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Sample records for residual spray irs

  1. Good performances but short lasting efficacy of Actellic 50 EC Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) on malaria transmission in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aïkpon, Rock; Sèzonlin, Michel; Tokponon, Filémon; Okè, Mariam; Oussou, Olivier; Oké-Agbo, Frédéric; Beach, Raymond; Akogbéto, Martin

    2014-05-30

    The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) has been using pirimiphos methyl for the first time for indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Benin. The first round was a success with a significant decrease of entomological indicators of malaria transmission in the treated districts. We present the results of the entomological impact on malaria transmission. Entomologic parameters in the control area were compared with those in intervention sites. Mosquito collections were carried out in three districts in the Atacora-Dongo region of which two were treated with pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 50EC) (Tanguiéta and Kouandé) and the untreated (Copargo) served as control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations were sampled monthly by human landing catch. In addition, window exit traps and pyrethrum spray catches were performed to assess exophagic behavior of Anopheles vectors. In the three districts, mosquito collections were organized to follow the impact of pirimiphos methyl IRS on malaria transmission and possible changes in the behavior of mosquitoes. The residual activity of pirimiphos methyl in the treated walls was also assessed using WHO bioassay test. A significant reduction (94.25%) in human biting rate was recorded in treated districts where an inhabitant received less than 1 bite of An. gambiae per night. During this same time, the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) dramatically declined in the treated area (99.24% reduction). We also noted a significant reduction in longevity of the vectors and an increase in exophily induced by pirimiphos methyl on An. gambiae. However, no significant impact was found on the blood feeding rate. Otherwise, the low residual activity of Actellic 50 EC, which is three months, is a disadvantage. Pirimiphos methyl was found to be effective for IRS in Benin. However, because of the low persistence of Actellic 50EC used in this study on the treated walls, the recourse to another more residual formulation of pirimiphos methyl is required.

  2. Multi-country assessment of residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in malaria control on different surface types: results from program monitoring in 17 PMI/USAID-supported IRS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengela, Dereje; Seyoum, Aklilu; Lucas, Bradford; Johns, Benjamin; George, Kristen; Belemvire, Allison; Caranci, Angela; Norris, Laura C; Fornadel, Christen M

    2018-01-30

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is the application of insecticide to the interior walls of household structures that often serve as resting sites for mosquito vectors of malaria. Human exposure to malaria vectors is reduced when IRS involves proper application of pre-determined concentrations of the active ingredient specific to the insecticide formulation of choice. The impact of IRS can be affected by the dosage of insecticide, spray coverage, vector behavior, vector susceptibility to insecticides, and the residual efficacy of the insecticide applied. This report compiles data on the residual efficacy of insecticides used in IRS campaigns implemented by the United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in 17 African countries and compares observed length of efficacy to ranges proposed in World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Additionally, this study provides initial analysis on variation of mosquito mortality depending on the surface material of sprayed structures, country spray program, year of implementation, source of tested mosquitoes, and type of insecticide. Residual efficacy of the insecticides used for PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns was measured in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The WHO cone bioassay tests were used to assess the mortality rate of mosquitoes exposed to insecticide-treated mud, wood, cement, and other commonly used housing materials. Baseline tests were performed within weeks of IRS application and follow-up tests were continued until the mortality of exposed mosquitoes dropped below 80% or the program monitoring period ended. Residual efficacy in months was then evaluated with respect to WHO guidelines that provide suggested ranges of residual efficacy for insecticide formulations recommended for use in IRS. Where the data allowed, direct

  3. Impact of three years of large scale Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS and Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs interventions on insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Benin

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    Padonou Gil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Benin, Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs are the cornerstones of malaria prevention. In the context of high resistance of Anopheles gambiae to pyrethroids, The National Malaria Control Program (NMCP has undertaken a full coverage of IRS in a no-flood zone in the Oueme region, coupled with the distribution of LLINs in a flood zone. We assessed the impact of this campaign on phenotypic resistance, kdr (knock-down resistance and ace-1R (insensitive acetylcholinesterase mutations. Methods Insecticides used for malaria vector control interventions were bendiocarb WP (0.4 g/m2 and deltamethrin (55 mg/m2, respectively for IRS and LLINs. Susceptibility status of An. gambiae was assessed using World Health Organization bioassay tests to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb in the Oueme region before intervention (2007 and after interventions in 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae specimens were screened for identification of species, molecular M and S forms and for the detection of the West African kdr (L1014F as well as ace-1R mutations using PCR techniques. Results The univariate logistic regression performed showed that kdr frequency has increased significantly during the three years in the intervention area and in the control area. Several factors (LLINs, IRS, mosquito coils, aerosols, use of pesticides for crop protection could explain the selection of individual resistant An. gambiae. The Kdr resistance gene could not be the only mechanism of resistance observed in the Oueme region. The high susceptibility to bendiocarb is in agreement with a previous study conducted in Benin. However, the occurrence of ace-1R heterozygous individuals even on sites far from IRS areas, suggests other factors may contribute to the selection of resistance other than those exerted by the vector control program. Conclusion The results of this study have confirmed that An.gambiae have maintained and developed

  4. First determination of impact and outcome indicators following indoor residual spraying (IRS with deltamethrin in a new focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in Iran

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    Aghaei Afshar Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the impact and outcome indicators following residual spraying with deltamethrin in new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2010-2011. Methods: Deltamethrin WP 5% was applied at 25 mg a.i/m2.in intervention area using Hudson compression sprayer. Sticky trap were used to collect sand flies twice each month from human and animal dwelling in either or intervention and control areas. Results: The incidence of disease was significantly decreased (3.65 versus 8.43. There was a significant difference between treats and control areas on blood fed and gravidity of sand flies. Conclusions: The results of current study clearly indicated that indoor residual spraying caused a significant decline of density, blood fed and gravidity of vectors resulting a sharp reduction of disease incidence.

  5. Knowledge and perceptions about indoor residual spray for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Munga

    strategies using IRS to be more effective, meaningful and sustainable, aspects such as community knowledge, attitudes and practices has to be taken into consideration (Okumu et al.,. 2011). Thus this study investigated community knowledge, attitudes and practices on indoor residual spraying as a control tool for malaria ...

  6. Knowledge and perceptions about indoor residual spray for malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria control and intervention tools usage and coverage in community depend on community acceptability and compliance. Indoor residual spray (IRS) and long lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) are the preferred and recommended intervention tools. This study assessed the knowledge and perceptions ...

  7. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  8. Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Incidence of Malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS), the application of a chemical to the internal walls of the structure in order to kill an insect that sits on the wall treated with such a chemical, is one of the methods adopted by World Health Organisation in combating malaria by controlling the vector mosquito. In line with the Zambian ...

  9. Indoor Residual Spraying Delivery Models to Prevent Malaria: Comparison of Community- and District-Based Approaches in Ethiopia

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    Johns, Benjamin; Yihdego, Yemane Yeebiyo; Kolyada, Lena; Dengela, Dereje; Chibsa, Sheleme; Dissanayake, Gunawardena; George, Kristen; Taffese, Hiwot Solomon; Lucas, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria prevention has traditionally been implemented in Ethiopia by the district health office with technical and operational inputs from regional, zonal, and central health offices. The United States President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) in collaboration with the Government of Ethiopia tested the effectiveness and efficiency of integrating IRS into the government-funded community-based rural health services program. Methods: Between 2012 and 2014, PMI conducted a mixed-methods study in 11 districts of Oromia region to compare district-based IRS (DB IRS) and community-based IRS (CB IRS) models. In the DB IRS model, each district included 2 centrally located operational sites where spray teams camped during the IRS campaign and from which they traveled to the villages to conduct spraying. In the CB IRS model, spray team members were hired from the communities in which they operated, thus eliminating the need for transport and camping facilities. The study team evaluated spray coverage, the quality of spraying, compliance with environmental and safety standards, and cost and performance efficiency. Results: The average number of eligible structures found and sprayed in the CB IRS districts increased by 19.6% and 20.3%, respectively, between 2012 (before CB IRS) and 2013 (during CB IRS). Between 2013 and 2014, the numbers increased by about 14%. In contrast, in the DB IRS districts the number of eligible structures found increased by only 8.1% between 2012 and 2013 and by 0.4% between 2013 and 2014. The quality of CB IRS operations was good and comparable to that in the DB IRS model, according to wall bioassay tests. Some compliance issues in the first year of CB IRS implementation were corrected in the second year, bringing compliance up to the level of the DB IRS model. The CB IRS model had, on average, higher amortized costs per district than the DB IRS model but lower unit costs per structure sprayed and per

  10. Efficacy, persistence and vector susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic 300CS) insecticide for indoor residual spraying in Zanzibar.

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    Haji, Khamis A; Thawer, Narjis G; Khatib, Bakari O; Mcha, Juma H; Rashid, Abdallah; Ali, Abdullah S; Jones, Christopher; Bagi, Judit; Magesa, Stephen M; Ramsan, Mahdi M; Garimo, Issa; Greer, George; Reithinger, Richard; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2015-12-09

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of households with insecticide is a principal malaria vector control intervention in Zanzibar. In 2006, IRS using the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrine was introduced in Zanzibar. Following detection of pyrethroid resistance in 2010, an insecticide resistance management plan was proposed, and IRS using bendiocarb was started in 2011. In 2014, bendiocarb was replaced by pirimiphos methyl. This study investigated the residual efficacy of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 300CS) sprayed on common surfaces of human dwellings in Zanzibar. The residual activity of Actellic 300CS was determined over 9 months through bioassay tests that measured the mortality of female Anopheles mosquitoes, exposed to sprayed surfaces under a WHO cone. The wall surfaces included; mud wall, oil or water painted walls, lime washed wall, un-plastered cement block wall and stone blocks. Insecticide susceptibility testing was done to investigate the resistance status of local malaria vectors against Actellic 300CS using WHO protocols; Anopheline species were identified using PCR methods. Baseline tests conducted one-day post-IRS revealed 100% mortality on all sprayed surfaces. The residual efficacy of Actellic 300CS was maintained on all sprayed surfaces up to 8 months post-IRS. However, the bioassay test conducted 9 months post-IRS showed the 24 h mortality rate to be ≤80% for lime wash, mud wall, water paint and stone block surfaces. Only oil paint surface retained the recommended residual efficacy beyond 9 months post-IRS, with mortality maintained at ≥97 %. Results of susceptibility tests showed that malaria vectors in Zanzibar were fully (100%) susceptible to Actellic 300CS. The predominant mosquito vector species was An. arabiensis (76.0%) in Pemba and An. gambiae (83.5%) in Unguja. The microencapsulated formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 300CS) is a highly effective and appropriate insecticide for IRS use in Zanzibar as it showed a relatively prolonged

  11. Accuracy and impact of spatial aids based upon satellite enumeration to improve indoor residual spraying spatial coverage.

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    Bridges, Daniel J; Pollard, Derek; Winters, Anna M; Winters, Benjamin; Sikaala, Chadwick; Renn, Silvia; Larsen, David A

    2018-02-23

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a key tool in the fight to control, eliminate and ultimately eradicate malaria. IRS protection is based on a communal effect such that an individual's protection primarily relies on the community-level coverage of IRS with limited protection being provided by household-level coverage. To ensure a communal effect is achieved through IRS, achieving high and uniform community-level coverage should be the ultimate priority of an IRS campaign. Ensuring high community-level coverage of IRS in malaria-endemic areas is challenging given the lack of information available about both the location and number of households needing IRS in any given area. A process termed 'mSpray' has been developed and implemented and involves use of satellite imagery for enumeration for planning IRS and a mobile application to guide IRS implementation. This study assessed (1) the accuracy of the satellite enumeration and (2) how various degrees of spatial aid provided through the mSpray process affected community-level IRS coverage during the 2015 spray campaign in Zambia. A 2-stage sampling process was applied to assess accuracy of satellite enumeration to determine number and location of sprayable structures. Results indicated an overall sensitivity of 94% for satellite enumeration compared to finding structures on the ground. After adjusting for structure size, roof, and wall type, households in Nchelenge District where all types of satellite-based spatial aids (paper-based maps plus use of the mobile mSpray application) were used were more likely to have received IRS than Kasama district where maps used were not based on satellite enumeration. The probability of a household being sprayed in Nchelenge district where tablet-based maps were used, did not differ statistically from that of a household in Samfya District, where detailed paper-based spatial aids based on satellite enumeration were provided. IRS coverage from the 2015 spray season benefited from

  12. Toolkit for Monitoring and Evaluation of Indoor Residual Spraying for Visceral Leishmaniasis Control in the Indian Subcontinent: Application and Results

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    M. Mamun Huda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We field tested and validated a newly developed monitoring and evaluation (M&E toolkit for indoor residual spraying to be used by the supervisors at different levels of the national kala-azar elimination programs in Bangladesh, India and Nepal. Methods. Methods included document analysis, in-depth interviews, direct observation of spraying squads, and entomological-chemical assessments (bioassay, susceptibility test, chemical analysis of insecticide residues on sprayed surfaces, vector density measurements at baseline, and three follow-up surveys. Results. We found that the documentation at district offices was fairly complete; important shortcomings included insufficient training of spraying squads and supervisors, deficient spray equipment, poor spraying performance, lack of protective clothing, limited coverage of houses resulting in low bioavailability of the insecticide on sprayed surfaces, and reduced vector susceptibility to DDT in India, which limited the impact on vector densities. Conclusion. The M&E toolkit is a useful instrument for detecting constraints in IRS operations and to trigger timely response.

  13. The impact of indoor residual spraying of deltamethrin on dengue vector populations in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Paredes-Esquivel, Claudia; Lenhart, Audrey; del Río, Ricardo; Leza, M M; Estrugo, M; Chalco, Enrique; Casanova, Wilma; Miranda, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is an important public health problem in the Amazon area of Peru, resulting in significant morbidity each year. As in other areas of the world, ultra-low volume (ULV) application of insecticides is the main strategy to reduce adult populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, despite growing evidence of its limitations as a single control method. This study investigated the efficacy of deltamethrin S.C. applied through indoor residual spraying (IRS) of dwellings in reducing A. aegypti populations. The residual effect of the insecticide was tested by monthly bioassays on the three most common indoor surfaces found in the Amazon area: painted wood, unpainted wood and brick. The results showed that in an area with moderate levels of A. aegypti infestation, IRS dramatically reduced all immature indices the first week after deltamethrin IRS application and the adult index from 18.5 to 3.1, four weeks after intervention (p80% 8 weeks after application on all types of surfaces. The residual effect of the insecticide was greater on brick than on wooden walls (pdengue vector control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Equal Opportunity, Equal Work: Increasing Women's Participation in the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project.

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    Donner, Abigail; Belemvire, Allison; Johns, Ben; Mangam, Keith; Fiekowsky, Elana; Gunn, Jayleen; Hayden, Mary; Ernst, Kacey

    2017-12-28

    One of the primary control measures for malaria transmission is indoor residual spraying (IRS). Historically, few women have worked in IRS programs, despite the income-generating potential. Increasing women's roles in IRS requires understanding the barriers to women's participation and implementing measures to address them. The U.S. President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) Africa Indoor Residual Spraying (AIRS) Project is the largest implementer of IRS globally. To address gender inequity in IRS operations, PMI AIRS assessed the barriers to the participation of women and developed and implemented policies to address these barriers. The PMI AIRS Project initially identified barriers through a series of informal assessments with key stakeholders. PMI AIRS then implemented a series of gender-guided policies, starting in 2015, in Benin, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The policies included adapting physical work environments to ensure privacy for women; ensuring the safety of women in the workplace; guaranteeing safety and job security of women during pregnancy; and encouraging qualified women to apply for supervisory positions. The project collected routine programmatic data on staff, spray quality, and spray efficiency; data from 2012 through the end of 2015 were analyzed (up through 1 year after implementation of the gender policies). In addition, PMI AIRS conducted surveys in 2015, 2016, and 2017 before and after the spray campaigns in 4 countries to determine changes in gender norms among spray operators through questions about decision making and agency. The PMI AIRS Project increased women's employment with the program. Specifically, women's employment increased overall from 23% in 2012 to 29% in 2015, with a 2015 range from 16% (Mali) to 40% (Madagascar). Growth among supervisor roles was even stronger, with the percentage of women in supervisory roles increasing from 17% in 2012 to 46% in 2015, with a 2015

  15. Taking local ownership: government and household contribution to indoor residual spraying in Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidina, Zainab; Colaco, Rajeev; Ali, Abdullah S; Mcha, Juma H; Mwalimu, Charles D; Thawer, Narjis G; Lalji, Shabbir; Mutagahywa, Joshua; Ramsan, Mahdi M; Kafuko, Jessica M; Kaspar, Naomi; Magesa, Stephen M; Reithinger, Richard; Ngondi, Jeremiah M

    2016-07-01

    While donor funding is instrumental in initiation and implementation of malaria control efforts, national government contributions are key to local ownership and sustainability. This study explored in-kind contributions of local government and households towards the cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions in Tanzania. Data were collected through interviews with local government officials and technical teams in the IRS project. Household contribution was based on provision of water for IRS. Government contributions included government-provided warehouse and office space, vehicles, and staff labour. In-kind contributions were aggregated at the district, regional and national level. Calculations were based on proportion of total costs of IRS from 2010 to 2012. The mainland government provided larger amounts of in-kind contribution in absolute value (mean of US$454 200) compared to Zanzibar (US$89 163). On average, in-kind contribution was 5.5% of total costs in Zanzibar and 2.9% in mainland. The proportion of government in-kind contribution was higher in Zanzibar versus the mainland (86% vs 50%) while household contribution was higher in mainland compared to Zanzibar (50% vs 14%). Government involvement, particularly through budgetary allocations and increased in-kind contribution, needs to be encouraged for malaria control efforts to be locally owned, managed and sustained. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Efficacy of indoor residual spraying using lambda-cyhalothrin for controlling nontarget vector fleas (Siphonaptera) on commensal rats in a plague endemic region of northwestern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Jeff N; Eisen, Rebecca J; Atiku, Linda A; Delorey, Mark J; Mpanga, Joseph T; Babi, Nackson; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-09-01

    Over the past two decades, the majority of human plague cases have been reported from areas in Africa, including Uganda. In an effort to develop affordable plague control methods within an integrated vector control framework, we evaluated the efficacy of indoor residual spraying (IRS) techniques commonly used for mosquito control for controlling fleas on hut-dwelling commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of Uganda. We evaluated both the standard IRS spraying (walls and ceiling) and a modified IRS technique that included insecticide application on not only on walls and ceiling but also a portion of the floor of each treated hut. Our study demonstrated that both the standard and modified IRS applications were effective at significantly reducing the flea burden and flea infestation of commensal rodents for up to 100 d after application, suggesting that IRS could potentially provide simultaneous control of mosquito and fleaborne diseases.

  17. Malaria vector control by indoor residual insecticide spraying on the tropical island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea

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    Kuklinski Jaime

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A comprehensive malaria control intervention was initiated in February 2004 on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. This manuscript reports on the continuous entomological monitoring of the indoor residual spray (IRS programme during the first two years of its implementation. Methods Mosquitoes were captured daily using window traps at 16 sentinel sites and analysed for species identification, sporozoite rates and knockdown resistance (kdr using polymerase chain reaction (PCR to assess the efficacy of the vector control initiative from December 2003 to December 2005. Results A total of 2,807 and 10,293 Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae s.l. respectively were captured throughout the study period. Both M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles melas were identified. Prior to the first round of IRS, sporozoite rates were 6.0, 8.3 and 4.0 for An. gambiae s.s., An. melas and An. funestus respectively showing An. melas to be an important vector in areas in which it occurred. After the third spray round, no infective mosquitoes were identified. After the first spray round using a pyrethroid spray the number of An. gambiae s.s. were not reduced due to the presence of the kdr gene but An funestus and An. melas populations declined from 23.5 to 3.1 and 5.3 to 0.8 per trap per 100 nights respectively. After the introduction of a carbamate insecticide in the second round, An. gambiae s.s. reduced from 25.5 to 1.9 per trap per 100 nights and An. funestus and An. melas remained at very low levels. Kdr was found only in the M-form of An. gambiae s.s. with the highest frequency at Punta Europa (85%. Conclusion All three vectors that were responsible for malaria transmission before the start of the intervention were successfully controlled once an effective insecticide was used. Continuous entomological surveillance including resistance monitoring is of critical importance in any IRS based malaria vector control programme

  18. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngufor, C; Fongnikin, A; Rowland, M; N'Guessan, R

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insectic...

  19. Indoor residual spraying with microencapsulated DEET repellent (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) for control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitau, Jovin; Oxborough, Richard; Matowo, Johnson; Mosha, Franklin; Magesa, Stephen M; Rowland, Mark

    2014-09-23

    Evolution of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae complex necessitates evaluation of alternative chemical classes to complement existing insecticides for long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Microencapsulated (MC) DEET (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) is a formulation of the popular repellent, which gives long lasting activity when applied to nets. Its suitability for IRS use has not been evaluated before. This study assessed the efficacy of DEET MC, for IRS in experimental huts. DEET MC was tested alongside standard repellent and non-repellent residual insecticides: lambdacyhalothrin, permethrin, pirimiphos methyl and DDT. Residual formulations of these compounds were sprayed on plywood panels attached to walls of experimental huts to assess efficacy against pyrethroid resistant, wild free-flying Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The panel treatments were rotated weekly between huts. The overall mortalities of An. arabiensis induced by the various treatments (range: 76-86%) were significantly greater than mortality in the untreated control (8%, P control (34%) than in sprayed huts (range between treatments: 19-22%, P control. There was a significantly higher exiting of An. arabiensis from huts sprayed with DEET (98%), lambdacyhalothrin (98%) and permethrin (96%) relative to the control (80%, P control. Microencapsulated DEET acts like an insecticide at ambient temperature and induces mosquito mortality when applied to walls made from wooden panels. This trial demonstrated the potential of microencapsulated DEET to control An. arabiensis and warrants further studies of residual activity on interior substrates.

  20. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  1. Fast-cool-down dual gas spray-cooler for pivoted IR detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingst, Uwe G.

    2003-09-01

    Fast cool-down Joule-Thomson cooler for IR-detectors are required for all missiles, which shall be operable within a very short time, like IR-missiles being fired from ground against fast approaching fighter aircrafts at low flight-levels. New IR-seeker developments with larger look-angles require often that the IR-sensor is placed on the pivoted gimbal system. Due to space nd weight limitations the fast cool-down cooler for the sensor often cannot be installed there. The way out is the here presented two-stage "Fast Cool-down Dual Gas Spray Cooler." This by patents protected new fast cool-down cooler for pivoted IR-detectors contains an additionally installed 2nd-stage heat exchange-cooler. It comprises at the rear side of the detector-plate a nozzle through which a highly pressurized and pre-cooled gas (e.g. Argon, Nitrogen) is depressurized and thereby cooled down to its boiling temperature. The resulting liquid/vapor gas-flow behind the nozzle acts then as a spray-cooler for the detector. The 1st-stage apparatus consitutes a Joule-Thomson cooler, driven by a gas with a high cooling efficiency, like Methane (CH4) or Tetrafluoromethane (CF4 ≡ R14) to cool down the gas within the 2nd-stage cooler up to the 1st-stage gas boiling temperature. This cooler concept can be rigidly installed within the IR-seeker in such a way that the gas-orifice from the 2nd-stage cooler is just behind the pivoted IR-sensor plate. This solution requires no direct mechanical connection (gas tube) to the detector-plate. No additional weight impacts nor mechanical forces are provided to the gimbal system and its detector except the small kinetic cooler gas flow forces. With such a "Fast Cool-down Dual Gas Spray Cooler-System" with Argon and CF4 or alternatively CH4 a fast-cool down of the IR-detector to 100K (-173°C) has been achieved within less than 2.3 seconds from an ambient soak temperature of 323 K (+50°C). Compared with single-stage Joule-Thomson coolers this concept provides an

  2. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...... versus coarse spray quality application on residue levels. The applications included boscalid, bupirimate, captan, fenoxycarb, indoxacarb, pirimicarb, pyraclostrobin and thiophanate-methyl. Apples were collected from four zones in the tree and pesticide residues were detected in the individual apples....... None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0...

  3. Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Using Deltamethrin Treated Nets in Comparison to Indoors Residual Spraying in a Rural Area of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Rassi, Yavar; Chegeni-Sharafi, Ali; Rostami, Reza; Rafizadeh, Sayena; Abdali, Nargess

    2017-06-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important vector-borne disease in Iran. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Deltamethrin treated nets in comparison to Indoors Residual Spraying (IRS) for the control of leishmaniasis in a new focal area of Iran. The study was carried out in 5 villages in the west of Iran during 2012-2013. One village was selected to the application of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs, 25 mg/m 2 deltamethrin) among residents. Four other villages were considered for IRS using deltamethrin emulsion, 2.5% EG and Aicon 10WP. Spraying was repeated after 3 month. Other control methods e.g. environmental managements, and treatment of positive cases were carried out in all villages. After 1 yr of trial, the cases of disease reduced from 50 to 2 and 128 to 5 for ITNs distributed nets and use of IRS in the villages, respectively. Reduction of CL cases in both methods were significant ( P <0.001).

  4. Community satisfaction with indoor residue spraying for Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To assess satisfaction levels of community with IRS in both rural and urban settings, in Karonga district. Methods ... an advantage over ITN since a wide range of insecticide can be used1. A variable use of chemical in IRS has an ..... sprayers did a good job and they were happy with sprayers' politeness when approaching a ...

  5. Crumpled rGO-supported Pt-Ir bifunctional catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis for unitized regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyeom; Nah, In Wook; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, Sehkyu

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crumpled reduced graphene oxide supported Pt-Ir alloys that served as bifunctional oxygen catalysts for use in untized regenerative fuel cells were synthesized by a facile spray pyrolysis method. Pt-Ir catalysts supported on rGO (Pt-Ir/rGOs) were physically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to observe change in composition by heat treatment, alloying, and morphological transition of the catalysts. Their catalytic activities and stabilities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) conditions were electrochemically investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), potential cycling and hold tests on the rotating disk electrode (RDE). Pt-Ir/rGO with no post heat-treatment (Pt-Ir/rGO_NP) showed a lower activity for ORR and OER although metal nanoparticles decorated on the support are relatively small. However, Pt-Ir/rGO showed remarkably enhanced activity following heat treatment, depending on temperature. Pt-Ir/rGO heat-treated at 600 °C after spray pyrolysis (Pt-Ir/rGO_P600) exhibited a higher activity and stability than a commercially available Pt/C catalyst kept under the ORR condition, and it also revealed a comparable OER activity and durability versus the commercial unsupported Ir catalyst.

  6. Source and Inheritance of the Within Cultivar Residual Variation Detected in an indica Variety IR64

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-li WU

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypically uniform indica variety IR64 was chosen for study of the source and inheritance of within cultivar residual variation using a set of SSR markers. Residual heterogeneity in IR64 was identified on the short arm of chromosome 2 involving at least 5 SSR loci spanning nearly 30 cM. The SSR variations originated from the parental lines of IR64 (IR5657-33-2/IR2061-465-1-5-5 and were segregating in the selfed bulk seed stock in a Mendelian manner for more than 20 years. This study verified that the within cultivar variations of SSR in a morphologically uniform variety IR64 of a selfing crop came from its parental lines, which has immediate and commercial applications including test of hybrid seed purity, varietal fingerprinting, and curation and propagation of germplasm collections.

  7. Finite element analysis of residual stress in plasma-sprayed ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.L.; Hendricks, R.C.; McDonald, G.

    1985-01-01

    Residual stress in a ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 ceramic coating resulting from the plasma spraying operation is calculated. The calculations were done using the finite element method. Both thermal and mechanical analysis were performed. The resulting residual stress field was compared to the measurements obtained by Hendricks and McDonald. Reasonable agreement between the predicted and measured moment occurred. However, the resulting stress field is not in pure bending

  8. Implications of bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides when indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets are combined for malaria prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okumu Fredros O

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bio-efficacy and residual activity of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs were assessed against laboratory-reared and wild populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis in south eastern Tanzania. Implications of the findings are examined in the context of potential synergies and redundancies where IRS and LLINs are combined. Methods Bioassays were conducted monthly for six months on three LLIN types (Olyset® PermaNet 2.0®,and Icon Life® and three IRS treatments (2 g/m2 pirimiphos-methyl, 2 g/m2 DDT and 0.03 g/m2 lambda-cyhalothrin, sprayed on mud walls and palm ceilings of experimental huts. Tests used susceptible laboratory-reared An. arabiensis exposed in cones (nets and IRS or wire balls (nets only. Susceptibility of wild populations was assessed using WHO diagnostic concentrations and PCR for knock-down resistance (kdr genes. Results IRS treatments killed ≥ 85% of mosquitoes exposed on palm ceilings and ≥ 90% of those exposed on mud walls, but up to 50% of this toxicity decayed within 1–3 months, except for DDT. By 6th month, only 7.5%, 42.5% and 30.0% of mosquitoes died when exposed to ceilings sprayed with pirimiphos-methyl, DDT or lambda-cyhalothrin respectively, while 12.5%, 36.0% and 27.5% died after exposure to mud walls sprayed with the same insecticides. In wire-ball assays, mortality decreased from 98.1% in 1st month to 92.6% in 6th month in tests on PermaNet 2.0®, from 100% to 61.1% on Icon Life® and from 93.2% to 33.3% on Olyset® nets. In cone bioassays, mortality reduced from 92.8% in 1st month to 83.3% in 6th month on PermaNet 2.0®, from 96.9% to 43.80% on Icon Life® and from 85.6% to 14.6% on Olyset®. Wild An. arabiensis were 100% susceptible to DDT, 95.8% to deltamethrin, 90.2% to lambda cyhalothrin and 95.2% susceptible to permethrin. No kdr gene mutations were detected. Conclusions In bioassays where sufficient contact with

  9. Finite Element Simulation of Residual Stress Development in Thermally Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoriny, Mohamed; Wenzelburger, Martin; Killinger, Andreas; Gadow, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    The coating buildup process of Al2O3/TiO2 ceramic powder deposited on stainless-steel substrate by atmospheric plasma spraying has been simulated by creating thermomechanical finite element models that utilize element death and birth techniques in ANSYS commercial software and self-developed codes. The simulation process starts with side-by-side deposition of coarse subparts of the ceramic layer until the entire coating is created. Simultaneously, the heat flow into the material, thermal deformation, and initial quenching stress are computed. The aim is to be able to predict—for the considered spray powder and substrate material—the development of residual stresses and to assess the risk of coating failure. The model allows the prediction of the heat flow, temperature profile, and residual stress development over time and position in the coating and substrate. The proposed models were successfully run and the results compared with actual residual stresses measured by the hole drilling method.

