Sample records for residual optical fabrication

  1. Plutonium fuel fabrication residues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnal, T.; Cousinou, G.; Desille, H.


    This paper discusses the current situation in the fabrication plant at Cadarache with an annual plutonium throughput of several tons. Three major fabrication byproduct categories are defined in this plant: 1) scraps, directly recycled at the fabrication input station; 2) residues, byproducts recycled by chemical processes, or processed in washing and incineration stations; 3) wastes, placed in drums and evacuated directly to a waste conditioning station. The borderline between residues and wastes has yet to be precisely determined

  2. Micro-fabricated all optical pressure sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Petersen, Søren Dahl; Østergaard, Christian


    Optical pressure sensors can operate in certain harsh application areas where the electrical pressure sensors cannot. However, the sensitivity is often not as good for the optical sensors. This work presents an all optical pressure sensor, which is fabricated by micro fabrication techniques, where...... the sensitivity can be tuned in the fabrication process. The developed sensor design, simplifies the fabrication process leading to a lower fabrication cost, which can make the all optical pressure sensors more competitive towards their electrical counterpart. The sensor has shown promising results and a linear...

  3. Diffractive optics: design, fabrication, and test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, Donald C


    This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs...

  4. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF) Gratings. (United States)

    Luo, Yanhua; Yan, Binbin; Zhang, Qijin; Peng, Gang-Ding; Wen, Jianxiang; Zhang, Jianzhong


    Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF) have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings.

  5. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication (United States)

    Voelkel, Reinhard


    Micro-optics is an indispensable key enabling technology for many products and applications today. Probably the most prestigious examples are the diffractive light shaping elements used in high-end DUV lithography steppers. Highly-efficient refractive and diffractive micro-optical elements are used for precise beam and pupil shaping. Micro-optics had a major impact on the reduction of aberrations and diffraction effects in projection lithography, allowing a resolution enhancement from 250 nm to 45 nm within the past decade. Micro-optics also plays a decisive role in medical devices (endoscopes, ophthalmology), in all laser-based devices and fiber communication networks, bringing high-speed internet to our homes. Even our modern smart phones contain a variety of micro-optical elements. For example, LED flash light shaping elements, the secondary camera, ambient light and proximity sensors. Wherever light is involved, micro-optics offers the chance to further miniaturize a device, to improve its performance, or to reduce manufacturing and packaging costs. Wafer-scale micro-optics fabrication is based on technology established by the semiconductor industry. Thousands of components are fabricated in parallel on a wafer. This review paper recapitulates major steps and inventions in wafer-scale micro-optics technology. The state-of-the-art of fabrication, testing and packaging technology is summarized.

  6. Fabrication of Polymer Optical Fibre (POF Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Luo


    Full Text Available Gratings inscribed in polymer optical fibre (POF have attracted remarkable interest for many potential applications due to their distinctive properties. This paper overviews the current state of fabrication of POF gratings since their first demonstration in 1999. In particular we summarize and discuss POF materials, POF photosensitivity, techniques and issues of fabricating POF gratings, as well as various types of POF gratings.

  7. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  8. Design and fabrication of optical polymer waveguide devices for optical interconnects and integrated optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Jiang, Guomin

    Optical interconnects is a promising technique to boost the speed of electronic systems through replacing high speed electrical data buses using optical ones. Optical coherence tomography is an attractive imaging technique that has been widely used in medical imaging applications with capability of high resolution subsurface cross sectional imaging in living tissues. Both the optical interconnects and the optical coherence tomography imaging may benefit from the use of integrated optics technology in particular polymer waveguides that can be designed and fabricated to improve the device capability, system compactness, and performance reliability. In this dissertation, we first present our innovative design and realization on the polymer waveguides with 45° integrated mirrors for optical interconnects using the vacuum assisted microfluidic (VAM) soft lithography. VAM is a new microfluidic based replication technique which can be utilized to improve the performance of imprinted devices by eliminating the residue planar layer and accomplish complex devices incorporating different materials in the same layer. A prism-assisted inclined UV lithography technique is introduced to increase the slanted angles of the side walls of the microstructures and to fabricate multidirectional slanted microstructures. It is also used to fabricate 45° integrated mirrors in polymer waveguides to support surface normal optical coupling for optical interconnects. A dynamic card-to-backplane optical interconnects system has also been demonstrated based on polymer waveguides with tunable optofluidic couplers. The operation of the tunable optofluidic coupler is accomplished by controlling the position of air bubbles and index matching liquid in the perpendicular microfluidic channel for refractive index modulation. The dynamic activation and deactivation of the backplane optofluidic couplers can save the optical signal power. 10 Gbps eye diagrams of the dynamic optical interconnect link

  9. Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Jensen, Søren; Menon, Aric Kumaran


    A silicon mold used for structuring polymer microcavities for optical applications is fabricated, using a combination of DRIE (deep reactive ion etching) and anisotropic chemical wet etching with KOH + IPA. For polymer optical microcavities, low surface roughness and vertical sidewalls are often ...... and KOH + IPA etch have been optimized. To reduce stiction between the silicon mold and the polymers used for molding, the mold is coated with a teflon-like material using the DRIE system. Released polymer microstructures characterized with AFM and SEM are also presented....

  10. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de


    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  11. Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Jensen, Søren; Menon, Aric Kumaran


    A silicon mold used for structuring polymer microcavities for optical applications is fabricated, using a combination of DRIE (deep reactive ion etching) and anisotropic chemical wet etching with KOH + IPA. For polymer optical microcavities, low surface roughness and vertical sidewalls are often...... needed. This is achieved by aligning the mold precisely to the [110] direction of a silicon (100) wafer and etching very close to the (110) surfaces using a DRIE Bosch process. The surface roughness of the sidewalls is then removed with a short etch in KOH + IPA. To achieve this, the parameters for DRIE...... and KOH + IPA etch have been optimized. To reduce stiction between the silicon mold and the polymers used for molding, the mold is coated with a teflon-like material using the DRIE system. Released polymer microstructures characterized with AFM and SEM are also presented....

  12. Fabrication and Design of Optical Nanomaterials (United States)

    Huntington, Mark D.

    Over the past several decades, advances in nanometer scale fabrication has sparked interes in applications that take advantage of materials that are structured at these small length scales. Specifically, metallic optical nanomaterials have emerged as a new way to control light at length scales that are smaller than the wavelength of light and have optical properties that are distinctly different from their macroscale counterparts. Although there have been may advances in nanofabrication, the performance and widespread use of optical nanomaterials is still limited by fabrication and design challenges. This dissertation describes advances in the fabrication, characterization, and design of optical nanomaterials. First we demonstrate how a portable and compact photolithography system can be made using a light source composed of UV LEDs. Our solid-state photolithography (SSP) system brings the capabilities of one of the most important yet workhorse tools of micro- and nanotechnology--the mask aligner--to the benchtop. The two main highlights of chapter 2 include: (i) portable, low-cost photolithography and (ii) high quality patterning. We replace the mask aligner with a system composed of UV LEDs and a diffuser that can be built for as little as $30. The design of the SSP system alleviates the need for dedicated power supplies, vacuum lines and cooling systems, which makes it a true benchtop photolithography system. We further show that sub-wavelength features can be fabricated across 4-in wafers and that these patterns are of high quality such that they can be easily transferred into functional materials. Chapter 3 describes a parallel method to create nanometer scale textures over large areas with unprecedented control over wrinkle wavelength. The main points of this chapter include: (i) a new material system for nanowrinkles, (ii) wrinkles with tunable wavelengths, and (iii) a method for measuring the skin thickness. First, we show that RIE treatment of PS with

  13. Optical Microresonators Theory, Fabrication, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Heebner, John; Ibrahim, Tarek


    This book explains why microresonators came to be important components in the photonic toolbox. While functionally similar to the Fabry-Perot, microring resonators offer a planar nature which is naturally compatible with monolithic microfabrication technologies. In these chapters lie the principles required to characterize, design, construct, and implement microresonators as lasers, amplifiers, sensors, filters, demultiplexers, switches, routers, and logic gates. Additionally, much like quantum dots and photonic crystals, it will be shown how microresonators offer an alternative method for creating engineerable materials with designer linear and nonlinear responses tailored for advanced functionalities operating at ultrafast speeds and compact scales. This is the first detailed text on the theory, fabrication, and applications of optical microresonators, and will be found useful by both graduate students and researchers. With an emphasis on building intuition with distilled equations and graphical illustratio...

  14. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida


    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  15. Multicore optical fiber grating array fabrication for medical sensing applications (United States)

    Westbrook, Paul S.; Feder, K. S.; Kremp, T.; Taunay, T. F.; Monberg, E.; Puc, G.; Ortiz, R.


    In this work we report on a fiber grating fabrication platform suitable for parallel fabrication of Bragg grating arrays over arbitrary lengths of multicore optical fiber. Our system exploits UV transparent coatings and has precision fiber translation that allows for quasi-continuous grating fabrication. Our system is capable of both uniform and chirped fiber grating array spectra that can meet the demands of medical sensors including high speed, accuracy, robustness and small form factor.

  16. Optical Fiber Tweezers Fabricated by Guided Wave Photo-Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita S. Rodrigues Ribeiro


    Full Text Available In this work the use of guided wave photo-polymerization for the fabrication of novel polymeric micro tips for optical trapping is demonstrated. It is shown that the selective excitation of linear polarized modes, during the fabrication process, has a direct impact on the shape of the resulting micro structures. Tips are fabricated with modes LP02 and LP21 and their shapes and output intensity distribution are compared. The application of the micro structures as optical tweezers is demonstrated with the manipulation of yeast cells.

  17. Fabrication of polymer-based reflowed microlenses on optical fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. Microlens; thermal reflow; optical fibre; focal length control; differential coating, polymer optical MEMS. Abstract. Thermal reflow of polymer to generate spherical profile has been used to fabricate microlenses in this paper. A simple model ...

  18. Fabricating optical phantoms to simulate skin tissue properties and microvasculatures (United States)

    Sheng, Shuwei; Wu, Qiang; Han, Yilin; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald


    This paper introduces novel methods to fabricate optical phantoms that simulate the morphologic, optical, and microvascular characteristics of skin tissue. The multi-layer skin-simulating phantom was fabricated by a light-cured 3D printer that mixed and printed the colorless light-curable ink with the absorption and the scattering ingredients for the designated optical properties. The simulated microvascular network was fabricated by a soft lithography process to embed microchannels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms. The phantoms also simulated vascular anomalies and hypoxia commonly observed in cancer. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and perfusion imaging of the tissue-simulating phantoms. The light-cured 3D printing technique and the soft lithography process may enable freeform fabrication of skin-simulating phantoms that embed microvessels for image and drug delivery applications.

  19. Coverlayer fabrication for small form factor optical disks (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Won; Kim, Jin-Hong


    Two different coverlayers made of UV resin and coversheet were prepared for small form factor optical disks. Thin coverlayer of 10 mm and thick coverlayer of 80 mm were fabricated for flying optical head and non-flying optical head, respectively. Thickness uniformity was analyzed for both coverlayers, and new designs to diminish a ski-jump phenomenon were suggested. Mechanical properties of protective film made of UV resin were investigated.

  20. Residual strain sensor using Al-packaged optical fiber and Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis. (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum


    We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.

  1. Optical Biosensors: A Revolution Towards Quantum Nanoscale Electronics Device Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dey


    Full Text Available The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.

  2. Optical Microstructures Fabricated with Direct Laser Writing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk M.


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional photolitography, also known as Direct Laser Writing (DLW, is a powerful technique for fabrication of photonic microstructures. In this paper we present the basics of the relevant technology and discuss some features of the fabrication process. We also describe the experimental setup designed for making colour filters based on diffraction gratings, fibre-tip-integrated lens and anti-reflective coating designed for telecom wavelength (1550 nm. The results obtained demonstrate the DLW technique to be a promising fast prototyping fabrication method that may allow manipulating the properties of optical materials.

  3. Novel Optical Metamaterials and Approaches for Fabrication (United States)


    corresponding amino acids ................................................................................ 13 Figure 14: M13 Phage bound to silicon... phage display, we have also identified peptides that bind with nanoparticles and glass substrates. This is a critical step in engineering M13 ...the optical metamaterial. This technique employs the use of M13 bacteriophages [3], phages for short, which are viruses that infect bacteria and can

  4. Nano-fabricated plasmonic optical transformer (United States)

    Choo, Hyuck; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P. James; Liang, Xiaogan; Yablonovitch, Eli


    The present invention provides a plasmonic optical transformer to produce a highly focuses optical beam spot, where the transformer includes a first metal layer, a dielectric layer formed on the first metal layer, and a second metal layer formed on the dielectric layer, where the first metal layer, the dielectric layer, and the second layer are patterned to a shape including a first section having a first cross section, a second section following the first section having a cross-section tapering from the first section to a smaller cross-section, and a third section following the second section having a cross-section matching the tapered smaller cross-section of the second section.

  5. Design and fabrication of aspherical bimorph PZT optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, T C; Yeh, Z C; Perng, S Y; Wang, D J; Kuan, C K; Chen, J R; Chen, C T


    Bimorph piezoelectric optics with a third-order-polynomial surface is designed and a prototype is fabricated as active optics. Two pairs of silicon (Si) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic are bonded as Si-PZT-PZT-Si together with a multi-electrode or thin film resistor coating used as the control electrode between Si and PZT and metallic films as grounding between the interface of PZT ceramics. A linear voltage is applied to the bimorph PZT optics by probing the control electrodes from a two-channel controllable power supplier. In doing so, the optics surface can achieve a desired third-order-polynomial surface. Reducing hysteresis and creep in bimorph PZT X-ray optics is the only feasible way by inserting an appropriate capacitor in series with bimorph PZT optics to significantly reduce both effects.

  6. Fabrication of micro-optical components using femtosecond oscillator pulses (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vanessa R. M.; Ramachandran, Hema; Chidangil, Santhosh; Mathur, Deepak


    With a penchant for integrated photonics and miniaturization, the fabrication of micron sized optical elements using precision laser pulse management is drawing attention due to the possibility of minimizing tolerances for collateral material damage. The work presented here deals with the design, fabrication and characterization of a range of diffractive optics - gratings, grids and Fresnel zone plates - on transparent and metallic samples. Their low volume, light weight, transmission bandwidth, high damage threshold and flexible design make them suited for replacing conventional refractive optical elements. Our one-step, mask-less, 3-D laser direct writing process is a green fabrication technique which is in stark contrast to currently popular Photo-lithography based micro-structuring. Our method provides scope for modifications on the surface as well as within the bulk of the material. The mechanism involved in the fabrication of these optics on transparent and thin metallic substrates differ from each other. Our studies show that both amplitude and phase versions of micro-structures were achieved successfully with performances bearing 98% accuracy vis-a-vis theoretical expectations.

  7. Variable optical attenuator fabricated by direct UV writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalgaard, Mikael; Færch, Kjartan Ullitz; Andersen, L.U.


    It is demonstrated that direct ultraviolet writing of waveguides is a method suitable for mass production of compact variable optical attenuators with low insertion loss, low polarization-dependent loss, and high dynamic range. The fabrication setup is shown to be robust, providing good device...

  8. Fabrication of mechano-optical sensors for hydrogen gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Kauppinen, L.J.; Dijkstra, Mindert; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; de Ridder, R.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo


    We present results related to the fabrication of a novel and highly sensitive mechano-optical sensor for hydrogen gas, based on microcantilevers, supplied with a selective gas absorbing layer (Pd), suspended above a Si3N4 grated waveguide (GWG). Integrated microcantilever-GWG devices have been

  9. Extremely Lightweight Segmented Membrane Optical Shell Fabrication Technology for Future IR to Optical Telescope, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose that the Membrane Optical Shell Technology (MOST) substrate fabrication approach be extended with a specific focus on advanced off-axis very light weight,...

  10. An experimental study of the fabrication of polycarbonate optical waveguides (United States)

    Chen, Jianguo; Zhang, Xiao-yang; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Jing-song; Wu, Peng-qin; Zhou, Jing-lun; Fan, Jiang-feng; Yan, Hao-feng


    A novel polycarbonate (PC) was introduced to apply in the optical waveguide devices. PC has following distinct merits than common polycarbonate: good processability, high thermal stability up to 293 C° and high optical transparency. Optical properties of absorption behavior and propagation loss were investigated in slab waveguides, and low propagation losses of 0.335 dB/cm (@1550nm) and 0.197 dB/cm @632.8nm) have been achieved by using prismcoupler. Additionally, straight optical waveguide and MMI coupler of ring resonator were fabricated using ultraviolet (UV) cured resin Norland optical adhesive 61 (NOA61) as under or upper cladding layer and polycarbonate as waveguide core-layer material through conventional methods such as spin coating, photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The process was studied in detail and the experimental results were given.

  11. Fabrication of Complex Optical Components From Mold Design to Product

    CERN Document Server

    Riemer, Oltmann; Gläbe, Ralf


    High quality optical components for consumer products made of glass and plastic are mostly fabricated by replication. This highly developed production technology requires several consecutive, well-matched processing steps called a "process chain" covering all steps from mold design, advanced machining and coating of molds, up to the actual replication and final precision measurement of the quality of the optical components. Current market demands for leading edge optical applications require high precision and cost effective parts in large volumes. For meeting these demands it is necessary to develop high quality process chains and moreover, to crosslink all demands and interdependencies within these process chains. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Process chains for the replication of complex optical elements" at Bremen, Aachen and Stillwater worked extensively and thoroughly in this field from 2001 to 2012. This volume will present the latest scientific results for the complete process chain...

  12. Fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J. S., LLNL


    EUV Lithography (EUVL) is a leading candidate as a stepper technology for fabricating the ``0.1 {micro}m generation`` of microelectronic circuits. EUVL is an optical printing technique qualitatively similar to DUV Lithography (DUVL), except that 11-13nm wavelength light is used instead of 193-248nm. The feasibility of creating 0.1{micro}m features has been well-established using small-field EUVL printing tools and development efforts are currently underway to demonstrate that cost-effective production equipment can be engineered to perform full-width ring-field imaging consistent with high wafer throughput rates Ensuring that an industrial supplier base will be available for key components and subsystems is crucial to the success of EUVL. In particular, the projection optics are the heart of the EUVL imaging system, yet they have figure and finish specifications that are beyond the state-of-the-art in optics manufacturing. Thus it is important to demonstrate that industry will be able to fabricate and certify these optics commensurate with EUVL requirements. Indeed, the goal of this paper is to demonstrate that procuring EUVL projection optical substrates is feasible. This conclusion is based on measurements of both commercially-available and developmental substrates. The paper discusses EUVL figure and finish specifications, followed by examples of ultrasmooth and accurate surfaces, and concludes with a discussion of how substrates are measured and evaluated.

  13. Fabrication of smooth silicon optical devices using proton beam writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, E.J.; Bettiol, A.A.; Xiong, B.Q.


    This work gives a brief review of proton beam writing and electrochemical etching process for the fabrication of smooth optical devices in bulk silicon. Various types of structures such as silicon-on-oxidized porous silicon waveguides, waveguide grating and disk resonators have been produced. Optical characterization has been carried out on the waveguides for both TE and TM polarization using free space coupling at 1.55 μm. Various fabrication and processing parameters have been optimized in order to reduce the propagation loss to approximately 1 dB/cm. A surface smoothening technique based on controlled oxidation has also been used to achieve an RMS roughness better than 3 nm.

  14. Fabrication of smooth silicon optical devices using proton beam writing (United States)

    Teo, E. J.; Bettiol, A. A.; Xiong, B. Q.


    This work gives a brief review of proton beam writing and electrochemical etching process for the fabrication of smooth optical devices in bulk silicon. Various types of structures such as silicon-on-oxidized porous silicon waveguides, waveguide grating and disk resonators have been produced. Optical characterization has been carried out on the waveguides for both TE and TM polarization using free space coupling at 1.55 μm. Various fabrication and processing parameters have been optimized in order to reduce the propagation loss to approximately 1 dB/cm. A surface smoothening technique based on controlled oxidation has also been used to achieve an RMS roughness better than 3 nm.

  15. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication in two step etching (United States)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ghamari, S.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroodmand, F.


    A two-step etching method using HF acid and Buffered HF is proposed to fabricate adiabatic biconical optical fiber tapers. Due to the fact that the etching rate in second step is almost 3 times slower than the previous droplet etching method, terminating the fabrication process is controllable enough to achieve a desirable fiber diameter. By monitoring transmitted spectrum, final diameter and adiabaticity of tapers are deduced. Tapers with losses about 0.3 dB in air and 4.2 dB in water are produced. The biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method is used to excite whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on a microsphere surface in an aquatic environment. So that they are suitable to be used in applications like WGM biosensors.

  16. Optical microdevices fabricated using femtosecond laser processing (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Otuka, Adriano J. G.; Tomázio, Nathália B.; Tribuzi, Vinicius; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique D.; De Boni, Leonardo; Mendonça, Cleber R.


    Femtosecond laser processing techniques have been widely employed to produce micro or nanodevices with special features. These devices can be selectively doped with organic dyes, biological agents, nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes, increasing the range of applications. Acrylate polymers can be easily doped with various compounds, and therefore, they are interesting materials for laser fabrication techniques. In this work, we use multiphoton absorption polymerization (MAP) and laser ablation to fabricate polymeric microdevices for optical applications. The polymeric sample used in this work is composed in equal proportions of two three-acrylate monomers; while tris(2-hydroxyethyl)isocyanurate triacrylate gives hardness to the structure, the ethoxylated(6) trimethyl-lolpropane triacrylate reduces the shrinkage tensions upon polymerization. These monomers are mixed with a photoinitiator, the 2,4,6-trimetilbenzoiletoxifenil phosphine oxide, enabling the sample polymerization after laser irradiation. Using MAP, we fabricate three-dimensional structures doped with fluorescent dyes. These structures can be used in several optical applications, such as, RGB fluorescent microdevices or microresonators. Using azo compounds like dopant in the host resin, we can apply these structures in optical data storage devices. Using laser ablation technique, we can fabricate periodic microstructures inside polymeric bulks doped with xanthene dyes and single-walled carbon nanotubes, aiming applications in random laser experiments. In structured bulks we observed multi-narrow emission peaks over the xanthene fluorescence emission. Furthermore, in comparison with non-structured bulks, we observed that the periodic structure decreased the degree of randomness, reducing the number of peaks, but defining their position.

  17. High numerical aperture imaging by using multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio


    Controlling light propagation into multimode optical fibers through spatial light modulators provides highly miniaturized endoscopes and optical micromanipulation probes. We increase the numerical aperture up to nearly 1 by micro-optics fabricated on the fiber-end.

  18. Fabrication Method for LOBSTER-Eye Optics in Silicon (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Collier, Michael; Mateo, Jennette


    Soft x-ray optics can use narrow slots to direct x-rays into a desirable pattern on a focal plane. While square-pack, square-pore, slumped optics exist for this purpose, they are costly. Silicon (Si) is being examined as a possible low-cost replacement. A fabrication method was developed for narrow slots in Si demonstrating the feasibility of stacked slot optics to replace micropores. Current micropore optics exist that have 20-micron-square pores on 26-micron pitch in glass with a depth of 1 mm and an extent of several square centimeters. Among several proposals to emulate the square pore optics are stacked slot chips with etched vertical slots. When the slots in the stack are positioned orthogonally to each other, the component will approach the soft x-ray focusing observed in the micropore optics. A specific improvement Si provides is that it can have narrower sidewalls between slots to permit greater throughput of x-rays through the optics. In general, Si can have more variation in slot geometry (width, length). Further, the sidewalls can be coated with high-Z materials to enhance reflection and potentially reduce the surface roughness of the reflecting surface. Narrow, close-packed deep slots in Si have been produced using potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching and a patterned silicon nitride (SiN) mask. The achieved slot geometries have sufficient wall smoothness, as observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, to enable evaluation of these slot plates as an optical element for soft x-rays. Etches of different angles to the crystal plane of Si were evaluated to identify a specific range of etch angles that will enable low undercut slots in the Si material. These slots with the narrow sidewalls are demonstrated to several hundred microns in depth, and a technical path to 500-micron deep slots in a precision geometry of narrow, closepacked slots is feasible. Although intrinsic stress in ultrathin wall Si is observed, slots with walls approaching 1

  19. Optical fiber sensors fabricated by the focused ion beam technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Wang, Fei; Bang, Ole


    crystal fiber (PCF). Using this technique we fabricate a highly compact fiber-optic Fabry-Pérot (FP) refractive index sensor near the tip of fiber taper, and a highly sensitive in-line temperature sensor in PCF. We also demonstrate the potential of using FIB to selectively fill functional fluid......Focused ion beam (FIB) is a highly versatile technique which helps to enable next generation of lab-on-fiber sensor technologies. In this paper, we demonstrate the use application of FIB to precisely mill the fiber taper and end facet of both conventional single mode fiber (SMF) and photonic...

  20. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg


    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 1...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....

  1. Fast and Scalable Fabrication of Microscopic Optical Surfaces and its Application for Optical Interconnect Devices (United States)

    Summitt, Christopher Ryan

    The use of optical interconnects is a promising solution to the increasing demand for high speed mass data transmission used in integrated circuits as well as device to device data transfer applications. For the purpose, low cost polymer waveguides are a popular choice for routing signal between devices due to their compatibility with printed circuit boards. In optical interconnect, coupling from an external light source to such waveguides is a critical step, thus a variety of couplers have been investigated such as grating based couplers [1,2], evanescent couplers [3], and embedded mirrors [4-6]. These couplers are inherently micro-optical components which require fast and scalable fabrication for mass production with optical quality surfaces/structures. Low NA laser direct writing has been used for fast fabrication of structures such as gratings and Fresnel lenses using a linear laser direct writing scheme, though the length scale of such structures are an order of magnitude larger than the spot size of the focused laser of the tool. Nonlinear writing techniques such as with 2-photon absorption offer increased write resolution which makes it possible to fabricate sub-wavelength structures as well as having a flexibility in feature shape. However it does not allow a high speed fabrication and in general are not scalable due to limitations of speed and area induced by the tool's high NA optics. To overcome such limitations primarily imposed by NA, we propose a new micro-optic fabrication process which extends the capabilities of 1D, low NA, and thus fast and scalable, laser direct writing to fabricate a structure having a length scale close to the tool's spot size, for example, a mirror based and 45 degree optical coupler with optical surface quality. The newly developed process allows a high speed fabrication with a write speed of 2600 mm²/min by incorporating a mask based lithography method providing a blank structure which is critical to creating a 45 degree

  2. Non-destructive residual pressure self-measurement method for the sensing chip of optical Fabry-Perot pressure sensor. (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Zhang, Xuezhi; Xiao, Mengnan; Xiao, Hai; Liu, Tiegen


    We introduce a simple residual pressure self-measurement method for the Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity of optical MEMS pressure sensor. No extra installation is required and the structure of the sensor is unchanged. In the method, the relationship between residual pressure and external pressure under the same diaphragm deflection condition at different temperatures is analyzed by using the deflection formula of the circular plate with clamped edges and the ideal gas law. Based on this, the residual pressure under the flat condition can be obtained by pressure scanning process and calculation process. We carried out the experiment to compare the residual pressures of two batches MEMS sensors fabricated by two kinds of bonding process. The measurement result indicates that our approach is reliable enough for the measurement.

  3. Precision glass molding: Toward an optimal fabrication of optical lenses (United States)

    Zhang, Liangchi; Liu, Weidong


    It is costly and time consuming to use machining processes, such as grinding, polishing and lapping, to produce optical glass lenses with complex features. Precision glass molding (PGM) has thus been developed to realize an efficient manufacture of such optical components in a single step. However, PGM faces various technical challenges. For example, a PGM process must be carried out within the super-cooled region of optical glass above its glass transition temperature, in which the material has an unstable non-equilibrium structure. Within a narrow window of allowable temperature variation, the glass viscosity can change from 105 to 1012 Pas due to the kinetic fragility of the super-cooled liquid. This makes a PGM process sensitive to its molding temperature. In addition, because of the structural relaxation in this temperature window, the atomic structure that governs the material properties is strongly dependent on time and thermal history. Such complexity often leads to residual stresses and shape distortion in a lens molded, causing unexpected changes in density and refractive index. This review will discuss some of the central issues in PGM processes and provide a method based on a manufacturing chain consideration from mold material selection, property and deformation characterization of optical glass to process optimization. The realization of such optimization is a necessary step for the Industry 4.0 of PGM.

  4. Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.


    substrate dimensions. Magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation are well established deposition techniques to fabricate X-ray optical multilayers. For specific layer material combinations and tailored thickness profiles, Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has become an interesting alternative to these predominant technologies. As a result of the accuracy achieved with PLD, gradient multilayers of different material combinations can be deposited both on flat and on pre-curved substrates. For several years, Ni/C- Goebel-Mirrors are well established in X-ray diffraction using Cu Kα-radiation. Intensities of more then 10 9 cps together with a low beam divergence Δφ 1 ) : l(Cu Kβ) > 10 6 are realized with the Twin Goebel-Mirror arrangement (TGM). The TGM arrangement is also available for Mo Kα-radiation. A combination of a graded multilayer mirror for Mo Kα-radiation and a Germanium channel cut monochromator is capable of providing monochromatic Mo Kα 1 - radiation. There are further applications of multilayer optics in the high energy range for synchrotron, medical and astrophysical investigations. In surface analyses like AES and SIMS, these nanometer-multilayers can also be used to study depth resolution effects in depth profiling analysis. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  5. Analysis of fabrication process for AP1000 passive residual heat removal heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yongjun


    This paper introduces the design parameters of the passive residual heat removal heat exchanger for American advanced passive pressurized water reactor (AP1000), describes the fabrication process for the head, tubesheet, heat exchange tube, corrugated plate and support frame assembly of the heat exchanger, mainly in terms of material, forging, welding, and heat treatment, and also analyzes the crucial steps for the support frame assembling, tubesheet plate welding, tube penetration welding of C tube bundle, closure/head welding, heat treatment, hydraulic (pressure) test, and etc. in the process of heat exchanger assembling. (author)

  6. Exploiting the optical and luminescence characteristic of quantum dots for optical device fabrication (United States)

    Suriyaprakash, Jagadeesh; Qiao, Ting Ting


    One can design a robust optical device by engineering the optical band gap of the quantum dots (QDs) owing to their size-tunable quantum confinement effect. To do this, understanding the optical effects of QDs and composite materials is crucial. In this context, various sizes (2.8-4.2 nm) of CdSe QDs-PMMA nanocomposite are fabricated in a two-step process and their absorbance, luminescence and optical constants studied systematically. The ellipsometry spectroscopic analysis exhibits the heterogeneous medium feature of Ψ value and also the measured refractive index (1.51-1.59) values are increased with decreased band gap (2.24-2.10 eV). The observed red shift in the UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectra is indicative of early stage CdSe QD followed by a nucleation process of bigger size QD. In addition, the growth kinetics of the reaction and the band gap of the QDs are evaluated with respect to the time to testify the colloidal QDs formation. The thickness and QD composition of the nanocomposite thin films calculated by effective medium approximation are 100 nm and 8-12%, respectively. Morphology and structural feature transmission electron microscopy study of the fabricated nanocomposite demonstrated that spherical CdSe QDs are well dispersed in PMMA.

  7. NASA funding opportunities for optical fabrication and testing technology development (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip


    NASA requires technologies to fabricate and test optical components to accomplish its highest priority science missions. The NRC ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey states that an advanced large-aperture UVOIR telescope is required to enable the next generation of compelling astrophysics and exo-planet science; and, that present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVOIR mission concept. The NRC 2012 NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities Report states that the highest priority technology in which NASA should invest to `Expand our understanding of Earth and the universe' is next generation X-ray and UVOIR telescopes. Each of the Astrophysics division Program Office Annual Technology Reports (PATR) identifies specific technology needs. NASA has a variety of programs to fund enabling technology development: SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research); the ROSES APRA and SAT programs (Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Science; Astrophysics Research and Analysis program; Strategic Astrophysics Technology program); and several Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) programs.

  8. Large core plastic planar optical splitter fabricated by 3D printing technology (United States)

    Prajzler, Václav; Kulha, Pavel; Knietel, Marian; Enser, Herbert


    We report on the design, fabrication and optical properties of large core multimode optical polymer splitter fabricated using fill up core polymer in substrate that was made by 3D printing technology. The splitter was designed by the beam propagation method intended for assembling large core waveguide fibers with 735 μm diameter. Waveguide core layers were made of optically clear liquid adhesive, and Veroclear polymer was used as substrate and cover layers. Measurement of optical losses proved that the insertion optical loss was lower than 6.8 dB in the visible spectrum.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of hybrid silica/polymer optical fiber sensors for large strain measurement (United States)

    Huang, Haiying


    Silica-based optical fiber sensors are widely used in structural health monitoring systems for strain and deflection measurement. One drawback of silica-based optical fiber sensors is their low strain toughness. In general, silica-based optical fiber sensors can only reliably measure strains up to 2%. Recently, polymer optical fiber sensors have been employed to measure large strain and deflection. Due to their high optical losses, the length of the polymer optical fibers is limited to 100 meters. In this paper, we present a novel economical technique to fabricate hybrid silica/polymer optical fiber strain sensors for large strain measurement. First, stress analysis of a surface-mounted optical fiber sensor is performed to understand the load distribution between the host structure and the optical fiber in relation to their mechanical properties. Next, the procedure of fabricating a polymer sensing element between two optical fibers is explained. The experimental set-up and the components used in the fabrication process are described in details. Mechanical testing results of the fabricated silica/polymer optical fiber strain sensor are presented.

  10. Packetisation in Optical Packet Switch Fabrics using adaptive timeout values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach


    Hybrid electro-optical packet switches utilize optics in the backplane to switch optical packets from inputs to outputs on electronic line cards. The optical packets are traditionally considerably larger than minimum size IP packets. IP packets entering the switch must be formatted (segmented) an...

  11. Unique Fiber Optic Sensor System for Residual Stress Measurement on Graphite Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, D


    .... Measurement of this strain through the thickness of a composite is not a trivial task. Foster-Miller has developed the basis for a residual strain measurement system utilizing embedded fiber optic Bragg grating technology...

  12. Design, Tolerance Analysis, and Fabrication of Silicon Oxynitride Based Planar Optical Waveguides for Communication Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worhoff, Kerstin; Lambeck, Paul; Driessen, A.

    Planar optical waveguiding structures for application in communication networks are highly demanding with respect to low insertion loss, efficient fiber-to-chip coupling, polarization independent operation, high integration density, reliable fabrication, and last but not least cost efficiency. When

  13. Process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Zhang, Yang; Regi, Francesco


    This paper aims to introduce a process chain for fabrication of anisotropic optical functional surfaces on polymer products. Thesurface features under investigation are composed of micro serrated ridges. The scope was to maximize the visible contrast betweenhorizontally orthogonal textured surfaces...

  14. Fabrication of silicon based glass fibres for optical communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silicon based glass fibres are fabricated by conventional fibre drawing process. First, preform fabrication is carried out by means of conventional MCVD technique by using various dopants such as SiCl4, GeCl4, POCl3, and FeCl3. The chemicals are used in such a way that step index single mode fibre can be drawn.

  15. Fabrication of silicon based glass fibres for optical communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Silicon based glass fibres are fabricated by conventional fibre drawing process. First, preform fabrication is carried out by means of conventional MCVD technique by using various dopants such as SiCl4,. GeCl4, POCl3, and FeCl3. The chemicals are used in such a way that step index single mode fibre can be.

  16. Design, fabrication and testing of hierarchical micro-optical structures and systems (United States)

    Cannistra, Aaron Thomas

    Micro-optical systems are becoming essential components in imaging, sensing, communications, computing, and other applications. Optically based designs are replacing electronic, chemical and mechanical systems for a variety of reasons, including low power consumption, reduced maintenance, and faster operation. However, as the number and variety of applications increases, micro-optical system designs are becoming smaller, more integrated, and more complicated. Micro and nano-optical systems found in nature, such as the imaging systems found in many insects and crustaceans, can have highly integrated optical structures that vary in size by orders of magnitude. These systems incorporate components such as compound lenses, anti-reflective lens surface structuring, spectral filters, and polarization selective elements. For animals, these hybrid optical systems capable of many optical functions in a compact package have been repeatedly selected during the evolutionary process. Understanding the advantages of these designs gives motivation for synthetic optical systems with comparable functionality. However, alternative fabrication methods that deviate from conventional processes are needed to create such systems. Further complicating the issue, the resulting device geometry may not be readily compatible with existing measurement techniques. This dissertation explores several nontraditional fabrication techniques for optical components with hierarchical geometries and measurement techniques to evaluate performance of such components. A micro-transfer molding process is found to produce high-fidelity micro-optical structures and is used to fabricate a spectral filter on a curved surface. By using a custom measurement setup we demonstrate that the spectral filter retains functionality despite the nontraditional geometry. A compound lens is fabricated using similar fabrication techniques and the imaging performance is analyzed. A spray coating technique for photoresist

  17. Design and fabrication of diffractive optical elements with MATLAB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhattacharya, Shanti (Professor in Optics); Vijayakumar, Anand


    ... their diffraction patterns using MATLAB. The fundamentals of fabrication techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography with basic instructions for the beginner are presented...

  18. Campanile Near-Field Probes Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography on the Facet of an Optical Fiber. (United States)

    Calafiore, Giuseppe; Koshelev, Alexander; Darlington, Thomas P; Borys, Nicholas J; Melli, Mauro; Polyakov, Aleksandr; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Allen, Frances I; Lum, Paul; Wong, Ed; Sassolini, Simone; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schuck, P James; Cabrini, Stefano; Munechika, Keiko


    One of the major challenges to the widespread adoption of plasmonic and nano-optical devices in real-life applications is the difficulty to mass-fabricate nano-optical antennas in parallel and reproducible fashion, and the capability to precisely place nanoantennas into devices with nanometer-scale precision. In this study, we present a solution to this challenge using the state-of-the-art ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) to fabricate functional optical transformers onto the core of an optical fiber in a single step, mimicking the 'campanile' near-field probes. Imprinted probes were fabricated using a custom-built imprinter tool with co-axial alignment capability with sub optical coupling between the fiber and the imprinted optical transformer. The imprinted optical transformer probe was used in an actual NSOM measurement performing hyperspectral photoluminescence mapping of standard fluorescent beads. The calibration scans confirmed that imprinted probes enable sub-diffraction limited imaging with a spatial resolution consistent with the gap size. This novel nano-fabrication approach promises a low-cost, high-throughput, and reproducible manufacturing of advanced nano-optical devices.

  19. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.


    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Development of a Direct Fabrication Technique for Full-Shell X-Ray Optics (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Kolodziejczak, J. K.; Griffith, C.; Roche, J.; Smith, W. S.; Kester, T.; Atkins, C.; Arnold, W.; Ramsey, B.


    Future astrophysical missions will require fabrication technology capable of producing high angular resolution x-ray optics. A full-shell direct fabrication approach using modern robotic polishing machines has the potential for producing high resolution, light-weight and affordable x-ray mirrors that can be nested to produce large collecting area. This approach to mirror fabrication, based on the use of the metal substrates coated with nickel phosphorous alloy, is being pursued at MSFC. The design of the polishing fixtures for the direct fabrication, the surface figure metrology techniques used and the results of the polishing experiments are presented.

  1. Ferrofluid-based optical fiber magnetic field sensor fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation (United States)

    Song, Yang; Yuan, Lei; Hua, Liwei; Zhang, Qi; Lei, Jincheng; Huang, Jie; Xiao, Hai


    Optofluid system has been more and more attractive in optical sensing applications such as chemical and biological analysis as it incorporates the unique features from both integrated optics and microfluidics. In recent years, various optofluid based structures have been investigated in/on an optical fiber platform which is referred to as "lab in/on a fiber". Among those integrated structures, femto-second laser micromaching technique plays an important role due to its high precision fabrication, flexible design, 3D capability, and compatible with other methods. Here we present a ferrofluid based optical fiber magnetic field sensor fabricated by femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation .With the help of fs laser micromaching technique, a micro-reservoir made by capillary tube assembled in a single mode optical fiber could be fabricated. The micro-reservoir functions as a fiber inline Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity which is filled by ferrofluid liquid. The refractive index of the ferrofluid varies as the surrounding magnetic field strength changes, which can be optically probed by the FP interferometer. A fringe visibility of up to 30 dB can be achieved with a detection limit of around 0.4 Gausses. Due to the fabrication, micro-reservoirs can be assembled with optical fiber and distinguished through a microwave-photonic interrogation system. A quasi-distributed magnetic field sensing application has been demonstrated with a high spatial resolution of around 10 cm.

  2. Effect of a non-woven fabric covering on the residual activity of pendimethalin in lettuce and soil. (United States)

    Jursík, Miroslav; Kováčová, Jana; Kočárek, Martin; Hamouzová, Kateřina; Soukup, Josef


    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a crop that is very sensitive to herbicide contamination owing to its short growing season. The use of long-residual herbicides and non-woven fabric coverings could therefore influence pendimethalin concentrations in soil and lettuce. The pendimethalin half-life in soil ranged between 18 and 85 days and was mainly affected by season (i.e. weather), and especially by soil moisture. Pendimethalin degradation in soil was slowest under dry conditions. A longer pendimethalin half-life was observed under the non-woven fabric treatment, but the effect of varying application rate was not significant. Pendimethalin residue concentrations in lettuce heads were significantly influenced by pendimethalin application rate and by non-woven fabric cover, especially at the lettuce's early growth stages. The highest pendimethalin concentration at final harvest was determined in lettuce grown on uncovered plots treated with pendimethalin at an application rate of 1200 g ha -1 (7-38 µg kg -1 ). Depending on growing season duration and weather conditions, pendimethalin concentrations in lettuce grown under non-woven fabric ranged from 0 to 21 µg kg -1 . Use of transparent non-woven fabric cover with lettuce can help to reduce application rates of soil herbicides and diminish the risk of herbicide contamination in the harvested vegetables. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fabrication and Operation of a Nano-Optical Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Ryan, Jason; Zheng, Yuxin; Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus


    The technique of using focused laser beams to trap and exert forces on small particles has enabled many pivotal discoveries in the nanoscale biological and physical sciences over the past few decades. The progress made in this field invites further study of even smaller systems and at a larger scale, with tools that could be distributed more easily and made more widely available. Unfortunately, the fundamental laws of diffraction limit the minimum size of the focal spot of a laser beam, which makes particles smaller than a half-wavelength in diameter hard to trap and generally prevents an operator from discriminating between particles which are closer together than one half-wavelength. This precludes the optical manipulation of many closely-spaced nanoparticles and limits the resolution of optical-mechanical systems. Furthermore, manipulation using focused beams requires beam-forming or steering optics, which can be very bulky and expensive. To address these limitations in the system scalability of conventional optical trapping our lab has devised an alternative technique which utilizes near-field optics to move particles across a chip. Instead of focusing laser beams in the far-field, the optical near field of plasmonic resonators produces the necessary local optical intensity enhancement to overcome the restrictions of diffraction and manipulate particles at higher resolution. Closely-spaced resonators produce strong optical traps which can be addressed to mediate the hand-off of particles from one to the next in a conveyor-belt-like fashion. Here, we describe how to design and produce a conveyor belt using a gold surface patterned with plasmonic C-shaped resonators and how to operate it with polarized laser light to achieve super-resolution nanoparticle manipulation and transport. The nano-optical conveyor belt chip can be produced using lithography techniques and easily packaged and distributed.

  4. Optical residual stress measurement in TFT-LCD panels (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Sung, Po-Chi


    The residual stress of the glass substrate might be one of causes to produce the non-uniform light distribution defect, i.e. Mura, in thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panels. Glass is a birefringent material with very low birefringence. Furthermore, the thinner and thinner thickness request from the market makes the traditional photoelasticity almost impossible to measure the residual stresses produced in thin glass plates. Recently, a low-level stress measurement method called transmissivity extremities theory of photoelasticity (TEToP) was successfully developed to measure the residual stress in glass plate. Besides, to measure the stress of the glass plate in the TFT-LCD panel whose rear surface may has different kinds of coatings, an advanced reflection photoelasticity was also developed. In this paper, three commercially available glass plates with 0.33mm nominal thickness and three glass circular disks with different coatings were inspected to verify the feasibility of the TEToP and the advanced reflection photoelasticity, respectively.

  5. Fabrication of polymer-based reflowed microlenses on optical fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Thermal reflow of polymer to generate spherical profile has been used to fabricate microlenses in this paper. A simple model based on the volume conservation (before and after reflow) and geometrical consideration of lens profile, shows that the focal length of the microlens produced by reflow technique is a.

  6. Optical Fabrication and Metrology of Aspheric and Freeform Mirrors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirement for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA, WFIRST...

  7. Fabrication Technology for X-Ray Optics and Mandrels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a cross-project need for large format aspheric x-ray optics, which, demonstrate exceptionally low periodic surface errors. Available technologies to both...

  8. Improved Large Segmented Optics Fabrication Using Magnetorheological Finishing, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary mirrors for large aperture telescopes (> 10 m) are collections of smaller (1-2 m), typically hexagonal, often aspheric, optical segments. NASA's next...

  9. Improved Large Segmented Optics Fabrication Using Magnetorheological Finishing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary mirrors for large aperture telescopes (> 10 m) are collections of smaller (1-2 m), typically hexagonal, often aspheric, optical segments. NASA's next...

  10. Improved Large Segmented Optics Fabrication Using Magnetorheological Finishing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Primary mirrors for large aperture telescopes (>10m) are collections of smaller (1-2m), typically hexagonal, often aspheric, optical segments. NASA?s next...

  11. UltraForm Finisher Optical Mandrel Fabrication, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of normal incidence and grazing incidence X-Ray optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of...

  12. Fabrication of an Optical Fiber Micro-Sphere with a Diameter of Several Tens of Micrometers. (United States)

    Yu, Huijuan; Huang, Qiangxian; Zhao, Jian


    A new method to fabricate an integrated optical fiber micro-sphere with a diameter within 100 µm, based on the optical fiber tapering technique and the Taguchi method is proposed. Using a 125 µm diameter single-mode (SM) optical fiber, an optical fiber taper with a cone angle is formed with the tapering technique, and the fabrication optimization of a micro-sphere with a diameter of less than 100 µm is achieved using the Taguchi method. The optimum combination of process factors levels is obtained, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of three quality evaluation parameters and the significance of each process factors influencing them are selected as the two standards. Using the minimum zone method (MZM) to evaluate the quality of the fabricated optical fiber micro-sphere, a three-dimensional (3D) numerical fitting image of its surface profile and the true sphericity are subsequently realized. From the results, an optical fiber micro-sphere with a two-dimensional (2D) diameter less than 80 µm, 2D roundness error less than 0.70 µm, 2D offset distance between the micro-sphere center and the fiber stylus central line less than 0.65 µm, and true sphericity of about 0.5 µm, is fabricated.

  13. Fabrication of an Optical Fiber Micro-Sphere with a Diameter of Several Tens of Micrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Yu


    Full Text Available A new method to fabricate an integrated optical fiber micro-sphere with a diameter within 100 µm, based on the optical fiber tapering technique and the Taguchi method is proposed. Using a 125 µm diameter single-mode (SM optical fiber, an optical fiber taper with a cone angle is formed with the tapering technique, and the fabrication optimization of a micro-sphere with a diameter of less than 100 µm is achieved using the Taguchi method. The optimum combination of process factors levels is obtained, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of three quality evaluation parameters and the significance of each process factors influencing them are selected as the two standards. Using the minimum zone method (MZM to evaluate the quality of the fabricated optical fiber micro-sphere, a three-dimensional (3D numerical fitting image of its surface profile and the true sphericity are subsequently realized. From the results, an optical fiber micro-sphere with a two-dimensional (2D diameter less than 80 µm, 2D roundness error less than 0.70 µm, 2D offset distance between the micro-sphere center and the fiber stylus central line less than 0.65 µm, and true sphericity of about 0.5 µm, is fabricated.

  14. Fabrication of large area homogeneous metallic nanostructures for optical sensing using colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes


    We propose a simple and reproducible method for fabricating large area metal films with inter-connected nanostructures using a combination of colloidal lithography, metal deposition and a template stripping technique. The method is generic in the sense that it is possible to produce a variety...... of nanostructures and the corresponding inverted nanostructure in a metal film. Within plasmonics this feature opens up obvious possibilities to design and fabricate substrates with specific and tailored optical properties applicable in optical sensing platforms. In this report the method has been employed...... to fabricate metal films with inter-connected nanostructures consisting of either partial spherical shells or the inverted structures: spherical cavities. The substrates are characterized by optical reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. We demonstrate, in the case of partial spherical shells...

  15. Technology for Polymer Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Fabrication and Interrogation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganziy, Denis

    The aim of this project is to develop a new, high-quality interrogator for FBG sensor systems, which combines high performance with costeffectiveness. The work includes the fields of optical system design, signal processing, and algorithm investigation. We present an efficient and fast peak detec...... by measuring optical resolution, wavelength fit resolution, accuracy, temperature and polarization dependable wavelength shift and use it to measure the strain response of a fewmode and a highly multimode FBG in a polymer fiber.......The aim of this project is to develop a new, high-quality interrogator for FBG sensor systems, which combines high performance with costeffectiveness. The work includes the fields of optical system design, signal processing, and algorithm investigation. We present an efficient and fast peak......) based interrogator, where the linear detector is replaced with a commercially available DMD, which leads to cost reduction and better performance. Original optical design, which utilizes advantages of a retro-reflect optical scheme, has been developed in Zemax. We test the presented interrogator...

  16. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Haiyang; Wu Di; Wu Wengang; Hao Yilong [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Institute of Microelectronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Jun, E-mail: [Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 {mu}m. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  17. The fabrication of diversiform nanostructure forests based on residue nanomasks synthesized by oxygen plasma removal of photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Haiyang; Wu Di; Wu Wengang; Hao Yilong; Xu Jun


    A simple lithography-free approach for fabricating diversiform nanostructure forests is presented. The key technique of the approach is that randomly distributed nanoscale residues can be synthesized on substrates simply by removing photoresist with oxygen plasma bombardment. These nanoresidues can function as masks in the subsequent etching process for nanopillars. By further spacer and then deep etching processes, a variety of forests composed of regular, tulip-like or hollow-head nanopillars as well as nanoneedles are successfully achieved in different etching conditions. The pillars have diameters of 30-200 nm and heights of 400 nm-3 μm. The needles reach several microns in height, with their tips less than 10 nm in diameter. Moreover, microstructures containing these nanostructure forests, such as surface microchannels, have also been fabricated. This approach is compatible with conventional micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) fabrication.

  18. More steps towards process automation for optical fabrication (United States)

    Walker, David; Yu, Guoyu; Beaucamp, Anthony; Bibby, Matt; Li, Hongyu; McCluskey, Lee; Petrovic, Sanja; Reynolds, Christina


    In the context of Industrie 4.0, we have previously described the roles of robots in optical processing, and their complementarity with classical CNC machines, providing both processing and automation functions. After having demonstrated robotic moving of parts between a CNC polisher and metrology station, and auto-fringe-acquisition, we have moved on to automate the wash-down operation. This is part of a wider strategy we describe in this paper, leading towards automating the decision-making operations required before and throughout an optical manufacturing cycle.

  19. Single-step fabrication of electrodes with controlled nanostructured surface roughness using optically-induced electrodeposition (United States)

    Liu, N.; Li, M.; Liu, L.; Yang, Y.; Mai, J.; Pu, H.; Sun, Y.; Li, W. J.


    The customized fabrication of microelectrodes from gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has attracted much attention due to their numerous applications in chemistry and biomedical engineering, such as for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and as catalyst sites for electrochemistry. Herein, we present a novel optically-induced electrodeposition (OED) method for rapidly fabricating gold electrodes which are also surface-modified with nanoparticles in one single step. The electrodeposition mechanism, with respect to the applied AC voltage signal and the elapsed deposition time, on the resulting morphology and particle sizes was investigated. The results from SEM and AFM analysis demonstrated that 80-200 nm gold particles can be formed on the surface of the gold electrodes. Simultaneously, both the size of the nanoparticles and the roughness of the fabricated electrodes can be regulated by the deposition time. Compared to state-of-the-art methods for fabricating microelectrodes with AuNPs, such as nano-seed-mediated growth and conventional electrodeposition, this OED technique has several advantages including: (1) electrode fabrication and surface modification using nanoparticles are completed in a single step, eliminating the need for prefabricating micro electrodes; (2) the patterning of electrodes is defined using a digitally-customized, projected optical image rather than using fixed physical masks; and (3) both the fabrication and surface modification processes are rapid, and the entire fabrication process only requires less than 6 s.

  20. Multilayer Optical Coating Fabrication By Ion Beam Sputter Deposition (United States)

    Becker, Juergen; Scheuer, Volker


    Ion Beam Sputter Deposition (IBSD) was proven to be a useful technique for producing high performance optical coatings. However, compared to other deposition techniques, several problems remain to be solved, such as low deposition rates, small areas with homogeneous deposition rate and the problem of contamination. In the work described here, a cubic vacuum chamber has been equipped with a commercially available ion beam source, a triple stage target holder and a rotating substrate holder. The primary interest was to get a reasonable deposition rate over a sufficiently large area. Single layers of SiO2, Ta205 and TiO2 and multilayers of Si02/Ta205 were produced. Contaminants in the films were analyzed by various techniques mainly by Total-Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Optical properties of the coatings were investigated to study the influence of the contaminants on the performance of the optical coatings. The optical properties were characterized by the refractive index, the absorption coefficient and the scattering behaviour. Scattering losses were measured by means of Total Integrated Scattering (TIS) and Angle Resolved Scattering (ARS). The damage threshold against high-power laser pulses of 1.06 pm was determined.

  1. Fabrication of polymer-based reflowed microlenses on optical fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A biomedical application of such combination of microlenses is endoscopy where the lenses of varying diameter and equal focal length are needed on top of optical fibre bundles to provide independent function of illumination and imaging. This paper incorporates the differential thickness technique to show a micro ...

  2. Fabrication of polymer-based reflowed microlenses on optical fibre ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imaging fibres with custom made multiple lenses configuration can subdue such limitations by enhancing the illumination areas as well as acceptance cone for imaging. Integration of these lenses on the optical fibre is another issue which limits application. This paper incorporates the differential thickness technique to show ...

  3. Optical properties (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) of shot fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Rong; Koenderink, Jan J.; Kappers, Astrid M L


    To study the optical properties of materials, one needs a complete set of the angular distribution functions of surface scattering from the materials. Here we present a convenient method for collecting a large set of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) samples in the hemispherical

  4. Fabrication of periodically poled lithium niobate chips for optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical parametric conversion is an attractive technique for generating coherent tunable radiation or ... momentum conservation. The phase ... Several techniques were developed for producing PPLN chips. Some of them are periodic modification during crystal growth [6], surface impurity diffusion [7], electron beam writing ...

  5. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor


    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope

  6. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope. (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor


    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  7. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori [Olympus Corporation, 2-3 Kuboyama-cho, Hachioji 192-8512 (Japan); Kitagawa, Katsuichi [Toray Engineering Co. Ltd., 1-1-45 Oe, Otsu 520-2141 (Japan); Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira [Ceratech Japan Co., Ltd., 500 Okada, Shinonoi, Nagano 381-2295 (Japan); Bokor, Nandor [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest 1111 (Hungary)


    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bykov


    Full Text Available Methods of tissue-simulative phantoms and capillaries fabrication from PVC-plastisol and silicone for application as test-objects in optical coherence tomography (OCT and skin and capillary emulation are considered. Comparison characteristics of these materials and recommendations for their application are given. Examples of phantoms visualization by optical coherence tomography method are given. Possibility of information using from B-scans for refractive index evaluation is shown.

  9. Fabrication quality analysis of a fiber optic refractive index sensor created by CO2 laser machining. (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Yeh, Bo-Kuan; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te


    This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10(-4) RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954) was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10(-5) RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  10. Fabrication of optical fiber micro(and nano)-optical and photonic devices and components, using computer controlled spark thermo-pulling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, H.; Mosleh, A.; Pashmkar, M.; Khaksar Kalati, A.


    Fabrication of optical fiber Micro (and Nano)-Optical component and devices, as well as, those applicable for photonic purposes are described. It is to demonstrate the practical capabilities and characterization of the previously reported Computer controlled spark thermo-pulling fabrication system.

  11. Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Zhang


    Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.

  12. Fabrication of a side aligned optical fibre interferometer by focused ion beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J; Miller, M K; Ritchie, J M; Luo, X; Li, J; Maier, R R J; Hand, D P; MacPherson, W N


    Focused ion beam (FIB) machining is a promising technique for the fabrication of micro-optical components with high quality surface finishes. In this work, a prototype of a side aligned optical fibre interferometer was successfully fabricated by the three-dimensional deterministic FIB machining technique. A highly accurate 45° reflective mirror with surface roughness (Ra) of 10 nm has been successfully fabricated at the centre of the fibre to direct the core guided light to the side of the fibre. A surface topography simulation method was developed to simulate the ion beam polishing process. According to the simulation result, a 0.5° offset on the ion beam polishing direction is necessary to maintain the machining accuracy. In the fabrication process, it was also found that for structures requiring a high aspect ratio the existence of an open edge can mitigate against the material redeposition on the sidewalls and therefore increase the overall material removal rate. The fibre has been tested optically and the interference signals have been successfully observed, demonstrating the alignment accuracy of the fabrication method. (paper)

  13. An Optimal Cure Process to Minimize Residual Void and Optical Birefringence for a LED Silicone Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jae Song


    Full Text Available Silicone resin has recently attracted great attention as a high-power Light Emitting Diode (LED encapsulant material due to its good thermal stability and optical properties. In general, the abrupt curing reaction of the silicone resin for the LED encapsulant during the curing process induces reduction in the mechanical and optical properties of the LED product due to the generation of residual void and moisture, birefringence, and residual stress in the final formation. In order to prevent such an abrupt curing reaction, the reduction of residual void and birefringence of the silicone resin was observed through experimentation by introducing the multi-step cure processes, while the residual stress was calculated by conducting finite element analysis that coupled the heat of cure reaction and cure shrinkage. The results of experiment and analysis showed that it was during the three-step curing process that the residual void, birefringence, and residual stress reduced the most in similar tendency. Through such experimentation and finite element analysis, the study was able to confirm that the optimization of the LED encapsulant packaging process was possible.

  14. Space and frequency-multiplexed optical linear algebra processor - Fabrication and initial tests (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Jackson, J.


    A new optical linear algebra processor architecture is described. Space and frequency-multiplexing are used to accommodate bipolar and complex-valued data. A fabricated laboratory version of this processor is described, the electronic support system used is discussed, and initial test data obtained on it are presented.

  15. Fabrication of single optical centres in diamond-a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orwa, J.O.; Greentree, A.D.; Aharonovich, I.; Alves, A.D.C.; Van Donkelaar, J.; Stacey, A.; Prawer, S.


    Colour centres in diamond are rapidly becoming one of the leading platforms for solid-state quantum information processing applications. This is due in large part to the remarkable properties of the nitrogen-vacancy colour centre. From initial demonstrations of room-temperature single photon generation and spin single spin readout and quantum control, diamond nanocrystals are also finding application in magnetometry and biosensing. This review discusses the state of the art in the creation of isolated and small ensembles of optically active diamond defect centres, including nitrogen and nickel-related centres.

  16. Fabrication of hybrid optical line generator by direct machining. (United States)

    Saastamoinen, Toni; Väyrynen, Juha; Mutanen, Jarkko; Tuovinen, Hemmo; Eronen, Anni; Mönkkönen, Kari; Kuittinen, Markku


    In this study, a mold of a line generator consisting of a cylindrical lens array with a triangular diffractive grating was ultra-precision diamond machined with Moore 350FG 5-axis ultra-precision machine. The design and the simulation of the hybrid structure were performed using ray tracing and exact electromagnetic theory. The machined hybrid lens structure was replicated to a UV-curable polymer and was then characterized and tested. The optical measurements show that the hybrid element works as designed.

  17. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather


    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  18. Effect of fabrication parameters on morphological and optical properties of highly doped p-porous silicon (United States)

    Zare, Maryam; Shokrollahi, Abbas; Seraji, Faramarz E.


    Porous silicon (PS) layers were fabricated by anodization of low resistive (highly doped) p-type silicon in HF/ethanol solution, by varying current density, etching time and HF concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analyses were used to investigate the physical properties and reflection spectrum was used to investigate the optical behavior of PS layers in different fabrication conditions. Vertically aligned mesoporous morphology is observed in fabricated films and with HF concentration higher than 20%. The dependence of porosity, layer thickness and rms roughness of the PS layer on current density, etching time and composition of electrolyte is also observed in obtained results. Correlation between reflectivity and fabrication parameters was also explored. Thermal oxidation was performed on some mesoporous layers that resulted in changes of surface roughness, mean height and reflectivity of the layers.

  19. Quantum Dot-Doped Glasses and Fibers: Fabrication and Optical Properties (United States)

    Dong, Guoping; Wang, Haipeng; Chen, Guanzhong; Pan, Qiwen; Qiu, Jianrong


    Quantum dot-doped glasses have been the hotspot for their excellent electronic and optical properties. Owing to its tunable and broadband near-infrared (NIR) emission by controlling the size and distribution of QDs, QD-doped glasses and fibers are potentially applied in photoelectric devices. In this review, we mainly introduce the preparation, tunable emission, and multi-wavelength optical amplification of QD-doped glasses. Due to their excellent optical performances, the fabrication of QD-doped glass fibers is also presented, containing the successful fabrication of QD-doped glass fibers with tunable NIR emission. Furthermore, the achievements and existing problems about QD-doped glasses and fibers are also proposed with several prospects. These QD-doped glasses and fibers show promising applications as the gain medium of NIR broadband fiber amplifiers and tunable fiber lasers.

  20. Plasmonic nanoparticles for a bottom-up approach to fabricate optical metamaterials (United States)

    Dintinger, José; Scharf, Toralf


    We investigate experimentally metallic nanoparticle composites fabricated by bottom-up techniques as potential candidates for optical metamaterials. Depending on the plasmonic resonances sustained by individual NPs and their nanoscale organization into larger meta-atoms, various properties might emerge. Here, the focus of our contribution is on the fabrication and optical characterization of silver NP clusters with a spherical shape. We start with the characterisation of the "bulk" dielectric constants of silver NP inks by spectroscopic ellipsometry for different nanoparticle densities (i.e from strongly diluted dispersions to solid randomly packed films). The inks are then used to prepare spherical nanoparticle clusters by an oil-in water emulsion technique. The study of their optical properties demonstrates their ability to support Mie resonances in the visible. These resonances are associated with the excitation of a magnetic dipole, which constitutes a prerequisite to the realization of metamaterials with negative permeability.

  1. Effect of the preform fabrication process on the properties of all-silica optical fibres (United States)

    Grishchenko, A. B.


    In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of technical capabilities of processes for the fabrication of all-silica optical fibre preforms with the use of an atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma (POVD process) and low-pressure microwave plasma (PCVD process) and analyse the origin of the difference in optical properties between fibres produced by these methods. It is shown that the higher temperature of the core material and the higher oxygen partial pressure in preform fabrication by the POVD process lead to an increase in optical losses in the visible and UV spectral regions in the silica fibres with low hydroxyl (OH) content and a decrease in the solarisation resistance of the fibres with high OH content, i.e. to a more rapid increase in background losses in response to UV irradiation. No such drawbacks are detected in the case of the growth of reflective layers by the PCVD process.

  2. Optical activities of micro-spiral photonic crystals fabricated by multi-beam holographic lithography (United States)

    Hung, Jenny; Gao, Wensheng; Tam, Wing Yim


    We report on the optical activities of left- and right-handed micro-spirals fabricated in dichromate gelatin emulsions using a holographic interference technique involving six linearly polarized side beams and one circularly polarized central beam. Photonic bandgaps in the visible range are observed. More importantly, opposite optical activities—a polarization rotation of a few degrees and a circular dichroism (CD) of about 20% at the photonic band edges—are observed for the left- and right-handed spirals. Furthermore, the transmittance of circularly polarized light obeys the Lorentz reciprocity lemma for forward and backward incidence. However neither polarization rotation nor CD is observed for achiral split rings and hollow rods fabricated using all linearly polarized beams and six side beams without the central beam, respectively; this indicates that the chiral nature of the spirals is essential for the observed optical activities.

  3. Laser technologies in micro-optics. Part 1. Fabrication of diffractive optical elements and photomasks with amplitude transmission (United States)

    Veiko, V. P.; Korolkov, V. P.; Poleshchuk, A. G.; Sinev, D. A.; Shakhno, E. A.


    This paper is a review of studies carried out by the staff of the National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University, Saint-Petersburg) and the Institute of Automation and Electrometry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAE SB RAS, Novosibirsk) in the field of development of laser engineering processes for the formation of the structure of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) and photomasks with amplitude binary and grayscale transmission. This paper also describes the results of the study of laser thermochemical technology for fabricating chrome DOEs and technologies for the fabrication of grayscale DOEs and photomasks based on the use of amorphous silicon and LDW glass.

  4. Tunable Fabrication and Optical Properties of Metal Nano Hole Arrays. (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Guo; Li, Zu-Bin; Tian, Jian-Guo


    Large area polystyrene sphere (PS) arrays with different diameters were prepared by an interface self-assembly method. The inter-particle spacing of PSs was reduced by O2-plasma treatment. When O2-plasma treatment time was long enough, the space of PS arrays could be relatively large. After deposition of Au film and removing the PS masks, we obtained the Au holes arrays instead of Au triangle arrays as normal. The period and the diameter of the hole arrays can be adjusted by the PS with different size and by the O2-plasma treatment time. Then their optical property can be tuned effectively due to the surface plasmon resonance on these structures.

  5. PDSM characterization for fabrication of free-space OXC optical components (United States)

    Argueta, Victor; Fitzpatrick, Brianna


    In 2007 Dr Khine et al published a paper where they presented a technique using thermoplastics and PDMS to create microfluidic patterns1. Their technique involves printing a pattern in a polystyrene sheet using a laser printer. Once the pattern is transfer the polystyrene sheets they are heated to reduce their size. By printing the same pattern of the plastic sheets before heating, it is possible to control the height up to 80 μm and the width as thin as 65 μm1, 2. This technique is attractive to be used in optical fabrication due to its versatility, low cost and fast prototyping. However, in order to fabricate optical systems, we will need to control the refractive index of PDMS to allow design of basic optical components like waveguides, beam splitter, or diffuse reflectors; or more complex structures like interferometers, optical microfluidic lab-on-chip, micro-lens arrays. Several techniques exist to control the refractive index for PDMS either by controlling the curing temperature, the ratio between the base and curing agent, or by curing using UV light3-5. In this paper, we present the changes on refractive index by changing the curing temperature for different base/reaction agent ratios. We then apply these results to fabricate an optical component for a free-space optical cross-connect (OXC). Optical cross-connects are an important network element for constructing the next generation of optical networks, where provisioning (reconfiguration), scalability, and fast restoration will be needed6-8. The main attraction of all-optical switching is that it enables routing of optical data signals without the need for conversion to electrical signals, and therefore, is independent of data rate and data protocols. We have proposed previously9, 11 a new approach for an OXC. Our architecture is a free-space 3-D while still using digital MEMS. Our system is based on the optical White cell12, which consists of three spherical mirrors among which light can circulate. In

  6. Optical and structural properties of Ge-Ga-Te amorphous thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering (United States)

    Dong, Ning; Chen, Yimin; Wei, Ningning; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Rongping; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Nie, Qiuhua


    We deposited amorphous Ge-Ga-Te thin films by the magnetron sputtering method, and investigated the corresponding structural and optical properties by various diagnosis tools. The as-deposited film is amorphous, while crystalline features appear gradually with increasing annealing temperature. The optical band-gap and refractive index for the as-deposited and annealed films were analyzed as a function of chemical composition. It was also found that, with increasing Te and decreasing Ge and Ga content, the films usually exhibited a higher refractive index as well as a smaller optical band gap, and the optical band gap decreased with increasing annealing temperature. These results are useful to the fabrication of integrated optical devices for the biomedical sensing applications.

  7. Focusing and imaging with increased numerical apertures through multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio


    The use of individual multimode optical fibers in endoscopy applications has the potential to provide highly miniaturized and noninvasive probes for microscopy and optical micromanipulation. A few different strategies have been proposed recently, but they all suffer from intrinsically low resolution related to the low numerical aperture of multimode fibers. Here, we show that two-photon polymerization allows for direct fabrication of micro-optics components on the fiber end, resulting in an increase of the numerical aperture to a value that is close to 1. Coupling light into the fiber through a spatial light modulator, we were able to optically scan a submicrometer spot (300 nm FWHM) over an extended region, facing the opposite fiber end. Fluorescence imaging with improved resolution is also demonstrated. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  8. Quantifying the intrinsic amount of fabrication disorder in photonic-crystal waveguides from optical far-field intensity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Javadi, Alisa; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup


    Residual disorder due to fabrication imperfections has important impact in nanophotonics where it may degrade device performance by increasing radiation loss or spontaneously trap light by Anderson localization. We propose and demonstrate experimentally a method of quantifying the intrinsic amoun...

  9. Optical pressure sensor head fabrication using ultrathin silicon wafer anodic bonding (United States)

    Beggans, Michael H.; Ivanov, Dentcho I.; Fu, Steven G.; Digges, Thomas G., III; Farmer, Kenneth R.


    A technology for fabricating fiber optically interrogated pressure sensors is described. This technology is based on anodic bonding of ultra-thin silicon wafers to patterned, micro-machined glass wafers, providing low-cost fabrication of optical pressure sensor heads that operate with reproducible technical characteristics in various dynamic ranges. Pressure sensors using 10, 20 and 50 micron thick silicon wafers for membranes have been fabricated on 10 cm diameter, 500-micron thick, Pyrex glass wafers. The glass wafers have been micro-machined using ultrasonic drilling in order to form cavities, optical fiber feedthrough holes and vent holes. One of the main challenges of the manufacturing process is the handling of the ultra-thin silicon wafers. Being extremely flexible, the thin silicon wafers cannot be cleaned, oxidized, or dried in the same way as normal since wafers with a thickness of the order of 400 microns. Specific handling techniques have been developed in order to achieve reproducible cleaning and oxidation processes. The anodic bonding was performed using an Electronic Visions EV501S bonder. The wafers were heated at 420 degrees C and a voltage of 1200 volts was applied in vacuum of 10-5 Torr. The bonded wafer stack was then fixed in a wax and diced. The resulting chips have been used to fabricate operating pressure sensors.

  10. Micro-optical components assembly for the fabrication of a miniaturized optoelectronic transducer (United States)

    Corradi, P.; Ascari, L.; Menciassi, A.; Laschi, C.


    This paper describes the fabrication and, in particular, the assembly processes of a miniaturized micro-optical system, to be integrated on a hybrid flexible module, which hosts also electronics and microsensors. The whole module was conceived to be mass-produced in order to be distributed in skin-like structures for robotic tactile applications. Nevertheless, it is generally suitable for sensing applications where the flexibility and the thickness of the sensing network are primary requirements. The micro-optical system works as a part of an optoelectronic transducer where electric signals, generated by tactile MEMS sensors, are computed by a microcontroller that drives the micro-optical system. This consequently generates optical radiation, by means of integrated light emitting diodes (LEDs), to be coupled into optical fibers, which waveguide signals to a CMOS optical sensor. Micro-machining and micro-assembly processes of miniaturized components are critical steps in order to fabricate many of these modules according to the application requirements.

  11. Fabrication of Polymer Microspheres for Optical Resonator and Laser Applications. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yohei; Okada, Daichi; Kushida, Soh; Ngara, Zakarias Seba; Oki, Osamu


    This paper describes three methods of preparing fluorescent microspheres comprising π-conjugated or non-conjugated polymers: vapor diffusion, interface precipitation, and mini-emulsion. In all methods, well-defined, micrometer-sized spheres are obtained from a self-assembling process in solution. The vapor diffusion method can result in spheres with the highest sphericity and surface smoothness, yet the types of the polymers able to form these spheres are limited. On the other hand, in the mini-emulsion method, microspheres can be made from various types of polymers, even from highly crystalline polymers with coplanar, π-conjugated backbones. The photoluminescent (PL) properties from single isolated microspheres are unusual: the PL is confined inside the spheres, propagates at the circumference of the spheres via the total internal reflection at the polymer/air interface, and self-interferes to show sharp and periodic resonant PL lines. These resonating modes are so-called "whispering gallery modes" (WGMs). This work demonstrates how to measure WGM PL from single isolated spheres using the micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) technique. In this technique, a focused laser beam irradiates a single microsphere, and the luminescence is detected by a spectrometer. A micromanipulation technique is then used to connect the microspheres one by one and to demonstrate the intersphere PL propagation and color conversion from coupled microspheres upon excitation at the perimeter of one sphere and detection of PL from the other microsphere. These techniques, µ-PL and micromanipulation, are useful for experiments on micro-optic application using polymer materials.

  12. Fabric strain sensor integrated with looped polymeric optical fiber with large angled V-shaped notches (United States)

    Ying, D. Q.; Tao, X. M.; Zheng, W.; Wang, G. F.


    This paper presents an investigation of a new fabric strain sensor integrated with a looped polymeric optical fiber (POF) with V-shaped notches of large angle, which is capable of measuring repeated large strain up to 21%. A theoretical model is proposed to describe the sensing behavior based on reflection from the incident sides of the V-notch on a bent fiber. The relationship between the normalized output power of the sensor and the fabric strain is derived. Verification experiments demonstrate a good agreement obtained with the numerically simulated results. Further discussions on the effects of geometric parameters of the sensors shed new light on the optimization of the sensor performance.

  13. Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements fabricated by 3D printing for shaping terahertz beams (United States)

    Hernandez-Serrano, Arturo I.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Lopez-Mago, Dorilian


    The design, fabrication and characterization of space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements is presented for the terahertz regime (THz). These PBOEs are made out of polystyrene and were fabricated by commercially available three-dimensional printers, providing a simple and inexpensive solution for the generation of THz vector beams. The polarization structure was characterized by using a THz time-domain imaging system. These devices can find applications in future THz technologies and provide new tools for the study of polarization morphologies

  14. 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of optical phantoms simulating heterogeneous biological tissue (United States)

    Wang, Minjie; Shen, Shuwei; Yang, Jie; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald


    The performance of biomedical optical imaging devices heavily relies on appropriate calibration. However, many of existing calibration phantoms for biomedical optical devices are based on homogenous materials without considering the multi-layer heterogeneous structures observed in biological tissue. Using such a phantom for optical calibration may result in measurement bias. To overcome this problem, we propose a 3D printing method for freeform fabrication of tissue simulating phantoms with multilayer heterogeneous structure. The phantom simulates not only the morphologic characteristics of biological tissue but also absorption and scattering properties. The printing system is based on a 3D motion platform with coordinated control of the DC motors. A special jet nozzle is designed to mix base, scattering, and absorption materials at different ratios. 3D tissue structures are fabricated through layer-by-layer printing with selective deposition of phantom materials of different ingredients. Different mixed ratios of base, scattering and absorption materials have been tested in order to optimize the printing outcome. A spectrometer and a tissue spectrophotometer are used for characterizing phantom absorption and scattering properties. The goal of this project is to fabricate skin tissue simulating phantoms as a traceable standard for the calibration of biomedical optical spectral devices.

  15. Catheter for Cleaning Surgical Optics During Surgical Procedures: A Possible Solution for Residue Buildup and Fogging in Video Surgery. (United States)

    de Abreu, Igor Renato Louro Bruno; Abrão, Fernando Conrado; Silva, Alessandra Rodrigues; Corrêa, Larissa Teresa Cirera; Younes, Riad Nain


    Currently, there is a tendency to perform surgical procedures via laparoscopic or thoracoscopic access. However, even with the impressive technological advancement in surgical materials, such as improvement in quality of monitors, light sources, and optical fibers, surgeons have to face simple problems that can greatly hinder surgery by video. One is the formation of "fog" or residue buildup on the lens, causing decreased visibility. Intracavitary techniques for cleaning surgical optics and preventing fog formation have been described; however, some of these techniques employ the use of expensive and complex devices designed solely for this purpose. Moreover, these techniques allow the cleaning of surgical optics when they becomes dirty, which does not prevent the accumulation of residue in the optics. To solve this problem we have designed a device that allows cleaning the optics with no surgical stops and prevents the fogging and residue accumulation. The objective of this study is to evaluate through experimental testing the effectiveness of a simple device that prevents the accumulation of residue and fogging of optics used in surgical procedures performed through thoracoscopic or laparoscopic access. Ex-vivo experiments were performed simulating the conditions of residue presence in surgical optics during a video surgery. The experiment consists in immersing the optics and catheter set connected to the IV line with crystalloid solution in three types of materials: blood, blood plus fat solution, and 200 mL of distilled water and 1 vial of methylene blue. The optics coupled to the device were immersed in 200 mL of each type of residue, repeating each immersion 10 times for each distinct residue for both thirty and zero degrees optics, totaling 420 experiments. A success rate of 98.1% was observed after the experiments, in these cases the device was able to clean and prevent the residue accumulation in the optics.

  16. Fabrication of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors by nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography (United States)

    Minaev, N. V.; Tarkhov, M. A.; Dudova, D. S.; Timashev, P. S.; Chichkov, B. N.; Bagratashvili, V. N.


    This paper describes a new approach to the fabrication of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors from ultrathin NbN films on SiO2 substrates. The technology is based on nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography and includes direct formation of the sensitive element of the detector (the meander) through femtosecond laser exposure of the polymethyl methacrylate resist at a wavelength of 525 nm and subsequent removal of NbN using plasma-chemical etching. The nonlinear femtosecond optical lithography method allows the formation of planar structures with a spatial resolution of ~50 nm. These structures were used to fabricate single-photon superconducting detectors with quantum efficiency no worse than 8% at a wavelength of 1310 nm and dark count rate of 10 s‑1 at liquid helium temperature.

  17. Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, C.G.; Lee, S.C.; Ooi, P.K.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu; Abdullah, M.J.


    Highlights: • Hillock like porous structure zinc oxide was obtained via electrochemical etching. • Anisotropic dominance etching process by KOH etchant. • Reststrahlen features are sensitive to multilayer porous structure. • Determination of porosity from IR reflectance spectrum. -- Abstract: We investigated the optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film fabricated by ultraviolet light-assisted electrochemical etching. This fabrication process used 10 wt% potassium hydroxide solution as an electrolyte. Hillock-like porous ZnO films were successfully fabricated according to the field emission scanning electron microscopy results. The cross-sectional study of the sample indicated that anisotropic-dominated etching process occurred. However, the atomic force microscopic results showed an increase in surface roughness of the sample after electrochemical etching. A resonance hump induced by the porous structure was observed in the infrared reflectance spectrum. Using theoretical modeling technique, ZnO porosification was verified, and the porosity of the sample was determined

  18. A Novel Method for Fabricating Additive Manufactured Lightweight, Optical Quality Metallic Mirrors (United States)


    1    A Novel Method for Fabricating Additive Manufactured  Lightweight, Optical Quality Metallic  Mirrors   Michael Stern, Joseph Bari  Distribution A...metallic  mirrors  fabricated by growing an additive manufactured blank, post  processing the faces, coating with electroless nickel, and diamond turning...low‐weight spinning  mirror , in which topology  optimization was used. The blank was then fabricated with metallic powder bed fusion and post

  19. Membranes fabricated with a deep single corrugation for package stress reduction and residual stress relief

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, V.L.; Spiering, V.L.; Bouwstra, S.; Bouwstra, S.; Burger, Johannes Faas; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Thin square membranes including a deep circular corrugation are realized and tested for application in a strain-based pressure sensor. Package-induced stresses are reduced and relief of the residual stress is obtained, resulting in a larger pressure sensitivity and a reduced temperature sensitivity.

  20. Electro-optical measurements of 3D-stc detectors fabricated at ITC-irst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Department of ICT, University of Trento, via Sommarive, 14 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)], E-mail:; Boscardin, Maurizio [ITC-irst, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bosisio, Luciano [INFN and Department of Physics, University of Trieste, via A. Valerio, 2 - 34127 Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Department of ICT, University of Trento, via Sommarive, 14 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Piemonte, Claudio; Pozza, Alberto; Ronchin, Sabina; Zorzi, Nicola [ITC-irst, Microsystems Division, via Sommarive, 18 - 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)


    In the past two years 3D silicon radiation detectors have been developed at ITC-irst (Trento, Italy). As a first step toward full 3D devices, simplified structures featuring columnar electrodes of one doping type only were fabricated. This paper reports the electro-optical characterization of 3D test diodes made with this approach. Experimental results and TCAD simulations provide good insight into the charge collection mechanism and response speed limitation of these structures.

  1. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Rajta, I.; Nagy, G.U.L. [MTA Atomki, Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Zolnai, Z. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Havranek, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute AV CR, Řež near Prague 250 68 (Czech Republic); Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); “Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); Veres, M. [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Righini, G.C. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy)


    Active and passive optical waveguides are fundamental elements in modern telecommunications systems. A great number of optical crystals and glasses were identified and are used as good optoelectronic materials. However, fabrication of waveguides in some of those materials remains still a challenging task due to their susceptibility to mechanical or chemical damages during processing. Researches were initiated on ion beam fabrication of optical waveguides in tellurite glasses. Channel waveguides were written in Er:TeO{sub 2}–WO{sub 3} glass through a special silicon mask using 1.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. This method was improved by increasing N{sup +} energy to 3.5 MeV to achieve confinement at the 1550 nm wavelength, too. An alternative method, direct writing of the channel waveguides in the tellurite glass using focussed beams of 6–11 MeV C{sup 3+} and C{sup 5+} and 5 MeV N{sup 3+}, has also been developed. Channel waveguides were fabricated in undoped eulytine-(Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12}) and sillenite type (Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20}) bismuth germanate crystals using both a special silicon mask and a thick SU8 photoresist mask and 3.5 MeV N{sup +} irradiation. The waveguides were studied by phase contrast and interference microscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy. Guiding properties were checked by the end fire method.

  2. A revised technique for fabrication of hollow mandibular denture: A solution to severely resorbed residual ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Baslas


    Full Text Available Purpose: Prosthodontic rehabilitation of elderly patients with severely resorbed ridges is difficult due to compromised ridge height, increased inter-arch distance and altered insertion of associated jaw muscles. Planning dentures in such cases often require dentures that are lightweight to reduce the risk of further ridge resorption, which could otherwise complicate the situation. The purpose of the present technique is to fabricate a light weight lower denture by a revision of previously described technique in the literature. Materials and Methods: This article elucidates a simple technique for the fabrication of lightweight denture (hollow denture in elderly patients with severely resorbed mandibular ridge. The minimum thickness of denture base acrylic resin for structural durability is ensured by a wax shim of 2 mm. The adequate hollow space indenture for optimal weight reduction is created by condensation silicone impression material. Conclusion: Condensation silicone putty material can be successfully used as a spacer for hollow dentures to combat severe ridge resorption.

  3. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof (United States)

    Kopelman, Raoul; Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You


    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  4. Fabrication of optical devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) by proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huszank, R.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Rajta, I.; Csik, A.


    Complete text of publication follows. Optical diffraction grating and micro Fresnel zone plate type structures were fabricated in relatively thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layers using proton beam writing technique and the performance of these optical devices was tested. Micro-optics is a key technology in many fields of common applications like, for example, data communication, lighting technology, industrial automation, display technology, sensing applications and data storage. It enables new functionalities and applications previously inaccessible and improves performance of the already available products with reduced cost, volume and weight. There are a few different fabrication techniques to produce refractive or diffractive micro-optical devices such as X-ray lithography, UV-lithography, e-beam lithography, laser writing, plasma etching, proton beam writing. In general, three different kinds of materials are used for micro-optics, such as glass, polymers and crystal. PDMS is a commonly used silicon-based organic polymer, optically clear, generally considered to be inert, non-toxic and biocompatible and it has been used as a resist material for direct write techniques only in very few cases. In this work, PDMS was used as a resist material; the structures were irradiated directly into the polymer. We were looking for a biocompatible, micropatternable polymer in which the chemical structure changes significantly due to proton beam exposure making the polymer capable of proton beam writing. We demonstrated that the change in the structure of the polymer is so significant that there is no need to perform any development processes. The proton irradiation causes refractive index change in the polymer, so diffraction gratings and other optical devices like Fresnel zone plates can be fabricated in this way. The observed high order diffraction patterns prove the high quality of the created optical devices [1]. This technique may be a useful tool for designing

  5. Direct write fabrication of waveguides and interconnects for optical printed wiring boards (United States)

    Dingeldein, Joseph C.

    Current copper based circuit technology is becoming a limiting factor in high speed data transfer applications as processors are improving at a faster rate than are developments to increase on board data transfer. One solution is to utilize optical waveguide technology to overcome these bandwidth and loss restrictions. The use of this technology virtually eliminates the heat and cross-talk loss seen in copper circuitry, while also operating at a higher bandwidth. Transitioning current fabrication techniques from small scale laboratory environments to large scale manufacturing presents significant challenges. Optical-to-electrical connections and out-of-plane coupling are significant hurdles in the advancement of optical interconnects. The main goals of this research are the development of direct write material deposition and patterning tools for the fabrication of waveguide systems on large substrates, and the development of out-of-plane coupler components compatible with standard fiber optic cabling. Combining these elements with standard printed circuit boards allows for the fabrication of fully functional optical-electrical-printed-wiring-boards (OEPWBs). A direct dispense tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for the repeatable dispensing of blanket waveguide layers over a range of thicknesses (25-225 μm), eliminating waste material and affording the ability to utilize large substrates. This tool was used to directly dispense multimode waveguide cores which required no UV definition or development. These cores had circular cross sections and were comparable in optical performance to lithographically fabricated square waveguides. Laser direct writing is a non-contact process that allows for the dynamic UV patterning of waveguide material on large substrates, eliminating the need for high resolution masks. A laser direct write tool was designed, assembled, and characterized for direct write patterning waveguides that were comparable in quality to those

  6. Optical waveguides in magneto-optical glasses fabricated by proton implantation (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Li, Yu-Wen; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Fu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Zhi-Guang; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao; Wei, Wei


    Planar waveguides in magneto-optical glasses (Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glasses) have been produced by a 550-keV proton implantation at a dose of 4.0×1016 ions/cm2 for the first time to our knowledge. After annealing at 260 °C for 1.0 h, the dark-mode spectra and near-field intensity distributions are measured by the prism-coupling and end-face coupling methods. The damage profile, refractive index distribution and light propagation mode of the planar waveguide are numerically calculated by SRIM 2010, RCM and FD-BPM, respectively. The effects of implantation on the structural and optical properties are investigated by Raman and absorption spectra. It suggests that the proton-implanted Tb3+-doped aluminum borosilicate glass waveguide is a good candidate for a waveguide isolator in optical fiber communication and all-optical communication.

  7. Fabrication of plasmonic nanopore by using electron beam irradiation for optical bio-sensor (United States)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Park, Myoung Jin; Han, Chul Hee; Oh, Seh Joong; Park, Nam Kyou; Park, Doo Jae; Choi, Soo Bong; Kim, Yong-Sang


    The Au nano-hole surrounded by the periodic nano-patterns would provide the enhanced optical intensity. Hence, the nano-hole surrounded with periodic groove patterns can be utilized as single molecule nanobio optical sensor device. In this report, the nano-hole on the electron beam induced membrane surrounded by periodic groove patterns were fabricated by focused ion beam technique (FIB), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Initially, the Au films with three different thickness of 40 nm, 60 nm, and 200 nm were deposited on the SiN film by using an electron beam sputter-deposition technique, followed by removal of the supporting SiN film. The nanopore was formed on the electron beam induced membrane under the FESEM electron beam irradiation. Nanopore formation inside the Au aperture was controlled down to a few nanometer, by electron beam irradiations. The optical intensities from the biomolecules on the surfaces including Au coated pyramid with periodic groove patterns were investigated via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The fabricated nanopore surrounded by periodic patterns can be utilized as a next generation single molecule bio optical sensor.

  8. Optically transparent super-hydrophobic thin film fabricated by reusable polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) mold (United States)

    Park, J.-S.; Park, J.-H.; Lee, D.-W.


    In this paper, we describe a simple manufacturing method for producing an optically transparent super-hydrophobic polymer thin film using a reusable photo-curable polymer mold. Soluble photoresist (PR) molds were prepared with under-exposed and under-baked processes, which created unique hierarchical micro/nano structures. The reverse phase of the PR mold was replicated on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The unique patterns on the replicated PDMS molds were successfully transferred back to the UV curable polyurethane-acrylate (PUA) using a laboratory-made UV exposure system. Continuous production of the super-hydrophobic PDMS thin film was demonstrated using the reusable PUA mold. In addition, hydrophobic nano-silica powder was sprayed onto the micro/nano structured PDMS surfaces to further improve hydrophobicity. The fabricated PDMS thin films with hierarchical surface texturing showed a water contact angle  ⩾150°. Excellent optical transmittance within the range of visible light of wavelengths between 400-800 nm was experimentally confirmed using a spectrophotometer. High efficiency of the super-hydrophobic PDMS film in optical transparency was also confirmed using solar panels. The fabricated PUA molds are very suitable for use in roll-to-roll or roll-to-plate systems which allow continuous production of super-hydrophobic thin films with an excellent optical transparency.

  9. Controlled core-to-core photo-polymerisation - fabrication of an optical fibre-based pH sensor. (United States)

    Mohamad, Fuad; Tanner, Michael G; Choudhury, Debaditya; Choudhary, Tushar R; Wood, Harry A C; Harrington, Kerrianne; Bradley, Mark


    The fabrication of fluorescence-based pH sensors, embedded into etched pits of an optical fibre via highly controllable and spatially selective photo-polymerisation is described and the sensors validated.

  10. Characteristics and crosstalk of optical waveguides fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate polymer circuit board. (United States)

    Hamid, Hanan H; Rüter, Christian E; Thiel, David V; Fickenscher, Thomas


    Electro-optical circuit boards should provide simple and cost-effective coupling techniques and crosstalk levels of less than -30  dB. A dicing saw was used to create waveguide grooves with a surface roughness of less than 183 nm in a 1.6-mm-thick polymethyl methacrylate polymer (PMMA) substrate. The buried optical waveguides were made from SU-8 in a PMMA substrate covered with a 1-mm PMMA sheet. The propagation loss for a 500  μm×570  μm straight waveguide was 0.9 dB/cm at 1310 nm. The coupling between parallel waveguides was measured at separation distances from 45 to 595 μm. The crosstalk was less than -40  dB for 65-mm-long waveguides. This fabrication method shows potential for dense optical interconnects with very low crosstalk.

  11. Femtosecond laser fabrication of hybrid micro-optical elements and their integration on the fiber tip (United States)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Gilbergs, Holger; Zukauskas, Albertas; Belazaras, Kastytis; Purlys, Vytautas; Rutkauskas, Marius; Bickauskaite, Gabija; Momot, Andrej; Paipulas, Domas; Gadonas, Roaldas; Juodkazis, Saulius; Piskarskas, Algis


    Femtosecond laser photo-polymerization of zirconium-silicon based sol-gel photopolymer SZ2080 is used to fabricate micro-optical elements with a single and hybrid optical functions. We demonstrate photo-polymerization of the solid immersion and Fresnel lenses. Gratings can be added onto the surface of lenses. The effective refractive index of polymerized structures can be controlled via the volume fraction of polymer. We used woodpile structure with volume fraction of 0.65-0.8. Tailoring of dispersion properties of micro-optical elements by changing filling ratio of polymer are discussed. Direct write approach is used to form such structures on a cover glass and on the tip of an optical fiber. Close matching of refractive indices between the polymer and substrate in visible and near infra red spectral regions (nSZ2080 = 1.504, nglass = 1.52) is favorable for such integration. The surface roughness of laser-polymerized resits was ~30 nm (min-max value), which is acceptable for optical applications in the visible range. For the bulk micro-optical elements the efficiency of 3D laser polymerization is increased by a factor ~ (2 - 4) × 102 times (depends on the design) by the shell-formation polymerization: (i) contour scanning for definition of shell-surface, (ii) development for removal of nonfunctional resist, and (iii) UV exposure for the final volumetric polymerization of an enclosed volume.

  12. Micro-optical fabrication by ultraprecision diamond machining and precision molding (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Likai; Naples, Neil J.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Yi, Allen Y.


    Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.

  13. Fabrication of fine metal structures based on laser drawing method using interference pattern from co-propagating optical vortices (United States)

    Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Hizatsuki, Takuya; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Goto, Kohei; Ono, Hiroshi


    We propose and demonstrate a photolithography method for fine metal structure fabrication based on laser drawing that uses the interference pattern generated by co-propagating optical vortices. A tiny dark core region of the optical vortex allows us to overcome the diffraction limit for Gaussian beams. This means that the proposed method can be used to fabricate finer structures than those produced by the conventional laser drawing method while using a Gaussian beam, even under low numerical aperture conditions. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated experimentally using a system that included an axially symmetrical polarization element that can generate the co-propagating optical vortices using a common path optical system. Our method has potential to fabricate few tens of nanometer scale metal line structures by increasing numerical aperture conditions and should be applicable to the development of nanometer scale electronic and optical devices and structures, such as integrated circuits and metamaterials, without using electron beam lithography.

  14. Rare earth doped optical fiber fabrication by standard and sol-gel derived granulated oxides (United States)

    Etissa, D.; Neff, M.; Pilz, S.; Ryser, M.; Romano, V.


    We present our progress in the production of ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers fabricated by two variants of the granulated aluminophosphosilicate method. We show advantages and disadvantages of mixing rare earth and aluminophosphosilicate granulated oxides directly (variant 1) or by using the sol-gel method to produce doped granulate material (variant 2). For both methods we studied the effects of varying the dopant concentrations and of introducing iterative melting and milling procedures. In particular, the sol-gel based method eases the inclusion of P2O5 and thus, in combination with Al2O3, higher dopant concentration of Yb and Er are possible. Sintering the sol-gel material at high temperature eliminated bubbles in the core. We fabricated optical fibers that, piecewise, between individual strong scatterers, exhibited attenuation losses as low as 0.35dB/m. For our comparative study we determined volume percentage and distribution of chemical elements in the fabricated fiber glasses by the analytical technique of Energy-Dispersive X-ray, Electro Probe Microanalysis and the degree of crystallization by X-Ray Diffraction analysis. Furthermore we measured fluctuations of the refractive index profile and scattering losses of the fiber core.

  15. Optoelectronic Workshops. 6. Testing /Fabrication/Gradient Index Optics and Computer Aided Manufacture of Optics (United States)



  16. Fabrication and evaluation of evanescent wave absorption based polyaniline-cladding modified fiber optic urea biosensor (United States)

    Botewad, S. N.; Pahurkar, V. G.; Muley, G. G.


    The fabrication and study of cladding modified intrinsic fiber optic urea biosensor has been reported in the present investigation. A simple cladding modification technique was used to construct the sensor by uncladding the small portion from optical fiber. Further bare core was decorated by supportive porous, chemically and optically sensitive matrix material polyaniline (PANI) as an active cladding for enzyme residency. Enzyme-urease (Urs) was cross-linked on the active cladding region via glutaraldehyde solution. Confirmation of the prepared PANI in proper form determined by ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques. X-ray diffraction technique was employed for nature and compatibility examination of PANI. Sensor parameters such as sensitivity, selectivity, stability and lower detection limit have been analyzed by absorption variation study in evanescent wave field. The response of prepared sensor was studied towards urea in the wide concentration range 100 nM-100 mM and confirmed its lowest detection limit as 100 nM. The stability of sensor was found 28 days with little variation in response. The fabricated sensor has not shown any response towards interference species like glucose, ascorbic acid, L-alanine, L-arginine and their combination with urea solution and hence found selective for urea solution only.

  17. Fabrication of ultrahigh-precision hemispherical mirrors for quantum-optics applications. (United States)

    Higginbottom, Daniel B; Campbell, Geoff T; Araneda, Gabriel; Fang, Fengzhou; Colombe, Yves; Buchler, Ben C; Lam, Ping Koy


    High precision, high numerical aperture mirrors are desirable for mediating strong atom-light coupling in quantum optics applications and can also serve as important reference surfaces for optical metrology. In this work we demonstrate the fabrication of highly-precise hemispheric mirrors with numerical aperture NA = 0.996. The mirrors were fabricated from aluminum by single-point diamond turning using a stable ultra-precision lathe calibrated with an in-situ white-light interferometer. Our mirrors have a diameter of 25 mm and were characterized using a combination of wide-angle single-shot and small-angle stitched multi-shot interferometry. The measurements show root-mean-square (RMS) form errors consistently below 25 nm. The smoothest of our mirrors has a RMS error of 14 nm and a peak-to-valley (PV) error of 88 nm, which corresponds to a form accuracy of λ/50 for visible optics.

  18. Fabrication of high edge-definition steel-tape gratings for optical encoders (United States)

    Ye, Guoyong; Liu, Hongzhong; Yan, Jiawei; Ban, Yaowen; Fan, Shanjin; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei


    High edge definition of a scale grating is the basic prerequisite for high measurement accuracy of optical encoders. This paper presents a novel fabrication method of steel tape gratings using graphene oxide nanoparticles as anti-reflective grating strips. Roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography is adopted to manufacture the steel tape with hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern arrays. Self-assembly technology is employed to obtain anti-reflective grating strips by depositing the graphene oxide nanoparticles on hydrophobic regions. A thin SiO2 coating is deposited on the grating to protect the grating strips. Experimental results confirm that the proposed fabrication process enables a higher edge definition in making steel-tape gratings, and the new steel tape gratings offer better performance than conventional gratings.

  19. Sub-micron silicon nitride waveguide fabrication using conventional optical lithography. (United States)

    Huang, Yuewang; Zhao, Qiancheng; Kamyab, Lobna; Rostami, Ali; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal


    We demonstrate a novel technique to fabricate sub-micron silicon nitride waveguides using conventional contact lithography with MEMS-grade photomasks. Potassium hydroxide anisotropic etching of silicon facilitates line reduction and roughness smoothing and is key to the technique. The fabricated waveguides is measured to have a propagation loss of 0.8dB/cm and nonlinear coefficient of γ = 0.3/W/m. A low anomalous dispersion of <100ps/nm/km is also predicted. This type of waveguide is highly suitable for nonlinear optics. The channels naturally formed on top of the waveguide also make it promising for plasmonics and quantum efficiency enhancement in sensing applications.

  20. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings. (United States)

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun


    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  1. Fabrication of All-SiC Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Jiang


    Full Text Available Single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC-based pressure sensors can be used in harsh environments, as they exhibit stable mechanical and electrical properties at elevated temperatures. A fiber-optic pressure sensor with an all-SiC sensor head was fabricated and is herein proposed. SiC sensor diaphragms were fabricated via an ultrasonic vibration mill-grinding (UVMG method, which resulted in a small grinding force and low surface roughness. The sensor head was formed by hermetically bonding two layers of SiC using a nickel diffusion bonding method. The pressure sensor illustrated a good linearity in the range of 0.1–0.9 MPa, with a resolution of 0.27% F.S. (full scale at room temperature.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of polycarbonate microstructured polymer optical fibers for high-temperature-resistant fiber Bragg grating strain sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Woyessa, Getinet; Stajanca, Pavol


    Here we present the fabrication of a solid-core microstructured polymer optical fiber (mPOF) made of polycarbonate (PC), and report the first experimental demonstration of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) written in a PC optical fiber. The PC used in this work has a glass transition temperature of 145°C...

  3. Fabrication of n-ZnO-NPs/p Si Heterojunction and Its Electro-optical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmmad Kashif; Syed Mohd Usman Ali; Uda Hashim


    In the present study, n-ZnO-NPs nano structure was fabricated on p-type silicon substrate using aqueous chemical growth (ACG) method. We have demonstrated the electro-optical performances of ZnO nano porous based hetero-junction diode using p-silicon. The current to voltage measurements (I-V) of ZnO-NPS/ p-Si hetero-junction were investigated in the temperature range 323 to 423 K. the ideality factor of the diode decrease from 10 to 3 as the temperature increasing from 323 to 423 K. Barrier height values of the structure vary between 0.5 and 0.7 eV as the temperature increases. The structural and optical properties of the ZnO-NPS nano structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman spectra. (author)

  4. Fabrication of n-ZnO-NPs/p Si Heterojunction and Its Electro-optical Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashif, M.; Syed Mohd Usman Ali; Uda Hashim; Wilander, M.


    In the present study, n-ZnO-NPs nano structure was fabricated on p-type silicon substrate using aqueous chemical growth (Actg) method. We have demonstrated the electro-optical performances of ZnO nano porous based hetero-junction diode using p-silicon. The current to voltage measurements (I-V) of ZnO-NPS/p-Si hetero-junction were investigated in the temperature range 323 to 423 K. the ideality factor of the diode decrease from 10 to 3 as the temperature increasing from 323 to 423 K. Barrier height values of the structure vary between 0.5 and 0.7 eV as the temperature increases. The structural and optical properties of the ZnO-NPS nano structure was carried out using scanning electron microscope (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman Spectra. (author)

  5. Fabrication and laser patterning of polystyrene optical oxygen sensor films for lab-on-a-chip applications. (United States)

    Grist, S M; Oyunerdene, N; Flueckiger, J; Kim, J; Wong, P C; Chrostowski, L; Cheung, K C


    We present a novel and simple method for patterning oxygen-sensitive polystyrene thin films and demonstrate its potential for integration with microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. Optical oxygen sensing films composed of polystyrene with an embedded luminescent oxygen-sensitive dye present a convenient option for the measurement of oxygen levels in microfluidic and lab-on-a-chip devices; however, patterning and integrating the films with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices has proven difficult due to a residue after dry etch patterning that inhibits subsequent PDMS bonding. Our new method uses mask-less laser ablation by a commercial laser ablation system to define the outline of the structures and subsequent bulk film removal by aqueous lift-off. Because the bulk film is peeled or lifted off of the substrate rather than etched, the process is compatible with standard PDMS plasma bonding. We used ToF-SIMS analysis to investigate how laser ablation facilitates this fabrication process as well as why dry etching polystyrene inhibits PDMS plasma bonding. The results of this analysis showed evidence of chemical species formed during the laser ablation and dry etching processes that can produce these effects. Our new method's mask-less nature, simplicity, speed, and compatibility with PDMS bonding make it ideally suited for single-use lab-on-a-chip applications. To demonstrate the method's compatibility with PDMS microfluidics, we also present a demonstration of the sensors' integration into a microfluidic oxygen gradient generator device.

  6. All Optical Fast Fourier Transform On Chip with Heating Tunability Design, Simulation, Fabrication, and Performance Analysis (United States)

    Nejadriahi, Hani

    This thesis explores fundamentals of optical computing by means of fast Fourier transform Integration on Silicon On Insulator chip technology toward its implementation in analog and temporal domain. This is done by cascading (N - 2) stages of delayed interferometers (couplers and phase shifters) where a parallel set of N time samples are taken and using the delay lines and phase of the optical components (constructive/deconstructive interference) the DFT is computed. Hence it is important to understand the behavior and the quality of the Optical Fast Fourier Transform (OFFT) and its sensitivity due to the important role of phase, time delay, and power to overcome the system of delayed interferometers to become unstable. This was done by analyzing the characteristics of the extinction ratio of the OFFT as a function of the phase, time delay, and power. The OFFT design was built on passive components (2 x 2 couplers : cascaded Mach Zehnder Inteferometer) used for addition and subtraction through optical interference, waveguides with short path differences are used for phase shifting and waveguides with long path differences are used for signal delay based on the needed number of outputs. While in principal an OFFT network could be created with perfect phase alignment, in practice active phase calibration at a specific temperature is required to compensate for fabrication variance. This phase calibration was accomplished with a heating element placed along on one of the waveguide paths of the cascaded interferometers. Since the OFFT is a system of imbalanced interferometers, there are additional bends designed to compensate for the difference in power ratios of the arms. Alongside the fabrication and sensitivity analysis of the OFFT, its individual components such as grating coupler, 2 x 2 (star) coupler, y branch, straight, and spiral waveguides and their characteristics were studied. The individuals' contribution to loss and power consumption of the entire system

  7. Silicon photonics: Design, fabrication, and characterization of on-chip optical interconnects (United States)

    Hsieh, I.-Wei

    In recent years, the research field of silicon photonics has been developing rapidly from a concept to a demonstrated technology, and has gathered much attention from both academia and industry communities. Its many potential applications in long-haul telecommunication, mid-range data-communication, on-chip optical interconnection networks, and nano-scale sensing as well as its compatibility with electronic integrated circuits have driven much effort in realizing silicon photonics both as a disruptive technology for existing markets and as an enabling technology for new ones. Despite the promising future of silicon photonics, many fundamental issues still remain to be understood---both in the linear- and nonlinear-optical regimes. There are also many engineering challenges to make silicon photonics the gold standard in photonic integrated circuits. In this thesis, we focus on the design, fabrication, and characterization of active and passive silicon-on-insulator (SOI) photonic devices. The SOI material system differs from most conventional optical material platforms because of its high-refractive-index-contrast, which enables engineers to design very compact integrated photonic networks with sub-micron transverse waveguide dimensions and sharp bends. On the other hand, because most analytical formulas for designing waveguide devices are valid only in low-index-contrast cases, SOI photonic devices need to be analyzed numerically for accurate results. The second chapter of this thesis describes some common numerical methods such as Beam Propagation Method (BPM) and Finite Element Method (FEM) for waveguide-design simulations, and presents two design studies based on these methods. The compatibility of silicon photonic integrated circuits with conventional CMOS fabrication technology is another important aspect that distinguishes silicon photonics from others such as III-V materials and lithium niobate. However, the requirements for fabricating silicon photonic

  8. Microbial screening for quinolones residues in cow milk by bio-optical method. (United States)

    Appicciafuoco, Brunella; Dragone, Roberto; Frazzoli, Chiara; Bolzoni, Giuseppe; Mantovani, Alberto; Ferrini, Anna Maria


    The use of antibiotics on lactating cows should be monitored for the possible risk of milk contamination with residues. Accordingly, Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are established by the European Commission to guarantee consumers safety. As pointed out by Dec 2002/657/EC, screening is the first step in the strategy for antibiotic residue control, thus playing a key role in the whole control procedure. However, current routine screening methods applied in milk chain still fail to detect residues of quinolones at concentrations of interest. This paper reports the findings of a new bio-optical method for the screening of quinolones residues in bovine milk, based on E. coli ATCC 11303 growth inhibition. The effect of blank and spiked cow milk samples (aliquots equivalents to 0.8%, v/v) is evaluated in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHb) and MHb enriched with MgSO4 2% (MHb-Mg) inoculated with the test strain at the concentration of 10(4)CFU/mL. The presence of quinolones inhibits the cellular growth in MHb, while this effect is neutralized in MHb-Mg allowing both detection and presumptive identification of quinolones. Growth of the test strain is monitored at 37 °C in a Bioscreen C automated system, and Optical Density (OD) at 600 nm is recorded every 10 min after shaking for 10s. Growth curves (OD vs. time) of E. coli ATCC 11303 are assessed in milk samples, with and without quinolones, and their differences in terms of ΔOD (ΔOD600nm=ODMHb-Mg-ODMHb) are calculated. The presence of quinolones is detected by the cellular growth inhibition (OD vs time, none increase in the value OD) and presumptively identified through the increase of the slope of ΔOD600nm curve (ΔOD vs. time), after about 3h of incubation. The detection limit for ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin is at the level of MRL, for marbofloxacin is at 2-fold the MRL whereas for danofloxacin is at 4-fold the MRL. Although the sensitivity of the method could be further improved and the procedure automated, it is a

  9. An IFPI Temperature Sensor Fabricated in an Unstriped Optical Fiber with Self-Strain-Compensation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Song


    Full Text Available This paper describes an intrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (IFPI temperature sensor with self-strain-compensation function. The sensor was fabricated on a buffer-intact optical fiber using a femtosecond (fs laser system. The use of fs laser allows the sensor to be fabricated in an optical fiber without the necessity of removing the polymer buffer coating, thus not compromising its mechanical property. The sensor is composed of two cascaded IFPIs in different cavity length of 100 μm and 500 μm, respectively. The shorter IFPI serves as the temperature sensor, while the second IFPI serves as a compensation sensor, which is used to decouple the strain from the raw signal collected by the shorter FPI. The reflection spectrum of sensor, containing both sensory information and compensation information, is collected in wavelength domain and demultiplexed in the Fourier domain of reflection spectrum. An algorithm was developed and successfully implemented to compensate the strain influence on the proposed temperature sensor. The results showed that the proposed sensor structure holds a constant temperature sensitivity of 11.33 pm/°C when strained differently.

  10. Removing the residual cellulase by graphene oxide to recycle the bio-polishing effluent for dyeing cotton fabrics. (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Yang, Chao; Fang, Kuanjun; Cai, Yuqing; Hao, Longyun


    In this research, a stable graphene oxide (GO) suspension was prepared by chemical reduction method from graphite powder. By TEM, the irregular GO sheets with single-atom-layered structure could be observed. The zeta potentials measurement indicated the surface charges of GO were strongly related to pH. BET analysis showed the GO had a specific surface area of 30.7 m 2 /g and pore volume of 0.10 cm 3 /g. When the GO was used to remove the residual cellulase in bio-polishing effluent, it was found the removal capacity reached its maximum value at the pH 4-5. The kinetics studies showed that the removal process of cellulase followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model with a rate constant (k 2 ) of 0.276 × 10 -3  g/mg min and equilibrium adsorption capacity of 278.55 mg/g, respectively. By plotting the adsorption isotherms, it was found the Langmuir model fitted the experimental data well with a cellulase adsorption capacity of 574.71 mg/g, indicating the adsorption of cellulase by GO in a monolayer manner. When dyeing the cotton fabrics with reactive dyes, it was found that the cotton fabrics could acquire similar color properties in the recycled bio-polishing effluent as in fresh water, meaning the effectiveness of removing cellulase by GO and the feasibility of recycling the bio-polishing effluent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent developments in wafer-level fabrication of micro-optical multi-aperture imaging systems (United States)

    Leitel, R.; Dannberg, P.; Brückner, A.; Bräuer, A.


    Micro-optical systems, that utilize multiple channels for imaging instead of a single one, are frequently discussed for ultra-compact applications such as digital cameras. The strategy of their fabrication differs due to different concepts of image formation. Illustrated by recently implemented systems for multi-aperture imaging, typical steps of wafer-level fabrication are discussed in detail. In turn, the made progress may allow for additional degrees of freedom in optical design. Pressing ahead with very short overall lengths and multiple diaphragm array layers, results in the use of extremely thin glass substrates down to 100 microns in thickness. The desire for a wide field of view for imaging has led to chirped arrays of microlenses and diaphragms. Focusing on imaging quality, aberrations were corrected by introducing toroidal lenslets and elliptical apertures. Such lenslets had been generated by thermal reflow of lithographic patterned photoresist and subsequent molding. Where useful, the system's performance can be further increased by applying aspheric microlenses from reactive ion etching (RIE) transfer or by achromatic doublets from superimposing two moldings with different polymers. Multiple diaphragm arrays prevent channel crosstalk. But using simple metal layers may lead to multiple reflections and an increased appearance of ghost images. A way out are low reflecting black matrix polymers that can be directly patterned by lithography. But in case of environmental stability and high resolution, organic coatings should be replaced by patterned metal coatings that exhibit matched antireflective layers like the prominent black chromium. The mentioned components give an insight into the fabrication process of multi-aperture imaging systems. Finally, the competence in each step decides on the overall image quality.

  12. Mechanically flexible optically transparent silicon fabric with high thermal budget devices from bulk silicon (100)

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa


    Today’s information age is driven by silicon based electronics. For nearly four decades semiconductor industry has perfected the fabrication process of continuingly scaled transistor – heart of modern day electronics. In future, silicon industry will be more pervasive, whose application will range from ultra-mobile computation to bio-integrated medical electronics. Emergence of flexible electronics opens up interesting opportunities to expand the horizon of electronics industry. However, silicon – industry’s darling material is rigid and brittle. Therefore, we report a generic batch fabrication process to convert nearly any silicon electronics into a flexible one without compromising its (i) performance; (ii) ultra-large-scale-integration complexity to integrate billions of transistors within small areas; (iii) state-of-the-art process compatibility, (iv) advanced materials used in modern semiconductor technology; (v) the most widely used and well-studied low-cost substrate mono-crystalline bulk silicon (100). In our process, we make trenches using anisotropic reactive ion etching (RIE) in the inactive areas (in between the devices) of a silicon substrate (after the devices have been fabricated following the regular CMOS process), followed by a dielectric based spacer formation to protect the sidewall of the trench and then performing an isotropic etch to create caves in silicon. When these caves meet with each other the top portion of the silicon with the devices is ready to be peeled off from the bottom silicon substrate. Release process does not need to use any external support. Released silicon fabric (25 μm thick) is mechanically flexible (5 mm bending radius) and the trenches make it semi-transparent (transparency of 7%). © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  13. Optical properties of K9 glass waveguides fabricated by using carbon-ion implantation (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao


    K9 glass is a material with promising properties that make it attractive for optical devices. Ion implantation is a powerful technique to form waveguides with controllable depth and refractive index profile. In this work, optical planar waveguide structures were fabricated in K9 glasses by using 6.0-MeV C3+-ion implantation with a fluence of 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the guided modes were measured by using a prism-coupling system. The refractive index change in the ion-irradiated region was simulated by using the intensity calculation method. The modal intensity profile of the waveguide was calculated and measured by using the finite difference beam propagation method and the end-face coupling technique, respectively. The transmission spectra before and after the implantation showed that the main absorption band was not influenced by the low fluence dopants. The optical properties of the carbon-implanted K9 glass waveguides show promise for use as integrated photonic devices.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of a dual layer multiple refractive index benzocyclobutene polymer platform for integrated optical devices (United States)

    Yahya, N. A. M.; Lim, W. H.; Dambul, K. D.; Phang, S. W.; Ahmad, H.; Zakaria, R.; Mahamd Adikan, F. R.


    A dual layer Benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer with tailored refractive index values is successfully fabricated using different curing processes, forming a platform for integrated optical devices. The dual layer BCB polymer could potentially solve the high index contrast issue associated with existing glass-polymer structure, which require sub-micron precision when producing single-mode waveguides. Although the two BCB layers display similar physical properties, they have significantly different optical and chemical characteristics. The different curing processes for the undercladding and core layers led to these differences. Single mode waveguides fabricated via photolithography were also demonstrated with an average propagation loss of 2 dB/cm.

  15. Comparative study on structural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by three different low-cost techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)], E-mail:; Philominathan, P. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)


    Highly crystalline and transparent cadmium sulphide films were fabricated at relatively low temperature by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer (generally used for cosmetics). The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the films were studied and compared with that prepared by conventional spray pyrolysis using air as carrier gas and chemical bath deposition. The films deposited by the simplified spray have preferred orientation along (1 0 1) plane. The lattice parameters were calculated as a = 4.138 A and c = 6.718 A which are well agreed with that obtained from the other two techniques and also with the standard data. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap were found as 85% and 2.43 eV, respectively. The structural and optical properties of the films fabricated by the simplified spray are found to be desirable for opto-electronic applications.

  16. Noble-metal nanoparticles produced with colloidal lithography: fabrication, optical properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchio, Noelia Laura


    In this work, metal nanoparticles produced by nanosphere lithography were studied in terms of their optical properties (in connection to their plasmon resonances), their potential application in sensing platforms - for thin layer sensing and bio-recognition events -, and for a particular case (the nanocrescents), for enhanced spectroscopy studies. The general preparation procedures introduced early in 2005 by Shumaker-Parry et al. to produce metallic nanocrescents were extended to give rise to more complex (isolated) structures, and also, by combining colloidal monolayer fabrication and plasma etching techniques, to arrays of them. The fabrication methods presented in this work were extended not only to new shapes or arrangements of particles, but included also a targeted surface tailoring of the substrates and the structures, using different thiol and silane compounds as linkers for further attachment of, i.e. polyelectrolyte layers, which allow for a controlled tailoring of their nanoenvironment. The optical properties of the nanocrescents were studied with conventional transmission spectroscopy; a simple multipole model was adapted to explain their behaviour qualitatively. In terms of applications, the results on thin film sensing using these particles show that the crescents present an interesting mode-dependent sensitivity and spatial extension. Parallel to this, the penetrations depths were modeled with two simplified schemes, obtaining good agreement with theory. The multiple modes of the particles with their characteristic decay lengths and sensitivities represent a major improvement for particle-sensing platforms compared to previous single resonance systems. The nanocrescents were also used to alter the emission properties of fluorophores placed close to them. In this work, green emitting dyes were placed at controlled distances from the structures and excited using a pulsed laser emitting in the near infrared. The fluorescence signal obtained in this

  17. Fabrication and optimisation of optical biosensor using alcohol oxidase enzyme to evaluate detection of formaldehyde (United States)

    Rachim, A.; Sari, A. P.; Nurlely, Fauzia, V.


    In this study, a new and simple biosensor base on alcohol oxidase (AOX)-enzyme for detecting formaldehyde in aqueous solutions has been successfully fabricated. The alcohol oxidase (AOX) enzyme was immobilized on poly-n-butyl acrylic-co-N-acryloxysuccinimide (nBA-NAS) membrane containing chromoionophore. The chemical reaction between AOX and formaldehyde generates a colour change of chromoionophore detected by optical absorbance measured in UV Vis. This paper focuses on the concentration optimization of buffer phosphate solution, response time, the quantity of enzyme and the measurement of the detection range of biosensors. The result shows that the optimum concentration and pH of buffer phosphate solution is 0.05 M and pH 7, respectively. The optimum response time is 3 min, the optimum unit of enzyme for biosensor is 1 unit/sample and the detection range of biosensor is 0.264 mM with R2 = 0.9421.

  18. Tapering of Polymer Optical Fibers for Compound Parabolic Concentrator Fiber Tip Fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Fasano, Andrea; Nielsen, Kristian


    We propose a process for Polymer Optical Fiber (POF) Compound Parabolic Compound (CPC) tip manufacturing using a heat and pull fiber tapering technique. The POF, locally heated above its glass transition temperature, is parabolically tapered down in diameter, after which it is cut to the desired...... output diameter and finally polished to obtain the special CPC tip. The physical mechanism responsible for giving a CPC shape to the POF tip is also investigated. The fabrication process is shown to be sensitive to several manufacturing parameters, such as temperature of the heat source, thermal flux...... from the heat source, and heating time. We further consider the influence of the heating time latter parameter on the geometry of the obtained CPC fiber tips...

  19. Fabrication, optical and scintillation properties of transparent YAG:Ce ceramics (United States)

    Osipov, V. V.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Shitov, V. A.; Maksimov, R. N.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Platonov, V. V.; Orlov, A. N.; Osipov, S. N.; Yagodin, V. V.; Viktorov, L. V.; Shulgin, B. V.


    Highly transparent YAG:Ce ceramics (transmission of 72-82% for 2-mm-thick samples in 550-900 nm wavelength range) were fabricated by solid-state reactive sintering using a mixture of Ce2xY2-2xO3 (x = 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) and Al2O3 nanopowders synthesized by laser ablation with an additional round of pre-calcining before compaction. The synthesized YAG:Ce ceramic materials showed intense luminescence with a maximum at 525-545 nm. The measured absolute light yields of the synthesized YAG:Ce ceramics were 18-21 photon/MeV for 1-5 at.% Ce and 5 photon/MeV for 0.1 at.% Ce. The energy resolutions of the fabricated thin ceramic samples (2 mm) under 662 keV gamma ray were measured to be 10-15%. The decay curves of scintillations consisted of two components with the decay times depending on the Ce3+ concentration. The sample doped with 5 at.% of Ce exhibited the main fast component with 26 ns decay time. The measured data was compared to that of YAG:Ce and well-known CsI:Tl single crystal scintillators. The influence of dopant concentration on the optical, luminescence and scintillation properties was discussed.

  20. Polymer-Stabilized Micropixelated Liquid Crystals with Tunable Optical Properties Fabricated by Double Templating. (United States)

    Sasaki, Yuji; Ueda, Motoshi; Le, Khoa V; Amano, Reo; Sakane, Shin; Fujii, Shuji; Araoka, Fumito; Orihara, Hiroshi


    Self-organized nano- and microstructures of soft materials are attracting considerable attention because most of them are stimuli-responsive due to their soft nature. In this regard, topological defects in liquid crystals (LCs) are promising not only for self-assembling colloids and molecules but also for electro-optical applications such as optical vortex generation. However, there are currently few bottom-up methods for patterning a large number of defects periodically over a large area. It would be highly desirable to develop more effective techniques for high-throughput and low-cost fabrication. Here, a micropixelated LC structure consisting of a square array of topological defects is stabilized by photopolymerization. A polymer network is formed on the structure of a self-organized template of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and this in turn imprints other nonpolymerizable NLC molecules, which maintains their responses to electric field and temperature. Photocuring of specific local regions is used to create a designable template for the reproducible self-organization of defects. Moreover, a highly diluted polymer network (≈0.1 wt% monomer) exhibits instant on-off switching of the patterns. Beyond the mere stabilization of patterns, these results demonstrate that the incorporation of self-organized NLC patterns offers some unique and unconventional applications for anisotropic polymer networks. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Zeonex microstructured polymer optical fiber: fabrication friendly fibers for high temperature and humidity insensitive Bragg grating sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos


    In the quest of finding the ideal polymer optical fiber (POF) for Bragg grating sensing, we have fabricated and characterized an endlessly single mode microstructured POF (mPOF). This fiber is made from cyclo-olefin homopolymer Zeonex grade 480R which has a very high glass transition temperature...

  2. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Mechanical Shock Sensors for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. Klingsporn


    This document lists the requirements for the fiber optic mechanical shock sensor for the Los Alamos HERT (High Explosive Radio Telemetry) project and provides detailed process steps for fabricating, testing, and assembling the fiber shock sensors for delivery to Los Alamos.

  3. Micropen direct-write technique for fabrication of advanced electroceramic and optical materials (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing

    Direct-write technologies, a subset of the rapid prototyping, have been applied for many applications including electronics, photonics and biomedical engineering. Among them, Micropen(TM) is a promising technique, providing precision deposition of materials with various viscosities, on-line design changes and writing on nonplanar substrates. The objective of this project was to directly write two- and three-dimensional novel structures by Micropen(TM) for potential optical and transducer applications. First, to gain a basic understanding of Micropen(TM) operation, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solutions were developed as a model system. The effects of solution rheological properties on deposition conditions were investigated. Secondly, PMMA/SiO2 hybrids were developed using sol-gel process. The effects of organic/inorganic ratios on thermal stability, microstructure and optical properties were studied. The solution with 80 wt% PMMA loading was chosen to deposit lines for optical applications. Another application was the direct-write of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick films (6-70 mum) for MEMS or high frequency medical imaging applications. Pastes consisting of 15-30 vol% ceramic loading in a sol-gel solution were prepared for the deposition of films on various substrates. The PZT sol was used as a binder as well as to achieve low temperature heat treatment of the films. Using the 15 vol% paste with a 250-mum pen tip, a four-layer film was deposited on a silicon substrate. This 16-mum film with 1 cm 2 area had K of 870, tandelta of 4.1%, Pr of 12.2 muC/cm 2 and Ec of 27 kV/cm. Furthermore, Micropen(TM) was utilized for the direct-write of ceramic skeletal structures to develop PZT ceramic/polymer composites with 2-2 connectivity for medical ultrasound transducers. Ceramic/binder based pastes were developed as writing materials. The 35 vol% paste exhibited shear thinning with a viscosity of 45 Pa˙s at lower shear rate and 3 Pa˙s at higher shear rate. Using a

  4. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Hong


    Full Text Available Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B molecules based on the Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich nanostructure substrate were obviously enhanced due to the bimetal layer and GO layer with tunable absorption intensity and fluorescence quenching effects.

  5. Fabrication of an Integrated Zeolite-fiber Optical Chemical Sensor for Detection of Mercury (II Ion in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu


    Full Text Available This paper describes a process for fabricating an integrated zeolite-captured silver fiber optical chemical sensor. b-oriented zeolite thin film was first coated onto the end surface of an optical fiber. Then Ag+ ions were loaded onto the zeolite crystal via ion exchange. The exchanged Ag+ ions were reduced in the zeolite channel by formaldehyde. The resulting Ag-embedded zeolite-fiber optical sensor was characterized with a number of techniques including scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By monitoring the reflection intensity change, this sensor can be used for in-situ Hg2+ detection.

  6. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics; Identificacao de assinaturas quimicas em residuos de disparos de arma de fogo em diferentes alvos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de


    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  7. Fabrication of Micro-Optics Elements with Arbitrary Surface Profiles Based on One-Step Maskless Grayscale Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyuan Deng


    Full Text Available A maskless lithography method to realize the rapid and cost-effective fabrication of micro-optics elements with arbitrary surface profiles is reported. A digital micro-mirror device (DMD is applied to flexibly modulate that the exposure dose according to the surface profile of the structure to be fabricated. Due to the fact that not only the relationship between the grayscale levels of the DMD and the exposure dose on the surface of the photoresist, but also the dependence of the exposure depth on the exposure dose, deviate from a linear relationship arising from the DMD and photoresist, respectively, and cannot be systemically eliminated, complicated fabrication art and large fabrication error will results. A method of compensating the two nonlinear effects is proposed that can be used to accurately design the digital grayscale mask and ensure a precise control of the surface profile of the structure to be fabricated. To testify to the reliability of this approach, several typical array elements with a spherical surface, aspherical surface, and conic surface have been fabricated and tested. The root-mean-square (RMS between the test and design value of the surface height is about 0.1 μm. The proposed method of compensating the nonlinear effect in maskless lithography can be directly used to control the grayscale levels of the DMD for fabricating the structure with an arbitrary surface profile.

  8. Fabrication of Chitosan-gold Nanocomposites Combined with Optical Fiber as SERS Substrates to Detect Dopamine Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jaewook; Kang, Ikjoong [Gachon Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    This research was aimed to fabricate an optical fiber-based SERS substrate which can detect dopamine neurotransmitters. Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly anchored on the surface of optical fiber, and then gold layer was subseque N{sub T}ly deposited on the anchored chitosan NPs via electroless plating method. Finally, chitosan-gold nanocomposites combined with optical fiber reacted with dopamine molecules of 100-1500 mg/ day which is a standard daily dose for Parkinson's disease patientss. The amplified Raman signal at 1348 cm{sup -1} obtained from optical fiber-based SERS substrate was plotted versus dopamine concentrations (1-10 mM), demonstrating an approximate linearity of Y = 303.03X + 2385.8 (R{sup 2} = 0.97) with narrow margin errors. The optical fiber-based Raman system can be potentially applicable to in-vitro (or in-vivo) detection of probe molecules.

  9. Optical spectroscopy and optical waveguide fabrication in Eu3+ and Eu3+/Tb3+ doped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldiño, U.; Speghini, A.; Berneschi, S.; Bettinelli, M.; Brenci, M.; Pasquini, E.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G.C.


    Optical and spectroscopic properties of 2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 singly doped and 5.0% Tb(PO 3 ) 3 –2.0% Eu(PO 3 ) 3 codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses were investigated. Reddish-orange light emission, with x=0.64 and y=0.36 CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained in the europium singly doped glass excited at 393 nm. Such chromaticity coordinates are close to those (0.67,0.33) standard of the National Television System Committee for the red phosphor. When the sodium–zinc–aluminosilicate glass is co-doped with Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ , reddish-orange light emission, with (0.61,0.37) CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates, is obtained upon Tb 3+ excitation at 344 nm. This reddish-orange luminescence is generated mainly by 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 emissions of Eu 3+ , europium being sensitized by terbium through a non-radiative energy transfer. From an analysis of the Tb 3+ emission decay curves it is inferred that the Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ energy transfer might take place between Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ clusters through a short-range interaction mechanism, so that an electric dipole–quadrupole interaction appears to be the most probable transfer mechanism. The efficiency of this energy transfer is about 62% upon excitation at 344 nm. In the singly doped and codoped glasses multimode optical waveguides were successfully produced by Ag + –Na + ion exchange, and they could be characterized at various wavelengths. -- Highlights: • Reddish-orange light emission can be generated from Tb 3+ and Eu 3+ codoped zinc–sodium–aluminosilicate glasses excited at 344 nm. • The Eu 3+ is sensitized by Tb 3+ through a non-radiative energy transfer. • Highly multimode waveguides can be fabricated by diluted silver–sodium exchange. • This type of AlGaN LEDs pumped glass phosphors might be useful for generation of reddish-orange light

  10. Luminescence-Based Optical Sensors Fabricated by Means of the Layer-by-Layer Nano-Assembly Technique. (United States)

    De Acha, Nerea; Elosua, Cesar; Matias, Ignacio; Arregui, Francisco Javier


    Luminescence-based sensing applications range from agriculture to biology, including medicine and environmental care, which indicates the importance of this technique as a detection tool. Luminescent optical sensors are required to be highly stable, sensitive, and selective, three crucial features that can be achieved by fabricating them by means of the layer-by-layer nano-assembly technique. This method permits us to tailor the sensors' properties at the nanometer scale, avoiding luminophore aggregation and, hence, self-quenching, promoting the diffusion of the target analytes, and building a barrier against the undesired molecules. These characteristics give rise to the fabrication of custom-made sensors for each particular application.

  11. Fabrication and optical characterization of large scale membrane containing InP/AlGaInP quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederbracht, H; Hargart, F; Schwartz, M; Koroknay, E; Kessler, C A; Jetter, M; Michler, P


    Single-photon sources with a high extraction efficiency are a prerequisite for applications in quantum communication and quantum computation schemes. One promising approach is the fabrication of a quantum dot containing membrane structure in combination with a solid immersion lens and a metal mirror. We have fabricated an 80 nm thin semiconductor membrane with incorporated InP quantum dots in an AlGaInP double hetero barrier via complete substrate removal. In addition, a gold layer was deposited on one side of the membrane acting as a mirror. The optical characterization shows in detail that the unique properties of the quantum dots are preserved in the membrane structure. (paper)

  12. Fabrication of an optical lens array using ultraviolet light and ultrasonication. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Satoki; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro; Matsukawa, Mami


    A technique to form an optical lens array using an ultraviolet (UV)-curable resin and ultrasound was investigated. A UV-curable gel film was formed on a glass plate having four lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers. Excitation of the transducers generated a lattice flexural vibration mode on the glass plate. The acoustic radiation force acted to deform the surface of the gel film, so that a lens array could be fabricated on the gel film. The lens array was exposed to UV light under ultrasonication to cure the UV-curable film. The quality factor of the transducer resonance was decreased upon curing of the resin film because the cured resin dampened the vibration of the plate. The acoustic characteristics of the UV-curable gel film were measured by using an ultrasound pulse technique at the MHz range. The sound speed of the gel increased from 987 to 1006 m/s (increase of 1.9%) as the UV exposure time increased. The attenuation coefficient also increased and the larger attenuation of the resin caused the lens array to have a lower quality factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  14. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  15. Optical anomalies and residual stresses in basal-plane-faceted ribbons of Stepanov-grown sapphire crystals (United States)

    Denisov, A. V.; Krymov, V. M.; Punin, Yu. O.


    The effects of an anomalous biaxiality and a residual-stress field in basal-plane-faceted single-crystal sapphire ribbons were studied by an optical polarization method using a conoscopic light beam. Formulas that relate the difference between the principal stresses to the angle of optical-axis divergence are obtained. It is shown that the central regions of the ribbons undergo compressive stresses whereas their edges undergo tensile stresses. As compared to block-free ribbons, the stresses in block-containing ribbons increase more intensely with distance from the seed.

  16. Determination of temperature and residual laser energy on film fiber-optic thermal converter for diode laser surgery. (United States)

    Liu, Weichao; Kong, Yaqun; Shi, Xiafei; Dong, Xiaoxi; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Jizhi; Li, Yingxin


    The diode laser was utilized in soft tissue incision of oral surgery based on the photothermic effect. The contradiction between the ablation efficiency and the thermal damage has always been in diode laser surgery, due to low absorption of its radiation in the near infrared region by biological tissues. Fiber-optic thermal converters (FOTCs) were used to improve efficiency for diode laser surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the photothermic effect by the temperature and residual laser energy on film FOTCs. The film FOTC was made by a distal end of optical fiber impacting on paper. The external surface of the converter is covered by a film contained amorphous carbon. The diode laser with 810 nm worked at the different rated power of 1.0 W, 1.5 W, 2.0 W, 3.0 W, 4.0 W, 5.0 W, 6.0 W, 7.0 W, 8.0 W in continuous wave (CW)and pulse mode. The temperature of the distal end of optical fiber was recorded and the power of the residual laser energy from the film FOTC was measured synchronously. The temperature, residual power and the output power were analyzed by linear or exponential regression model and Pearson correlations analysis. The residual power has good linearity versus output power in CW and pulse modes (R 2  = 0.963, P fiber tip both in CW and pulsed mode while limiting the ability of the laser light to interact directly with target tissue. Film FOTCs can concentrate part of laser energy transferred to heat on distal end of optical fiber, which have the feasibility of improving efficiency and reducing thermal damage of deep tissue.

  17. 3D Viscoelastic Finite Element Modelling of Polymer Flow in the Fiber Drawing Process for Microstructured Polymer Optical Fiber Fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasano, Andrea; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Marín, J. M. R.


    The process of drawing an optical fiber from a polymer preform is still not completely understood,although it represents one of the most critical steps in the process chain for the fabrication of microstructuredpolymer optical fibers (mPOFs). Here we present a new approach for the numerical...... modelling of the fiber drawingprocess using a fully three-dimensional and time-dependent finite element method, giving significant insightinto this widely spread mPOF production technique. Our computational predictions are physically based on theviscoelastic fluid dynamics of polymers. Until now...

  18. Tunable Polymer Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Inscription: Fabrication of Dual-FBG Temperature Compensated Polymer Optical Fiber Strain Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio; Bang, Ole


    We demonstrate stable wavelength tunable inscription of polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). By straining the fiber during FBG inscription, we linearly tune the center wavelength over 7 nm with less than 1% strain. Above 1% strain, the tuning curve saturates and we show a maximum tuning...... of 12 nm with 2.25% strain. We use this inscription method to fabricate a dual-FBG strain sensor in a poly (methyl methacrylate) single-mode microstructured polymer optical fiber and demonstrate temperature compensated strain sensing around 850 nm....

  19. Characterization and fabrication of fully metal-coated scanning near-field optical microscopy SiO2 tips. (United States)

    Aeschimann, L; Akiyama, T; Staufer, U; De Rooij, N F; Thiery, L; Eckert, R; Heinzelmann, H


    The fabrication of silicon cantilever-based scanning near-field optical microscope probes with fully aluminium-coated quartz tips was optimized to increase production yield. Different cantilever designs for dynamic- and contact-mode force feedback were implemented. Light transmission through the tips was investigated experimentally in terms of the metal coating and the tip cone-angle. We found that transmittance varies with the skin depth of the metal coating and is inverse to the cone angle, meaning that slender tips showed higher transmission. Near-field optical images of individual fluorescing molecules showed a resolution thermocouple showed no evidence of mechanical defect or orifice formation by thermal effects.

  20. Design and fabrication of a diffractive optical element as a spectrum-splitting solar concentrator for lateral multijunction solar cells. (United States)

    Huang, Qingli; Wang, Jinze; Quan, Baogang; Zhang, Qiulin; Zhang, Dongxiang; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo; Pan, Li; Wang, Yanqin; Yang, Guozhen


    We have designed a single thin planar diffractive optical element (DOE) based on the principle of diffractive optics to simultaneously split and concentrate the incident light into several energy ranges for lateral multijunction solar cells. A prototype with the maximum thickness of 6.95 μm and 32 quantized levels in depth was fabricated by photolithographic technology. The spectrum-splitting and concentrating performance of the prototype, which were measured quantitatively, show good agreement with the simulation results. As mass production of a DOE can be produced by imprint technology, our design provides a feasible means for low-cost, large-scale, and high-efficiency photovoltaic applications.

  1. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J. [Electrical Engineering Department, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Ankonina, G. [Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel); Photovoltaic Laboratory, Technion, Haifa 3200 (Israel)


    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  2. Copper Determination in Gunshot Residue by Cyclic Voltammetric and Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hashim Nurul’Afiqah Hashimah


    Full Text Available Analysis of gunshot residue (GSR is a crucial evidences for a forensic analyst in the fastest way. GSR analysis insists a suitable method provides a relatively simple, rapid and precise information on the spot at the crime scene. Therefore, the analysis of Cu(II in GSR using cyclic voltammetry (CV on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE is a better choice compared to previous alternative methods such as Inductive Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES those required a long time for analysis. SPCE is specially designed to handle with microvolumes of sample such as GSR sample. It gives advantages for identification of copper in GSR on-site preliminary test to prevent the sample loss on the process to be analyzed in the laboratory. SPCE was swabbed directly on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and acetate buffer was dropped on SPCE before CV analysis. For ICP-OES analysis, cotton that had been soaked in 0.5 M nitric acid was swabbed on the shooter’s arm immediately after firing and kept in a tightly closed sampling tube. Gold coated SPCE that had been through nanoparticles modification exhibits excellent performance on voltammograms. The calibration was linear from 1 to 50 ppm of copper, the limit of detection for copper was 0.3 ppm and a relative standard deviation was 6.1 %. The method was successfully applied to the determination of copper in GSR. The Cu determination on SPCE was compared and validated by ICP-OES method with 94 % accuracy.

  3. Design and fabrication of substrates with microstructures for bio-applications through the modified optical disc process (United States)

    Chiu, Kuo-Chi; Chang, Sheng-Li; Huang, Chu-Yu; Guan, Hann-Wen


    The modified optical disc process has been investigated and demonstrated to enable fast prototyping in fabricating molds and replicating substrates with various microstructures including micro-chambers and micro-channels. A disc-like microfluidic device was created and the testing results showed good performance in bonding and packaging. The switching of the nozzle-like micro-valve was also validated to work well. Furthermore, the relevant procedures of liquid samples loading, separating and mixing were also accomplished through food experiments.

  4. Fabrication of bright and thin Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent film for electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscope. (United States)

    Furukawa, Taichi; Kanamori, Satoshi; Fukuta, Masahiro; Nawa, Yasunori; Kominami, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Yoichiro; Sugita, Atsushi; Inami, Wataru; Kawata, Yoshimasa


    We fabricated a bright and thin Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent film to serve as a nanometric light source for high-spatial-resolution optical microscopy based on electron beam excitation. The Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent thin film was fabricated by annealing a ZnO film on a Si₃N₄ substrate at 1000 °C in N₂. The annealed film emitted bright cathodoluminescence compared with the as-deposited film. The film is promising for nano-imaging with electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscopy. We evaluated the spatial resolution of a microscope developed using this Zn₂SiO₄ luminescent thin film. This is the first report of the investigation and application of ZnO/Si₃N₄ annealed at a high temperature (1000 °C). The fabricated Zn₂SiO₄ film is expected to enable high-frame-rate dynamic observation with ultra-high resolution using our electron beam excitation-assisted optical microscopy.

  5. A study on ultra-precision machining technique for Al6061-T6 to fabricate space infrared optics (United States)

    Ryu, Geun-man; Lee, Gil-jae; Hyun, Sang-won; Sung, Ha-yeong; Chung, Euisik; Kim, Geon-hee


    In this paper, analysis of variance on designed experiments with full factorial design was applied to determine the optimized machining parameters for ultra-precision fabrication of the secondary aspheric mirror, which is one of the key elements of the space cryogenic infrared optics. A single point diamond turning machine (SPDTM, Nanotech 4μpL Moore) was adopted to fabricate the material, AL6061-T6, and the three machining parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected. With several randomly assigned experimental conditions, surface roughness of each condition was measured by a non-contact optical profiler (NT2000; Vecco). As a result of analysis using Minitab, the optimum cutting condition was determined as following; cutting speed: 122 m/min, feed rate: 3 mm/min and depth of cut: 1 μm. Finally, a 120 mm diameter aspheric secondary mirror was attached to a particularly designed jig by using mixture of paraffin and wax and successfully fabricated under the optimum machining parameters. The profile of machined surface was measured by a high-accuracy 3-D profilometer(UA3P; Panasonic) and we obtained the geometrical errors of 30.6 nm(RMS) and 262.4 nm(PV), which satisfy the requirements of the space cryogenic infrared optics.

  6. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.


    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  7. Influence of the spatial frequency on the diffractive optical elements fabrication in PDLCs (United States)

    Fernández, R.; Fenoll, S.; Gallego, S.; Márquez, A.; Francés, J.; Navarro Fuster, V.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.


    Photopolymers are classical holographic recording materials. Recently their chemical composition and the fabrication techniques have been optimized for many new applications such as interconnectors, solar concentrations, 2-D photonic structures, or wave-guides. Their potential usefulness has been drastically increased by the introduction of dispersed liquid crystal molecules; these components can be concentrated in the non-exposed zones of the material by a photopolymerization induced phase separation process (PIPS). Therefore, by combining polymer and dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) has emerged as a new composite material for switchable diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Parallel to the material advances some techniques have been proposed to record very low spatial frequencies DOE's. Different researchers have reported proposes to record DOE like fork gratings, photonics structures, lenses, sinusoidal, blazed or fork gratings. In this work we have studied the behavior of a PDLC material to record DOE's with different spatial periods: from 1 μm, using holographic technique, to more than 200 μm, Liquid Cristal on Silicon (LCoS) display working in mostly amplitude mode as a master. Due to the improvement in the spatial light modulation technology and the pixel miniaturization, this technique permits us store gratings with spatial frequencies until few microns. Additionally, this technology permits us an accurate and dynamic control of the phase and the amplitude of the recording beam. In particular, for our case, to generate the blazed gratings, we use an LCoS-Pluto provided by Holoeye with a resolution of 1920x1080 (HDTV) pixels and a pixel size of 7.7x7.7 m2.

  8. Numerical analysis of residual stresses in preforms of stress applying part for PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fibers in view of technological imperfections of the doped zone geometry (United States)

    Trufanov, Aleksandr N.; Trufanov, Nikolay A.; Semenov, Nikita V.


    The experimental data analysis of the stress applying rod section geometry for the PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fiber has been performed. The dependencies of the change in the radial dimensions of the preform and the doping boundary on the angular coordinate have been obtained. The original algorithm of experimental data statistic analysis, which enables determination of the specimens' characteristic form of section, has been described. The influence of actual doped zone geometry on the residual stress fields formed during the stress rod preform fabrication has been investigated. It has been established that the deviation of the boundary between pure silica and the doped zone from the circular shape results in dissymmetry and local concentrations of the residual stress fields along the section, which can cause preforms destruction at high degrees of doping. The observed geometry deviations of up to 10% lead to the increase of the maximum stress intensity value by over 20%.

  9. Fabrication of Cantilevered Tip-on-Aperture Probe for Enhancing Resolution of Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy System (United States)

    Chang, Won-Seok; Jeong, Mun Seok; Kim, Dae-Chul; Kim, Jeongyong


    The scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) system achieves a resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the conventional optical microscopy system by subwavelength aperture probe scanning. The problem is that the light throughput decreases very markedly with decreasing aperture diameter. Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopes obtain a much better resolution by concentrating light field near the tip apex. However, far-field illumination by a focused laser beam generates a large background scattering signal. Both disadvantages are overcome using the tip-on-aperture (TOA) approach presented in previous works. In this study, the fabrication of a cantilevered tip for SNOM and scanning force microscopy (SFM) has been described. The nano-probes are batch-fabricated on a silicon wafer. The Si3N4 has excellent optical transparent characteristics, higher Young’s modulus and yield strength so that it should provide a better probe for SNOM and SFM. For this purpose, a Si3N4 thin film was deposited using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). To form the aperture and TOA in the probe, we applied focused ion beam (FIB) machining at the end of the sharpened tip. For verification of the efficiency of the micromachined TOA probes, numerical analysis using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) analysis and experimental measurement using an inverted microscope based the SNOM system were performed.

  10. Nano-Fabrication Methods for Micro-Miniature Optical Thermometers Suited to High Temperatures and Harsh Environments (United States)

    DePew, K. A.; Ma, C.; Schiffbauer, J. D.; Wang, J.; