. The radioactive half-life of Tl-201 is 73.1h, however, reported periods of extended personal radiation have been seen as far out as 61 days post-administration. This case describes an anxious, but otherwise asymptomatic patient presenting to the ED with detection of low-level personal radiation. Documentation should be provided to and carried by individuals receiving radionuclides for a minimum of five to six half-lives of the longest-lasting isotope provided. Patients receiving Tl-201 should understand the potential for security issues; reducing probable tense moments, confusion, and anxiety to themselves, their employers, security officials, and ED staff. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Large-scale assessment of the zebrafish embryo as a possible predictive model in toxicity testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the drug discovery pipeline, safety pharmacology is a major issue. The zebrafish has been proposed as a model that can bridge the gap in this field between cell assays (which are cost-effective, but low in data content and rodent assays (which are high in data content, but less cost-efficient. However, zebrafish assays are only likely to be useful if they can be shown to have high predictive power. We examined this issue by assaying 60 water-soluble compounds representing a range of chemical classes and toxicological mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over 20,000 wild-type zebrafish embryos (including controls were cultured individually in defined buffer in 96-well plates. Embryos were exposed for a 96 hour period starting at 24 hours post fertilization. A logarithmic concentration series was used for range-finding, followed by a narrower geometric series for LC(50 determination. Zebrafish embryo LC(50 (log mmol/L, and published data on rodent LD(50 (log mmol/kg, were found to be strongly correlated (using Kendall's rank correlation tau and Pearson's product-moment correlation. The slope of the regression line for the full set of compounds was 0.73403. However, we found that the slope was strongly influenced by compound class. Thus, while most compounds had a similar toxicity level in both species, some compounds were markedly more toxic in zebrafish than in rodents, or vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: For the substances examined here, in aggregate, the zebrafish embryo model has good predictivity for toxicity in rodents. However, the correlation between zebrafish and rodent toxicity varies considerably between individual compounds and compound class. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the zebrafish model in light of these findings.

  6. Understanding the causes of toxicity in treated landfill leachate through whole eefluent testing

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, David J. L

    2010-01-01

    Landfill leachate is collected and treated before discharge to protect the environment from a potential toxic cocktail of substances. In the U.K. biological treatment is the favourite technology for rendering landfill leachate safe due its simple design, effective handling of varying chemical loads and relatively low operating costs. Biological treatment is effective at reducing the concentrations of ammoniacal-nitrogen and the biological oxygen demand (BOD) to acceptable level...

  7. Reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A and cadmium in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and modulation of bisphenol A effects by different test temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Stange, Daniela; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Joerg

    2011-01-01

    An OECD initiative for the development of mollusc-based toxicity tests for endocrine disrupters and other chemicals has recommended three test species with respective test designs for further standardisation. Preparing a subsequent pre-validation study we performed a reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum, determining the concentration range of the selected test substances, bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd). At 16 deg. C, the recommended test temperature, the number of embryos in the brood pouch was increased by BPA and decreased by Cd (NOEC: 20 μg BPA/L and 1 μg Cd/L). Coinstantaneous BPA tests at 7 deg. C and 25 deg. C demonstrated a temperature dependency of the response, resulting in lower NOECs (5 μg/L respectively). As expected, reproduction in control groups significantly varied depending on temperature. Additional observations of the brood stock showed seasonal fluctuations in reproduction under constant laboratory conditions. The recommended temperature range and test conditions have to be further investigated. - Highlights: → We performed a reproduction test with the mollusc Potamopyrgus antipodarum. → We defined the test substance concentration range for a pre-validation study. → The bisphenol A effect (increased reproduction) depends on the test temperature. → Reproduction of control groups significantly varies depending on temperature. → The brood stock shows seasonal fluctuations in reproduction at constant conditions. - A reproduction test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum with 2 substances for subsequent pre-validation is presented and bisphenol A effects show a temperature dependency.

  8. Nanomaterials in the Environment: Perspectives on in Vivo Terrestrial Toxicity Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique C. P. Mendonça

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, engineered nanomaterials (NMs brought a revolutionary development in many sectors of human life including electronics, paints, textiles, food, agriculture, and health care. However, the exponential growth in the number of NMs applications resulted in uncertainties regarding their environmental impacts. Currently, the common approach for assessing the toxicity of NMs such as, carbon—(fullerenes, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, mineral—(gold and silver nanoparticles, cerium and zinc oxide, silicon and titanium dioxide, and organic-based NMs (dendrimers includes standard guidelines applied to all chemical compounds. Nevertheless, NMs differ from traditional materials as their physicochemical and surface properties influence the toxic rather than their composition alone. Considering such NMs specificities, adaptations in some methods are necessary to ensure that environmental and human health risks are accurately investigated. In this context, the focus of this mini-review is to summarize the current knowledge in nanotoxicology regarding relevant organisms and experimental assays for assessing the terrestrial toxicity of NMs.

  9. A new microbial screening method for the detection of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals: The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.; Oostra-van Dijk, S.; Schouten, J.; Rapallini, M.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    An improved microbial method for the screening of antimicrobial residues in slaughter animals has been developed. The Nouws antibiotic test (NAT-screening) is based on the analysis of renal pelvis fluid and comprises five test plates enabling group specific identification. The NAT-screening combines

  10. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith; Kim, Youn-Jung; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae; Shin, Woongghi; Han, Taejun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F v /F m of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F v /F m ) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR max ) with median effective concentration (EC 50 ) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC 50 of 3.17 mM. The EC 50 values for F v /F m , motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents

  11. In vitro to in vivo extrapolation of effective dosimetry in developmental toxicity testing: Application of a generic PBK modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragki, Styliani; Piersma, Aldert H; Rorije, Emiel; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2017-10-01

    Incorporation of kinetics to quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (QIVIVE) is a key step for the realization of a non-animal testing paradigm, in the sphere of regulatory toxicology. The use of Physiologically-Based Kinetic (PBK) modelling for determining systemic doses of chemicals at the target site is accepted to be an indispensable element for such purposes. Nonetheless, PBK models are usually designed for a single or a group of compounds and are considered demanding, with respect to experimental data needed for model parameterization. Alternatively, we evaluate here the use of a more generic approach, i.e. the so-called IndusChemFate model, which is based on incorporated QSAR model parametrization. The model was used to simulate the in vivo kinetics of three diverse classes of developmental toxicants: triazoles, glycol ethers' alkoxyacetic acid metabolites and phthalate primary metabolites. The model required specific input per each class of compounds. These compounds were previously tested in three alternative assays: the whole-embryo culture (WEC), the zebrafish embryo test (ZET), and the mouse embryonic stem cell test (EST). Thereafter, the PBK-simulated blood levels at toxic in vivo doses were compared to the respective in vitro effective concentrations. Comparisons pertaining to relative potency and potency ranking with integration of kinetics were similar to previously obtained comparisons. Additionally, all three in vitro systems produced quite comparable results, and hence, a combination of alternative tests is still preferable for predicting the endpoint of developmental toxicity in vivo. This approach is put forward as biologically more plausible since plasma concentrations, rather than external administered doses, constitute the most direct in vivo dose metric. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A rapid phenol toxicity test based on photosynthesis and movement of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottuparambil, Sreejith [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youn-Jung [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon; Kim, Mi-Sung; Park, Areum; Park, Jihae [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Woongghi [Department of Biology, Chungnam University, Daejeon 306 764 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Taejun, E-mail: hanalgae@hanmail.net [Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Marine Science, Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of); Green-Pioneer (Ltd.), Incheon National University, Incheon 406 840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on Chl a fluorescence and the movement parameters of Euglena agilis. • Phenol significantly reduced F{sub v}/F{sub m} of PS II and rETRmax with EC50 values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. • Among the movement parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC50 of 3.17 mM. • The EC50 values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the environmental permissible levels of phenol. - Abstract: Phenol, a monosubstituted aromatic hydrocarbon with various commercial uses, is a major organic constituent in industrial wastewaters. The ecotoxic action of phenol for aquatic environment is well known. In this study, rapid phenol toxicity tests (1 h) were developed based on chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence and the movement parameters of the freshwater flagellate, Euglena agilis Carter. Phenol significantly reduced the maximum quantum yield (F{sub v}/F{sub m}) of photosystem II (PS II) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (rETR{sub max}) with median effective concentration (EC{sub 50}) values of 8.94 and 4.67 mM, respectively. Phenol reduced the motility and triggered change in the swimming velocity of the test organism. Among the parameters tested, velocity was the most sensitive biomarker with an EC{sub 50} of 3.17 mM. The EC{sub 50} values for F{sub v}/F{sub m}, motility, and velocity appear to overlap the permitted levels of phenol. In conclusion, the photosynthesis and movement of E. agilis can be fast and sensitive risk assessment parameters for the evaluation of phenol toxicity in municipal and industrial effluents.

  13. Exploration of Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. from soil and screening test its toxicity on insects of Lepidoptera order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, DT; Pujiastuti, Y.; Suparman, SHK; Damiri, N.; Nugraha, S.; Sembiring, ER; Mulawarman

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a gram-positive bacterium that produces crystal proteins toxic (ᴕ-endotoxin) specific to the target insect, but is not toxic to humans and non-target organisms. This study aims to explore the origin of the soil bacterium B. thuringiensis sub-district Sekayu, Banyuasin, South Sumatra and toxicity to larvae of lepidoptera. Fifty soil samples were taken from Musi Banyuasin District, namely 15 from Kayuare strip 2, 20 from Kayuare and 15 from Lumpatan. Isolation, characterization, identification and screening test were conducted in the laboratorium of Pest and Disease, Agricultural Faculty, Sriwijaya University. Isolat codes were given based on the area origin of the samples. Results of the study showed that from 50 isolates of bacteria that had been isolated, there were 15 bacterial isolates, characterized by morphology and physiology the same as B. thuringiensis, which has round colonies, white, wrinkled edges, slippery, elevation arise, aerobic and gram-positive. Of the 15 codes that contain positive isolates of B. thuringiensis, we have obtained several isolates of the following codes: KJ2D5, KJ2N1, KJ2N4, KJ2B3, KJ3R1, KJ3R2, KJ3R3, KJ3R5, KJ3J3, KJ3J4, KJ3P1, DLM5, DLKK12, and DLKK23. Results of screening tests on insects of the Lepidoptera Order showed that there were six isolates that had toxic to Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera litura insects, ie bacterial isolate codes DLM5, KJ3R3, KJ3R5, KJ3J4, KJ3P1, and DLKK23.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  15. The effect of pH on the uptake and toxicity of the bivalent weak base chloroquine tested on Salix viminalis and Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    , and therefore a higher toxicity can be expected. The current study examines the pHdependent toxicity and bioaccumulation of the bivalent weak base chloroquine (pKa: 10.47 and 6.33, log KOW 4.67) tested on Salix viminalis (basket willow) and Daphnia magna (water flea). The transpiration rates of hydroponically...

  16. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  17. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  18. Comparison of the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test, the rat Whole Embryo Culture and the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test as alternative methods for developmental toxicity testing of six 1,2,4-triazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Esther de; Barenys, Marta; Hermsen, Sanne A.B.; Verhoef, Aart; Ossendorp, Bernadette C.; Bessems, Jos G.M.; Piersma, Aldert H.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively high experimental animal use in developmental toxicity testing has stimulated the search for alternatives that are less animal intensive. Three widely studied alternative assays are the mouse Embryonic Stem cell Test (EST), the Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test (ZET) and the rat postimplantation Whole Embryo Culture (WEC). The goal of this study was to determine their efficacy in assessing the relative developmental toxicity of six 1,2,4-triazole compounds, flusilazole, hexaconazole, cyproconazole, triadimefon, myclobutanil and triticonazole. For this purpose, we analyzed effects and relative potencies of the compounds in and among the alternative assays and compared the findings to their known in vivo developmental toxicity. Triazoles are antifungal agents used in agriculture and medicine, some of which are known to induce craniofacial and limb abnormalities in rodents. The WEC showed a general pattern of teratogenic effects, typical of exposure to triazoles, mainly consisting of reduction and fusion of the first and second branchial arches, which are in accordance with the craniofacial malformations reported after in vivo exposure. In the EST all triazole compounds inhibited cardiomyocyte differentiation concentration-dependently. Overall, the ZET gave the best correlation with the relative in vivo developmental toxicities of the tested compounds, closely followed by the EST. The relative potencies observed in the WEC showed the lowest correlation with the in vivo developmental toxicity data. These differences in the efficacy between the test systems might be due to differences in compound kinetics, in developmental stages represented and in the relative complexity of the alternative assays.

  19. The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embry, Michelle R.; Belanger, Scott E.; Braunbeck, Thomas A.; Galay-Burgos, Malyka; Halder, Marlies; Hinton, David E.; Leonard, Marc A.; Lillicrap, Adam; Norberg-King, Teresa; Whale, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Animal alternatives research has historically focused on human safety assessments and has only recently been extended to environmental testing. This is particularly for those assays that involve the use of fish. A number of alternatives are being pursued by the scientific community including the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test, a proposed replacement alternative to the acute fish test. Discussion of the FET methodology and its application in environmental assessments on a global level was needed. With this emerging issue in mind, the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) and the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) held an International Workshop on the Application of the Fish Embryo Test as an Animal Alternative Method in Hazard and Risk Assessment and Scientific Research in March, 2008. The workshop included approximately 40 scientists and regulators representing government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations from North America, Europe, and Asia. The goal was to review the state of the science regarding the investigation of fish embryonic tests, pain and distress in fish, emerging approaches utilizing fish embryos, and the use of fish embryo toxicity test data in various types of environmental assessments (e.g., hazard, risk, effluent, and classification and labeling of chemicals). Some specific key outcomes included agreement that risk assessors need fish data for decision-making, that extending the FET to include eluethereombryos was desirable, that relevant endpoints are being used, and that additional endpoints could facilitate additional uses beyond acute toxicity testing. The FET was, however, not yet considered validated sensu OECD. An important action step will be to provide guidance on how all fish tests can be used to assess chemical hazard and to harmonize the diverse terminology used in test guidelines adopted over the past decades. Use of the FET in context of effluent assessments

  20. A Comparison of the Daphnids, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua, for their Utilization in Routine Toxicity Testing in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, S.M.; Chandler, G.T.; Specht, W.L.

    2003-02-18

    U.S. regulatory agencies commonly require effluent toxicity testing with Ceriodaphnia dubia- a practice which has led to the criticism that this species and test protocol often does not reflect local taxa nor site-specific conditions. Using an indigenous test species may produce a more realistic model of local effects and may minimize test endpoint variance due to regional differences in water quality. This study addressed the substitution of C. dubia with Daphnia ambigua for toxicity