  10. Enhanced protection against malaria by indoor residual spraying in addition to insecticide treated nets: is it dependent on transmission intensity or net usage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A West

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS are effective vector control tools that protect against malaria. There is conflicting evidence regarding whether using ITNs and IRS in combination provides additional benefit over using either of these methods alone. This study investigated factors that may modify the effect of the combined use of IRS and ITNs compared to using ITNs alone on malaria infection prevalence.Secondary analysis was carried out on data from a cluster randomised trial in north-west Tanzania. 50 clusters received ITNs from a universal coverage campaign; of these 25 were randomly allocated to additionally receive two rounds of IRS in 2012. In cross-sectional household surveys children 0.5-14 years old were tested for Plasmodium falciparum infections (PfPR two, six and ten months after the first IRS round.IRS protected those sleeping under nets (OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.26-0.57 and those who did not (OR = 0.43, 95%CI 0.29-0.63. The protective effect of IRS was not modified by community level ITN use (ITN use = 50%, OR = 0.46, 95%CI 0.28-0.74. The additional protection from IRS was similar in low (<10% PfPR, OR = 0.38, 95%CI 0.19-0.75 and high transmission areas (≥10% PfPR, OR = 0.34, 95%CI 0.18-0.67. ITN use was protective at the individual-level regardless of whether the village had been sprayed (OR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.70-0.98. Living in a sprayed village was protective regardless of whether the individual slept under an ITN last night (OR = 0.41, 95%CI 0.29-0.58.Implementing IRS in addition to ITNs was beneficial for individuals from villages with a wide range of transmission intensities and net utilisation levels. Net users received additional protection from IRS. ITNs were providing some individual protection, even in this area with high levels of pyrethroid insecticide resistance. These results demonstrate that there is a supplementary benefit of IRS even when ITNs are effective.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01697852.

  11. Through-thickness Residual Stress Measurement by Neutron Diffraction in Cu+W Plasma Spray Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luzin, V.; Matějíček, Jiří; Gnäupel-Herold, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 652 (2010), s. 50-56 ISSN 1662-9752. [International Conference on Mechanical Stress Evaluation by Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation/5th./. Mito, 10.11.2009-12.11.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion materials * plasma sprayed coatings * residual stress * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://www.scientific.net/MSF.652.50

  12. Residual Stress in Sprayed Ni+5% Al Coatings Determined by Neutron Diffraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Sampath, S.; Gnaupel-Herold, T.; Prask, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 74, supplement 8 (2002), s. S1692-S1694 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Grant - others:NSF DMR(US) 6932570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : residual stress, thermal spray coatings, neutron diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.231, year: 2002

  13. Alternative Gas Mixtures in Arc Spraying: A Chance to Improve Coating Properties and Residual Stress States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Michél; Henkel, Knuth Michael; Krebs, Sebastian; Kroemmer, Werner

    2018-01-01

    The highly cavitation erosion-resistant propeller alloys CuAl9Ni5Fe4Mn (Ni-Al-Bronze) and CuMn13Al8Fe3Ni2 (Mn-Al-Bronze) were arc-sprayed using a mixture of nitrogen and 2% of hydrogen as atomizing gas and different traverse speeds. The objective was to identify the influences of the different spraying conditions, such as temperature regime and melting loss, on the resulting residual stress states and coating properties. Residual stresses were measured by the incremental hole-drilling method using ESPI. Temperature measurements were carried out by thermographic imaging. Microstructural, chemical and mechanical analyses were realized to examine adhesive and cohesive properties. Additionally, the cavitation erosion behavior was investigated to analyze cohesive coating properties. The spraying process itself was improved, which was apparent by mainly enhanced deposition efficiency and reduced surface temperatures. The amount of oxides and pores as well as the melting loss of alloying elements were reduced. Moreover, an increased cavitation erosion resistance and thus coating cohesion as well as less residual stresses were identified. The change in atomizing gas diminished the impact of the quenching stresses on the coating properties. In contrast, the adhesive strength, Young's moduli and partially the hardness were slightly reduced. With regard to materials, Ni-Al-Bronze revealed superior coating properties in comparison with Mn-Al-Bronze.

  14. Increased risks of malaria due to limited residual life of insecticide and outdoor biting versus protection by combined use of nets and indoor residual spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, with year-round transmission. In 2004 an intensive malaria control strategy primarily based on indoor residual spraying (IRS was launched. The limited residual life of IRS poses particular challenges in a setting with year-round transmission, such as Bioko. Recent reports of outdoor biting by Anopheles gambiae are an additional cause for concern. In this study, the effect of the short residual life of bendiocarb insecticide and of children spending time outdoors at night, on malaria infection prevalence was examined. Methods Data from the 2011 annual malaria indicator survey and from standard WHO cone bioassays were used to examine the relationship between time since IRS, mosquito mortality and prevalence of infection in children. How often children spend time outside at night and the association of this behaviour with malaria infection were also examined. Results Prevalence of malaria infection in two to 14 year-olds in 2011 was 18.4%, 21.0% and 28.1% in communities with median time since IRS of three, four and five months respectively. After adjusting for confounders, each extra month since IRS corresponded to an odds ratio (OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.15–1.81 for infection prevalence in two to 14 year-olds. Mosquito mortality was 100%, 96%, 81% and 78%, at month 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after spraying. Only 4.1% of children spent time outside the night before the survey between the hours of 22.00 and 06.00 and those who did were not at a higher risk of infection (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50–1.54. Sleeping under a mosquito net provided additive protection (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86. Conclusions The results demonstrate the epidemiological impact of reduced mosquito mortality with time since IRS. The study underscores that in settings of year-round transmission there is a compelling need for longer-lasting IRS insecticides, but that in the interim, high coverage of long

  15. 3D-simulation of residual stresses in TBC plasma sprayed coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundas, S.; Kashko, T.; Hurevich, V.E.; Lugscheider, E.; Hayn, G. von; Ilyuschenko, A.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are used in gas turbine technology in order to protect against overheating of the nickel alloy turbine blades. This coatings allows to increase turbine inlet temperatures and improve their efficiency. Plasma spraying processes are widely used since several years in thermal barrier coating technology. Although the plasma spraying process of TBC's is largely successful, a fundamental understanding of the process parameters influencing the TBC microstructure and mechanical properties is necessary. But this investigation has received much less attention so they could lead to considerable advances in performance of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The main reason of this mate is difficulties in experimental investigation of high temperature and high velocity process. One of the most effective ways to accelerate the process optimization is the application of computer simulation for the modeling of plasma spraying. This enables the achievement of a maximum of information about the investigated process by carrying out a minimum number of experiments. The main problem of plasma spray TBC coatings is crack information during the deposition process and coating cooling. The reasons for this are quenched and residual stresses in the coating-substrate system, and peculiarities of TBC coating properties. The problem of deposition and solidification of plasma sprayed coatings have received little attention to date and remains one of the unintelligible parts of process. A fundamental understanding of heat transfer in the coating-substrate system and particles deformation processes are, however, critical for the prediction of the microstructural characteristics of the deposited coatings, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in formation of thermal stresses and defects (cracks, debonding etc.). (author)

  16. Evaluation of surface residual stresses in HVOF sprayed WC-12Co coatings by XRD and ED-hole drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizpour, M. Jalali; Nourouzi, S. [Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Thermally sprayed coatings are inherently associated with residual stresses in the coatings. These stresses have a noticeable effect on the physical and mechanical properties of coatings. The high speed hole drilling method is widely used to measure the residual stress. Due to the nature of the thermally sprayed coatings, the application of this method for WC/Co coatings has some limitations. In the current study, WC-12Co coatings were deposited using HVOF thermal spraying. The electro discharge hole drilling method was developed to measure the through thickness residual stress in WC-Co thermally sprayed coatings. Morphological studies were conducted using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the powder and coating characteristics. The sin2ψ method was used to evaluate the surface residual stress by means of XRD. The residual stress at the surface using EDM and XRD was approximately -32.54 MPa and -40.6 MPa respectively. The experimental results reveal that the stress curves are not uniform through the coating thickness. It has been found that the mean residual stress is of approximately -126 MPa. Obtained results are in good agreement with the reported values from literatures. The developed method confirms the feasibility of residual stresses measurement for HVOF thermally sprayed WC-Co coatings.

  17. Hard tissue ablation with a spray-assisted mid-IR laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H W; Rizoiu, I; Welch, A J

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the dominant mechanism(s) for dental enamel ablation with the application of water spray. A free-running Er,Cr:YSGG (yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet) laser was used to ablate human enamel tissue at various radiant exposures. During dental ablation, distilled water was sprayed on the sample surface, and these results were compared to ablation without a spray (dry ablation). In order to identify dominant ablation mechanisms, transient acoustic waves were compared to ablation thresholds and the volume of material removed. The ablation profile and depth were measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Irregular surface modification, charring and peripheral cracks were associated with dry ablation, whereas craters for spray samples were relatively clean without thermal damage. In spite of a 60% higher ablation threshold for spray associated irradiations owing to water absorption, acoustic peak pressures were six times higher and ablation volume was up to a factor of 2 larger compared to dry ablation. The enhanced pressure and ablation performance of the spray-assisted process was the result of rapid water vaporization, material ejection with recoil stress, interstitial water explosion and possibly liquid-jet formation. With water cooling and abrasive/disruptive mechanical effects, the spray ablation can be a safe and efficient modality for dental treatment

  18. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  19. Plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates. Part 1: Mechanical properties and residual stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y C; Doyle, C; Clyne, T W

    1998-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been sprayed on to substrates of Ti-6Al-4V, using a range of input power levels and plasma gas mixtures. Coatings have also been produced on substrates of mild steel and tungsten, in order to explore certain aspects of the mechanical behaviour of HA without the complication of yielding or creep in the substrate. Studies have been made of the phase constitution, porosity, degree of crystallinity, OH ion content, microstructure and surface roughness of the HA coatings. The Young's moduli in tension and in compression were evaluated by the cantilever beam bend test using a tungsten/HA composite beam. The flexural Young's modulus was determined using a free-standing deposit under the same test. Adhesion was characterised using the single-edge notch-bend test; this is considered superior to the tensile bond strength test in common use. Measured interfacial fracture energies were of the order 1-10 J m(-2). Stress levels were investigated using specimen curvature measurements in conjunction with a numerical process model. The quenching stress for HA was measured to be about 10-25 MPa and the residual stress level in HA coatings at room temperature are predicted to lie in the approximate range of 20-40 MPa (tensile). These residual stresses could be reduced in magnitude by maintaining the substrate at a low temperature (possibly below room temperature) during spraying and it may be worthwhile to explore this. Ideally, the HA coating should have low porosity, high cohesive strength, good adhesion to the substrate, a high degree of crystallinity and high chemical purity and phase stability. In practice, such combinations are rather difficult to achieve by just varying the spraying parameters.

  20. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  1. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  2. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngufor, Corine; Fongnikin, Augustin; Rowland, Mark; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS) which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management. The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood. Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls) largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76%) mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain. IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to provide

  3. Indoor residual spraying with a mixture of clothianidin (a neonicotinoid insecticide and deltamethrin provides improved control and long residual activity against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae sl in Southern Benin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corine Ngufor

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for new insecticides for indoor residual spraying (IRS which can provide improved and prolonged control of malaria vectors that have developed resistance to existing insecticides. The neonicotinoid, clothianidin represents a class of chemistry new to public health. Clothianidin acts as an agonist on nicotinic acetyl choline receptors. IRS with a mixture of Clothianidin and another WHO approved insecticide such as deltamethrin could provide improved control of insecticide resistant malaria vector populations and serve as a tool for insecticide resistance management.The efficacy and residual activity of a novel IRS mixture of deltamethrin and clothianidin was evaluated against wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in experimental huts in Cove, Benin. Two application rates of the mixture were tested and comparison was made with clothianidin and deltamethrin applied alone. To assess the residual efficacy of the treatments on different local wall substrates, the inner walls of the experimental huts were covered with either cement, mud or plywood.Clothianidin demonstrated a clear delayed expression in mortality of wild pyrethroid resistant An. gambiae sl in the experimental huts which reached its full effect 120 hours after exposure. Overall mortality over the 12-month hut trial was 15% in the control hut and 24-29% in the deltamethrin-treated huts. The mixture of clothianidin 200mg/m2 and deltamethrin 25mg/m2 induced high overall hut mortality rates (87% on mud walls, 82% on cement walls and 61% on wooden walls largely due to the clothianidin component and high hut exiting rates (67-76% mostly due to the deltamethrin component. Mortality rates remained >80% for 8-9 months on mud and cement walls. The residual activity trend was confirmed by results from monthly in situ cone bioassays with laboratory susceptible An. gambiae Kisumu strain.IRS campaigns with the mixture of clothianidin plus deltamethrin have the potential to

  4. Insecticide resistance patterns in Uganda and the effect of indoor residual spraying with bendiocarb on kdr L1014S frequencies in Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeku, Tarekegn A; Helinski, Michelle E H; Kirby, Matthew J; Ssekitooleko, James; Bass, Chris; Kyomuhangi, Irene; Okia, Michael; Magumba, Godfrey; Meek, Sylvia R

    2017-04-20

    Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethroid insecticides has been attributed to selection pressure from long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and the use of chemicals in agriculture. The use of different classes of insecticides in combination or by rotation has been recommended for resistance management. The aim of this study was to understand the role of IRS with a carbamate insecticide in management of pyrethroid resistance. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from multiple sites in nine districts of Uganda (up to five sites per district). Three districts had been sprayed with bendiocarb. Phenotypic resistance was determined using standard susceptibility tests. Molecular assays were used to determine the frequency of resistance mutations. The kdr L1014S homozygote frequency in Anopheles gambiae s.s. was used as the outcome measure to test the effects of various factors using a logistic regression model. Bendiocarb coverage, annual rainfall, altitude, mosquito collection method, LLIN use, LLINs distributed in the previous 5 years, household use of agricultural pesticides, and malaria prevalence in children 2-9 years old were entered as explanatory variables. Tests with pyrethroid insecticides showed resistance and suspected resistance levels in all districts except Apac (a sprayed district). Bendiocarb resistance was not detected in sprayed sites, but was confirmed in one unsprayed site (Soroti). Anopheles gambiae s.s. collected from areas sprayed with bendiocarb had significantly less kdr homozygosity than those collected from unsprayed areas. Mosquitoes collected indoors as adults had significantly higher frequency of kdr homozygotes than mosquitoes collected as larvae, possibly indicating selective sampling of resistant adults, presumably due to exposure to insecticides inside houses that would disproportionately affect susceptible mosquitoes. The effect of LLIN use on kdr homozygosity was significantly modified by annual

  5. Effect of substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on residual stress in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dapei

    2015-01-01

    A thermal-mechanical coupling model was developed based on thermal-elastic- plastic theory according the special process of plasma spraying Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating upon Ti-6Al-4V substrate. On the one hand, the classical Fourier transient heat conduction equation was modified by introducing the effect item of deformation on temperature, on the other hand, the Johnson-Cook model, suitable for high temperature and high strain rate conditions, was used as constitutive equation after considering temperature softening effect, strain hardening effect and strain rate reinforcement effect. Based on the above coupling model, the residual stress field within the HA coating was simulated by using finite element method (FEM). Meanwhile, the substrate preheating temperature and coating thickness on the influence of residual stress components were calculated, respectively. The failure modes of coating were also preliminary analyzed. In addition, in order to verify the reliability of calculation, the material removal measurement technique was applied to determine the residual stress of HA coating near the interface. Some important conclusions are obtained. (paper)

  6. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  7. Activity and Residual Effect of Two Formulations of Lambdacyhalothrin Sprayed on Palm Leaves to Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazariego-Arana Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity and residual effect of two formulations of lambdacyhalothrin were evaluated with Rhodnius prolixus;laboratory and field tests were conducted in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. The results indicate that the lethal concentrations of the active ingredient of SC (LC50 = 2.37 and LC90 = 8.5 mg, a.i./m² were 4-8 times than those with the insecticide WP applied on R. prolixus bugs in palm leaves, a common building material for thatched roofs. Other investigators in South America recommended applying 30 mg a.i./m² in porous materials; we obtained that the products WP and SC were 3.5 and 16 times more effective on palm leaves. Regarding the evaluation of the residual effects in field spraying, there was up to 15 months persistence after the application of WP in two doses (8.6 mg a.i./m² and 3.752 mg a.i./m² with SC. We consider R. prolixus highly susceptible to the employed pyrethroids; they could be used to control this vector in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  8. Incremental impact upon malaria transmission of supplementing pyrethroid-impregnated long-lasting insecticidal nets with indoor residual spraying using pyrethroids or the organophosphate, pirimiphos methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamainza, Busiku; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Moonga, Hawela B; Chanda, Javan; Chinula, Dingani; Mwenda, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Bennett, Adam; Seyoum, Aklilu; Killeen, Gerry F

    2016-02-18

    Long-lasting, insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the most widely accepted and applied malaria vector control methods. However, evidence that incremental impact is achieved when they are combined remains limited and inconsistent. Fourteen population clusters of approximately 1000 residents each in Zambia's Luangwa and Nyimba districts, which had high pre-existing usage rates (81.7 %) of pyrethroid-impregnated LLINs were quasi-randomly assigned to receive IRS with either of two pyrethroids, namely deltamethrin [Wetable granules (WG)] and lambdacyhalothrin [capsule suspension (CS)], with an emulsifiable concentrate (EC) or CS formulation of the organophosphate pirimiphos methyl (PM), or with no supplementary vector control measure. Diagnostic positivity of patients tested for malaria by community health workers in these clusters was surveyed longitudinally over pre- and post-treatment periods spanning 29 months, over which the treatments were allocated and re-allocated in advance of three sequential rainy seasons. Supplementation of LLINs with PM CS offered the greatest initial level of protection against malaria in the first 3 months of application (incremental protective efficacy (IPE) [95 % confidence interval (CI)] = 0.63 [CI 0.57, 0.69], P pyrethroid formulation provided protection beyond 3 months after spraying, but the protection provided by both PM formulations persisted undiminished for longer periods: 6 months for CS and 12 months for EC. The CS formulation of PM provided greater protection than the combined pyrethroid IRS formulations throughout its effective life IPE [95 % CI] = 0.79 [0.75, 0.83] over 6 months. The EC formulation of PM provided incremental protection for the first 3 months (IPE [95 % CI] = 0.23 [0.15, 0.31]) that was approximately equivalent to the two pyrethroid formulations (lambdacyhalothrin, IPE [95 % CI] = 0.31 [0.10, 0.47] and deltamethrin, IPE [95 % CI] = 0.19 [-0.01, 0.35]) but the additional

  9. Detection of trans-isomers of hydrocarbon residues of lipid molecules by IR absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhalovsky, I. S.; Samoylov, M. V.; Wileishikova, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is used for a comparative analysis of the trans-isomerization of double bonds in hydrocarbon residuals of lactic and hydrogenated lipids. The maximum of the absorption band of the trans-isomers for all the lipid samples is found to lie at 965 cm-1. An absorption band at 970 cm-1 is discovered in the spectra of the lactic lipids near the analytic band of the trans-isomers at 965 cm-1. Based on a gaussian approximation for their absorption spectral bands, the trans-isomer content in the lactic lipid samples is 10-11%. The absorption by lipid molecules at 970 cm-1 has to be taken into account when determining the trans-isomer content of fat and oil products.

  10. Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabi Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66% it was still much higher than for DDT (14% or pyrethroid (15% treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus, but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should

  11. Estimation of human body concentrations of DDT from indoor residual spraying for malaria control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyalpo, Tenzing; Fritsche, Lukas; Bouwman, Henk; Bornman, Riana; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    Inhabitants of dwellings treated with DDT for indoor residual spraying show high DDT levels in blood and breast milk. This is of concern since mothers transfer lipid-soluble contaminants such as DDT via breastfeeding to their children. Focusing on DDT use in South Africa, we employ a pharmacokinetic model to estimate DDT levels in human lipid tissue over the lifetime of an individual to determine the amount of DDT transferred to children during breastfeeding, and to identify the dominant DDT uptake routes. In particular, the effects of breastfeeding duration, parity, and mother's age on DDT concentrations of mother and infant are investigated. Model results show that primiparous mothers have greater DDT concentrations than multiparous mothers, which causes higher DDT exposure of first-born children. DDT in the body mainly originates from diet. Generally, our modeled DDT levels reproduce levels found in South African biomonitoring data within a factor of 3. - Highlights: ► Comparison of one-compartment pharmacokinetic model with biomonitoring data. ► Pre- and postnatal exposure of infants depends on breastfeeding duration and parity. ► Dietary exposure of DDT is the dominant uptake route in South Africa. ► Elimination half-lives of DDT and DDE are shorter in children than in adults. - Model predictions of a one-compartment pharmacokinetic model confirm the trends of DDT found in human samples of inhabitants living in DDT-treated dwellings.

  12. IRSL and post-IR IRSL residual doses recorded in modern dust samples from the Chinese Loess Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Thiel, Christine; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    Using a set of modern/young (0 to about 200 years old) dust samples collected from the Chinese Loess Plateau the bleachability of IRSL measured at 50°C (IR50) and post-IR50 elevated temperature IRSL (measured at 225°C and at 290°C) is investigated by measuring the apparent (residual) doses recorded...... by these signals. Doses recorded by quartz OSL are used as a reference. Allowing for differences in dose rates it seems that both IRSL and post-IR IRSL signals yield residual doses that are significantly larger than the doses measured in quartz. These residual doses can be largely explained by thermal transfer...

  13. (ddt) for indoor residuAl sprAying in rAkAi district, ugAndA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-11

    Nov 11, 2011 ... Results: Almost all (90%) study participants were willing to have irs in their homes, however only 31% of them were willing to ... malaria transmission is intense and perennial in nearly every region of Uganda. Interrupting ..... the theory of planned behaviour (21-22) willingness to accept use of DDT for IRS is ...

  14. 2. Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Incidence of Malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    Mamta, In the study of. Impact of IRS proved that in spite of the constraints associated with IRS, it still had a major role in the control of malaria if implemented with proper supervision, better coverage and community participation. In this study, majority (94.12%) of the supervisors were trained in IRS supervision and had.

  15. Analysis of cosmetic residues on a single human hair by ATR FT-IR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Naranitad, Suwimol; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2018-05-15

    In this work, ATR FT-IR spectra of single human hair and cosmetic residues on hair surface are successfully collected using a homemade dome-shaped Ge μIRE accessary installed on an infrared microscope. By collecting ATR spectra of hairs from the same person, the spectral patterns are identical and superimposed while different spectral features are observed from ATR spectra of hairs collected from different persons. The spectral differences depend on individual hair characteristics, chemical treatments, and cosmetics on hair surface. The "Contact-and-Collect" technique that transfers remarkable materials on the hair surface to the tip of the Ge μIRE enables an identification of cosmetics on a single hair. Moreover, the differences between un-split and split hairs are also studied in this report. These highly specific spectral features can be employed for unique identification or for differentiation of hairs based on the molecular structures of hairs and cosmetics on hairs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vector-control personnel’s knowledge, perceptions and practices towards insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Contradictory arguments regarding the benefits and harm of insecticides, especially DDT, have caused concerns in different societal circles, threatening to undermine the achievements of the indoor residual spraying (IRS) programme in South Africa. These concerns were exacerbated by the screening of a documentary on South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) Television with anti-DDT sentiments. Consequently, Limpopo Malaria Control Programme (LMCP) Management advocated for an investigation to determine the potential effect of such campaigns on vector-control personnel’s knowledge and perceived effects of insecticides on human health, with a view to improving the educational materials designed for use in training vector-control personnel. Methods The study was a cross-sectional descriptive survey using a structured field-piloted questionnaire, administered to 233 randomly selected vector-control personnel. Ethical clearance was granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Approval for the study was granted by the Department of Health, Limpopo. Participation in the study was voluntary and all respondents signed informed consent. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data. Results Most respondents (96.6%) had a positive perception of IRS as a method to control malaria. Despite their positive perception, 93.6% viewed IRS insecticides to be potentially harmful to the users. DDT was perceived to cause long-term reproductive and respiratory effects, whereas alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin were largely associated with skin irritation/itchiness and skin burn. Study participants were more worried about DDT’s potential effects on their reproductive system, including poor sexual performance, decline in libido, miscarriage and bearing children with genetic defects. However, none reported personal experience of bearing a child with genetic defects or miscarriage. Most anti-insecticide messages, especially relating to DDT, emanated from

  17. The Effect of Indoor Residual Spraying on the Prevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection, Clinical Malaria and Anemia in an Area of Perennial Transmission and Moderate Coverage of Insecticide Treated Nets in Western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Gimnig

    Full Text Available Insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS have been scaled up for malaria prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few studies on the benefit of implementing IRS in areas with moderate to high coverage of ITNs. We evaluated the impact of an IRS program on malaria related outcomes in western Kenya, an area of intense perennial malaria transmission and moderate ITN coverage (55-65% use of any net the previous night.The Kenya Division of Malaria Control, with support from the US President's Malaria Initiative, conducted IRS in one lowland endemic district with moderate coverage of ITNs. Surveys were conducted in the IRS district and a neighboring district before IRS, after one round of IRS in July-Sept 2008 and after a second round of IRS in April-May 2009. IRS was conducted with pyrethroid insecticides. At each survey, 30 clusters were selected for sampling and within each cluster, 12 compounds were randomly selected. The primary outcomes measured in all residents of selected compounds included malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria (P. falciparum infection plus history of fever and anemia (Hb<8 of all residents in randomly selected compounds. At each survey round, individuals from the IRS district were matched to those from the non-IRS district using propensity scores and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed based on the matched dataset.At baseline and after one round of IRS, there were no differences between the two districts in the prevalence of malaria parasitemia, clinical malaria or anemia. After two rounds of IRS, the prevalence of malaria parasitemia was 6.4% in the IRS district compared to 16.7% in the comparison district (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.59, p<0.001. The prevalence of clinical malaria was also lower in the IRS district (1.8% vs. 4.9%, OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.20-0.68, p = 0.001. The prevalence of anemia was lower in the IRS district but only in children under 5 years of age (2

  18. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padonou, Gil Germain; Gbedjissi, Ghelus; Yadouleton, Anges; Azondekon, Roseric; Razack, Ossé; Oussou, Olivier; Gnanguenon, Virgile; Rock, Aikpon; Sezonlin, Michel; Akogbeto, Martin

    2012-11-14

    In many parts of Africa as in Benin, the main strategies of vector control are based on the scaling-up of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The need to understand the biological implications of IRS in large scale and full coverage of LLITNs is paramount. It is in this context that the present study was conducted. It aims to evaluate the effect of a large scale IRS using a non-pyrethroid insecticide and full coverage of deltamethrin treated nets on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention areas compared to untreated areas used as controls. Mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps to assess reduction of entry rate, endophily rate, endophagy rate and overall mortality rate in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. before IRS and LLITNs intervention (2007) and after in 2008 and 2010. In the IRS arm, endophily rate was 67.13% before intervention and 4.5% after intervention, whereas in the control arm it was stable at 51.67% (P > 0 .05). In the LLITN arm endophily rates also decreased after intervention. After the IRS, no gravid mosquitoes were collected from all treated localities, but LLITN performance was not that spectacular. The proportion of mosquitoes biting indoors in the IRS arm decreased from 67.09% before intervention to 42.85% after intervention, compared to a low but significant decrease (71.31% to 57. 46%) in the LLITN arm.The use of vector control tools and behavior of the host would be the main factors that modify the behavior of taking a human blood meal observed on An. gambiae s.l. inside human dwellings. The impact on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. observed with the bendiocarb used in IRS was highly effective compared with the free distribution of LLITNs in terms of mortality and the decrease of proportions of indoor feeding. Despite this efficacy, there is a need for complementary tools and research of alternative strategy

  19. Decreased proportions of indoor feeding and endophily in Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations following the indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated net interventions in Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padonou Gil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many parts of Africa as in Benin, the main strategies of vector control are based on the scaling-up of Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. The need to understand the biological implications of IRS in large scale and full coverage of LLITNs is paramount. It is in this context that the present study was conducted. It aims to evaluate the effect of a large scale IRS using a non-pyrethroid insecticide and full coverage of deltamethrin treated nets on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. in the intervention areas compared to untreated areas used as controls. Methods Mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches, pyrethrum spray catches and window exit traps to assess reduction of entry rate, endophily rate, endophagy rate and overall mortality rate in natural populations of An. gambiae s.l. before IRS and LLITNs intervention (2007 and after in 2008 and 2010. Results In the IRS arm, endophily rate was 67.13% before intervention and 4.5% after intervention, whereas in the control arm it was stable at 51.67% (P > 0 .05. In the LLITN arm endophily rates also decreased after intervention. After the IRS, no gravid mosquitoes were collected from all treated localities, but LLITN performance was not that spectacular. The proportion of mosquitoes biting indoors in the IRS arm decreased from 67.09% before intervention to 42.85% after intervention, compared to a low but significant decrease (71.31% to 57. 46% in the LLITN arm. The use of vector control tools and behavior of the host would be the main factors that modify the behavior of taking a human blood meal observed on An. gambiae s.l. inside human dwellings. Conclusion The impact on the behavior of An. gambiae s.l. observed with the bendiocarb used in IRS was highly effective compared with the free distribution of LLITNs in terms of mortality and the decrease of proportions of indoor feeding. Despite this efficacy, there is a need

  20. Village-scale (Phase III) evaluation of the efficacy and residual activity of SumiShield® 50 WG (Clothianidin 50%, w/w) for indoor spraying for the control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies Giles in Karnataka state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragayala, S; Kamaraju, R; Tiwari, S N; Sreedharan, S; Ghosh, S K; Valecha, N

    2018-03-30

    There is an urgent need to test and incorporate new molecules with promising efficacy and novel mode of action to control insecticide-resistant mosquito vectors for disease control. We tested a new compound, clothianidin (SumiShield 50 WG), for its efficacy as an indoor residual spray (IRS) for the control of pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae) in comparison with pirimiphos methyl (Actellic CS) as a positive control. Ten villages were selected, five each for IRS with clothianidin (300 mg AI/m 2 ) and pirimiphos methyl (1000 mg AI/m 2 ) in Almatti Dam catchment area in Karnataka state, India. Entomological parameters were monitored in these sprayed villages using standard methods. Assessment of quality of spray was performed by analysing the insecticide content in the filter paper samples collected from sprayed houses. Perceptions of spray men and inhabitants were recorded post-spray on safety of these molecules. The mean applied to target ratio of content was 1.7 (n = 29) for clothianidin and 1.8 (n = 50) for pirimiphos methyl on filter paper samples analysed. Residual activity (≥80% mortality in exposed mosquitoes) after 24 h post-exposure of SumiShield WG was 5 months and increased to 6 months when the holding period was extended to 120 h and that of Actellic CS was 3 months at 24-h holding period and extended to 4 months at 120-h extended holding period. The mean densities of An. culicifacies in both arms fell drastically post-spray. In light trap collections, density of mosquitoes collected indoors was lower than outdoors in both arms indicating effectiveness of IRS. SumiShield WG was more efficacious in reducing the per-structure density than Actellic CS. The proportion of nulliparous mosquitoes was higher than that of parous mosquitoes during post-spray collections in both arms. The majority of adverse events reported were transitory and subsided without medication. Indoor residual spraying with SumiShield WG was found effective

  1. Influence of washing time on residual contamination of carcasses sprayed with lauric acid-potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of experiments were conducted to examine reductions in bacterial contamination of broiler carcasses washed for various times in a spray cabinet with a 2% lauric acid (LA)-1% potassium hydroxide (KOH) (w/v) solution. Forty eviscerated carcasses and 5 ceca were obtained from the processing l...

  2. “My children and I will no longer suffer from malaria”: a qualitative study of the acceptance and rejection of indoor residual spraying to prevent malaria in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufman Michelle R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to identify attitudes and misconceptions related to acceptance or refusal of indoor residual spraying (IRS in Tanzania for both the general population and among certain groups (e.g., farmers, fishermen, community leaders, and women. Methods This study was a series of qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions conducted from October 2010 to March 2011 on Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. Three groups of participants were targeted: acceptors of IRS (those who have already had their homes sprayed, refusers (those whose communities have been sprayed, but refused to have their individual home sprayed, and those whose houses were about to be sprayed as part of IRS scale-up. Interviews were also conducted with farmers, fishermen, women, community leaders and members of non-government organizations responsible for community mobilization around IRS. Results Results showed refusers are a very small percentage of the population. They tend to be more knowledgeable people such as teachers, drivers, extension workers, and other civil servants who do not simply follow the orders of the local government or the sprayers, but are skeptical about the process until they see true results. Refusal took three forms: 1 refusing partially until thorough explanation is provided; 2 accepting spray to be done in a few rooms only; and 3 refusing outright. In most of the refusal interviews, refusers justified why their houses were not sprayed, often without admitting that they had refused. Reasons for refusal included initial ignorance about the reasons for IRS, uncertainty about its effectiveness, increased prevalence of other insects, potential physical side effects, odour, rumours about the chemical affecting fertility, embarrassment about moving poor quality possessions out of the house, and belief that the spray was politically motivated. Conclusions To increase IRS acceptance

  3. Determination of the Ability to Measure Traces of Water in Dehydrated Residues of Waste Water by IR Diffuse Reflectance Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratsenka, S. V.; Voropai, E. S.; Belkin, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid measurement of the moisture content of dehydrated residues is a critical problem, the solution of which will increase the efficiency of treatment facilities and optimize the process of applying flocculants. The ability to determine the moisture content of dehydrated residues using a meter operating on the IR reflectance principle was confirmed experimentally. The most suitable interference filters were selected based on an analysis of the obtained diffuse reflectance spectrum of the dehydrated residue in the range 1.0-2.7 μm. Calibration curves were constructed and compared for each filter set. A measuring filter with a transmittance maximum at 1.19 μm and a reference filter with a maximum at 1.3 μm gave the best agreement with the laboratory measurements.

  4. Combination of Insecticide Treated Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying in Northern Tanzania Provides Additional Reduction in Vector Population Density and Malaria Transmission Rates Compared to Insecticide Treated Nets Alone: A Randomised Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopopoff, Natacha; Wright, Alexandra; West, Philippa A; Tigererwa, Robinson; Mosha, Franklin W; Kisinza, William; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rowland, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) combined with insecticide treated nets (ITN) has been implemented together in several sub-Saharan countries with inconclusive evidence that the combined intervention provides added benefit. The impact on malaria transmission was evaluated in a cluster randomised trial comparing two rounds of IRS with bendiocarb plus universal coverage ITNs, with ITNs alone in northern Tanzania. From April 2011 to December 2012, eight houses in 20 clusters per study arm were sampled monthly for one night with CDC light trap collections. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were identified to species using real time PCR Taq Man and tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. ITN and IRS coverage was estimated from household surveys. IRS coverage was more than 85% in two rounds of spraying in January and April 2012. Household coverage with at least one ITN per house was 94.7% after the universal coverage net campaign in the baseline year and the proportion of household with all sleeping places covered by LLIN was 50.1% decreasing to 39.1% by the end of the intervention year. An.gambiae s.s. comprised 80% and An.arabiensis 18.3% of the anopheline collection in the baseline year. Mean An.gambiae s.l. density in the ITN+IRS arm was reduced by 84% (95%CI: 56%-94%, p = 0.001) relative to the ITN arm. In the stratum of clusters categorised as high anopheline density at baseline EIR was lower in the ITN+IRS arm compared to the ITN arm (0.5 versus 5.4 per house per month, Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.10, 95%CI: 0.01-0.66, p-value for interaction <0.001). This trial provides conclusive evidence that combining carbamate IRS and ITNs produces major reduction in Anopheles density and entomological inoculation rate compared to ITN alone in an area of moderate coverage of LLIN and high pyrethroid resistance in An.gambiae s.s.

  5. Alternative treatments for indoor residual spraying for malaria control in a village with pyrethroid- and DDT-resistant vectors in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangena, J.A.A.; Adiamoh, M.; Alessandro, D' U.; Jarju, L.; Jawara, M.; Jeffries, D.; Malik, N.; Nwakanma, D.; Kaur, H.; Takken, W.; Lindsay, S.W.; Pinder, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malaria vector control is threatened by resistance to pyrethroids, the only class of insecticides used for treating bed nets. The second major vector control method is indoor residual spraying with pyrethroids or the organochloride DDT. However, resistance to pyrethroids frequently

  6. A Standardized and Portable Field Bioassay to Evaluate Interior Residual Sprays for Control of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    also a vector of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North America, while Cq. crassipes can be a vector of filariasis in Malaysia (WRBU 2008...were left homeless from this storm (Red Cross 2008). This is another situation that may have benefited from IRS in tents and reduced rates of...the event lasted for only 37 seconds, and killed approximately 17,000 people and left approximately half a million people homeless (IFRC 2001

  7. 2D IR cross peaks reveal hydrogen-deuterium exchange with single residue specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkelberger, Emily B; Woys, Ann Marie; Zanni, Martin T

    2013-12-12

    A form of chemical exchange, hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX), has long been used as a method for studying the secondary and tertiary structure of peptides and proteins using mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Using two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, we resolve cross peaks between the amide II band and a (13)C(18)O isotope-labeled amide I band, which we show measures HDX with site-specific resolution. By rapidly scanning 2D IR spectra using mid-IR pulse shaping, we monitor the kinetics of HDX exchange on-the-fly. For the antimicrobial peptide ovispirin bound to membrane bilayers, we find that the amide II peak decays with a biexponential with rate constants of 0.54 ± 0.02 and 0.12 ± 0.01 min(-1), which is a measure of the overall HDX in the peptide. The cross peaks between Ile-10-labeled ovispirin and the amide II mode, which specifically monitor HDX kinetics at Ile-10, decay with a single rate constant of 0.36 ± 0.1 min(-1). Comparing this exchange rate to theoretically determined exchange rates of Ile-10 for ovispirin in a solution random coil configuration, the exchange rate at Ile-10 is at least 100 times slower, consistent with the known α-helix structure of ovispirin in bilayers. Because backbone isotope labels produce only a very small shift of the amide II band, site-specific HDX cannot be measured with FTIR spectroscopy, which is why 2D IR spectroscopy is needed for these measurements.

  8. Residual stress analysis in near net-shape formed specimens obtained by thermal spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogarassy, P.; Manescu, A.; Markocsan, N.; Rustichelli, F.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed in near-net shape formed conical specimens of yttria partial stabilised zirconia in order to evaluate the level of residual stress induced by the manufacturing process. A preliminary finite element analysis was also carried out. The X-ray measurements were done in two directions: axial and tangential. A three direction measurement (including also radial direction) was performed using neutron diffraction. In this case three points through the thickness of the samples were considered. We obtained in all three analysed specimens (three different mandrel removing methods considered) compressive stresses in the axial direction, tensile in the tangential one and negligable stresses in the radial direction. The experimental results are in good agreement with those predicted by the finite element analysis

  9. Residual stress analysis in near net-shape formed specimens obtained by thermal spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarassy, P.; Manescu, A.; Markocsan, N.; Rustichelli, F.

    2004-07-01

    Neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed in near-net shape formed conical specimens of yttria partial stabilised zirconia in order to evaluate the level of residual stress induced by the manufacturing process. A preliminary finite element analysis was also carried out. The X-ray measurements were done in two directions: axial and tangential. A three direction measurement (including also radial direction) was performed using neutron diffraction. In this case three points through the thickness of the samples were considered. We obtained in all three analysed specimens (three different mandrel removing methods considered) compressive stresses in the axial direction, tensile in the tangential one and negligable stresses in the radial direction. The experimental results are in good agreement with those predicted by the finite element analysis.

  10. IR SPECTRAL MAPPING OF THE MARTIAN SOUTH POLAR RESIDUAL CAP USING CRISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campbell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are considered to be important in theories of abiogenesis (Allamandola, 2011 . There is evidence that PAHs have been detected on two icy Saturnian satellites using the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS on the Cassini spacecraft (Cruikshank et al., 2007. The hypothesised presence of PAHs in Mars south polar cap has not been systematically examined even though the Mars south polar cap may allow the preservation of organic molecules that are typically destroyed at the Martian surface by UV radiation (Dartnell et al. 2012. This hypothesis is supported by recent analyses of South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC structural evolution (Thomas et al., 2009 that suggest the possibility that seasonal and long term sublimation may excavate dust particles from within the polar ice. Periodic sublimation is believed to be responsible for the formation of so-called “Swiss Cheese Terrain”, a unique surface feature found only in the Martian south polar residual cap consisting of flat floored, circular depressions (Byrne, 2009. We show the first examples of work towards the detection of PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain, using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, on board NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO. CRISM is designed to search for mineralogical indications of past and present water, thus providing extensive coverage of the south polar cap. In this work, we discuss whether CRISM infrared spectra can be used to detect PAHs in Swiss Cheese Terrain and demonstrate a number of maps showing shifts in spectral profiles over the SPRC.

  11. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaba Katureebe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites.Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba, moderate (Kihihi, and high transmission (Nagongera. Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR, expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690; (b cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361; and (c entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR, expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107. The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period, universal LLIN distribution was

  12. Measures of Malaria Burden after Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution and Indoor Residual Spraying at Three Sites in Uganda: A Prospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katureebe, Agaba; Zinszer, Kate; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Charland, Katia; Kigozi, Ruth; Kilama, Maxwell; Nankabirwa, Joaniter; Yeka, Adoke; Mawejje, Henry; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Donnelly, Martin J.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Lindsay, Steve W.; Staedke, Sarah G.; Smith, David L.; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are the primary vector control interventions used to prevent malaria in Africa. Although both interventions are effective in some settings, high-quality evidence is rarely available to evaluate their effectiveness following deployment by a national malaria control program. In Uganda, we measured changes in key malaria indicators following universal LLIN distribution in three sites, with the addition of IRS at one of these sites. Methods and Findings Comprehensive malaria surveillance was conducted from October 1, 2011, to March 31, 2016, in three sub-counties with relatively low (Walukuba), moderate (Kihihi), and high transmission (Nagongera). Between 2013 and 2014, universal LLIN distribution campaigns were conducted in all sites, and in December 2014, IRS with the carbamate bendiocarb was initiated in Nagongera. High-quality surveillance evaluated malaria metrics and mosquito exposure before and after interventions through (a) enhanced health-facility-based surveillance to estimate malaria test positivity rate (TPR), expressed as the number testing positive for malaria/number tested for malaria (number of children tested for malaria: Walukuba = 42,833, Kihihi = 28,790, and Nagongera = 38,690); (b) cohort studies to estimate the incidence of malaria, expressed as the number of episodes per person-year [PPY] at risk (number of children observed: Walukuba = 340, Kihihi = 380, and Nagongera = 361); and (c) entomology surveys to estimate household-level human biting rate (HBR), expressed as the number of female Anopheles mosquitoes collected per house-night of collection (number of households observed: Walukuba = 117, Kihihi = 107, and Nagongera = 107). The LLIN distribution campaign substantially increased LLIN coverage levels at the three sites to between 65.0% and 95.5% of households with at least one LLIN. In Walukuba, over the 28-mo post-intervention period

  13. Determination of residual acetone and acetone related impurities in drug product intermediates prepared as Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) using gas chromatography with headspace autosampling (GCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Emma; Doggett, Adrian; Bretnall, Alison

    2014-08-05

    Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) are uniform mixtures of a specific ratio of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer prepared via a spray drying process. Volatile solvents are employed during spray drying to facilitate the formation of the SDD material. Following manufacture, analytical methodology is required to determine residual levels of the spray drying solvent and its associated impurities. Due to the high level of polymer in the SDD samples, direct liquid injection with Gas Chromatography (GC) is not a viable option for analysis. This work describes the development and validation of an analytical approach to determine residual levels of acetone and acetone related impurities, mesityl oxide (MO) and diacetone alcohol (DAA), in drug product intermediates prepared as SDDs using GC with headspace (HS) autosampling. The method development for these analytes presented a number of analytical challenges which had to be overcome before the levels of the volatiles of interest could be accurately quantified. GCHS could be used after two critical factors were implemented; (1) calculation and application of conversion factors to 'correct' for the reactions occurring between acetone, MO and DAA during generation of the headspace volume for analysis, and the addition of an equivalent amount of polymer into all reference solutions used for quantitation to ensure comparability between the headspace volumes generated for both samples and external standards. This work describes the method development and optimisation of the standard preparation, the headspace autosampler operating parameters and the chromatographic conditions, together with a summary of the validation of the methodology. The approach has been demonstrated to be robust and suitable to accurately determine levels of acetone, MO and DAA in SDD materials over the linear concentration range 0.008-0.4μL/mL, with minimum quantitation limits of 20ppm for acetone and MO, and 80ppm for DAA. Copyright

  14. In situ Measurements of Residual Stresses and Elelastic Moduli in Thermal Sprayed Coatings. Part 1: Apparatus and Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Sampath, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2003), s. 863-872 ISSN 1359-6454 Grant - others:NSF(US) DMR9632570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : coatings plasma spraying, mechanical properties testing , elastic modulus Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 3.059, year: 2003

  15. Efficacy of Bendiocarb Used for Indoor Residual Spraying for Malaria Control in Madagascar: Results With Local Anopheles Species (Diptera: Culicidae) From Experimental Hut Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamaherijaona, Sanjiarizaha; Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina Jean Jose; Assoukpa, Jade; Madec, Yoann; Boyer, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    To control malaria in Madagascar, two primary vector control interventions are being scaled up: insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of bendiocarb, which was implemented in the Malagasy Central Highlands in 2009. The current efficacy of bendiocarb against Anopheles species was evaluated in a small-scale field trial. An experimental hut trial comparing the effectiveness of bendiocarb sprayed on five substrates (cement, wood, tin, mud, and vegetative materials) was carried out against Anopheles species in two study sites located in the eastern foothills of Madagascar. No significant difference was detected in either exophily or blood-feeding rates between treated and untreated huts. The mortality rate was significantly greater in treated huts compared to untreated huts. Efficacy up to 80% was found for 5 mo posttreatment. Although effective, bendiocarb has been used for 7 yr, and therefore an alternative insecticide may be needed to avoid the emergence of resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma sordida before and after community-wide residual insecticide spraying in the Argentinean Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchiaverna, Natalia P; Gaspe, María S; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Tomassone, Laura; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Cardinal, Marta V

    2015-03-01

    Triatoma sordida is a secondary vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Gran Chaco and Cerrado eco-regions where it frequently infests peridomestic and domestic habitats. In a well-defined area of the humid Argentine Chaco, very few T. sordida were found infected when examined by optical microscopic examination (OM). In order to further assess the role of T. sordida and the relative magnitude of subpatent bug infections, we examined the insects for T. cruzi infection, parasite Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) and bloodmeal sources using various molecular techniques. Among 205 bugs with a negative or no OM-based diagnosis, the prevalence of infection determined by kDNA-PCR was nearly the same in bugs captured before (6.3%) and 4 months after insecticide spraying (6.4%). On average, these estimates were sixfold higher than the prevalence of infection based on OM (1.1%). Only TcI was identified, a DTU typically associated with opossums and rodents. Chickens and turkeys were the only bloodmeal sources identified in the infected specimens and the main local hosts at the bugs' capture sites. As birds are refractory to T. cruzi infection, further studies are needed to identify the infectious bloodmeal hosts. The persistent finding of infected T. sordida after community-wide insecticide spraying highlights the need of sustained vector surveillance to effectively prevent T. cruzi transmission in the domestic and peridomestic habitats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residual heat deposition in dental enamel during IR laser ablation at 2.79, 2.94, 9.6, and 10.6 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, D; Ragadio, J; Champion, A

    2001-01-01

    The principal factor limiting the rate of laser ablation of dental hard tissue is the risk of excessive heat accumulation in the tooth. Excessive heat deposition or accumulation may result in unacceptable damage to the pulp. The objective of this study was to measure the residual heat deposition during the laser ablation of dental enamel at those IR laser wavelengths well suited for the removal of dental caries. Optimal laser ablation systems minimize the residual heat deposition in the tooth by efficiently transferring the deposited laser energy to kinetic and internal energy of ejected tissue components. The residual heat deposition in dental enamel was measured at laser wavelengths of 2.79, 2.94, 9.6, and 10.6 microm and pulse widths of 150 nsec -150 microsec using bovine block "calorimeters." Water droplets were applied to the surface before ablation with 150 microsec Er:YAG laser pulses to determine the influence of an optically thick water layer on reducing heat deposition. The residual heat was at a minimum for fluences well above the ablation threshold where measured values ranged from 25-70% depending on pulse duration and wavelength for the systems investigated. The lowest values of the residual heat were measured for short (Droplets of water applied to the surface before ablation significantly reduced the residual heat deposition during ablation with 150 microsec Er:YAG laser pulses. Residual heat deposition can be markedly reduced by using CO(2) laser pulses of less than 20 microsec duration and shorter Q-switched Er:YAG and Er:YSGG laser pulses for enamel ablation. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Durable Residual Wall Lining (DL) Installation Concepts and Acceptability as an IRS Replacement Tool for Malaria Vector Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marie Louise; Lenau, Torben Anker

    that will eliminate the need for repeated spraying of walls over a period of 3-4 years after installation. The objective of this project was to evaluate a variety of methods for attaching DL to various wall surfaces found in traditional, rural African housing. Assessments were made as to strength of attachment under...... various stresses and appearance after installation. The experiments took place in Anwona village near Obuasi, Ghana with the support and cooperation of AngloGold Ashanti’s Malaria Control Center. 55 mechanical and adhesive products were tested for their ability to hold a static load (simulating long...... observations were included in the DL Installation Manual, the final delivery of this project....

  19. Control of the Kanzawa Spider Mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Pink Tea Rust Mite, Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the Residual Effect of Spraying Petroleum Oil Emulsifiable Concentrate just before the Sprouting of the First Crop of Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Tetsuya; Sakaida, Teruki; Nakazono, Kentaro; Nitabaru, Yuichi

    Petroleum oil emulsifiable concentrate (POEC) is a commercial acaricide used for the control of Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida in the autumn/winter season. Further, the damage of bacterial shoot blight increases if POEC is sprayed at this time of the year. It is thought that the occurrence of bacterial shoot blight doesn't increase if POEC is sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea. However, it is suspected that spraying of POEC at this time results in the formation of an oily film that floats on the surface of tea infusion. In this study, we examined the efficiency of spraying POEC at this time of the year in controlling the growth of T. kanzawai and Acaphylla theavagrans Kadono and the residual effect. We obtained the following results: (1) spraying POEC before sprouting of the first crop of tea resulted in effective control of the density of T. kanzawai and A. theavagrans for 1 month or longer, and (2) the oily film was not observed on the surface of the tea infusion. These results indicate that POEC can serve as one of the important control agents of mites when sprayed just before the sprouting of the first crop of tea.

  20. Socio-economic inequity in demand for insecticide-treated nets, in-door residual house spraying, larviciding and fogging in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to optimally prioritize and use public and private budgets for equitable malaria vector control, there is a need to determine the level and determinants of consumer demand for different vector control tools. Objectives To determine the demand from people of different socio-economic groups for indoor residual house-spraying (IRHS, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs, larviciding with chemicals (LWC, and space spraying/fogging (SS and the disease control implications of the result. Methods Ratings and levels of willingness-to-pay (WTP for the vector control tools were determined using a random cross-sectional sample of 720 householdes drawn from two states. WTP was elicited using the bidding game. An asset-based socio-economic status (SES index was used to explore whether WTP was related to SES of the respondents. Results IRHS received the highest proportion of highest preferred rating (41.0% followed by ITNs (23.1%. However, ITNs had the highest mean WTP followed by IRHS, while LWC had the least. The regression analysis showed that SES was positively and statistically significantly related to WTP across the four vector control tools and that the respondents' rating of IRHS and ITNs significantly explained their levels of WTP for the two tools. Conclusion People were willing to pay for all the vector-control tools, but the demand for the vector control tools was related to the SES of the respondents. Hence, it is vital that there are public policies and financing mechanisms to ensure equitable provision and utilisation of vector control tools, as well as protecting the poor from cost-sharing arrangements.

  1. Desarrollo de un método de CLAR-IR para la determinación de etanol residual en vacuna Development of a HPLC-IR method for determination of residual ethanol in vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Cuevas Valdespino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Los ingredientes farmacéuticos activos de la vacuna antimeningocócica cubana VA-MENGOC-BC TM (vesículas de membrana externa purificadas de Neisseria meningitidis, serogrupo B y polisacárido capsular purificado de Neisseria meningitidis, serogrupo C son conservados en etanol, de ahí que dicha vacuna posea un contenido de etanol residual, cuya concentración real no se conocía hasta el momento. Las regulaciones internacionales plantean que los productos biofarmacéuticos y sus ingredientes farmacéuticos activos deben tener bien caracterizadas todas sus impurezas, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue el desarrollo de un método de determinación de etanol mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución-índice de refracción para estos fines y su comparación con un método utilizado frecuentemente para cuantificar este solvente, como es la cromatografía gaseosa. El método evaluado resultó ser útil y con una buena robustez para la determinación de este solvente orgánico en esta vacuna antimenigocócica. No se detectaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los resultados obtenidos al evaluar las mismas muestras de vacuna mediante ambos métodos cromatográficos (cromatografía líquida de alta resolución y cromatografía gaseosa, lo que indica la posibilidad del uso de la cromatografía líquida de alta resolución en sustitución de la cromatografía gaseosa para esta determinación.Active pharmaceutical ingredients of Cuban anti-meningococcal vaccine VA-MENGOC-BC TM (vesicles of purified external membranes of Neisseria meningitidis, B serum-group, and purified capsular polysaccharide of Neisseria meningitidis, serum-group C are stored in ethanol, thus that such vaccine has residual ethanol content, of which real concentration is not known just now. International regulations propose that the biopharmaceutical products and its active pharmaceutical ingredients must to have well defined all impurities, thus

  2. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies Aceptabilidad y efectos secundarios percibidos del rociado residual intradomiciliario de insecticidas bajo diferentes esquemas de manejo de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo David Rodríguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptabilidad y los efectos secundarios del rociado intradomiciliar de insecticidas pyrethroides (PYR, carbamato y organophosphato rociados

  3. Infrared Thermography as a Non-destructive Testing Solution for Thermal Spray Metal Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Paolo E.; Allesina, Giulio; Bolelli, Giovanni; Lusvarghi, Luca; Matikainen, Ville; Vuoristo, Petri

    2017-12-01

    In this work, an infrared (IR) thermographic procedure was evaluated as a non-destructive testing tool to detect damage in thermal spray metallic coatings. As model systems, polished HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed Fe-based layers deposited onto steel plates were employed. Damage by external-object impingement was simulated through a cyclic impact-test apparatus, which induced circumferential and radial cracks across all model systems, and interface cracks of different sizes in distinct samples. Damaged and undamaged plates were bulk-heated to above 100 °C using an IR lamp; their free-convection cooling was then recorded by an IR thermocamera. The intentionally induced defects were hardly detectable in IR thermograms, due to IR reflection and artificial "hot" spots induced by residuals of transfer material from the impacting counterbody. As a micrometer-thin layer of black paint was applied, surface emissivity got homogenized and any artifacts were effectively suppressed, so that failed coating areas clearly showed up as "cold spots." This effect was more apparent when large interface cracks occurred. Finite-element modeling proved the physical significance of the IR-thermography approach, showing that failed coating areas are cooled by surrounding air faster than they are heated by conduction from the hot substrate, which is due to the insulating effect of cracks.

  4. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  5. Mobile soak pits improve spray team mobility, productivity and safety of PMI malaria control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David F; Brown, Annie S; Bouare, Sory Ibrahima; Belemvire, Allison; George, Kristen; Fornadel, Christen; Norris, Laura; Longhany, Rebecca; Chandonait, Peter J

    2016-09-15

    In the President's Malaria Initiative (PMI)-funded Africa Indoor Residual Spraying Project (AIRS), end-of-day clean-up operations require the safe disposal of wash water resulting from washing the exterior of spray tanks and spray operators' personal protective equipment. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs typically use soak pits - large, in-ground filters - to adsorb, filter and then safely degrade the traces of insecticide found in the wash water. Usually these soak pits are permanent installations serving 30 or more operators, located in a central area that is accessible to multiple spray teams at the end of their workday. However, in remote areas, it is often impractical for teams to return to a central soak pit location for cleanup. To increase operational efficiency and improve environmental compliance, the PMI AIRS Project developed and tested mobile soak pits (MSP) in the laboratory and in field applications in Madagascar, Mali, Senegal, and Ethiopia where the distance between villages can be substantial and the road conditions poor. Laboratory testing confirmed the ability of the easily-assembled MSP to reduce effluent concentrations of two insecticides (Actellic 300-CS and Ficam VC) used by the PMI AIRS Project, and to generate the minimal practicable environmental "footprint" in these remote areas. Field testing in the Mali 2014 IRS campaign demonstrated ease of installation and use, resulted in improved and more consistent standards of clean-up, decreased transportation requirements, improved spray team working conditions, and reduced potential for operator exposure to insecticide. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of thermal spray processing method on the microstructure, residual stress and properties of coatings:an integrated study for Ni-5wt.% Al bond coats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampath, S.; Jiang, X.; Matějíček, Jiří; Prchlík, L.; Kulkarni, A.; Vaidya, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 364, 1-2 (2004), s. 216-231 ISSN 0921-5093 Grant - others:NSF(US) DMR9632570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : bond coats, thermal spraying, microstructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  7. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  8. mSpray: a mobile phone technology to improve malaria control efforts and monitor human exposure to malaria control pesticides in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Quirós-Alcalá, Lesliam; Lipsitt, Jonah M; Wu, Lemuel D; Kruger, Philip; Ntimbane, Tzundzukani; Nawn, John Burns; Bornman, M S Riana; Seto, Edmund

    2014-07-01

    Recent estimates indicate that malaria has led to over half a million deaths worldwide, mostly to African children. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides is one of the primary vector control interventions. However, current reporting systems do not obtain precise location of IRS events in relation to malaria cases, which poses challenges for effective and efficient malaria control. This information is also critical to avoid unnecessary human exposure to IRS insecticides. We developed and piloted a mobile-based application (mSpray) to collect comprehensive information on IRS spray events. We assessed the utility, acceptability and feasibility of using mSpray to gather improved homestead- and chemical-level IRS coverage data. We installed mSpray on 10 cell phones with data bundles, and pilot tested it with 13 users in Limpopo, South Africa. Users completed basic information (number of rooms/shelters sprayed; chemical used, etc.) on spray events. Upon submission, this information as well as geographic positioning system coordinates and time/date stamp were uploaded to a Google Drive Spreadsheet to be viewed in real time. We administered questionnaires, conducted focus groups, and interviewed key informants to evaluate the utility of the app. The low-cost, cell phone-based "mSpray" app was learned quickly by users, well accepted and preferred to the current paper-based method. We recorded 2865 entries (99.1% had a GPS accuracy of 20 m or less) and identified areas of improvement including increased battery life. We also identified a number of logistic and user problems (e.g., cost of cell phones and cellular bundles, battery life, obtaining accurate GPS measures, user errors, etc.) that would need to be overcome before full deployment. Use of cell phone technology could increase the efficiency of IRS malaria control efforts by mapping spray events in relation to malaria cases, resulting in more judicious use of chemicals that are potentially harmful to humans

  9. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  10. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  11. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  12. Inyang, IR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inyang, IR. Vol 5, No 4 (2009) - Articles Changes in Total Protein and Transaminase Activities in Clarias Gariepinus Exposed to Diazinon Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  13. Conformation-Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy of the Amino Acid Glutamine: Amide-Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding in AN Important Residue in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease (HD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). An intriguing aspect of the structure of glutamine is its incorporation of an amide group in its side chain, thereby opening up the possibility of forming amide-amide H-bonds between the peptide backbone and side chain. In this study the conformational preferences of two capped gluatamines Z(carboxybenzyl)-Glutamine-X (X=OH, NHMe) are studied under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase in order to unlock the intrinsic structural motifs that are favored by this flexible sidechain. Conformational assignments are made by comparing the hydride stretch ( 3100-3700 cm-1) and amide I and II ( 1400-1800 cm-1) resonant ion-dip infrared spectra with predictions from harmonic frequency calculations. Assigned structures will be compared to previously published results on both natural and unnatural residues. Particular emphasis will be placed on the comparison between glutamine and unconstrained γ-peptides due to the similar three-carbon spacing between backbone and side chain in glutamine to the backbone spacing in γ-peptides. The ability of the glutamine side-chain to form amide stacked conformations will be a main focus, along with the prevalence of extended backbone type structures. W. H. James, III, C W. Müller, E. G. Buchanan, M. G. D. Nix, L. Guo, L. Roskop, M. S. Gordon, L. V. Slipchenko, S. H. Gellman, and T. S. Zwier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131(40), 14243-14245.

  14. The additional benefit of residual spraying and insecticide-treated curtains for dengue control over current best practice in Cuba: Evaluation of disease incidence in a cluster randomized trial in a low burden setting with intensive routine control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Eugenia; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Rosales, Julio Popa; Mirabal, Mayelin; Cabrera, Pedro; Fonseca, Viviana; Gómez Padrón, Tania; Pérez Menzies, Mirtha; Montada, Domingo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Aedes control interventions are considered the cornerstone of dengue control programmes, but there is scarce evidence on their effect on disease. We set-up a cluster randomized controlled trial in Santiago de Cuba to evaluate the entomological and epidemiological effectiveness of periodical intra- and peri-domiciliary residual insecticide (deltamethrin) treatment (RIT) and long lasting insecticide treated curtains (ITC). Sixty three clusters (around 250 households each) were randomly allocated to two intervention (RIT and ITC) and one control arm. Routine Aedes control activities (entomological surveillance, source reduction, selective adulticiding, health education) were applied in the whole study area. The outcome measures were clinical dengue case incidence and immature Aedes infestation. Effectiveness of tools was evaluated using a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function. Despite significant reduction in Aedes indices (Rate Ratio (RR) 0.54 (95%CI 0.32-0.89) in the first month after RIT, the effect faded out over time and dengue incidence was not reduced. Overall, in this setting there was no protective effect of RIT or ITC over routine in the 17months intervention period, with for house index RR of 1.16 (95%CI 0.96-1.40) and 1.25 (95%CI 1.03-1.50) and for dengue incidence RR of 1.43 (95%CI 1.08-1.90) and 0.96 (95%CI 0.72-1.28) respectively. The monthly dengue incidence rate (IR) at cluster level was best explained by epidemic periods (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 5.50 (95%CI 4.14-7.31)), the IR in bordering houseblocks (IRR 1.03 (95%CI 1.02-1.04)) and the IR pre-intervention (IRR 1.02 (95%CI 1.00-1.04)). Adding RIT to an intensive routine Aedes control programme has a transient effect on the already moderate low entomological infestation levels, while ITC did not have any effect. For both interventions, we didn't evidence impact on disease incidence. Further studies are needed to evaluate impact in settings with high Aedes

  15. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  16. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    ruminal degradation in both carinata meal and canola meal. Although carinata meal differed from canola meal in some carbohydrate spectral parameters, multivariate results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that both original and in situ residues of two meals were not fully distinguished from each other within carbohydrate spectral regions. It was concluded that carbohydrate structural conformation could be detected in carinata meal by using ATR-FT/IR techniques and further study is needed to explore more information on molecular spectral features of other functional group such as protein structure profile and their association with potential nutrient supply and availability of carinata meal in animals.

  17. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    decreased (Pcarbohydrate spectral parameters, multivariate results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that both original and in situ residues of two meals were not fully distinguished from each other within carbohydrate spectral regions. It was concluded that carbohydrate structural conformation could be detected in carinata meal by using ATR-FT/IR techniques and further study is needed to explore more information on molecular spectral features of other functional group such as protein structure profile and their association with potential nutrient supply and availability of carinata meal in animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  19. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  20. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It ... also used to relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Oxymetazoline nasal spray should not be used to treat ...

  1. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  2. Residual Effects of Deltamethrin WG 25% as a New Formulation on Different Surfaces against Anopheles stephensi, in Southeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, A; Abai, MR; Akbarzadeh, K; Nateghpour, M; Sartipi, M; Hassanzehi, A; Shahbakhsh, N; Faraji, L; Nikpour, F; Mashayekhi, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is functioned as national interventions against malaria in southeastern foci of Iran and deltamethrin WP one of the insecticides have been used since past decade. In this study, the residual activity of the wettable granule (WG) was studied on different surfaces in hut scale trial against Anopheles stephensi in Iranshahr District, southeastern Iran. Methods: Three dosages of 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 of deltamethrin WG 25% formulation were applied on plaster, cement, mud, and wooden surfaces using Hudson® X-pert compression sprayer having 10 litters capacity. Results: The residual effects of deltamethrin WG 25% on different surfaces was assessed based on reduction of mortality An. stepehnsi from 100% to about 70%. At 25, 40 and 50 mg a.i./m2 the WG formulation of deltamethrin had a bioefficacy for about 2, 3 and 4 months respectively. Conclusion: There was an expectable fluctuation in mortality of An. stephensi at different sprayed surfaces as well as dosages. The proposed 50 mg/m2 WG is the longest activity for up to 4 months which needs to be applied for two spraying cycles per year at the climatically condition of southwestern Iran. PMID:22808390

  3. Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massinga Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis. Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated

  4. Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO) alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus UV exposure, high temperature oxidation and high humidity per se were ruled out as the main causes of failure of the alternative insecticides. Gas chromatography (GC) spectrograms showed that phosphogypsum stabilised the insecticides the most against alkaline degradation (i.e., hydrolysis). Bioassay testing showed that the period of efficacy of some of these formulations was comparable to that of DDT when sprayed on mud surfaces or cattle manure coated surfaces. Conclusions

  5. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do; Lee, Hyun Seop

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  6. The effects of a spray slurry nozzle on copper CMP for reduction in slurry consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Da Sol; Jeong, Hae Do [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Seop [Tongmyong University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The environmental impact of semiconductor manufacturing has been a big social problem, like greenhouse gas emission. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), a wet process which consumes chemical slurries, seriously impacts environmental sustain ability and cost-effectiveness. This paper demonstrates the superiority of a full-cone spray slurry nozzle to the conventional tube-type slurry nozzle in Cu CMP. It was observed that the spray nozzle made a weak slurry wave at the retaining ring unlike a conventional nozzle, because the slurry was supplied uniformly in broader areas. Experiments were implemented with different slurry flow rates and spray nozzle heights. Spray nozzle performance is controlled by the spray angle and spray height. The process temperature was obtained with an infrared (IR) sensor and an IR thermal imaging camera to investigate the cooling effect of the spray. The results show that the spray nozzle provides a higher Material removal rate (MRR), lower non-uniformity (NU), and lower temperature than the conventional nozzle. Computational fluid dynamics techniques show that the turbulence kinetic energy and slurry velocity of the spray nozzle are much higher than those of the conventional nozzle. Finally, it can be summarized that the spray nozzle plays a significant role in slurry efficiency by theory of Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL).

  7. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases......In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  8. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted...... into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...

  9. Evaluation of Deltamethrin in Combination of Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO) against Pyrethroid Resistant, Malaria Vector,Anopheles stephensiin IRS Implementation: an Experimental Semi-Filed Trial in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpour, Fatemeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Raeisi, Ahmad; Ranjbar, Mansour; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Shayeghi, Mansoreh; Mojahedi, Abdol Rasoul; Pourreza, Abolghasem

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different concentrations of deltamethrin combined with formulated piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist on various surfaces against the wild strain of Anopheles stephensi , the main malaria vector in Southern Iran under semi-field condition. Four concentrations of deltamethrin WG 25% (Tagros) and PBO 800EC-UV (Endura) were prepared and sprayed on the pre-designed surfaces in accordance with WHO alliance line of the IRS Micronair®. The WHO's recommended bioassay kit and method was used during this study. Comparing the mortality rate of mosquitoes, the results showed a significant difference between months after treatment of IRS (Indoor Residual Spraying) (P 0.05).Statistical test revealed a significance difference between mortality rate of mosquitoes in exposing to concentrations of 1 and 4 (P< 0.05) which demonstrated effect of synergizing PBO on mortality rate. This research as the first semi-field trial on deltamethrin added to different concentrations of formulated PBO for IRS, indicates that deltamethrin+10X PBO is more effective than other concentrations. Therefore, using synergists can be suggested as a new tool for prevention of pyrethriod resistance, although more studies are recommended.

  10. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  11. Dielectric Strontium Zirconate Sprayed by a Plasma Torch.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Janata, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2017), s. 225-230 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Electrical properties * Strontium Zirconate * Insulators Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass OBOR OECD: Ceramics www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir/ Articles /18/1/18/1010/

  12. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates subjected to additional annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Nevrlá, Barbara; Neufuss, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017), s. 105-114 ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Annealing * Dielectric properties * Plasma spraying * Silicates * Electrical properties * Insulators Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films http://pccc.icrc.ac.ir/Articles/1/18/990/

  13. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik; Utzen, Christer; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Sp...

  14. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  15. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... under construction, major repair or rebuilding of terminal structures, or portable spraying apparatus... flammable vapors, mists or combustible residues, dusts or deposits may be present due to paint spraying... confining and limiting the escape of paint, vapor and residue by means of a powered exhaust system. (3...

  16. An integrated study of thermal spray process-structure-property correlations: A case study for plasma sprayed molybdenum coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidya, A.; Streibl, T.; Li, L.; Sampath, S.; Kovarik, O.; Greenlaw, R.

    2005-01-01

    Thermal spray coatings exhibit a wide variety of hierarchial and multiscale microstructural characteristics that lead to variation in their functional properties and performance. The array of defect structures, orthotropic behaviour and process-induced attributes (e.g. quenching stresses) all add to complexity in understanding and predicting their performance. A complete understanding of the plasma spray process includes examination of the particle-jet interaction, particle impact (to form the splats) and the particle-substrate interaction during coating deposition. This link has been established by using diagnostic tools in conjunction with a splat collection shutter and an 'in situ' curvature measurement instrument. In this study, commercial grade spherical molybdenum (Mo) powder was plasma sprayed and the spray stream was characterized for resulting particle state. A 'splat map' was deposited through a 'spray stream guillotine' to capture the fingerprint of the plume cross-section. Subsequently, coatings were deposited at these spray conditions on a newly developed 'in situ' curvature measurement instrument to measure coating residual stresses and to estimate the coating modulus. Splats and coatings were subsequently characterized by microdiffraction (for splat residual stresses), nano and microindentation for elastic and elastic-plastic properties and by electron microscopy. This complete history of the process followed by splat and coating characterization provides insight into the correlation between processing parameters, resultant particle states and final coating properties. The role of particle temperature and velocity on the splat (and coating) morphology and residual stress is explained in the results

  17. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  18. Residu Fungisida Tembaga (Cu pada Pucuk Teh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done to know copper residue on tea due to blister blight control by copper fungicides. The experiment was done at Pagilaran Tea Plantation, Batang, Pekalongan. Tea plants were sprayed 8 times, with 8 days interval at the dosages of 0. 75, 150, and 300 g/ha respectively. Shoot sample was taken at 8 and 16 days after spraying. The copper residue war analyzed by Atomic Adsorbtion Spectrophotometer at 324 nm. The result showed that the higher dosage of spraying gives higher copper residue. At the dosage of 300 g/ha was detected 23,52 ppm of copper residue at 8 days after spraying. The residue was reduced to 12,96 ppm at 16 days after spraying. At that dosage the blister blight disease intensity reduced by 59,97%. The detected residue of copper fungicides due to blister blight control is not higher than MRL ( 150 ppm.

  19. Bionomics of Phlebotomus argentipes in villages in Bihar, India with insights into efficacy of IRS-based control measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Poché

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS, the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3 were minimal, and outdoor-resting P. argentipes were neglected. We describe a large-scale field study, performed in 24 villages within two Bihari districts, during which P. argentipes were collected biweekly over 47-weeks, in cattle enclosures, houses, and outdoors in peri-domestic vegetation. The objectives of this study were to provide updated P. argentipes ecological field data, and determine if program-initiated IRS-treatment had led to noticeable differences in vector abundance.P. argentipes (n = 126,901 relative abundance was greatest during the summer months (June-August when minimum temperatures were highest. P. argentipes were most frequently collected from cattle enclosures (~46% total; ~56% blood fed. Many sand flies were found to have taken blood from multiple sources, with ~81% having blood fed on humans and ~60% blood feeding on bovines. Nonparametric statistical tests were determined most appropriate for evaluating IRS-treatment. Differences in P. argentipes abundance in houses, cattle enclosures and vegetation were detected between IRS-treated and untreated villages in only ~9% of evaluation periods occurring during the peak period of human-vector exposure (June-August and in ~8% of the total observations. No significant differences were detected between the numbers of P. argentipes collected in vegetation close to the experimental villages.The results of this study provide updated data regarding P. argentipes seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, and

  20. Bionomics of Phlebotomus argentipes in villages in Bihar, India with insights into efficacy of IRS-based control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché, David M; Garlapati, Rajesh B; Mukherjee, Shanta; Torres-Poché, Zaria; Hasker, Epco; Rahman, Tahfizur; Bharti, Aakanksha; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Prakash, Suman; Chaubey, Rahul; Poché, Richard M

    2018-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a deadly vector-borne disease. Approximately 90% of Indian VL cases occur in Bihar, where the sand fly, Phlebotomus argentipes, is the principal vector. Sand fly control in Bihar consists of indoor residual spraying (IRS), the practice of spraying the inner walls of village dwellings with insecticides. Prior researchers have evaluated success of IRS-control by estimating vector abundance in village houses, but the number of sampling periods (n = 2-3) were minimal, and outdoor-resting P. argentipes were neglected. We describe a large-scale field study, performed in 24 villages within two Bihari districts, during which P. argentipes were collected biweekly over 47-weeks, in cattle enclosures, houses, and outdoors in peri-domestic vegetation. The objectives of this study were to provide updated P. argentipes ecological field data, and determine if program-initiated IRS-treatment had led to noticeable differences in vector abundance. P. argentipes (n = 126,901) relative abundance was greatest during the summer months (June-August) when minimum temperatures were highest. P. argentipes were most frequently collected from cattle enclosures (~46% total; ~56% blood fed). Many sand flies were found to have taken blood from multiple sources, with ~81% having blood fed on humans and ~60% blood feeding on bovines. Nonparametric statistical tests were determined most appropriate for evaluating IRS-treatment. Differences in P. argentipes abundance in houses, cattle enclosures and vegetation were detected between IRS-treated and untreated villages in only ~9% of evaluation periods occurring during the peak period of human-vector exposure (June-August) and in ~8% of the total observations. No significant differences were detected between the numbers of P. argentipes collected in vegetation close to the experimental villages. The results of this study provide updated data regarding P. argentipes seasonal abundance, spatial distribution, and host

  1. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm , D.; Hutchings , I.; Clyne , T.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharp...

  2. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  3. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  4. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  5. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... stop using butorphanol nasal spray, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  6. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  7. Tenoxicam-kollicoat IR binary systems: physicochemical and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Tenoxicam (TNX) binary systems in Kollicoat IR (KL) matrix were prepared in different drug: polymer ratios using kneading and spray-drying method. The prepared binary systems were characterized for drug dissolution rate, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), IR spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry. The results showed that the drug dissolution rate was remarkably enhanced by incorporating it in the KL matrix either by kneading or spray-drying, and the dissolution rate was increased by decreasing the drug weight ratio. The DSc and x-ray studies revealed the presence of TNX in less crystalline or amorphous state in its-KL binary systems. Moreover, the spray-dried TNX-KL system in 1:4 ratio, that exhibited the faster dissolution rate, was formulated in oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs). The data indicated that a fast disintegration and higher drug dissolution rate was achieved in case of the ODTs containing the spray-dried form compared to the ODTS containing untreated drug or the commercial tablet (Epicotil). Also, the drug exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) faster onset of the anti-inflammatory analgesic activities in case of the ODTs containing the spray-dried form, that was superior to that observed with both the commercial tablet product and the ODTS containing untreated drug.

  8. 40 CFR 180.342 - Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoid atomization or splashing of the spray. (iii) Paint-on application for spot treatment shall be...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances... removed or covered during treatment. (ii) Spray concentration for spot treatment shall be limited to a...

  9. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  10. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  11. Current implications of past DDT indoor spraying in Oman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Booji, P.; Holoubek, I.; Klánová, J.; Kohoutek, J.; Dvorská, Alice; Magulová, K.; Al-Zadjali, S.; Čupr, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 550, apr (2016), s. 231-240 ISSN 0048-9697 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : DDT * Residual indoor spraying * Human risk assessment * Cancer risk * Region-specific half-life Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  12. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  13. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  14. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  15. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  16. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  17. Production of press moulds by plasma spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Y.; Myakota, I.; Polyakov, S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma spray forming process for production of press moulds which are used for manufacture of articles from plastics was developed. The press moulds were produced by plasma spraying of Cu-Al-Fe-alloy powder on surface of a master model. The master models were made from non-metallic materials with heat resistance below 70 C (wood, gypsum etc). Double cooling system which provides for a control of surface model temperature and quenching conditions of sprayed material was designed. It made possible on the one hand to support model surface temperature below 70 C and on the other hand to provide for temperature conditions of martensite transformation in Cu-Al-system with a fixation of metastable ductile α + β 1 -phase. This allowed to decrease residual stresses in sprayed layer (up to 0,5-2,5 MPa), to increase microhardness of the coating material (up to 1200-1800 MPa) and its ductility (σ B = 70-105 MPa, δ = 6-12 %). This plasma spray forming process makes possible to spray thick layers (5-20 mm and more) without their cracking and deformation. The process is used for a production of press moulds which are applied in shoes industry, for fabrication of toys, souvenirs etc. (author)

  18. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  19. RESIDUES IN CARROTS TREATED WITH LINURON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on residues of linuron and its breakdown products in carrots sprayed with Jinuron at 1, 2, or 4 kg a.i./ha, 0, 19, 28, 36 or 60 days after sowing (up to 57 days before harvesting). The extracted residues were separated into three fractions by liquid......,4-dichloroaniline and iodide ion, followed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Only 5-13% of the extract-able residues were breakdown products. Most of the detectable residue (87-95%) was identified as linuron. The relative proportions of linuron and breakdown products in carrots at the time...

  20. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  1. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  2. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  3. Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhiguo; Ahmad, Nihal; Liu, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles by acting as a platform in transducing signals from transmembrane receptors upon growth factor stimulation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation on IRS proteins plays critical roles in signal transduction, phosphorylation of IRS proteins on serine/threonine residues are believed to play various regulatory roles on IRS protein function. However, studies on serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS proteins are very limited, especially for insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), one member of the IRS protein family. In this study, we identify Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the responsible kinase for phosphorylation of IRS2 on two serine residues, Ser 556 and Ser 1098. Phosphorylation of IRS2 on these two serine residues by Plk1 prevents the activation of the PI3K pathway upon growth factor stimulation by inhibiting the binding between IRS2 and the PI3K pathway components and increasing IRS2 protein degradation. Of significance, we show that IRS2 phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated and that Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation. PMID:25830382

  4. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  5. The Field Practices of Lambdacyhalothrin and Deltamethrin Insecticides Against Adult Mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi as the Main Vector of Malaria: Residual Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khosravani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Various chemical control methods have adopted in anti-malaria interventions. Indoor residual spraying (IRS has been proven as a candidate in elimination program. On the other hand, resistance to multiple insecticides was implicated as a concern issue in these polices. Pesticides should be evaluated to identify probable resistant and make decision to choose a technique against vectors. Methods In this cross-sectional study, Bioassay test applied on lambdacyhalothrin WP 10% (0.05 mg a.i. /m2 and deltamethrin WP 5% (0.05 mg a.i./m2 on two surfaces (cement and plaster against adult mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi according to WHO criteria to measure the residual activity in Saravan county, southern Iran. Overall, 3960 mosquitoes was used in our research. The mortality rates of An.stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae measured between selected surfaces and insecticides in several times. Data analyzed by Mann-Whitney (nonparametric test using SPSS v22 statistic software. Results This paper illustrated that maximal course of residual efficacy was about 3 months. No statistically significant different was exhibited between type of surface within mortality rates of An. Stephensi (P = 0.724 but lambdacyhalothrin has more durability than deltamethrin Conclusions We established that lambdacyhalothrin can be used into control and elimination setting of malaria with two rounds of spray at an interval of 3-4 months in south of Iran.

  6. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  7. Economic Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation using Nonlinear Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E-NMPC) for a spray drying process. By simulation we evaluate the economic potential of this E-NMPC compared to a conventional PID based control strategy. Spray drying is the preferred process to reduce...... the water content for many liquid foodstuffs and produces a free flowing powder. The main challenge in controlling the spray drying process is to meet the residual moisture specifications and avoid that the powder sticks to the chamber walls of the spray dryer. We present a model for a spray dryer that has...... been validated on experimental data from a pilot plant. We use this model for simulation as well as for prediction in the E-NMPC. The E-NMPC is designed with hard input constraints and soft output constraints. The open-loop optimal control problem in the E-NMPC is solved using the single...

  8. Characteristics of intermittent fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, B.; Gulari, E.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-03-01

    The spray-tip penetrations and the drop sizes of intermittent fuel sprays were measured by using a modified pulsed optical spray sizer. The average spray tip speeds were determined from simultaneously recorded needle lift signals and obscuration traces. The speeds of a sequence of fuel pulses injected at about 1000 Hz were analyzed to elucidate penetration mechanisms. A correlation that relates penetration distance to time, pressure drop across the nozzle, fuel density, and ambient gas density was obtained. The temporal variations of drop size in penetrating pulses of sprays were measured. The concentration of drops were calculated by combining drop size and obscuration data. The Sauter mean diameter of penetrating fuel drops increased with an increase of the chamber pressure and decreased with an increase of the injection pressure.

  9. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  10. New trends in the kitchen: propellants assessment of edible food aerosol sprays used on food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, V; Smith, F; Augsburger, M

    2014-01-01

    New products available for food creations include a wide variety of "supposed" food grade aerosol sprays. However, the gas propellants used cannot be considered as safe. The different legislations available did not rule any maximum residue limits, even though these compounds have some limits when used for other food purposes. This study shows a preliminary monitoring of propane, butane and dimethyl ether residues, in cakes and chocolate after spraying, when these gases are used as propellants in food aerosol sprays. Release kinetics of propane, butane and dimethyl ether were measured over one day with sprayed food, left at room temperature or in the fridge after spraying. The alkanes and dimethyl ether analyses were performed by headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/thermal conductivity detection, using monodeuterated propane and butane generated in situ as internal standards. According to the obtained results and regardingthe extrapolations of the maximum residue limits existing for these substances, different delays should be respected according to the storage conditions and the gas propellant to consume safely the sprayed food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microstructure and fatigue behavior of cold spray coated Al5052

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghelichi, R.; MacDonald, D.; Bagherifard, S.; Jahed, H.; Guagliano, M.; Jodoin, B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of cold spray coating in inducing residual stresses in the substrate and its effect on delaying crack initiation under cyclic loading have been studied on Al5052 alloy specimens. Different sets of Al5052 specimens have been coated with pure Al and Al7075 feedstock powder, using a low-pressure cold spray coating technique. Some sets of specimens were grit blasted (GB) before coating. The microstructural evolution of the substrate after coating and the fatigue behavior of the coated structure have been studied. In order to obtain the fatigue S–N diagram for each set, as-received and coated specimens with and without preceding GB treatment have been tested in a load-controlled condition. X-ray diffraction has been used to measure the residual stresses both in the deposited materials and the substrates. The results are discussed to highlight the effect of this emerging surface treatment on the characteristics of the treated material. Compressive residual stresses, which led to appreciable increase in the fatigue life, have been observed in all the coated sets. The results indicate that the fatigue strength was significantly improved up to 30% in the case of Al7075 coatings. The results show a strong dependency of the fatigue strength on the deposited material and the spray parameters.

  12. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  13. Distribution of multiple pesticide residues in apple segments after home processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H. C. B.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of washing, storing, boiling, peeling, coring and juicing on pesticide residue were investigated for field-sprayed Discovery and Jonagold apples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, diazinon, endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, iprodione...... significantly reduced five of the pesticide residues: diazinon, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, kresoxim-methyl and tolylfluanid, by 25-69%. Residues of the metabolite endosulfan sulfate were increased by 34% during storage. Boiling significantly reduced residues of fenitrothion and tolylfluanid by 32 and 81...

  14. Industrial application of model predictive control to a milk powder spray drying plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer...... provides significantly better control of the residual moisture content, increases the throughput and decreases the energy consumption compared to conventional PI-control. The MPC operates the spray dryer closer to the residual moisture constraint of the powder product. Thus, the same amount of feed...

  15. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  16. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  17. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  18. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  19. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    politics and offers an account of how this builds on older ways in which the natural world has made up part of the stuff of international politics. Second, it surveys the main traditions and approaches to studying International Relations of the environment, painting a picture of diversification in two......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  20. Cold Spray Deposition of Freestanding Inconel Samples and Comparative Analysis with Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherifard, Sara; Roscioli, Gianluca; Zuccoli, Maria Vittoria; Hadi, Mehdi; D'Elia, Gaetano; Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Kondás, Ján; Guagliano, Mario

    2017-10-01

    Cold spray offers the possibility of obtaining almost zero-porosity buildups with no theoretical limit to the thickness. Moreover, cold spray can eliminate particle melting, evaporation, crystallization, grain growth, unwanted oxidation, undesirable phases and thermally induced tensile residual stresses. Such characteristics can boost its potential to be used as an additive manufacturing technique. Indeed, deposition via cold spray is recently finding its path toward fabrication of freeform components since it can address the common challenges of powder-bed additive manufacturing techniques including major size constraints, deposition rate limitations and high process temperature. Herein, we prepared nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 samples with cold spray technique and compared them with similar samples fabricated by selective laser melting method. The samples fabricated using both methods were characterized in terms of mechanical strength, microstructural and porosity characteristics, Vickers microhardness and residual stresses distribution. Different heat treatment cycles were applied to the cold-sprayed samples in order to enhance their mechanical characteristics. The obtained data confirm that cold spray technique can be used as a complementary additive manufacturing method for fabrication of high-quality freestanding components where higher deposition rate, larger final size and lower fabrication temperatures are desired.

  1. Evaluation of some water-miscible organic solvents for spray-drying enzymes and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Anke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    The spray-drying behaviour of 16 water-miscible organic solvents on a bench-scale machine (Büchi B290 with inert loop) was determined under mild-to-moderate process conditions, namely inlet gas temperature of 130 °C and liquid feed flow rate of ≤3 mL/min. The solvents with boiling points below the inlet gas temperature could be fully dried (Group 1 solvents). The two exceptions were DMSO and DMF which despite their higher boiling points could be fully dried. The remaining solvents with boiling points above the inlet gas temperature were not fully dried during passage through the spray-dryer (Group 2 solvents). Trypsin and lysozyme when spray-dried from Group 1 solvent binary mixtures with water showed similar inactivation and residual water content, independent of solvent. The level of residual solvent was, however, strongly dependent on solvent. Trehalose (20%) and mannitol (10%) could be spray-dried from DMSO/water binary mixtures, but the amorphous disaccharide required higher inlet gas temperature. Trehalose/trypsin and mannitol/trypsin formulations showed differing degrees of protection against enzyme inactivation when spray-dried from Group 1 solvent binary mixtures with water. In all solvents the mannitol protected as well, if not better, than the trehalose. This study identifies some suitable organic solvents for spray-drying protein formulations, but also shows the difficulties of remaining organic solvent under the moderate inlet gas temperature used.

  2. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  3. Systematic Investigation on the Influence of Spray Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed YSZ Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Markus; Mauer, Georg; Mücke, Robert; Guillon, Olivier; Vaßen, Robert

    2018-02-01

    In the atmospheric plasma spray (APS) process, micro-sized ceramic powder is injected into a thermal plasma where it is rapidly heated and propelled toward the substrate. The coating formation is characterized by the subsequent impingement of a large number of more or less molten particles forming the so-called splats and eventually the coating. In this study, a systematic investigation on the influence of selected spray parameters on the coating microstructure and the coating properties was conducted. The investigation thereby comprised the coating porosity, the elastic modulus, and the residual stress evolution within the coating. The melting status of the particles at the impingement on the substrate in combination with the substrate surface condition is crucial for the coating formation. Single splats were collected on mirror-polished substrates for selected spray conditions and evaluated by identifying different types of splats (ideal, distorted, weakly bonded, and partially molten) and their relative fractions. In a previous study, these splat types were evaluated in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned coating properties. The particle melting status, which serves as a measure for the particle spreading behavior, was determined by in-flight particle temperature measurements and correlated to the coating properties. It was found that the gun power and the spray distance have a strong effect on the investigated coating properties, whereas the feed rate and the cooling show minor influence.

  4. Chirality-induced conformational preferences in peptide-metal ion binding revealed by IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R.C.; Steill, J.D.; Oomens, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chirality reversal of a residue in a peptide can change its mode of binding to a metal ion, as shown here experimentally by gas-phase IR spectroscopy of peptide−metal ion complexes. The binding conformations of Li+, Na+, and H+ with the ll and dl stereoisomers of PhePhe were compared through IR ion

  5. Chirality-Induced Conformational Preferences in Peptide-Metal Ion Binding Revealed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chirality reversal of a residue in a peptide can change its mode of binding to a metal ion, as shown here experimentally by gas-phase IR spectroscopy of peptide metal ion complexes. The binding conformations of Li+, Na+, and H+ with the LL and DL stereoisomers of PhePhe were compared through IR ion

  6. Análisis de la respuesta mecánica de recubrimientos elaborados mediante proyección térmica por plasma usando la medición de esfuerzos residuales y el método de elementos finitos a escala estructural: efecto de la red de poros Mechanical responses of plasma sprayed coatings from residual stress measurements and finite element analysis: effect of the pore network architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Constanza Palacio Espinosa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la respuesta mecánica de recubrimientos elaborados mediante proyección térmica por plasma ante la presencia de esfuerzos residuales y campos de esfuerzos generados por deformaciones. Para lograr este propósito, se midieron los esfuerzos residuales durante el proceso de elaboración de recubrimientos de TiO2-Cu y se evaluó el efecto de la red de poros en la estructura de la capa obtenida a partir de imágenes de alta resolución de Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB obtenidas de los recubrimientos de Al2O3-13TiO2, las cuales fueron posteriormente procesadas y discretizadas para su análisis mediante el Método de Elementos Finitos (MEF. Algunos parámetros operacionales empleados para elaborar los recubrimientos, tales como el flujo de gases y la corriente eléctrica, necesarios para formar el plasma, mostraron tener influencia en el contenido de poros, densidad de grietas y orientación de las mismas y en la magnitud de los esfuerzos residuales provocados. Los esfuerzos residuales determinados a partir de mediciones de deflexión durante la elaboración de los recubrimientos de TiO2-Cu, permitieron identificar su naturaleza, mientras que las simulaciones numéricas mostraron la gran influencia de la red de poros sobre el campo de esfuerzos de los recubrimientos de Al2O3-13TiO2. Del mismo modo, mediante MEF se evaluaron otras composiciones teóricas a través de la modificación de las propiedades mecánicas intrínsecas de las fases constituyentes. Para los casos considerados, las simulaciones mostraron la pobre influencia que tiene la presencia de los constituyentes secundarios en el campo de esfuerzos de los recubrimientos.This study aims a better understanding residual stress and stress field within composite plasma sprayed coatings submitted to strains. In order to reach out this objective, residual stress techniques can be implemented for measurements during elaboration of coatings and finite

  7. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  8. A sputtered zirconia primer for improved thermal shock resistance of plasma-sprayed ceramic turbine seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, R. C.; Sovey, J.; Allen, G. P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of sputtered Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) primer in plasma-sprayed YSZ ceramic-coated turbine blades results in an improvement, by a factor of 5-6, in the thermal shock life of specimens with a sprayed, porous, Ni-Cr-Al-Y intermediate layer. Species with and without the primer were found to be able to survive 1000 cycles when the intermediate layer was used, but reduced laminar cracking was observed in the specimen with the primer. It is suggested that the sputtered YZS primer-induced properties are due to (1) more effective wetting and adherence of the plasma-sprayed YZS particles to the primer, and (2) the primer's retardation of impinging, molten plasma sprayed particles solidification rates, which result in a less detrimental residual stress distribution.

  9. Source identification of a tar residue from Mumbai Beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Rokade, M.A.

    A tar residue from Mumbai Beach, Maharashtra, India was matched with the suspected source sample from a tanker using UV, IR and GLC techniques. Negligible differences in several ratios of UV absorbances and ratios of infrared transmittances...

  10. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  11. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  12. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  13. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprays the correct way can take some practice. Path to improved health Prescription nasal sprays come in ... thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top. Insert the canister tip in ...

  14. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  15. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  16. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  17. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  18. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  19. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  20. A comparison of different spray chemical vapour deposition methods for the production of undoped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier, Jerome; Bouteville, Anne; Hamilton, Jeff; Pemble, Martyn E.; Povey, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    Two different methods of spray chemical vapour deposition have been used to grow ZnO thin films on glass substrates from zinc acetate solution over the temperature range 400 o C to 550 o C. The first of these is named InfraRed Assisted Spray Chemical Vapour Deposition (IRAS-CVD). This method uses intense IR radiation to heat not only the substrate but also the gaseous species entering the reactor. The second method is a more conventional approach known simply as ultrasonic spray CVD, which utilises IR lamps to heat the substrate only. By way of comparing these two approaches we present data obtained from contact angle measurements, crystallinity and mean crystallite size, photoluminescence, electrical and optical properties. Additionally we have examined the role of annealing within the IRAS-CVD reactor environment.

  1. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  2. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  3. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  4. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  5. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  6. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  7. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  8. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  9. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adverse effects and maximum efficacy as well as patients' compliance [1]. Transdermal dosage forms are .... learning and memory in healthy postmenopausal women stabilized on estrogen, over 26 weeks. When the ... forearm instead until the areolae were the same color again and then applied 1 spray to each forearm ...

  10. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  11. Plasma Spraying and Characterization of Chromium Carbide-Nickel Chromium Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Prantnerová, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 281-290, č. článku PCCC-2016-09-16-339. ISSN 2008-2134 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * Chromium carbide * Slurry abrasion * Dry rubber wheel test * Friction * Microhardness Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass http://www.pccc.icrc.ac.ir/?xid=0113010121000001804&id=976

  12. The nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-07-01

    Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

  13. IR seeker simulator and IR scene generation to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness; 2005BU1-EO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Dam, F.A.M.; Kunz, G.J.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    IR decoys can be an effective countermeasure against IR guided anti ship missiles. However, it's not so easy to determine how the decoys should be deployed to get maximum effectiveness. A limitation of trials is that results are obtained for the specific trial condition only. Software tools have

  14. DDT house spraying and re-emerging malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D R; Manguin, S; Mouchet, J

    2000-07-22

    This article discusses the role of DDT in the re-emerging cases of malaria worldwide. It is noted that malaria is reappearing in urban areas and in countries that previously eradicated the disease, including the Amazon Basin, South and North Korea, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Tajikistan. In addition, the frequency of imported malaria has also increased in industrial countries. Although many factors contribute to such a phenomenon, the strongest correlation is with decreasing numbers of houses sprayed with DDT. Early studies of DDT showed repellent, irritant, and toxic actions that worked against malaria vector mosquitoes. Sprayed on house walls, DDT exerted powerful control over indoor transmission of malaria. However, since the ban of DDT in the 1970s and the implementation of alternative malaria-control programs there has been a global outburst of malaria epidemics. In view of this, it is recommended that the global response to burgeoning malaria rates allow for DDT residual house spraying where it is known to be effective and necessary. Regulations and policies of industrialized countries and international agencies that block financial assistance to countries that use DDT for malaria control should be eliminated.

  15. Ultrafast 2D IR microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiz, Carlos R; Schach, Denise; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-07-28

    We describe a microscope for measuring two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of heterogeneous samples with μm-scale spatial resolution, sub-picosecond time resolution, and the molecular structure information of 2D IR, enabling the measurement of vibrational dynamics through correlations in frequency, time, and space. The setup is based on a fully collinear "one beam" geometry in which all pulses propagate along the same optics. Polarization, chopping, and phase cycling are used to isolate the 2D IR signals of interest. In addition, we demonstrate the use of vibrational lifetime as a contrast agent for imaging microscopic variations in molecular environments.

  16. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  17. Wafer level test solutions for IR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessmann, Sebastian; Werner, Frank-Michael

    2014-05-01

    Wafer probers provide an established platform for performing electrical measurements at wafer level for CMOS and similar process technologies. For testing IR sensors, the requirements are beyond the standard prober capabilities. This presentation will give an overview about state of the art IR sensor probing systems reaching from flexible engineering solutions to automated production needs. Cooled sensors typically need to be tested at a target temperature below 80 K. Not only is the device temperature important but also the surrounding environment is required to prevent background radiation from reaching the device under test. To achieve that, a cryogenic shield is protecting the movable chuck. By operating that shield to attract residual gases inside the chamber, a completely contamination-free test environment can be guaranteed. The use of special black coatings are furthermore supporting the removal of stray light. Typically, probe card needles are operating at ambient (room) temperature when connecting to the wafer. To avoid the entrance of heat, which can result in distorted measurements, the probe card is fully embedded into the cryogenic shield. A shutter system, located above the probe field, is designed to switch between the microscope view to align the sensor under the needles and the test relevant setup. This includes a completely closed position to take dark current measurements. Another position holds a possible filter glass with the required aperture opening. The necessary infrared sources to stimulate the device are located above.

  18. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  19. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  20. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coating s * biomedical * electronic s * energy generation * functional coating s * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  1. Spray granulation for drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zhi Hui; Er, Dawn Z L; Chan, Lai Wah; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2011-12-01

    Granulation is a key unit process in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms and involves the agglomeration of fine particles with the aid of a binding agent. Fluidized bed granulation, a classic example of spray granulation, is a technique of particle agglomeration brought about by the spray addition of the binding liquid onto a stationary bed of powder particles that is transformed to a fluid-like state by the passage of air through it. The basic working principles, equipment set-up, advantages and challenges of fluidized bed granulation are introduced in this review. This is followed by an overview of the formulation and process-related variables affecting granulation performance. Technological advances, particularly in the application of process analytical tools, in the field of fluidized bed granulation research are also discussed. Fluidized bed granulation is a popular technique for pharmaceutical production, as it is a highly economical and efficient one-pot process. The research and development of process analytical technologies (PAT) has allowed greater process understanding and control to be achieved, even for the lesser known fluidized bed techniques, such as bottom spray and fluidized hot melt granulation. In view of its consistent mixing, as well as continuous and concurrent wetting and drying occurring throughout processing, fluidized bed granulation shows great potential for continuous production although more research is required to fully implement, validate and integrate the PAT tools in a production line.

  2. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  3. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  4. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  5. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  6. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  7. Development of a Control Strategy for Benzene Impurity in HPMCAS-Stabilized Spray-Dried Dispersion Drug Products Using a Science-Based and Risk-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Hongfei; Nicholson, Sarah J; Young, Joel D; Hsieh, Daniel; Ketner, Rodney J; Hall, Robert G; Sackett, Jeremy; Banks, Elizabeth C; Castoro, John A; Randazzo, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    To develop a strategy to control benzene, an ICH Q3C Class 1 impurity that may be present in spray solvents at ppm concentration, in amorphous polymer-stabilized spray-dried dispersion (SDD) products. Risk assessments included determining the probability for benzene concentration in primary spray solvents, the physical properties of volatiles, and the potential enrichment of benzene from solution to solid. Mechanistic understanding of benzene removal was gained through a benzene-spiked fate and tolerance (F&T) study simulating worst-case spray-drying conditions and application of diffusion models for secondary drying. The mass ratio of spray solution to solid presented the highest risk of benzene enrichment. With slow spray-drying kinetics, benzene was reduced about 700-fold. Under standard secondary-drying conditions to remove residual solvents, residual benzene was further removed. Using diffusion models, the maximum benzene concentration was approximated for SDDs dried to the in-process control (IPC) limit of primary solvents. Two critical control points were established to eliminate any risk of residual benzene reaching patients: (1) upstream control of benzene in solvents (≤10 ppm) and (2) IPC of residual solvents in polymer-stabilized SDDs.

  8. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An anal...

  9. Erosion resistance and adhesion of composite metal/ceramic coatings produced by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, D.A.J.; Hutchings, I.M.; Clyne, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Ceramic coatings can exhibit greater erosion resistance than most metallic coatings. Such coatings are conveniently produced by thermal spraying. Unfortunately, thermally sprayed ceramic coatings often exhibit poor adhesion, partly as a consequence of the development of residual stresses during spraying and subsequent cooling. Composite coatings have been studied using aluminium/alumina deposits on steel substrates. The incorporation of ceramics within a ductile matrix has potential for sharply reducing the erosive wear at high erodent impact angles, whilst retaining the good erosion resistance of ceramics at low angles. It is shown that the proportion of metal and ceramic at the free surface can be specified so as to optimise the erosion resistance. Experiments have also been carried out on the resistance of the coatings to debonding during four-point bending of the coated substrate. Progress is being made towards the tailoring of composition profiles in graded coatings so as to optimise the combination of erosion resistance and adhesion. (orig.)

  10. #Occupy IR: Exposing the Orthodoxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Manokha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The #occupy IR/IPE initiative was created in response to the #occupy movement, whose own roots can be traced backed to the latest crisis of global finance. In this contribution, we link #occupy and the crisis in a different way. We argue that we must occupy IR/IPE because of the discipline’s failure to apprehend and acknowledge the crisis itself, just as the Occupy movement is calling for their overarching authorities to notice and help address the social and economic inequalities produced by this crisis. More precisely, we argue that the dominant academic orthodoxy, via a series of continuously reproduced dichotomies, has rendered IR/IPE incapable of dealing with a phenomenon as complex as the financial crisis...

  11. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  12. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/--IRS-1+/-Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Andras; Kunze, Alexander; Böse, Marlen; von Kleist-Retzow, Jürgen-Christoph; Paulsson, Mats; Hartmann, Ursula; Wiesner, Rudolf J

    2017-05-30

    Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR) +/- -insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) +/- double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh) mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  13. Determination of polymer content in energetic materials by FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Mattos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology was developed to characterize and to quantify the polymer content in PBX (HMX/Viton by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, using the Termogravimetric analysis (TG as reference techniques for the quantitative method. The quantification methodology, proposed by us, using the Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FT-IR/ATR showed excellent results, being faster than the usual methodologies and can eliminate the generation of chemical residues.

  14. Low-Energy Plasma Spray (LEPS) Deposition of Hydroxyapatite/Poly-ɛ-Caprolactone Biocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alonso, Diana; Parco, Maria; Stokes, Joseph; Looney, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Thermal spraying is widely employed to deposit hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA-based biocomposites on hip and dental implants. For thick HA coatings (>150 μm), problems are generally associated with the build-up of residual stresses and lack of control of coating crystallinity. HA/polymer composite coatings are especially interesting to improve the pure HA coatings' mechanical properties. For instance, the polymer may help in releasing the residual stresses in the thick HA coatings. In addition, the selection of a bioresorbable polymer may enhance the coatings' biological behavior. However, there are major challenges associated with spraying ceramic and polymeric materials together because of their very different thermal properties. In this study, pure HA and HA/poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) thick coatings were deposited without significant thermal degradation by low-energy plasma spraying (LEPS). PCL has never been processed by thermal spraying, and its processing is a major achievement of this study. The influence of selected process parameters on microstructure, composition, and mechanical properties of HA and HA/PCL coatings was studied using statistical design of experiments (DOE). The HA deposition rate was significantly increased by the addition of PCL. The average porosity of biocomposite coatings was slightly increased, while retaining or even improving in some cases their fracture toughness and microhardness. Surface roughness of biocomposites was enhanced compared with HA pure coatings. Cell culture experiments showed that murine osteoblast-like cells attach and proliferate well on HA/PCL biocomposite deposits.

  15. Pyrethroid-sprayed tents for malaria control: an entomological evaluation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, S; Rowland, M; Muhammad, N; Kamal, M; Kemp, E

    1995-10-01

    Field trials were undertaken in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to determine the effects of pyrethroid-sprayed tents on feeding success, mortality and biting-rates of wild mosquitoes attracted to bait cows confined within the tents. Under natural conditions, endophagic mosquitoes rested only briefly in untreated tents during the night, followed by complete exodus at dawn. In tents sprayed on the interior surface with permethrin 0.5 mg/m2 or with deltamethrin 0.03 g/m2 the biting rate of Anopheles stephensi was reduced by about 40%; deterrency against culicines and other anophelines was much less. Mortality-rates of bloodfed mosquitoes from the treated tents were 75% An.stephensi, 65% An.subpictus but only 10% of culicines. Outer fly-sheets prolonged the effective life of the treatment; bioassays on the sprayed inner-sheets showed that insecticidal efficacy remained high for over a year, whereas on tents without fly-sheets permethrin residual efficacy declined rapidly 20-40 weeks post-treatment. It is concluded that tent-spraying with fast-acting photostable residual pyrethroid insecticide would probably provide effective protection against malaria transmission for the inhabitants of tents in any part of the world where the vector mosquitoes are endophilic and susceptible to pyrethroids.

  16. Mechanical Performance of Cold-Sprayed A357 Aluminum Alloy Coatings for Repair and Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petráčková, K.; Kondás, J.; Guagliano, M.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-sprayed coatings made of A357 aluminum alloy, a casting alloy widely used in aerospace, underwent set of standard tests as well as newly developed fatigue test to gain an information about potential of cold spray for repair and additive manufacturing of loaded parts. With optimal spray parameters, coating deposition on substrate with smooth surface resulted in relatively good bonding, which can be further improved by application of grit blasting on substrate's surface. However, no enhancement of adhesion was obtained for shot-peened surface. Process temperature, which was set either to 450 or 550 °C, was shown to have an effect on adhesion and cohesion strength, but it does not influence residual stress in the coating. To assess cold spray perspectives for additive manufacturing, flat tensile specimens were machined from coating and tested in as-sprayed and heat-treated (solution treatment and aging) condition. Tensile properties of the coating after the treatment correspond to properties of the cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy. Finally, fatigue specimen was proposed to test overall performance of the coating and coating's fatigue limit is compared to the results obtained on cast A357-T61 aluminum alloy.

  17. In Situ Acoustic Monitoring of Thermal Spray Process Using High-Frequency Impulse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Wolfgang; Walther, Frank; Luo, Weifeng; Haack, Matthias; Nellesen, Jens; Knyazeva, Marina

    2018-01-01

    In order to guarantee their protective function, thermal spray coatings must be free from cracks, which expose the substrate surface to, e.g., corrosive media. Cracks in thermal spray coatings are usually formed because of tensile residual stresses. Most commonly, the crack occurrence is determined after the thermal spraying process by examination of metallographic cross sections of the coating. Recent efforts focus on in situ monitoring of crack formation by means of acoustic emission analysis. However, the acoustic signals related to crack propagation can be absorbed by the noise of the thermal spraying process. In this work, a high-frequency impulse measurement technique was applied to separate different acoustic sources by visualizing the characteristic signal of crack formation via quasi-real-time Fourier analysis. The investigations were carried out on a twin wire arc spraying process, utilizing FeCrBSi as a coating material. The impact of the process parameters on the acoustic emission spectrum was studied. Acoustic emission analysis enables to obtain global and integral information on the formed cracks. The coating morphology and coating defects were inspected using light microscopy on metallographic cross sections. Additionally, the resulting crack patterns were imaged in 3D by means of x-ray microtomography.

  18. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  19. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  20. Advanced Nanoscale Coatings with Plasma Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atteridge, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A secondary research charter developed as this program proceeded was the assessment of the feasibility of using cored wire filled with WE-Co powder as a feed-stock for both plasma spray and twin-wire-arc spray (TWAS...

  1. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, de P.

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is

  2. The erosive potential of candy sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2009-05-23

    To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray. Candy sprays have an extremely low pH (1.9-2.3) and a neutralisable acidity varying between 0.8-1.6 ml of 0.25M NaOH. In vivo, candy sprays induced a short-term 3.0 to 5.8-fold increase in salivary flow rate with a concomitant drop in salivary pH to values between 4.4 and 5.8. All candy sprays tested have an erosive potential. This information is of use for clinicians counselling juvenile patients with dental erosion.

  3. Studies on the residues of phosalone on chilli by GLC after multiband plate cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharkar, D S; Dethe, M D

    1981-01-01

    Four sprays of 0.05 and 0.10% phosalone were given on chilli (Capsicum annuum Linn.) crop at an interval of 15 days starting from 21 days after transplanting. Residues were determined in the green chilli fruits by GLC after cleanup of extract on multiband thin-layer plate. The half-lives of residues were 1.55 and 1.68 days on chilli fruits from the crop treated with four sprays of 0.05 and 0.10% phosalone respectively. The time required to reach the tolerance limit of 1 ppm after last spray with 0.05 and 0.10% emulsion was 4.75 and 7.62 days respectively. Washing of fruits under tap water was found effective in bringing down the level of phosalone residue by 21.64 to 75.11%.

  4. High prevalence of malaria in Zambezia, Mozambique: the protective effect of IRS versus increased risks due to pig-keeping and house construction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Temu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: African countries are scaling up malaria interventions, especially insecticide treated nets (ITN and indoor residual spraying (IRS, for which ambitious coverage targets have been set. In spite of these efforts infection prevalence remains high in many parts of the continent. This study investigated risk factors for malaria infection in children using three malaria indicator surveys from Zambezia province, Mozambique. The impact of IRS and ITNs, the effects of keeping farm animals and of the construction material of roofs of houses and other potential risk factors associated with malaria infection in children were assessed. METHODS: Cross-sectional community-based surveys were conducted in October of 2006, 2007 and 2008. A total of 8338 children (ages 1-15 years from 2748 households were included in the study. All children were screened for malaria by rapid diagnostic tests. Caregiver interviews were used to assess household demographic and wealth characteristics and ITN and IRS coverage. Associations between malaria infection, vector control interventions and potential risk factors were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of malaria infection was 47.8% (95%CI: 38.7%-57.1% in children 1-15 years of age, less than a quarter of children (23.1%, 95%CI: 19.1%-27.6% were sleeping under ITN and almost two thirds were living in IRS treated houses (coverage 65.4%, 95%CI: 51.5%-77.0%. Protective factors that were independently associated with malaria infection were: sleeping in an IRS house without sleeping under ITN (Odds Ratio (OR= 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9; additional protection due to sleeping under ITN in an IRS treated house (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.7 versus sleeping in an unsprayed house without a ITN; and parental education (primary/secondary: OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.5-0.7 versus parents with no education. Increased risk of infection was associated with: current fever (OR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.0-1.5 versus no fever; pig keeping (OR

  5. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  6. Nondestructive detection pesticide residue on navel orange surface using laser image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mingyin; Liu, Muhua; Yao, Lintao

    2009-07-01

    To detect pesticide residue on navel orange surface by nondestructive means, five group oranges sprayed water, fenvalerate, isocarbophos, fenpropathrin, carbendazim pesticides respectively were chosen as experimental samples. Laser imaging system was built for acquiring images of fruits. Unitary nonlinear regression function was fitted by analyzing gray histogram curves of images within 12-40 range. The coefficient or eigenvalue of functions was different about every navel orange. The threshold coefficient was confirmed by data processing, which can establish fruits surface sprayed pesticide or not. The result showed that laser imaging technique is feasible for detecting pesticide residue on navel orange surface.

  7. Tailoring the Composition and Properties of Sprayed CuSbS2 Thin Films by Using Polymeric Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Popovici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CuSbS2 thin films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition, using polymeric additives for controlling the surface properties and film’s composition. Ternary crystalline chalcostibite compounds have been obtained without any postdeposition treatments. XRD spectra and IR spectroscopy were used to characterize films composition and interactions between components. Films morphology and surface energy were investigated using AFM microscopy and contact angle measurements. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers strongly influence the composition and film morphology.

  8. Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/2012 – 9/15/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline ” 5a. CONTRACT...this project. The paper, “Sea Spray Generation at Rocky Shoreline ” by Ed Andreas was accepted for publication and as of July 2016 was being...13 Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline 14 15 16 17 Edgar L Andreas 18 19 NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. 20 Lebanon, New

  9. Numerical simulation on multiphase spray cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peiliang; Liu, Hong; Cai, Chang; Gao, Jiuliang; Yin, Hongchao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work is using distilled water as working fluid to study the spray cooling heat transfer characteristics from non-boiling zone to boiling zone by CFD method. Simulation is performed using a Euler-Lagrangian method based on the air and liquid droplet two phase flow dynamics. The results of this simulation are in accordance with the experimental results of the laboratory. The simulation results show that the spray height is an important factor influencing the cooling characteristics. With the decrease of spray height, the heat transfer effect is enhanced.

  10. WFC3 IR subarray anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Certain combinations of WFC3 IR subarray size and sample sequence yield images that show a sharp change in background level that exactly bi-sects each detector amplifier quadrant. The change in level has an amplitude of a few DN per pixel. The cause of this anomaly and its apparent correlation with subarray size and sample sequence is not understood. Given the 4 available subarray sizes and 11 available readout sample sequences, there are a total of 44 possible subarray mode readout combinations. To date, 14 of those combinations have been used on-orbit in either calibration and GO programs. Of those, 3 combinations show the anomaly. This program will obtain IR dark exposures in the remaining 30 readout combinations that have not yet been explored. This will add to our knowledge of which combinations show the anomaly and will therefore help us to understand its origin.

  11. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  12. Hidroenergijos panaudojimo raida ir perspektyvos

    OpenAIRE

    Vizbaras, Andrius

    2008-01-01

    Ilgą laiko tarpą hidroenergetika vertinta kaip sėkminga žmonijos vystimosi ir akivaizdžios naudos išraiška, pastaruoju metu siejama su reikšmingu poveikiu gamtinei aplinkai bei įtaka klimato kaitai. Lygumų šalyse, net ir mažos galios hidroelektrinių statyba pareikalauja didelių užliejamų žemės plotų. Šiame darbe atlikome aštuoniasdešimties iki 2007 metų pastatytų hidroelektrinių poveikio aplinkai analizę bei aptarėme galimą „Lietuvos hidroenergetinių išteklių schemoje„ numatytų statyti HE pov...

  13. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  14. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m 3 Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes

  15. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  17. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  18. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  19. Bird mortality following DDT spray for Dutch elm disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, D.H.; Wurster, C.F.; Strickland, W.N.

    1965-01-01

    Avian populations in Hanover, N. H., a town that has sprayed its elms with DDT for many years in an attempt to control Dutch elm disease, were compared with those in Norwich, Vt., a town 1 mile (1.6 km) west of Hanover that has never sprayed. Hanover applied 109 lb DDT/acre (2.1 kg/hectare) in April 1963, then used Methoxychlor in April 1964. Population surveys were taken regularly during spring and early summer of these years, dead birds were collected in both towns, and 106 birds were analyzed for DDT, DDE, and DDD. Severe mortality of both resident and migrant birds occurred in Hanover during spring 1963, and the evidence implicates DDT as its cause. Robin loss was estimated at 70% of the resident population, or 350 to 400 individuals, but mortality among other species of widely varied feeding habits was also substantial. Feeding habits suggest that some birds acquired the toxicant by eating living insects carrying DDT, presenting the paradox of survival of the intended DDT victims, and death, instead, of insectivorous birds. Organ and whole bird analyses are presented and criteria for establishing cause of death are discussed. Most of the DDT had been converted to DDE and DDD, and residues were found in all organs analyzed. Robin mortality was reduced, but not eliminated following Methoxychlor application in 1964; these losses were believed caused by residual DDT in the soil. There was no evidence DDT poisoning among other species in 1964, though the dead birds collected were not analyzed.

  20. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  1. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  3. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-04-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  4. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  5. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  6. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  7. Diffraction-limited IR Microspectroscopy with IRENI

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Sedlmair; B. Illman; M. Unger; C. Hirschmugl

    2012-01-01

    In a unique way, IRENI (Infrared environmental Imaging), operated at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Madison, combines IR spectroscopy and IR imaging, revealing the chemical morphology of a sample. Most storage ring based IR confocal microscopes have to overcome a trade-off between spatial resolution versus...

  8. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  9. Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C

    2007-09-22

    An oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop oral burning sensation, stinging or white lesions, probably burns. To investigate the oral side-effects of oromucosal cannabis spray in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A small open observational study. A series of nine patients with MS who had been using a marijuana oromucosal spray for at least four weeks, were asked to attend for oral examination. Patients were asked whether they had ever experienced symptoms (dryness; bad taste; stinging) associated with use of the spray. A standard oral examination was carried out using a dental light, and the presence of any mucosal lesions recorded. Where mucosal lesions were present, patients were advised to discontinue the spray and re-attend after four weeks for re-examination. For ethical reasons, biopsies were not undertaken at the first visit. Of nine patients invited to participate, eight attended. All admitted to a stinging sensation on using the oromucosal cannabis spray, and four had visible oral mucosal white lesions in the floor of the mouth. Although the white lesions observed were almost certainly burns, resolving or improving on discontinuation of use of the medication, the high alcohol concentration of the oromucosal cannabis spray raises concern in relation to chronic oral use.

  10. Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  11. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  12. Unexpected Failures to Control Chagas Disease Vectors With Pyrethroid Spraying in Northern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevitz, J. M.; Gaspe, M. S.; Enríquez, G. F.; Vassena, C. V.; Alvarado-Otegui, J. A.; Provecho, Y. M.; Mougabure Cueto, G. A; Picollo, M. I.; Kitron, U.; Gürtler, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of the elimination efforts against Triatoma infestans (Klug) in South America through residual application of pyrethroid insecticides has been highly variable in the Gran Chaco region. We investigated apparent vector control failures after a standard community-wide spraying with deltamethrin SC in a rural area of northeastern Argentina encompassing 353 houses. Insecticide spraying reduced house infestation less than expected: from 49.5% at baseline to 12.3 and 6.7% at 4 and 8 mo postspraying, respectively. Persistent infestations were detected in 28.4% of houses, and numerous colonies with late-stage bugs were recorded after the interventions. Laboratory bioassays showed reduced susceptibility to pyrethroids in the local bug populations. Eleven of 14 bug populations showed reduced mortality in diagnostic dose assays (range, 35 ± 5% to 97 ± 8%) whereas the remainder had 100% mortality. A fully enclosed residual bug population in a large chicken coop survived four pyrethroid sprays, including two double-dose applications, and was finally suppressed with malathion. The estimated resistance ratio of this bug population was 7.17 (range, 4.47–11.50). Our field data combined with laboratory bioassays and a residual foci experiment demonstrate that the initial failure to suppress T. infestans was mainly because of the unexpected occurrence of reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin in an area last treated with pyrethroid insecticides 12 yr earlier. Our results underline the need for close monitoring of the impact of insecticide spraying to provide early warning of possible problems due to enhanced resistance or tolerance and determine appropriate responses. PMID:23270166

  13. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  14. Tantalum oxide-based plasma-sprayed environmental barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyant, Christopher M.

    Energy efficiency in gas turbine engines is linked to the high temperature capabilities of materials used in the hot section of the engine. To facilitate a significant increase in engine efficiency, tough structural ceramics have been developed that can handle the thermo-mechanical stresses that gas turbine components experience. Unfortunately, the high-temperature, high-pressure, and high-velocity combustion gases in a gas turbine contain water vapor and/or hydrogen which have been shown to volatilize the protective silica layer on silicon-based ceramics. This degradation leads to significant surface recession in ceramic gas turbine components. In order to maintain their structural integrity, an environmental barrier coating (EBC) could be used to protect ceramics from the harsh gas turbine environment. Due to its coefficient of thermal expansion and phase stability at elevated temperatures, tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) was examined as the base material for an air plasma-sprayed EBC on Si3N 4 ceramics. As-sprayed pure Ta2O5 was comprised of both low-temperature beta-Ta2O5 and high-temperature alpha-Ta 2O5 that was quenched into the structure. Residual stress measurements via X-ray diffraction determined the as-sprayed coating to be in tension and extensive vertical macrocracks were observed in the coating. Heat treatments of the pure coating led to conversion of alpha-Ta2 O5 to beta-Ta2O5, conversion of tensile stresses to compressive, localized buckling of the coating, and significant grain growth which caused microcracking in the coating. The pure coating was found to be an inadequate EBC. Al2O3 was investigated as a solid solution alloying addition designed to enhance the stability of beta-Ta2O 5, and reduce grain growth by slowing grain boundary diffusion. La 2O3 was investigated as an alloying addition designed to form second phase particles which would reduce grain growth through pinning. Al2O3 was successful at both stabilizing beta-Ta 2O5 and reducing grain

  15. 4PS/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, M E; Sun, X J; Bruening, J C; Araki, E; Lipes, M A; White, M F; Kahn, C R

    1995-10-20

    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle. Recently, Sun et al. (Sun, X.-J., Wang, L.-M., Zhang, Y., Yenush, L. P., Myers, M. G., Jr., Glasheen, E., Lane, W.S., Pierce, J. H., and White, M. F. (1995) Nature 377, 173-177) purified and cloned 4PS, the major substrate of the IL-4 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase in myeloid cells, which has significant structural similarity to IRS-1. To determine if 4PS is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice, we performed immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase assays using specific antibodies to 4PS. Following insulin stimulation, 4PS is rapidly phosphorylated in liver and muscle, binds to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activates the enzyme. Insulin stimulation also results in the association of 4PS with Grb 2 in both liver and muscle. In IRS-1-deficient mice, both the phosphorylation of 4PS and associated PI 3-kinase activity are enhanced, without an increase in protein expression. Immunodepletion of 4PS from liver and muscle homogenates removes most of the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1-deficient mice. Thus, 4PS is the primary alternative substrate, i.e. IRS-2, which plays a major role in physiologic insulin signal transduction via both PI 3-kinase activation and Grb 2/Sos association. In IRS-1-deficient mice, 4PS/IRS-2 provides signal transduction to these two major pathways of insulin signaling.

  16. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  17. Ligand binding affinity at the insulin receptor isoform A (IR-A and subsequent IR-A tyrosine phosphorylation kinetics are important determinants of mitogenic biological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinda eRajapaksha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The insulin receptor (IR is a tyrosine kinase receptor that can mediate both metabolic and mitogenic biological actions. The IR isoform-A (IR-A arises from alternative splicing of exon 11 and has different ligand binding and signalling properties compared to the IR isoform-B. The IR-A not only binds insulin but also insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II with high affinity. IGF-II acting through the IR-A promotes cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration by activating some unique signalling molecules compared to those activated by insulin. This observation led us to investigate whether the different IR-A signalling outcomes in response to IGF-II and insulin could be attributed to phosphorylation of a different subset of IR-A tyrosine residues or to the phosphorylation kinetics. We correlated IR-A phosphorylation to activation of molecules involved in mitogenic and metabolic signalling (MAPK and Akt and receptor internalisation rates (related to mitogenic signalling. We also extended this study to incorporate two ligands that are known to promote predominantly mitogenic ([His4, Tyr15, Thr49, Ile51] IGF-I, qIGF-I or metabolic (S597 peptide biological actions, to see if common mechanisms can be used to define mitogenic or metabolic signalling through the IR-A. The 3-fold lower mitogenic action of IGF-II compared to insulin was associated with a decreased potency in activation of Y960, Y1146, Y1150, Y1151, Y1316 and Y1322, in MAPK phosphorylation and in IR-A internalization. With the poorly mitogenic S597 peptide it was a decreased rate of tyrosine phosphorylation rather than potency that was associated with a low mitogenic potential. We conclude that both decreased affinity of IR-A binding and the kinetics of IR-A phosphorylation can independently lead to a lower mitogenic activity. None of the studied parameters could account for the lower metabolic activity of qIGF-I.

  18. The Influence of Nanodispersed Modifiers on the Structure and Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Smirnov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Currently, plasma-sprayed coatings are widely used to protect machine parts operating under conditions of high loads and temperatures, abrasive wear and exposure to corrosive media. Objective. The aim of the paper is to improve the physico-mechanical characteristics of plasma-sprayed coatings by modification of nano-sized particles of TiO2 oxides compounds. Methods. Experimental studies of corrosion resistance, microhardness, adhesion strength and residual stresses of plasma-sprayed coatings based on the oxide aluminum ceramic powder with the addition of nanodisperse TiO2 powder were conducted. Results. It is found that addition of TiO2 nanodisperse modifier to the oxide aluminum ceramic powder composition leads to corrosion resistance increase 2.8 times in a 10 % hydrochloric acid solution. The adhesive strength of ceramic nanomodified coatings is increased by 15–20 %. Conclusions. The positive influence of nanodispersed powders on the physico-mechanical and tribological characteristics of plasma-sprayed coatings is established.

  19. Effects of laser remelting on microstructures and immersion corrosion performance of arc sprayed Al coating in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ze; Zhang, Donghui; Yan, Baoxu; Kong, Dejun

    2018-02-01

    An arc sprayed aluminum (Al) coating on S355 steel was processed using a laser remelting (LR). The microstructures, chemical element composition, and phases of the obtained Al coating were analyzed using a field mission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and X-ray diffractometer (XRD), respectively, and the residual stresses were measured using an X-ray diffraction stress tester. The immersion corrosion tests and potentiodynamic polarization of Al coating in 3.5% NaCl solution were performed to investigate the effects of LR on its immersion corrosion behaviors, and the corrosion mechanism of Al coating was also discussed. The results show that the arc sprayed Al coating is composed of Al phase, while that by LR is composed of Al-Fe and AlO4FeO6 phases, and the porosities and cracks in the arc sprayed Al coating are eliminated by LR, The residual stress of arc sprayed Al coating is -5.6 ± 18 MPa, while that after LR is 137.9 ± 12 MPa, which deduces the immersion corrosion resistance of Al coating. The corrosion mechanism of arc sprayed Al coating is pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion, while that by LR is uniform corrosion and pitting corrosion. The corrosion potential of arc sprayed Al coating by LR shifts positively, which improves its immersion corrosion resistance.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  1. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  2. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2017-12-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  3. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  4. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Potential demal exposure of florists to fungicide residues on flowers and risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Khaoula; Joly, L.; Vleminckx, C.; Schiffers, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Flowers are susceptible to many pests and diseases. Therefore, they can be sprayed several times during their growth considering that no MRL are set for flow-ers. High levels of pesticide residues potentially expose daily the florists who han-dle cut flowers and possibly could endanger their health. A study was carried out to evaluate the risk for florists exposed to fungicide residues during normal profes-sional tasks. Cotton gloves were distributed to 20 florists (two pairs to each florist)...

  6. Neutralization of residual antimicrobial processing chemicals in broiler carcass rinse for improved detection of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter presence on broiler carcasses in the U.S. is regulated. Processors may apply antimicrobial processing aids as a spray or immersion to lower contamination on carcasses. In the U.S., broiler carcasses are generally sampled by whole carcass rinse and the potential exists for residual le...

  7. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  8. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  9. Comparison of three control strategies for optimization of spray dryer operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying is the preferred process to reduce the water content of many chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and foodstuffs. A significant amount of energy is used in spray drying to remove water and produce a free flowing powder product. In this paper, we present and compare the performance of three...... nonlinear model predictive controller (E-NMPC). The MPC with RTO is based on the same linear state space model in the MPC and the RTO layer. The E-NMPC consists of a single optimization layer that uses a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations for its predictions. The PI control strategy has...... the production rate, while minimizing the energy consumption, keeping the residual moisture content of the powder below a maximum limit, and avoiding that the powder sticks to the chamber walls. We use an industrially recorded disturbance scenario in order to produce realistic simulations and conclusions...

  10. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  11. Investigation of spray characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine using PLIF and LDV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Gashi, S; Nouri, J M; Lockett, R D; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a prototype piezo pintle-type injector are investigated in a single-cylinder optical direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine based on the spray-guided concept where mixture preparation is dominated by the spray dynamics. The high-pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle providing a hollow cone spray. Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and 2-dimensional Mie scattering were used to study the spray structure and characteristics under different in-cylinder back pressures and to obtain cycle resolved measurements of the planar fuel distribution inside the cylinder. The obtained results give information about the extent of charge stratification, spray stability and fuel/air mixture formation process under operating conditions. PLIF results revealed that there is a rich mixture at the spark plug position for all these conditions, ensuring stable combustion over the entire engine operating range. In addition, LDV measurements were carried out in order to provide information on the in-cylinder flow field near the spark plug, and to assess its influence on the mixture formation process. LDV results showed that the influence of the flow field strength during the late compression injection on the liquid fuel spray structure is low. The tumble generated in the cylinder is transformed into turbulence at the end of the compression stroke, which aids fuel evaporation and vapour dispersion just before ignition

  12. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  13. Examining properties of arc sprayed nanostructured coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czupryński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining properties of arc sprayed coating obtained with nano-alloy on the iron matrix with a high amount of fine carbide precipitates sprayed on non-alloyed steel plates intended for high temperature operation. Powder metal cored wire EnDOtec DO*390N 1,6 mm diameter, was used to produce, dense, very high abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approx. 1,0 mm thick. Nano-material coatings characterization was done to determine abrasion resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion strength, hardness as well as metallographic examinations. Results have proved high properties of arc sprayed nano-material coatings and have shown promising industrial applications.

  14. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  15. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  16. Coating Properties of WC-Ni Cold Spray Coating for the Application in Secondary Piping System of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, JeongWon; Kim, Seunghyun; Kim, Ji Hyun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a result of FAC(flow accelerated corrosion), severe accidents, failure of carbon steel like a Mihama Unit-3 occurred. Chemical composition change of carbon steel or coating to inner surface is one of methods to improve corrosion properties. Among them, thermal spray coating is convenient solution to apply at industry. Powder is melted at blast furnace and ejected to substrate. After adhesion, substrate and coating layer is cooled down and coated layer protects steel from corrosion finally. However high thermal energy is transferred to substrate and coating layer so it leads high thermal residual stress in coating procedure. Besides, high temperature for melting powder makes unexpected chemical reaction of powder like an oxidation or carburization. Whereas, cold spray uses low temperature comparing with other thermal spray. Thermal energy is used for not melting powder but high kinetic energy of powder and plastic deformation during collision. Therefore, fuel such as oxygen-acetylene gas is not needed. It needs carrier gas, compressed air, nitrogen or helium, to increase kinetic energy of powder and move powder to substrate. Comparing cold spray with high velocity oxy fuel (HVOF), one of thermal spray, cold spray coating layer contains only WC and Co. One of other problem about WC is brittleness during coating. To improve deformability of WC, binder metal is added. For example, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Al, Fe or etc. Additionally, binder metal lowering melting temperature of composite powder increases coating properties. Among them, Co which is widely used as binder metal maintains mechanical properties like a hardness and improves corrosion properties. Therefore Co is not suitable for binder metal of WC coating. In contrast, Ni has better corrosion resistance to alkaline environment and makes lower melting temperature. Moreover, in a view of cold spray, FCC structure has better deformability than BCC or HCP, and BCC has lowest deformability. WC is BCC structure so it

  17. Feminist Challenge to the Mainstream IR

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Gülşen

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the Feminist challenge to the Mainstream International Relations Discipline (IR) - rationalist theories, especially Realism - and the mainstream's responses to this challenge. It addresses the issue in five steps. Firstly, it sheds light on how Feminism is related to International Relations. Secondly, it examines how Feminist IR theorists criticize the Mainstream IR due to its state-centric approach and argue that being obsessed with anarchic international system prevent...

  18. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED ( IR ) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared ( IR ) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L...release; distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Several Infrared ( IR ) imaging systems have been measured

  19. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myths...... helps us recognize what is missing from IR theorizing - conceptions of the international by 'others' who also constitute the international. I illustrate this point by focussing on a landmark text on Ottoman history, Ortayll's The Longest Century of the Empire....

  20. High entomological inoculation rate of malaria vectors in area of high coverage of interventions in southwest Ethiopia: Implication for residual malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misrak Abraham

    2017-05-01

    Finally, there was an indoor residual malaria transmission in a village of high coverage of bed nets and where the principal malaria vector is susceptibility to propoxur and bendiocarb; insecticides currently in use for indoor residual spraying. The continuing indoor transmission of malaria in such village implies the need for new tools to supplement the existing interventions and to reduce indoor malaria transmission.

  1. Drug-polymer miscibility across a spray dryer: a case study of naproxen and miconazole solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Aarts, Jolie; Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2014-04-07

    The structural and physical stability of solid dispersions have not been adequately explored during spray drying manufacturing processes. In this study a wide range of compositions of naproxen/PVP-VA 64 (poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)) and miconazole/PVP-VA 64 solid dispersions prepared by different laboratory spray dryers were collected from various selected locations and used to investigate the drug-polymer mixing across spray dryers. Spray-dried dispersions with 30% (w/w) naproxen collected from the transport tube of the Pro-C-epT Microspray dryer showed the narrowest glass transition width, which apparently indicates the highest degree of drug-polymer mixing compared to the other locations. The intensity of the naproxen-PVP-VA 64 interaction peak at 1654 cm(-1) of IR spectra differs for solid dispersions (SDs) from the collector and transport tube of Pro-C-epT Microspray dryer with a higher intensity for the latter. Samples with 50% (w/w) naproxen loading collected from the cyclone and the cyclone steel part of the Buchi mini spray dryer showed a melting endotherm (Tm at 112.2 ± 0.8 °C and ΔHf between 0.7 and 1.8 J/g), whereas samples from the cyclone tube to the drying chamber were devoid of crystalline material. The variations in drug-polymer mixing extend to miconazole/PVP-VA solid dispersions where 20% drug loading showed location-dependent drug-polymer mixing. This study clearly showed that the variation in drug-polymer miscibility and solid form of the drug in solid dispersions can occur across spray dryer in small-scale manufacturing processes. The optimization of formulation parameters and spray drying process parameters is imperative to diminish these variations to enhance homogeneity of solid dispersions in laboratory scale spray dryers. The same problem can occur in geometrically large spray drying manufacturing equipment, and the robustness of the processes should be carefully assessed.

  2. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  3. Numerical investigation on particle swelling in spray roasting reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemann, M; de Haan, A.B.; Wirtz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spray roasting of metal chloride solutions is frequently used in steel industries to recover pickling liquids. As spray roasting reactors are difficult to characterize experimentally, computational fluid dynamics simu- lations have been used to investigate reactor performance. These simulations

  4. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  5. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  6. SPIRT-NRC. Containment Spray Iodine Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K. [Benton City Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Sherry, R.R.; Tam, P.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1988-01-01

    SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles,the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  7. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  8. The effect of vehicles on spray drying of rifampicin inhalable microparticles: In vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrond and the purpose of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solvents used in the spray drying and the aerodynamic properties of the rifampicin microparticles and pulmonary absorption of the microparticles. Methods: Different mixtures of dichloromethane and water were used as solvents for spray drying of rifampicin microparticles. The water to dichloromethane ratios were 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 80:20, 90:10 and 100:0.   The solutions were dried at inlet temperature of 70 °C. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, helium densitometer and infrared spectroscopy (IR. The aerosolization performance of these formulations was investigated using an Andersen cascade impactor. Pulmonary absorptions of formulations were examined by the in situ pulmonary absorption described by Enna and Schanker method. The plasma concentration time profiles of rifampicin were constructed 8 hours following the intravenous and the intrapulmonary administrations. The pharmacokinetics parameters, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC, mean residence time (MRT, Ka and Ke were determined for each formulations. Results and major conclusions: The Tmax values for the samples decreased by increase in the amount of water in the initial feed. The Tmax values for the spray dried samples from the different mixtures of   dichloromethane and water were 60(min and 30(min respectively. The solvent mixture as the spray drying vehicle played an important role in the in vitro and in vivo lung deposition. The type of spray drying vehicle showed significant effect on the aerodynamic behavior and pharmacokinetic parameters of the particles. The pulmonary absorption of drug revealed the possibility of achieving the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the antibiotics. The spray drying vehicle only affected absorption patterns of the formulations and it did not have any effect on the elimination rat of

  9. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J

    2017-10-01

    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P IR education into the gross anatomy course proved to be a highly effective way of teaching preclinical students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  10. Silver electrodeposition over an Ir/Ir oxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezna, R.O.; Tacconi, N.R. de; Arvia, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in electrochemical response brought about by the electrodeposition of small amounts of silver on oxide covered iridium electrodes are examined in relation to the semiconducting properties of the oxide. The charge involved in both silver and hydrogen atoms was found to remain practically constant and independent of the oxide thickness which was gradually increased by potentiodynamic cycling up to greater anodic switching potentials. This result suggests that the charge transfer for both processes takes place at the bare metal. The considerable increase in the film conductivity when the potential is above ductivity when the potential is above oV (MSE) is shown by the fact that under certain controlled conditions the silver electroreduction/ electroxidation reactions are shifted to a more anodic potential region where the oxide becomes conductor and participates in the charge transfer process. Silver loading increases the electrical conductivity of the oxide providing a large cross section for the electroxidation of Ir, particularly in a region where the oxide conductivity is poor (E [pt

  11. Determination of maleic hydrazide residues in onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC determination method of maleic hydrazide residues in onions was introduced. The homogenized onion samples were extracted with methanol. The crude ex- tract was purified on SPE SampliQ SCX column. The maleic hydrazide was analyzed by HPLC with UV detection of 313 nm. The HPLC separation was performed on SynChropak Q column with 0.25 M phosphate buffer as the mobile phase. The recoveries of maleic hydrazide from the spiked onions with 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 10.0 mg ml-1, ranged from 89-103%. The detection limit of maleic hydrazide was 0.4 mg ml-1, and the quantification limit was 1.25 mg ml-1. The linearity coefficient was 0.9998. Such an optimized method was applied to the determination of residue content of maleic hydrazide in onions, treated with Royal MH-30 in the amount of 8.0 and 12.0 l ha-1. The samples were analysed after 8, 16 and 25 days from the moment of spraying. The obtained values of maleic hydrazide residues were below the maximum tolerable amount in the Republic of Serbia (10 mg kg-1, as well as the amount regulated by the EU (15 mg kg-1. .

  12. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  13. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  14. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  15. Residual effect of lambdacyhalothrin on Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Ferro

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal residual effect and triatomine infestation rates in houses of a community fumigated with lambdcyhalothrin (Icon are reported. No mortality was observed in 5th-instar Triatoma infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on three different surfaces, one month after fumigation for a dose of 31.5 mg am/m2. However, during post-exposure observation a mortality of 60% was recorded for those insect exposed on sprayed woodboard. The results observed with mud-containing treated walls, were markedly poorer (0% of mortality. Twelve month after spraying 40% of mortality was observed on first-instar T. infestans nymphs in 72-hr exposure test on woodboard, but lower mortality rates were observed in mud-containing materials. When the effect of deltamethrin (109 mg ai/m2 and lambdcyhalothrin (94 mg ai/m2 was compared, the former did not appear to be superior at similar loads. Both have showed a mortality rate of 30% on 5th-instar T. infestans nymphs three months post-fumigation. The dose utilized in the field fumigation was enough to get a significant (p < 0.0001 control of triatomine domestic infestation, since it was sufficient to keep 95% of the houses uninfested throughout 21 months following treatment, when compared with baseline situation. A remarkable knock-down effect on adult and nymphs forms of the insect and a high in situ mortality were observed as a result of its application, even at very low doses.

  16. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ZnO. Table 1. Spray parameters for film deposition. Spray parameter. Value. Concentration of zinc acetate solution. 0.1 M. Nozzle–substrate ..... [13] F Paraguay, D M Miki-Yoshida, J Morales, J Solis and W Estrada, Thin Solid Films 373, 137. (2000). [14] B Baruwati ...

  17. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  18. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  19. IR spectroscopic study of the effect of ionizing radiation on the structure of polyacrylonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonova, N.V.; Klimenko, I.B.; Majburov, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Based on an IR spectroscopic analysis, it is shown that the treatment of polyacrylonitrile films and fibers by gamma-irradiation leads to the cleavage of polymer chains, forming carbonyl-containing functional groups. The composition of these groups is found to depend on the treatment conditions. The presence of terminal methyl groups in the treated polymer is detected in its IR spectra only in the presence of residual basic solvent. The behaviour of the absorption bands in the range 1350-1380 cm -1 and at 970 cm -1 points to the occurrence of conformational changes in the polymer

  20. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  1. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  2. Atom condensation on an atomically smooth surface: Ir, Re, W, and Pd on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Ehrlich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of condensing metal atoms over the two types of sites present on an atomically smooth Ir(111) has been measured in a field ion microscope. For Ir, Re, W, and Pd from a thermal source, condensing on Ir(111) at ∼20 K, the atoms are randomly distributed, as expected if they condense at the first site struck

  3. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick

    1988-05-01

    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  4. Factors Influencing Residual Stresses in Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, Roy T. R.; Rybicki, Edmund F.; Shadley, John R.; Brindley, William J.

    1997-01-01

    To improve gas turbine and diesel engine performance using thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) requires an understanding of the factors that influence the in-service behavior of thermal barrier coatings. One of the many factors related to coating performance is the state of stress in the coating. The total stress state is composed of the stresses due to the in-service loading history and the residual stresses. Residual stresses have been shown to affect TBC life, the bond strength of thermal spray coatings, and the fatigue life of tungsten carbide coatings. Residual stresses are first introduced in TBC's by the spraying process due to elevated temperatures during processing and the difference in coefficients of thermal expansion of the top coat, bond coat, and substrate. Later, the residual stresses can be changed by the in-service temperature history due to a number of time and temperature dependent mechanisms, such as oxidation, creep, and sintering. Silica content has also been shown to affect sintering and the cyclic life of thermal barrier coatings. Thus, it is important to understand how the spraying process, the in-service thermal cycles, and the silica content can create and alter residual stresses in thermal barrier coatings.

  5. Copper-Tungsten Composites Sprayed by HVOF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Zahálka, F.; Bensch, Jan; Chi, W.; Sedláček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-180 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermally sprayed coatings * tungsten * copper * HVOF Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/120439/

  6. Commissioning of laser assisted cold spraying technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the potential of a newly designed, assembled and commissioned laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) technology at the National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, to deposit Al-12wt%Si coatings on stainless steel substrate...

  7. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  8. Plasma sprayed basalt/chromium oxide coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Medarhri, Z.; Ctibor, Pavel; Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-82 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Chromia, basalt * plasma spraying * microstructure * phase analysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2007

  9. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  10. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others:COST(XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  11. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  12. Remarks on the 'Spray-Paint' Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, Tadanori

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that the locative variant of the 'spray-paint' construction makesthe object NP partitive in a certain sense while the transposed one makes it holistic.Arguing that there are in fact many more factors operative, this paper attempts to get aclearer perspective on the issue.

  13. Aerodynamic characteristics of swirling spray flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presser, C.; Gupta, A.K.; Semerjian, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the effect of swirl on droplet transport processes is examined in a pressure-atomized, hollow-cone kerosene spray, introduced into coflowing nonswirling and swirling air flow fields. An ensemble light scattering technique, based on measurement of the polarization ratio, provided spatially resolved measurements on the local values of droplet mean size and number density in dense regions of the nonburning spray. Laser velocimetry was employed to measure the axial, radial, and tangential velocity components of the droplets and combustion air stream. Droplet velocity distributions and time histories provided information on the transport of individual droplets under nonburning and burning conditions. high-speed cinemathography, short-exposure photography, and video movies were also employed to observe the global features of the spray flame. The results reveal that the spray flame has a complex three-dimensional structure. The introduction of swirl to the combustion air modifies the droplet/air velocity field in addition to the spatial distribution of droplet size and number density

  14. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  15. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  16. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  17. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  18. HVOF Combustion spraying of inconel powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D. J.; Ortiz, M. G.; Miller, C. S.; Steeper, T. J.; Rotolico, A. J.; Nerz, J.; Rlggs, W. L.

    1993-06-01

    A major trend in the thermal spray industry has been to increase the gas jet velocity to obtain better coating attributes. One emerging technology now used in industry is the high-velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF). High-velocity spray guns combine oxygen and a fuel gas to generate heat and extremely high particle velocities. In this study, Inconel 718 powder was deposited on steel substrates. The primary coating function was electrical resistivity for a heater application. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi L8 statistical fractional/factorial design parametric study. The Taguchi experiment evaluated the effect of six HVOF processing variables on the measured responses. The parameters were oxygen flow, fuel flow, air envelope gas flow, powder feed rate, spray distance, and nozzle configuration. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, surface profilometry, optical metallography, and image analysis. This article investigates coating hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure with respect to the influence of the processing parameters. Analytical studies were conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics for two of the HVOF thermal spray experiments.

  19. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  20. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  1. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  2. Invited Review. Combustion instability in spray-guided stratified-charge engines. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fansler, Todd D. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reuss, D. L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sick, V. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dahms, R. N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Our article reviews systematic research on combustion instabilities (principally rare, random misfires and partial burns) in spray-guided stratified-charge (SGSC) engines operated at part load with highly stratified fuel -air -residual mixtures. Results from high-speed optical imaging diagnostics and numerical simulation provide a conceptual framework and quantify the sensitivity of ignition and flame propagation to strong, cyclically varying temporal and spatial gradients in the flow field and in the fuel -air -residual distribution. For SGSC engines using multi-hole injectors, spark stretching and locally rich ignition are beneficial. Moreover, combustion instability is dominated by convective flow fluctuations that impede motion of the spark or flame kernel toward the bulk of the fuel, coupled with low flame speeds due to locally lean mixtures surrounding the kernel. In SGSC engines using outwardly opening piezo-electric injectors, ignition and early flame growth are strongly influenced by the spray's characteristic recirculation vortex. For both injection systems, the spray and the intake/compression-generated flow field influence each other. Factors underlying the benefits of multi-pulse injection are identified. Finally, some unresolved questions include (1) the extent to which piezo-SGSC misfires are caused by failure to form a flame kernel rather than by flame-kernel extinction (as in multi-hole SGSC engines); (2) the relative contributions of partially premixed flame propagation and mixing-controlled combustion under the exceptionally late-injection conditions that permit SGSC operation on E85-like fuels with very low NOx and soot emissions; and (3) the effects of flow-field variability on later combustion, where fuel-air-residual mixing within the piston bowl becomes important.

  3. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  4. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  5. Influence of solvent composition on the miscibility and physical stability of naproxen/PVP K 25 solid dispersions prepared by cosolvent spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the influence of solvent properties on the phase behavior and physical stability of spray-dried solid dispersions containing naproxen and PVP K 25 prepared from binary cosolvent systems containing methanol, acetone and dichloromethane. The viscosity, polymer globular size and evaporation rate of the spray-drying feed solutions were characterized. The solid dispersions were prepared by spray-drying drug-polymer solutions in binary solvent blends containing different proportions of each solvent. The phase behavior was investigated with mDSC, pXRD, FT-IR and TGA. Further, physical stability of solid dispersions was assessed by analyzing after storage at 75% RH. The solid dispersions prepared from solvent/anti-solvent mixture showed better miscibility and physical stability over those prepared from the mixtures of good solvents. Thus, solid dispersions prepared from dichloromethane-acetone exhibited the best physicochemical attributes followed by those prepared from methanol-acetone. FT-IR analysis revealed differential drug-polymer interaction in solid dispersions prepared from various solvent blends, upon the exposure to elevated humidity. Spray-drying from a cocktail of good solvent and anti-solvent with narrower volatility difference produces solid dispersions with better miscibility and physical stability resulting from the simultaneous effect on the polymer conformation and better dispersivity of drug.

  6. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  7. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  8. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)]. E-mail: moreira@dem.ist.utl.pt; Carvalho, Joao [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Panao, Miguel R.O. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  9. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  10. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  11. Effect of different formulations on tebuconazole residues in stone fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The correlation between pesticide residue levels and formulation of an active substance is often not considered, even if it is reasonable to expect some differences arising from behaviour during dilution and spraying, from adhesion to plant and from degradation. An experimental study to investigate the magnitude of tebuconazole residues as a function of different tebuconazole formulated products was carried out in Italy. The fungicide was applied as wettable powder (WP) and water-dispersible granule (WG) formulations to peach, plum, apricot and nectarine orchards, on four different sites. The fruit samples gained from the field trials were quantitatively analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC/NPD) for tebuconazole residues. Tebuconazole residues in the fruits gained from the plot treated with the WP formulation, 14 days after application, were in the range 0.01-0.07 mg kg(-1), while corresponding residues in the plot treated with the WG formulation were in the range 0.01-0.06 mg kg(-1). No significant differences in the residue levels of tebuconazole could be observed between the trials conducted with the WP and the WG formulation. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of RF plasma treatment on spray-pyrolyzed copper oxide films on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Rozen Grace B.; Martinez, Melanie M.; Vasquez, Magdaleno R., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of radio-frequency (RF) argon (Ar) plasma treatment on the structural, morphological, electrical and compositional properties of the spray-pyrolyzed p-type copper oxide films on n-type (100) silicon (Si) substrates were investigated. The films were successfully synthesized using 0.3 M copper acetate monohydrate sprayed on precut Si substrates maintained at 350 °C. X-ray diffraction revealed cupric oxide (CuO) with a monoclinic structure. An apparent improvement in crystallinity was realized after Ar plasma treatment, attributed to the removal of residues contaminating the surface. Scanning electron microscope images showed agglomerated monoclinic grains and revealed a reduction in size upon plasma exposure induced by the sputtering effect. The current-voltage characteristics of CuO/Si showed a rectifying behavior after Ar plasma exposure with an increase in turn-on voltage. Four-point probe measurements revealed a decrease in sheet resistance after plasma irradiation. Fourier transform infrared spectral analyses also showed O-H and C-O bands on the films. This work was able to produce CuO thin films via spray pyrolysis on Si substrates and enhancement in their properties by applying postdeposition Ar plasma treatment.

  13. Production and spray drying of protein hydrolyzate obtained from tilapia processing by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Daniel De Paris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the offer of by-products obtained from the processing of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus has increased, and the need for developing products with high biological and nutritional values for use in animal nutrition motivated this study. Enzymatic hydrolysis of carcass, head and skin of tilapia was performed, as well as the separation of oil, residual solids and soluble proteins by centrifugation at high temperature and the spray drying of the protein fraction. Factorial designs were employed in the assays to evaluate the operating conditions of the spray dryer (inlet and outlet temperatures and flow rate and the inclusion of drying aid agents (maltodextrin and calcium carbonate. The spray drying showed the best results with air inlet temperature of 190ºC, outlet temperature of 90ºC, flow rate of 30 L·h-1 including 10% maltodextrin (mass in the liquid feed as a drying aid. The final powder recovery was higher than 90% and the physical, chemical and microbiological analyses met the Brazilian legal standards.

  14. Modified vibrating-mesh nozzles for advanced spray-drying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Paulus, Ilka E; Greiner, Andreas; Kissel, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    This work describes uniform polymer coatings allowing for an adjustment of the orifice dimension of vibrating-mesh nozzles and therefore, size of emerging formulation droplets and dried particles, which is of general interest for diverse spray-drying applications. Chemical vapor deposition of poly(p-xylylene) (PPXN) on aperture templates of the B-90 spray-dryer (orifice diameters: ∼4.0μm) caused a reduction of the opening cross-sections of ∼50%. Thus, a more efficient formulation atomization was observed (finer droplets). Likewise, application of PPXN-coated, rather than plain nozzles, resulted in significantly smaller (particle diameter: 1.3 vs. 3.6μm) and narrower distributed (span: ∼1.4 vs. ∼1.8) sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles. Prediction of the size of spray-dried microparticles using the size results of atomized droplets ("residual core method") was shown to be in agreement with the observed values. Formulations prepared with plain and PPXN-coated nozzles exhibited a sustained sildenafil release profile with mean dissolution times of ∼1.5 and ∼4.0h, respectively. Regardless of the starting aperture template, any desired orifice dimension and therefore, dried particle size could be achieved by generating adequate polymer deposits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimisation of spray drying process conditions for sugar nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) intended for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Maria Inês; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-12-12

    The present study investigated the effect of operating parameters of a laboratory spray dryer on powder characteristics, in order to optimise the production of trehalose and raffinose powders, intended to be used as carriers of biomolecules for inhalation. The sugars were spray dried from 80:20 methanol:n-butyl acetate (v/v) solutions using a Büchi Mini Spray dryer B-290. A 2(4) factorial design of experiment (DOE) was undertaken. Process parameters studied were inlet temperature, gas flow rate, feed solution flow rate (pump setting) and feed concentration. Resulting powders where characterised in terms of yield, particle size (PS), residual solvent content (RSC) and outlet temperature. An additional outcome evaluated was the specific surface area (SSA) (by BET gas adsorption), and a relation between SSA and the in vitro deposition of the sugar NPMPs powders was also investigated. The DOE resulted in well fitted models. The most significant factors affecting the characteristics of the NPMPs prepared, at a 95% confidence interval, were gas flow: yield, PS and SSA; pump setting: yield; inlet temperature: RSC. Raffinose NPMPs presented better characteristics than trehalose NPMPs in terms of their use for inhalation, since particles with larger surface area resulting in higher fine particle fraction can be produced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclone selection influences protein damage during drying in a mini spray-dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögelein, Jürgen; Lee, Geoffrey

    2010-11-30

    The use of a small-dimensioned cyclone separator to spray-dry an aqueous solution of lysozyme on a mini spray-dryer produces consistently higher protein inactivation at all drying-air outlet temperatures examined between 50°C and 105°C. Differences in drying air flow rate through the machines will influence droplet/particle residence times within the drying chamber, but these are considered too small to explain the result. It appears more likely that a higher separation and retention of fines within the small cyclone causes higher measured protein inactivation. By virtue of their small size the fines have a greater specific surface area and suffer therefore a greater degree of protein damage when passing through the spray dryer from nozzle to collecting vessel. Although the dry powder yield is higher with the small-dimensioned cyclone than that obtained with the standard cyclone, the profile of residual moisture versus T(outlet) is irregular in shape. A possible lack of equilibrium between the attributes of the protein particles and the exhaust air needs therefore to be considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  18. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKCδ on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKCδ catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1

  19. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  20. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  1. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  2. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  3. Joint IAEA/NEA IRS guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants

  4. Novel Wavelength Standards in the Near IR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corwin, Kristan L

    2008-01-01

    .... This research has three major components, consisting of spectroscopy in hollow fiber, the development of a near-IR optical frequency comb with which to characterize the transitions inside the fiber...

  5. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  6. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  7. Increased proportions of outdoor feeding among residual malaria vector populations following increased use of insecticide-treated nets in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Salum

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS represent the front-line tools for malaria vector control globally, but are optimally effective where the majority of baseline transmission occurs indoors. In the surveyed area of rural southern Tanzania, bed net use steadily increased over the last decade, reducing malaria transmission intensity by 94%. Methods Starting before bed nets were introduced (1997, and then after two milestones of net use had been reached-75% community-wide use of untreated nets (2004 and then 47% use of ITNs (2009-hourly biting rates of malaria vectors from the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus group were surveyed. Results In 1997, An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus mosquitoes exhibited a tendency to bite humans inside houses late at night. For An. gambiae s.l., by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0018. At this time, the sibling species composition of the complex had shifted from predominantly An. gambiae s.s. to predominantly An. arabiensis. For An. funestus, by 2009, nocturnal activity was less (p = 0.0054 as well as the proportion biting indoors (p An. funestus s.s. remained the predominant species within this group. As a consequence of these altered feeding patterns, the proportion (mean ± standard error of human contact with mosquitoes (bites per person per night occurring indoors dropped from 0.99 ± 0.002 in 1997 to 0.82 ± 0.008 in 2009 for the An. gambiae complex (p = 0.0143 and from 1.00 ± An. funestus complex (p = 0.0004 over the same time period. Conclusions High usage of ITNs can dramatically alter African vector populations so that intense, predominantly indoor transmission is replaced by greatly lowered residual transmission, a greater proportion of which occurs outdoors. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, the residual, self-sustaining transmission will respond poorly to further insecticidal measures within houses. Additional vector control

  8. An IR and XPS spectroscopy assessment of the physico-chemical surface properties of alumina–YAG nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spina, Giulia; Bonelli, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.bonelli@polito.it; Palmero, Paola, E-mail: paola.palmero@polito.it; Montanaro, Laura

    2013-12-16

    Well-dispersed nano-crystalline transition alumina suspensions were mixed with yttrium chloride aqueous solutions, with the aim of producing by spray-drying Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite powders of increasing YAG vol.%. Two samples were prepared, with different Y content, corresponding to 5 and 20 YAG vol.%, respectively. Both samples were then treated at either 600 or 1150 °C. The obtained powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and compared to three reference samples: commercial nano-crystalline transition alumina, YAG and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. YAG powders were obtained by co-precipitation route whereas Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were yielded by spray-drying of a yttrium chloride aqueous solution. Modification of physico-chemical properties of the surface of alumina nanoparticles were assessed by combining XPS and FT-IR spectroscopies. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible model is proposed for the structure of the obtained composites, in which Y basically reacts with more acidic hydroxyls of alumina, by forming Y-rich surface grains, the extension of which depends on the thermal treatment. - Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite nanopowders were prepared by spray drying. • Combined XPS and IR spectroscopy: effective tools to study surface modifications. • Y reacts with more acidic hydroxyls at alumina surface. • Y-rich surface grains form: their extension depends on the thermal treatment.

  9. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  10. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  11. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  12. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  13. Infrared (IR) remote sensing of gases

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The IR Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory – LIR-UC3M of Universidad Carlos III, has developed Multi and Hyper spectral Infrared (IR) analysis techniques for gas remote sensing. Design of specific sensors for the determination of gases and their concentration are proposed. Almost all gases (CO2, CO, NO2, O3, HC o NH, …) related to industrial, environmental or military safety can be detected. Companies or centres with interest in the use of specific application sensors are required.

  14. Herbicide residues in grapes and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G G; Williams, B

    1999-05-01

    The persistence of several common herbicides from grapes to wine has been studied. Shiraz, Tarrango and Doradillo grapes were separately sprayed with either norflurazon, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon or trifluralin-persistent herbicides commonly used for weed control in vineyards. The dissipation of the herbicides from the grapes was followed for 28 days following treatment. Results showed that norflurazon was the most persist herbicide although there were detectable residues of all the herbicides on both red and white grapes at the end of the study period. The penetration of herbicides into the flesh of the grapes was found to be significantly greater for white grapes than for red grapes. Small-lot winemaking experiments showed that norflurazon persisted at levels close to the initial concentration through vinification and into the finished wine. The other herbicides degraded, essentially via first-order kinetics, within the period of "first fermentation" and had largely disappeared after 28 days. The use of charcoal together with filter pads, or with diatomaceous earth was shown to be very effective in removing herbicide residues from the wine. A 5% charcoal filter removed more than 96% of the norflurazon persisting in the treated wine.

  15. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  16. Queen survival and oxalic acid residues in sugar stores after summer application against Varroa destructor in honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, B.; Donders, J.N.L.C.; Stratum, van P.; Blacquière, T.; Dooremalen, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Methods using oxalic acid (OA) to control Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are widely applied. In this study, the effects of an OA spray application in early summer on the survival of young and old queens, and on OA residues in sugar stores were investigated. A questionnaire

  17. Micro-Sized Particle Production of Momordicas sp Extract Using Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizirwan Mel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. It is highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form from liquid feed-stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. Therefore, spray drying is an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density, and particle shape. In this study, Momordica sp extract product has been successfully spray dried into micro scale of powder particle and will be used as plant-based insulin. The process optimized using Taguchi method with four factors and three levels has given a good quality of the product. The average of particle size was obtained at about 11 microns.ABSTRAK: Kering sembur digunakan secara meluas dalam proses industri yang melibatkan pembentukan zarah dan pengeringan. Ia amat sesuai dalam penghasilan pepejal kering secara beterusan dalam bentuk serbuk, butiran atau gumpalan daripada simpanan suapan bendalir sebagai larutan, emulsi dan ampaian boleh dipam. Maka, kering sembur adalah proses yang ideal apabila hasil akhir harus mematuhi piawaian kualiti yang tepat berkaitan dengan pengagihan saiz zarah, kandungan kelengsaan sisa, ketumpatan pukal dan bentuk zarah. Dalam kajian ini, produk ekstrak Momordica sp (dikenali juga sebagai peria katak telah berjaya dikering sembur menjadi serbuk zarah berskala mikro dan akan digunakan sebagai insulin berasaskan tumbuhan. Proses ini dioptimumkan dengan pengunaan kaedah Taguchi empat faktor dan tiga peringkat, agar memberikan hasil produk yang berkualiti. Kadar purata saiz zarah yang terhasil adalah lebih kurang 11 mikron.KEY WORDS: micro-sized, particle, Momordica sp, spray dryer.

  18. A comparison of three different methodologies for evaluating Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus susceptibility to topical spray compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Rafael Rodrigues; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Buzzulini, Carolina; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-01-15

    This study aimed to compare three different methodologies (Adult Immersion Tests, field trials with naturally infected animals, and a Stall Test using artificially infested cattle) to evaluate the efficacy of two topical formulations that we administered as whole body sprays (15% Cypermethrin+30% Chlorpyriphos+15% Fenthion-Colosso(®) FC 30, Ouro Fino Agronegócios; and 60% Dichlorvos+20% Chlorpyriphos-Ectofós(®), Vallée Saúde Animal Ltd.), against a susceptible strain of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. To achieve this objective, two natural infestation trials were conducted, as well as two artificial infestation trials (Stall Tests) and two Adult Immersion Tests (AIT). The AIT results showed that both spray formulations achieved 100% efficacy against R. (B.) microplus fully engorged females. However, when observing results obtained by field trials (natural infestations) and Stall Tests, none of these topically applied compounds reached 100% efficacy or affected the reproductive capacity of the fully engorged female ticks. Additional studies must be conducted to compare these in vivo methodologies with different in vitro techniques, such as the Larval Packet Test. However, based on results obtained here, we can conclude that depending on the spray formulations used, the AIT can overestimate acaricidal efficacy and values of reproductive efficiency of such compounds against R (B.) microplus. Specifically, when dealing with spray formulations in the Stall Tests, the period of residual action can increase because these animals are sheltered from contact with environmental factors that might interfere with the efficacy of the products tested. It may be necessary to take in vivo trial results into consideration (such as field trials with naturally infested animals or Stall Tests) to standardize a specific in vitro assay, such as the Adult Immersion Test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology of and impact of insecticide spraying on Chagas disease in communities in the Bolivian Chaco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Samuels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease control campaigns relying upon residual insecticide spraying have been successful in many Southern American countries. However, in some areas, rapid reinfestation and recrudescence of transmission have occurred. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in the Bolivian Chaco to evaluate prevalence of and risk factors for T. cruzi infection 11 years after two rounds of blanket insecticide application. We used a cubic B-spline model to estimate change in force of infection over time based on age-specific seroprevalence data. Overall T. cruzi seroprevalence was 51.7%. The prevalence was 19.8% among children 2-15, 72.7% among those 15-30 and 97.1% among participants older than 30 years. Based on the model, the estimated annual force of infection was 4.3% over the two years before the first blanket spray in 2000 and fell to 0.4% for 2001-2002. The estimated annual force of infection for 2004-2005, the 2 year period following the second blanket spray, was 4.6%. However, the 95% bootstrap confidence intervals overlap for all of these estimates. In a multivariable model, only sleeping in a structure with cracks in the walls (aOR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.15-4.78, age and village of residence were associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As in other areas in the Chaco, we found an extremely high prevalence of Chagas disease. Despite evidence that blanket insecticide application in 2000 may have decreased the force of infection, active transmission is ongoing. Continued spraying vigilance, infestation surveillance, and systematic household improvements are necessary to disrupt and sustain interruption of infection transmission.

  20. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  1. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  2. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  3. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  4. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  5. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  6. Characterization of thick plasma spray tungsten coating on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H for high heat flux armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahiro, Y.; Mitsuhara, M.; Tokunakga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Hirai, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Nakashima, H.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of plasma spray tungsten coatings on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H made by vacuum plasma spray technique (VPS) and air plasma spray technique (APS) were examined in this study to evaluate the possibility as plasma-facing armor. The VPS-W/F82H showed superior properties. The porosity of the VPS-W coatings was about 0.6% and most of the pores were smaller than 1-2 μm and joining of W/F82H and W/W was fairly good. Thermal load tests indicated high potential of this coating as plasma-facing armor under thermal loading. In case of APS-W/F82H, however, porosity was 6% and thermal load properties were much worse than VPS-W/F82H. It is likely that surface oxidation during plasma spray process reduced joining properties. Remarkably, both coatings created soft ferrite interlayer after proper heat treatments probably due to high residual stress at the interfaces after the production. This indicates the potential function of the interlayer as stress relieve and possible high performance of such coating component under thermal loads.

  7. Characterization of thick plasma spray tungsten coating on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H for high heat flux armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiro, Y.; Mitsuhara, M.; Tokunakga, K.; Yoshida, N.; Hirai, T.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Akiba, M.; Nakashima, H.

    2009-04-01

    Two types of plasma spray tungsten coatings on ferritic/martensitic steel F82H made by vacuum plasma spray technique (VPS) and air plasma spray technique (APS) were examined in this study to evaluate the possibility as plasma-facing armor. The VPS-W/F82H showed superior properties. The porosity of the VPS-W coatings was about 0.6% and most of the pores were smaller than 1-2 μm and joining of W/F82H and W/W was fairly good. Thermal load tests indicated high potential of this coating as plasma-facing armor under thermal loading. In case of APS-W/F82H, however, porosity was 6% and thermal load properties were much worse than VPS-W/F82H. It is likely that surface oxidation during plasma spray process reduced joining properties. Remarkably, both coatings created soft ferrite interlayer after proper heat treatments probably due to high residual stress at the interfaces after the production. This indicates the potential function of the interlayer as stress relieve and possible high performance of such coating component under thermal loads.

  8. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  9. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  10. Material design of ceramic coating by plasma spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.; Takabatake, T.

    1998-01-01

    In the ceramic coating on substrate, cracking and peeling occur due to the difference of thermal expansion between substrate material and coating material. For evaluation of peeling property of plasma sprayed coating, it is demanded that thermal properties of plasma sprayed coating are estimated in detail. In this study, the results of comparison of thermal properties between bulk material and plasma sprayed material are investigated to design the ceramic coating quantitatively. Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 is decreased by approximately 50% to that of sintered MgO.Al 2 O 3 . Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed 410SS agreed well with the calculation results of relation between porosity and thermal conductivity of iron sintered material. Thermal expansions of atmospheric plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 and bulk 410SS, respectively. Therefore, as to material design on ceramic coating, it was made clear that thermal conductivity is more important than thermal expansion. (orig.)

  11. Comparative efficacy of steroid nasal spray versus antihistamine nasal spray in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anand; Das, Balabhadra Prasad; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2007-03-01

    This prospective randomized case controlled study was conducted to determine the efficacy of antihistamine (azelastine) nasal spray and compare it to steroid (beclomethasone) nasal spray on the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Seventy five symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and physical examination. The patients were divided into three groups randomly. Group A was treated with Azelastine nasal spray, Group B was treated with Beclomethasone nasal spray and Group C was control group and only treated with steam inhalation. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed in the terms of Total Rhinitis Symptom Complex (TSC) scores and individual symptom score which was calculated on the basis of Okuda's grading system. Base line total symptom complex (TSC) scores were reduced in group A and group B by 84.0% after 4 week treatment whereas in group C it was reduced by only 38.0%. Decrease in mean score for sneezing was 95.0% in group A and group B whereas it was only 28.3% in group C. Similarly decrease in mean score for rhinorrhoea in azelastine group was 94.4% and in beclomethasone group was 95.3% in comparison to steam inhalation group where it was 25.0%. Only the beclomethasone reduced nasal stuffiness score significantly by 95.0%. No significant adverse effects of the drugs were observed. The present study establishes the relative efficacy and tolerability ofazelastine nasal spray as compared to beclomethasone nasal spray in symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis.

  12. Fabrication of flexible Ir and Ir-Rh wires and application for thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Rikito; Kamada, Kei; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshino, Masao; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Ohashi, Yuji; Yamaji, Akihiro; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication and thermal electromotive force characteristics of Ir/Ir-Rh thermocouples capable of repeated bending deformation are described. Ir and Ir-Rh wires with a diameter of 0.5 mm were fabricated using the alloy-micro-pulling-down method. Scanning electron microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction of the radial cross section of the grown wires were performed to investigate the microstructure and orientation of the crystal grains. At the start of growth, the microstructure was polycrystalline with diameters of several hundred micrometers, while at the 8-m growth point it was found to be monocrystalline. The observed single crystals of pure Ir and Ir-Rh alloy were oriented in the 〈1 1 3〉 and 〈1 1 2〉 directions, respectively, whereas the polycrystalline Ir-Rh samples showed preferential growth in the 〈1 0 0〉 direction. The thermal electromotive force of the fabricated Ir/Ir-Rh thermocouple was measured by the comparison technique and the fixed-point technique, and the thermoelectric power was estimated to be 5.9 μV/°C in the range from 600°C to 1100°C.

  13. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...... with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal...

  14. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  15. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  16. Persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyfluorfen residues in onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2010-03-01

    A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested.

  17. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Lenardón, Argelia; Sanchez, Daniel; Maitre, María I; Scotta, Roberto; Enrique, Susana

    2004-02-01

    The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

  18. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  19. Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

  20. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    OpenAIRE

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to paint during airless spray painting. It was also investigated whether the observed exposure corresponds with the estimates made by the exposure model EASE. Skin exposure was measured in three offsho...

  1. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  2. Optimization of Chitosan Microspheres Spray Drying via 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsarov Plamen D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally, the preparation of spray-dried microspheres is strongly affected by the process parameters. Particle size and production yield are mainly influenced by the spraying solution concentration and the pump rate of the spray dryer.

  3. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... Abstract. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR,. IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the ...

  4. Rainfall-induced removal of copper-based spray residues from vines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P.; Soto-Gómez, D.; De La Calle, I.

    2016-01-01

    The continuoususeofcopperagainstfungaldiseasesandoff-targeteffectscausesmajorenvironmental and agronomicproblems.However,therain-inducedremovalofCu-basedresiduesisknownonlyfora limited numberofcrops.Wepresenttheresultsofrain-inducedremovaloffungicidesfromtwomon- itoredvineyardplotswhichwerespraye...

  5. PLASMA SPRAYING OF REFRACTORY CERMETS BY THE WATER-STABILIZED SPRAY (WSP®) SYSTEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, V.; Cheong, D.-I.; Chráska, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-253 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * cermet coatings * microhardness * zirconium carbide * tungsten Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  6. Identification of Common Cause Initiating Events Using the NEA IRS Database. Rev 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulig, Maciej; Tomic, Bojan (Enconet Consulting, Vienna (Austria)); Nyman, Ralph (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-02-15

    The study presented in this report is a continuation of work conducted for SKI in 1998 on the identification of Common Cause Initiators (CCIs) based on operational events documented in the NEA Incident Reporting System (IRS). Based on the new operational experience accumulated in IRS in the period 1995-2006, the project focused on the identification of new CCI events. An attempt was also made to compare the observations made in the earlier study with the results of the current work. The earlier study and the current project cover the events reported in the IRS database with the incident date in the period from 01.01.1980 to 15.11.2006. The review of the NEA IRS database conducted within this project generated a sample of events that provides insights regarding the Common Cause Initiators (CCIs). This list includes certain number of 'real' CCIs but also potential CCIs and other events that provide insights on potential dependency mechanisms. Relevant characteristics of the events were analysed in the context of CCIs. This evaluation was intended to investigate the importance of the CCI issue and also to provide technical insights that could help in the modelling the CCIs in PSAs. The analysis of operational events provided useful engineering insights regarding the potential dependencies that may originate CCIs. Some indications were also obtained on the plant SSCs/areas that are susceptible to common cause failures. Direct interrelations between the accident mitigation systems through common support systems, which can originate a CCI, represent a dominant dependency mechanism involved in the CCI events. The most important contributors of this type are electrical power supply systems and I-and-C systems. Area-related events (fire, flood, water spray), external hazards (lightning, high wind or cold weather) and transients (water hammer, electrical transients both internal and external) have also been found to be important sources of dependency that may

  7. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  8. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  9. Intelligent multi-spectral IR image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Thomas; Luong, Andrew; Heim, Stephen; Patel, Maharshi; Chen, Kang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Chow, Edward; Torres, Gilbert

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a neural network based multi-spectral image segmentation method. A neural network is trained on the selected features of both the objects and background in the longwave (LW) Infrared (IR) images. Multiple iterations of training are performed until the accuracy of the segmentation reaches satisfactory level. The segmentation boundary of the LW image is used to segment the midwave (MW) and shortwave (SW) IR images. A second neural network detects the local discontinuities and refines the accuracy of the local boundaries. This article compares the neural network based segmentation method to the Wavelet-threshold and Grab-Cut methods. Test results have shown increased accuracy and robustness of this segmentation scheme for multi-spectral IR images.

  10. Development and evaluation of tablets from spray dried extract of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Roman

    Full Text Available Introduction: yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil A is a South American plant species of Aquifoliaceae family. The presence of methylxanhtines and clorogenic acids was reported in this species. These compounds have antioxidant activity and could be included in tablets, a pharmaceutical form presently unavailable in the market. Objective: to develop tablets containing yerba mate spray dried extract. Methods: the tablets were produced by direct compression with yerba mate dried extract. The dried extract was evaluated for yield, repose angle, compressibility index, residual moisture and caffeine content. The tablets were evaluated in the following parameters: external appearance, weight, hardness, friability, disintegration and caffeine content. Results: the tablets complied with the general pharmacopoeial specifications. Conclusions: this method is effective to produce tablets containing spray dried extract from yerba mate.

  11. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  12. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  13. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark

    1989-01-01

    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  14. IR Thermometer with Automatic Emissivity Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dobesch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the design and implementation of an infrared (IR thermometer with automatic emissivity correction. The temperature measurement is carried out by the simple digital thermopile sensor MLX90614. The emissivity correction is based on benefits of diffuse reflecting materials and it uses an IR laser diode in conjunction with a selective amplifier. Moreover, the paper includes the design of the control interface with a graphics LCD. Furthermore, this paper describes the power supply unit with a Li-ion cell controlled by basic integrated circuits.

  15. Kas netilpo tarp politikos ir diplomatijos?

    OpenAIRE

    Streikus, Arūnas

    2008-01-01

    The review analyzes A. Kasparavičius’s monograph “Tarp Politikos ir Diplomatijos: Šventasis Sostas ir Lietuvos Respublika” (Vilnius, 2008). The historiographic value of the study is undisputed. A. Kasperavičius had an opportunity to use a broad spectrum of sources, among which two sets of archive documents stand out: the funds of the archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Embassy under the Holy See in Rome. A. Kasparavičius managed to avoid the arid scientific...

  16. Elecciones Legislativas en Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sainz de la Peña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Las elecciones legislativas en Irán, una vez eliminados los reformistas se han celebrado en un clima de rivalidad. Las elecciones tenían que dejar claro quién mandaba en Irán, si los clérigos y el Guía el ayatolá Seyed Ali Jamenei o, el Presidente de la República, el laico Mahmud Ahmadineyad, apoyado en el Cuerpo de Guardias Revolucionarios. La realidad ha sido que las facciones conservadoras encabezadas por el Frente Unido Principalista, apoyados por el Guía Supremo, han obtenido el triunfo.

  17. Residues in common flicker and mountain bluebird eggs one year after a DDT application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Meeker, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Common flicker (Colaptes auratus) and mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) eggs were examined 1 year after DDT application and showed a marked difference. Residue levels in mountain bluebird eggs were approximately 10 times higher than in common flicker eggs (5.29 to 0.58 ppm wet weight). These differences can be explained by disparate dietary habits. The mean level in American kestrel (Falco sparverius) eggs collected in the spray area at the same time was 6.42 ppm wet weight.

  18. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders.

  19. Digital Image Processing application to spray and flammability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, M. A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Image Processing has been integrated into a new technique for measurements of fuel spray characteristics. The advantages of this technique are: a wide dynamic range of droplet sizes, accounting for nonspherical droplet shapes not possible with other spray assessment techniques. Finally, the technique has been applied to the study of turbojet engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel.

  20. Tableting properties of an improved spray-dried lactose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose

  1. Comparison of three fungicide spray advisories for lettuce downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Koike, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    Lettuce growers in coastal California have relied mainly on protective fungicide sprays to control downy mildew. Thus, timing of sprays before infection is critical for optimal results. A leaf-wetness-driven, infection-based advisory system, previously developed, did not always perform

  2. Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2001-01-01

    The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...

  3. A numerical study on dynamics of spray jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of flow characteristics of spray jets in an injector nozzle, solgel process is very critical for scientific studies. In this communication, we report results from a numerical modeling of spray jet dynamics and its breakup. The nature of instability depends on the density of the jet fluid and the ambient fluid and also on the ...

  4. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  5. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  6. Screening and spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide a longer shelf life. A major hurdle when applying spray drying is the extensive optimisa tion required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain powders of acceptable quality. Therefore, a high-throughput

  7. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  8. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  9. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this

  10. Efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation ...

  11. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  12. Efficacy of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on postharvest natural decay of cherry tomato fruit, and evaluated the quality attributes during storage. Preharvest spraying with P. guilliermondii significantly decreased the decay index. Moreover, the efficacy of this biological control was ...

  13. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  14. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  15. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  16. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  17. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1 × 10(10) CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70 °C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03 ± 0.04%, 100% (in 1.16 min), 0.14 ± 0.0, 35.20 g H2O/100 g and 4.80 ± 0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60 days, the samples stored at -8 °C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/g.

  18. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  19. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. UVC emitting phosphors obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiut, J.M.A., E-mail: jmacaiut@iq.unesp.b [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Institute of Chemistry, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, CP 355, Araraquara-SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Lechevallier, S.; Dexpert-Ghys, J. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Caillier, B.; Guillot, Ph. [Diagnostic des Plasmas Hors Equilibre, Universite Jean Francois Champollion, place de Verdun, 81012 Albi Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-15

    The broadband inter-configurational (4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1{yields}}4f{sup 2}) emission of Pr{sup 3+} doped in lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) and in calcium pyrophosphate (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) has been investigated under plasma excitation. The synthesis by spray pyrolysis at moderate temperature followed by a controlled annealing proves to be a very efficient way to produce good quality UVC emitting phosphor Ca{sub 1.92}Pr{sub 0.04}Na{sub 0.04}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} ({alpha} phase). The emission of this phosphor in the wavelength range 200-350 nm has been measured with a prototype device, which can be employed for anti-microbial testing. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Pr{sup 3+} doped orthophosphate and pyrophosphate were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. {yields} The dense particles present good quality UVC emitting (200-350 nm). {yields} The prototype device can be employed for anti-microbial testing.

  1. Laser diagnostics for urea-water solution spray characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Łukasz Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize the laser techniques used for urea-water solution (UWS spray characterization at the Institute of Heat Engineering (ITC, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. In presented studies several techniques for both, global and local spray characterization were used. Shadowgraphy-based long distance microscopy was used to visualize individual droplets and primary breakup. High speed imaging of Mie scattering (scattering on the gas-liquid interface signal was used for global spray characterization. Combination of LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence and Mie scattering allowed to determine qualitative droplet size distribution across the whole spray cloud. The structured illumination technique used to modulate laser light sheet allowed to minimize the effects of multiple scattering in detection of Mie signal, what indicated huge potential of this technique in characterization of UWS sprays. The results presented here prove the importance of laser diagnostics in SCR systems development.

  2. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  3. Thermal Spraying of Bioactive Polymer Coatings for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, A.; Stokes, J.

    2012-06-01

    Flame sprayed biocompatible polymer coatings, made of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, were investigated as single coatings on titanium and as top coatings on plasma sprayed Hydroxyapatite. Biocompatible polymers can act as drug carriers for localized drug release following implantation. The polymer matrix consisted of a biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate 98%/ polyhydroxyvalerate 2% (PHBV) and a non-biodegradable polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Screening tests were performed to determine the suitable range of spraying parameters, followed by a Design of Experiments study to determine the effects of spraying parameters on coating characteristics (thickness, roughness, adhesion, wettability), and to optimize the coating properties accordingly. Coatings characterization showed that optimized flame sprayed biocompatible polymers underwent little chemical degradation, did not produce acidic by-products in vitro, and that cells proliferated well on their surface.

  4. Experimental measurements of air cleaning with water sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of water sprays for removal of gaseous and particulate fission products from air was studied experimentally, to determine the value of existing and proposed spray systems at the Savannah River reactors for cleaning the reactor room air following a hypothetical severe accident. The interaction of spray droplets with iodine and with cesium aerosols formed by combustion were measured separately. In the case of iodine, the results were compared to the theoretical treatment of Albert, Wichner, and Baumgarten. Good agreement was found for the smaller drop sizes, and the effect of spray pH predicted by the theoretical model was confirmed. The aerosol studies demonstrated the effectiveness of sprays in removing aerosol particles larger than 1 micrometer

  5. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  6. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  7. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  8. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabeláč, Martin; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2011), s. 1816-1821 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * gramicidin * IR spectroscopy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  9. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...

  10. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  11. TIJAH: embracing IR methods in XML databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. List; V. Mihajlovic; G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); A.P. de Vries (Arjen); D. Hiemstra; H.E. Blok

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses our participation in INEX (the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval) using the TIJAH XML-IR system. TIJAH's system design follows a `standard' layered database architecture, carefully separating the conceptual, logical and physical levels. At the conceptual

  12. Therapy of Prostate Cancer Using a Human Antibody Targeting the Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor (IGF-IR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    delayed Majeed et al., 2005). All these studies suggest an essential role of IGF-IR in cellular transformation. Hongo et al. [1998] have identified...62:2942–2950. Hongo A, Yumet G, Resnicoff M, Romano G, O’Connor R, Baserga R. 1998. Inhibition of tumorigenesis and induc- tion of apoptosis in human...essential role of IGF-IR in cellular transformation. Hongo et al. [1998] have identified specific tyrosine residues on the b-subunit of the IGF-IR that

  13. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to

  14. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  15. Effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-LINDANE residues in corn oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    At blooming, maize plants were sprayed twice, 23 days apart, at a dose of 22 mg equivalent to 5 μCi/ plant. At post harvest, maize seeds had a radioactivity corresponding to 0.36% of the applied dose. The insecticide residues in crude oil, cake and methanolic extract were amounted to 8 % and 60 % 5 % , respectively, of original residues inside the seeds.The 14 C-activity in the crude oil could be reduced by commercial processes locally used for refining. The refined oil had a residue level of about 0.7 ppm mainly in the form of unchanged lindane in addition to a number of chloro phenols as main metabolites. Refining of corn oil fortified with 14 C-lindane led to a high reduction of 14 C-lindane (88%). The refined oil contained a residue consisting lindane and its chloro phenols

  16. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotarou Sugawara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarou Sugawara1, Atsushi Kameyama2, Akiko Haruyama3, Takumi Oishi4, Nobuyuki Kukidome2, Yasuaki Takase2, Masatake Tsunoda21Undergraduate Student, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 2Division of General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan; 3Department of Dental Materials Science, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 4Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanObjective: To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin.Materials and methods: The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical, and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test.Results: Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups showed significantly lower μTBS than control specimens (P < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference between

  18. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  19. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a method of fabrication of far IR and THZ range multilayer metal-mesh filters. This type of filter consists of alternative...

  20. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  1. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  2. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  3. Autonomous Precision Spraying Trials Using a Novel Cell Spray Implement Mounted on an Armadillo Tool Carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Midtiby, Henrik

    of weed detection algorithms and spraying strategies is developed. The front part of the cell sprayer implement is a camera module mounted in a shock absorbing frame. The camera module is followed by a spraying module containing nozzles with individual valve control. The implement is designed for use......Precision weeding is one of the most promising applications for autonomous service robots in biological production. Herbicides have been the default weeding solution during the past decades, but there is a growing concern about the environmental impact on drinking water reservoirs etc. The use...... with an Armadillo robotic tool carrier consisting of two battery powered track modules mounted on each side of the implement. This paper focus on the cell sprayer implement design including camera system, sprayer module and integration with the service robot and the robot software. The FroboMind software platform...

  4. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  5. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  6. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  7. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  8. Separation and characterisation of sulphur-free lignin from different agricultural residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossberg, Christine; Bremer, Martina; Machill, Susanne; Koenig, Swetlana; Kerns, Gerhard; Boeriu, Carmen; Windeisen, Elisabeth; Fischer, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Wheat straw, as one of the most abundant agricultural residues in Europe, was subjected to alkaline pulping, microwave-assisted alkaline pulping and organosolv pulping using formic acid and hydrogen peroxide. The obtained lignins were characterised by means of Klason-lignin, FT-IR spectroscopy,

  9. Characterization and Analysis of Paper Spray Ionization of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga-Aguilar, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Paper spray ionization has arisen relatively recently as a complement and alternative to electro- and nanospray ionization with silica capillaries. A majority of the work in the present literature focuses on the chemical aspect of paper spray. In order to study the physical and phenomenological facet of its implementation, we measured current and voltage distributions of Taylor cones. To study transport phenomena on filter paper, we addressed the behavior of large, sparingly soluble tetraalkylammonium ions, which are usually used as mobility standards, in paper spray. The variation of intensity with time of monomers and dimers of these ions was measured with a differential mobility analyzer and compared with that produced by contamination in the paper. At the same time, we evaluated the proficiency of different paper spray techniques for protein analysis using nano spray as a reference. Experiments suggest that Taylor cones in paper spray are subject to hysteresis, whereas transport phenomena in the porous substrate notably affects the ionization of the sample. Additionally, we observed that paper spray tends to favor lower charge states in proteins. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  11. A dermal model for spray painters. Part I: subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Semple, S; Marquart, J; Cherrie, J W

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a process-based, structured approach has been used to estimate dermal exposure from overspray generated by a spray painting process. Factors for spray technique, object shape and workers' individual work practices involved in the processes of droplet formation and deposition were incorporated into the model. The model was applied to predict dermal exposure of airless spray painters and the results were compared with exposure data. The predicted levels of exposure showed reasonable rank correlation with the measured exposure, although the model tended to over-predict the actual level of exposure. It was concluded that a structured, process-based approach has the potential to produce reliable estimates of dermal exposure. The reliability of exposure models of this type should be explored further and the relationship between the determinants of exposure should be validated by additional field studies.

  12. To Spray or Not to Spray: A Decision Analysis of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Woodill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on pesticide spraying (spray/no spray as the most significant pest management decision within each period over the entire crop season. The main result from the analysis suggests the most important parameter to maximize net benefit is to ensure a low initial infestation level. A second result looks at the impact of a subsidy for the cost of pesticides and shows a typical farmer receives a positive net benefit of $947.17. Sensitivity analysis of parameters checks the robustness of the model and further confirms the importance of a low initial infestation level vis-a-vis any level of subsidy. The use of a decision tree is shown to be an effective method for understanding integrated pest management strategies and solutions.

  13. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  14. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  15. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  16. Infrared Measurements of Possible IR Filter Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller,D.; Ediss, G.; Mihaly, L.; Carr, G.

    2006-01-01

    A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTS) was used to obtain the transmission spectra of candidate materials for use as infrared (IR) filters in cryogenic receivers. The data cover the range from 50 cm-1 ({approx}1.5 THz), well below the peak of the 300 K black body spectrum, to 5000 cm-1 ({approx}150 THz), Z-cut quartz, Gore-Tex, Zitex G and Zitex A, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Teflon (PTFE), Fluorogold and Black Polyethylene were measured. The relative effectiveness of each material as a filter is determined by integrating the transmission spectrum multiplied by the Planck distribution to obtain a normalized attenuation for the mid-IR band. Measurements at both room temperature and 8 K are compared.

  17. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  18. Plasma sprayed Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, R. A.; Anderson, C. D.; Flanagan, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Thin coatings (0.16 mm) and thick coatings (0.50 mm) of Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) were deposited on stainless-steel substrates by low pressure plasma spraying. Microscopic examination of the coatings in a light microscope revealed excessive porosity, but good bonding to the substrate. Fracture cross sections examined in a scanning electron microscope showed the grains to be equiaxed and approximately 1 micron or less in diameter in the as-sprayed condition. The intrinsic coercivities of the as-sprayed coatings varied from 5.8 to 10.9 kOe. The effects of postspray heat treatments on the intrinsic coercivity are also given.

  19. PRODUCING STRAWBERRY (Fragaria chiloensis) DEHYDRATED Spray and lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Pérez, A.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos.; Rojas Ayerve, T.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of dehydration of strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis 1 .) ha ve been studied: spray-drying and freezedrying. It has been found that the optimum sequence for the drying operation is as follows: selection/classification , washing, steaming, pulp-extraction, conditioning and freeze-drying. The efficiency over the total solids obtained with this method is 86.48% compared to 66.02% when using spray-drying. The strawberry pulp was conditioned by water dilution of 1:1. For spray-drying, t...

  20. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  1. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkiran, Özgür Oğuz; Ergeneman, Metin

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image pr...

  2. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  3. Advances in handheld FT-IR instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnó, Josep; Cardillo, Len; Judge, Kevin; Frayer, Maxim; Frunzi, Michael; Hetherington, Paul; Levy, Dustin; Oberndorfer, Kyle; Perec, Walter; Sauer, Terry; Stein, John; Zuidema, Eric

    2012-06-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenges of ConOps (Concepts of Operation) in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the advances resulting from a project designed to overcome the challenges associated with miniaturizing FT-IR instruments. The project team developed a disturbance-corrected permanently aligned cube corner interferometer for improved robustness and optimized opto-mechanical design to maximize optical throughput and signal-to-noise ratios. Thermal management and heat flow were thoroughly modeled and studied to isolate sensitive components from heat sources and provide the widest temperature operation range. Similarly, extensive research on mechanical designs and compensation techniques to protect against shock and vibration will be discussed. A user interface was carefully created for military and emergency response applications to provide actionable information in a visual, intuitive format. Similar to the HazMatID family of products, state-of-the-art algorithms were used to quickly identify the chemical composition of complex samples based on the spectral information. This article includes an overview of the design considerations, tests results, and performance validation of the mechanical ruggedness, spectral, and thermal performance.

  4. Heat treated twin wire arc spray AISI 420 coatings under dry and wet abrasive wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E.; González, M. A.; Monjardín, H. R.; Jimenez, O.; Flores, M.; Ibarra, J.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of applying two different heat treatments such as: deep cryogenic and tempering on dry/wet abrasive wear resistance of twin wire arc spray martensitic AISI 420 coatings was evaluated by using a modified rubber wheel type test apparatus. A load dependency was observed on the abrasive wear rate behavior of both; dry and wet tests. Three body (rolling) and two body (sliding) wear mechanisms were identified in dry conditions, prevailing rolling at lower and higher loads. However, at higher loads, more presence of grooving and pits formation was observed. Coatings tempered at 205 °C/1 h displayed better wear resistance than cryogenic treated ones. A change in wear mechanism between dry and wet conditions was observed; two body wear mechanism predominated respect to three body. In both; dry and wet conditions the microstructure (several inter-splat oxides) as well as strain and residual stress promotes brittle material removal which was more evident in cryogenic and as-sprayed samples during dry test and at higher loads in wet conditions.

  5. Pepper spray projectile/disperser for countering hostage and barricade situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Roy

    1997-01-01

    An improved less-than-lethal projectile for use in hostage, barricade and tactical assault situations has been developed. The projectile is launched from a standoff position and disperse the incapacitating agent oleoresin capsicum in the form of atomized droplets. A literature search followed by an experimental study were conducted of the mechanism of barrier defeat for various shaped projectiles against the targets of interest in this work: window glass, plasterboard and plywood. Some of the trade- offs between velocity, standoff, projectile shape and size, penetration, and residual energy were quantified. Analysis of the ballistic trajectory and recoil, together with calculations of he amount of pepper spray needed to incapacitate the occupants of a typical barricaded structure, indicated the suitability of using a fin stabilized projectile fired from a conventional 37 mm riot control gas gun. Two projectile designs were considered, manufactured and tested. The results of static tests to simulate target impact, together with live firing trials against a variety of targets, showed that rear ejection of the atomized spray was more reproducible and effective than nose ejection. The performance characteristics of the finalized design were investigated in trials using the standard barrier for testing barrier penetrating tear gas agents as defined by the National Institute of Justice.

  6. Electric arc spraying for restoration and repair of metallurgical equipment parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В’ячеслав Олександрович Роянов

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the electric arc spraying with the use of powder wires can be used to repair and restore parts of metallurgical equipment. The technology of spraying parts by means of the cored wire Steelcored M8TUV; T462MMIN5 and combinations of steel and aluminum wires to restore shaft-gears, shaft-beams, cranes axles for the foundry of the Moldavian Metallurgical Plant has been introduced. The composition of the flux-cored wires MMP-2,3 developed at the Department of Equipment and welding production technology of PSTU that provides the required hardness and adhesion of the coating and the substrate have been shown and the results of the coatings properties studies have been published. Studies have shown matching properties of the coatings to be used for details of the metallurgical equipment working under difficult conditions, including the rolls of rolling mills. Cored wire was used for pilot plating of the rolls surface of the skin-rolling stand at the cold-rolling mill at Illich Steel and Iron Works, Mariupol. Residual coating thickness ranged from 15 to 25 microns. Strip sized 0,9 × 1025 mm has been rolled, the squeezing is equal to 0,8...1,0%.

  7. Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxylapatite-Based Coatings: Chemical, Mechanical, Microstructural, and Biomedical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Robert B.

    2016-06-01

    This contribution discusses salient properties and functions of hydroxylapatite (HA)-based plasma-sprayed coatings, including the effect on biomedical efficacy of coating thickness, phase composition and distribution, amorphicity and crystallinity, porosity and surface roughness, cohesion and adhesion, micro- and nano-structured surface morphology, and residual coating stresses. In addition, it will provide details of the thermal alteration that HA particles undergo in the extremely hot plasma jet that leads to dehydroxylated phases such as oxyhydroxylapatite (OHA) and oxyapatite (OA) as well as thermal decomposition products such as tri-(TCP) and tetracalcium phosphates (TTCP), and quenched phases such as amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The contribution will further explain the role of ACP during the in vitro interaction of the as-deposited coatings with simulated body fluid resembling the composition of extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as the in vivo responses of coatings to the ECF and the host tissue, respectively. Finally, it will briefly describe performance profiles required to fulfill biological functions of osteoconductive bioceramic coatings designed to improve osseointegration of hip endoprostheses and dental root implants. In large parts, the content of this contribution is a targeted review of work done by the author and his students and coworkers over the last two decades. In addition, it is considered a stepping stone toward a standard operation procedure aimed at depositing plasma-sprayed bioceramic implant coatings with optimum properties.

  8. Re-imagining malaria: heterogeneity of human and mosquito behaviour in relation to residual malaria transmission in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Durnez, Lies; Gerrets, René; Uk, Sambunny; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Phoeuk, Pisen; Sluydts, Vincent; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2015-04-24

    In certain regions in Southeast Asia, where malaria is reduced to forested regions populated by ethnic minorities dependent on slash-and-burn agriculture, malaria vector populations have developed a propensity to feed early and outdoors, limiting the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). The interplay between heterogeneous human, as well as mosquito behaviour, radically challenges malaria control in such residual transmission contexts. This study examines human behavioural patterns in relation to the vector behaviour. The anthropological research used a sequential mixed-methods study design in which quantitative survey research methods were used to complement findings from qualitative ethnographic research. The qualitative research existed of in-depth interviews and participant observation. For the entomological research, indoor and outdoor human landing collections were performed. All research was conducted in selected villages in Ratanakiri province, Cambodia. Variability in human behaviour resulted in variable exposure to outdoor and early biting vectors: (i) indigenous people were found to commute between farms in the forest, where malaria exposure is higher, and village homes; (ii) the indoor/outdoor biting distinction was less clear in forest housing often completely or partly open to the outside; (iii) reported sleeping times varied according to the context of economic activities, impacting on the proportion of infections that could be accounted for by early or nighttime biting; (iv) protection by LLINs may not be as high as self-reported survey data indicate, as observations showed around 40% (non-treated) market net use while (v) unprotected evening resting and deep forest activities impacted further on the suboptimal use of LLINs. The heterogeneity of human behaviour and the variation of vector densities and biting behaviours may lead to a considerable proportion of exposure occurring during

  9. TOPICAL REVIEW: One-dimensional conductive IrO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Reui-San; Korotcov, Alexandru; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Tsai, Dah-Shyang

    2006-05-01

    We review the results of the synthesis of IrO2 nanocrystals (NCs) on different substrates via metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) using (MeCp)(COD)Ir as the source reagent. The surface morphology, structural and spectroscopic properties of the as-deposited NCs were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffractometry (SAD), x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The roles of different substrates for the formation of various textures of nanocrystalline IrO2 are studied. Several one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures have evolved by decreasing the degree of interface instability. The morphological evolution occurs from triangular/wedged nanorods via incomplete/scrolled nanotubes to square nanotubes and square nanorods (NRs), with increasing morphological stability. The results show that the three-dimensional (3D) grains composing traditional film belong to the most stable form as compared to all the 1D NCs, and the sequential shape evolution has been found to be highly correlated to a morphological phase diagram based on the growth kinetics. In addition, area selective growth of IrO2 NRs has been demonstrated on sapphire(012) and sapphire(100) substrates which consist of patterned SiO2 as the nongrowth surface. The initial growth of IrO2 nuclei is studied. Selectivity, rod orientation, and other morphological features of the nanorod forest can find their origins in the nucleation behaviour during initial growth. XPS analyses show the coexistence of higher oxidation states of iridium in the as-grown IrO2 NCs. The usefulness of the experimental Raman scattering together with the modified spatial correlation (MSC) model analysis as a residual stress and structural characterization technique for 1D IrO2 NCs has been demonstrated. The field emission properties of the vertically aligned IrO2 NRs are studied and

  10. Immersion Freezing of Total Ambient Aerosols and Ice Residuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourihar Kulkarni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This laboratory study evaluates an experimental set-up to study the immersion freezing properties of ice residuals (IRs at a temperature ranging from −26 to −34 °C using two continuous-flow diffusion chamber-style ice nucleation chambers coupled with a virtual impactor and heat exchanger. Ice was nucleated on the total ambient aerosol through an immersion freezing mechanism in an ice nucleation chamber (chamber 1. The larger ice crystals formed in chamber 1 were separated and sublimated to obtain IRs, and the frozen fraction of these IRs was investigated in a second ice nucleation chamber (chamber 2. The ambient aerosol was sampled from a sampling site located in the Columbia Plateau region, WA, USA, which is subjected to frequent windblown dust events, and only particles less than 1.5 μm in diameter were investigated. Single-particle elemental composition analyses of the total ambient aerosols showed that the majority of the particles are dust particles coated with organic matter. This study demonstrated a capability to investigate the ice nucleation properties of IRs to better understand the nature of Ice Nucleating Particles (INPs in the ambient atmosphere.

  11. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  12. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  13. ODYSSEY THEMIS IR PBT V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The THEMIS IR-PBT data set contains the spatially registered, infrared brightness temperature images derived from the projected radiance (IR-GEO) products. Each...

  14. An Apparatus to Measure Thermal Conductivity of Spray-On Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, M.; Sciver, S. W. Van

    2010-04-01

    A guarded-hot-plate apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of various spray-on foam insulations (SOFI) at temperatures ranging from 20-300 K. The apparatus is designed to accept 222 mm (8.75″) diameter, 25.4 mm (1″) thick insulation samples, although different thicknesses can be accommodated. The apparatus is cooled with a two stage, pulse tube cryocooler, and the temperature is controlled with thin film etched foil heaters. This system allows thermal conductivity measurements to be made at low delta-T (ΔTheat flow axially through the sample. A gas handling system allows testing with different residual gases and pressures. To check for potential systematic errors, a finite element analysis was performed to examine temperature distribution and heat flow in the experimental chamber.

  15. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  16. Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (IR-VASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This award was used to acquire a J.A. Woollam Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer ( IR -VASE). The IR -VASE...unit is capable of obtaining crucial IR information of ultrathin films whilst being complemented with ellipsometry data. This powerful and versatile...Unlimited UU UU UU UU 22-04-2016 1-Feb-2015 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer ( IR -VASE) The

  17. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  18. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  19. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons

  20. Comparison of simple and chelated amberlite IR-120 for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the efficiency of simple and chelating Amberlite IR-120 with α-nitroso β-naphthol (IR-αNβN) and with 8-hydroxy quinoline (IR-8HQ) has been compared for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The chelation was confirmed using different characterization techniques like SEM, TGA and FTIR.

  1. Infrared upconversion spectrometer for the mid-ir range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The invention provides an infrared upconversion spectrometer for determining a mid-IR spectrum of received infrared light with a high resolution. The spectrometer applies upconversion to transform light in the mid-IR to the near-IR range where efficient detectors are available. The upconversion...

  2. Plasma Spray Synthesis of High Purity Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is the efficient synthesis of high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT’s) using the LaRC radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS)...

  3. Nutritional Composition of Liquid and Spray-dried Juices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica) juices were extracted from the calyces and tamarind pulp respectively. Parts of the extracted juices were spray dried while the remaining parts were preserved as whole juices. The juices and powders were then analyzed for the ...

  4. A Combined Foam-Spray Model for Ocean Microwave Radiometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raizer, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Passive microwave emissions from oceanic dispersed media are considered. The spray is modeled by the aggregates of spherical water droplets, and the foam is represented by a macroscopic system of hollow spherical water shells...

  5. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  6. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  7. Modular Spray-Cooled Assemblies for High Heat Fluxes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project will produce a flight suitable test bench based on a modular spray-cooled assembly that considers NASA power and mass budgets and can...

  8. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  9. Approximate computation of hydrothermal conditions of nuclear reactor spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarkho, A.A.; Borshchev, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for determining the evaporation numbers of nuclear reactor spray ponds which provide necessary reactor cooling during its normal operation under given meteorological conditions with account of restrictions on the cooled water temperature at the reactor entrance

  10. Powder consolidation using cold spray process modeling and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moridi, Atieh

    2017-01-01

    This book first presents different approaches to modeling of the cold spray process with the aim of extending current understanding of its fundamental principles and then describes emerging applications of cold spray. In the coverage of modeling, careful attention is devoted to the assessment of critical and erosion velocities. In order to reveal the phenomenological characteristics of interface bonding, severe, localized plastic deformation and material jet formation are studied. Detailed consideration is also given to the effect of macroscopic defects such as interparticle boundaries and subsequent splat boundary cracking on the mechanical behavior of cold spray coatings. The discussion of applications focuses in particular on the repair of damaged parts and additive manufacturing in various disciplines from aerospace to biomedical engineering. Key aspects include a systematic study of defect shape and the ability of cold spray to fill the defect, examination of the fatigue behavior of coatings for structur...

  11. Experiments on aerosol removal by high-pressure water spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, Ada del; Morandi, Sonia; Parozzi, Flavio; Araneo, Lucio; Casella, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental research to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols if applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. • Cloud of monodispersed SiO 2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration in the range 2–90 mg/m 3 . • Carried out in a chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls equipped with a high pressure water spray with single nozzle. • Respect to low-pressure sprays, removal efficiency turned out significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure sprays system. - Abstract: An experimental research was managed in the framework of the PASSAM European Project to measure the efficiency of high-pressure sprays in capturing aerosols when applied to a filtered containment venting system in case of severe accident. The campaign was carried out in a purposely built facility composed by a scrubbing chamber 0.5 × 1.0 m and 1.5 m high, with transparent walls to permit the complete view of the aerosol removal process, where the aerosol was injected to form a cloud of specific particle concentration. The chamber was equipped with a high pressure water spray system with a single nozzle placed on its top. The test matrix consisted in the combination of water pressure injections, in the range 50–130 bar, on a cloud of monodispersed SiO 2 particles with sizes 0.5 or 1.0 μm and initial concentration ranging between 2 and 99 mg/m 3 . The spray was kept running for 2 min and the efficiency of the removal was evaluated, along the test time, using an optical particle sizer. With respect to low-pressure sprays, the removal efficiency turned out much more significant: the half-life for 1 μm particles with a removal high-pressure spray system is orders of magnitude shorter than that with a low-pressure spray system. The highest removal rate was detected with 1

  12. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Pehan, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound veloci...

  13. GO evaluation of a PWR spray system. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, W.T.

    1975-08-01

    GO is a reliability analysis methodology developed over the years from 1960 to the present by Kaman Sciences Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. In this report the GO methodology is presented and its application demonstrated by performing a reliability analysis of a conceptual PWR Containment Spray System. Certain numerical results obtained are compared with those of a prior fault tree analysis of the same system as documented in the 11 January 1973 draft report, A Fault Tree Evaluation of a PWR Spray System

  14. Steel fibre corrosion in cracks:durability of sprayed concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Erik

    2000-01-01

    Steel fibre reinforced sprayed concrete is common practice for permanent linings in underground construction. Today there is a demand on "expected technical service life" of 120 years. Thin steel fibres could be expected to discontinue carrying load fast with a decrease of fibre diameter caused by corrosion, especially in cracks. The thesis contains results from inspections on existing sprayed concrete structures and a literature review on corrosion of steel fibres in cracked concrete. To stu...

  15. Single-dose fentanyl sublingual spray for breakthrough cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor DR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Taylor Comprehensive Pain Care PC, Marietta, GA, USA Abstract: Breakthrough cancer pain (BTCP is defined as a transient exacerbation of pain that arises in patients with otherwise controlled persistent pain. BTCP typically has a rapid onset and relatively short duration, but it causes a significant amount of physical and psychological distress for patients. Several rapid-onset fentanyl formulations have been introduced in the USA to replace traditional oral opioids for the treatment of BTCP: a transmucosal lozenge, a sublingual orally disintegrating tablet, a buccal tablet, a buccal soluble film, a pectin nasal spray and, the newest formulation to enter the market, a sublingual spray. This article reviews the six rapid-onset formulations of fentanyl approved in the USA for the management of BTCP with emphasis on describing the published literature on fentanyl sublingual spray. The different fentanyl formulations vary in pharmacokinetic properties and ease of use, but all have a rapid onset and a relatively short duration of analgesia. Fentanyl sublingual spray has demonstrated absorption within 5 minutes of administration, with fentanyl plasma concentrations increasing over the first 30 minutes and remaining elevated for 60–90 minutes in pharmacokinetic studies in healthy subjects. Fentanyl sublingual spray shows linear dose proportionality, and changes in the temperature or acidity of the oral cavity do not alter its pharmacokinetic properties. In patients with BTCP, statistically significant pain relief is measurable at 5 minutes after administration of fentanyl sublingual spray, when compared with placebo, with significant pain relief lasting at least 60 minutes after administration. Adverse events are typical of opioid treatment and are considered mild to moderate in intensity. In summary, fentanyl sublingual spray provides rapid onset of analgesia and is a tolerable and effective treatment for BTCP. Keywords: breakthrough pain

  16. Sound Spray - can-shaped sound effect device

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Gibeom; Lee, Kyogu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we designed a sound effect device, which was applicable forspray paint art process. For the applicability research of the device, wedesigned a prototype which had a form not far off the traditional spray cans,using Arduino and various sensors. Through the test process of the prototype,we verified the elements that would be necessary to apply our newly designeddevice to real spray paint art activities. Thus we checked the possibility ofvarious musical expressions by expanding th...

  17. Plasma Spraying of Magnetite Coatings for M.W. Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Enikov, R.; Nedkov, I.; Oliver, D.

    1997-01-01

    The possibilities of arc - plasma spray deposition of polycrystalline ferromagnetic coating are investigated. Powder sintered microwave absorbing ferrite materials were deposited by arc-plasma jet on polycrystalline substrates. By varying the distance between plasma torch and substrates and the spray duration, coatings with different thickness and porosity were obtained. The coatings characteristics were studied by optical, SEM and XRD methods. The mechanism of the magnetic structure formatio...

  18. Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Klaumünzer; Jakob Hübner; Denis Spitzer

    2016-01-01

    Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. ...

  19. Production of ceramic formed parts by means of plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, K.

    1989-01-01

    Open and closed pipes and tubes, nozzles and crucibles, conical parts and other molded articles of ceramic materials such as aluminium oxide, magnesium-aluminium spinel, zirconium oxide, zirconium silicate and special ceramics can be fabricated by spray application to a core which is afterwards removed. Because at the same time these are mainly high temperature materials and high temperature application areas, plasma spraying is preferred. The process and examples of application are described, the advantages and disadvantages are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  20. Modelling of spray evaporation and penetration for alternative fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Azami, M. H.; Savill, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this work is on the modelling of evaporation and spray penetration for alternative fuels. The extension model approach is presented and validated for alternative fuels, namely, Kerosene (KE), Ethanol (ETH), Methanol (MTH), Microalgae biofuel (MA), Jatropha biofuel (JA), and Camelina biofuel (CA). The results for atomization and spray penetration are shown in a time variant condition. Comparisons have been made to visualize the transient behaviour of these fuels. The vapour pressu...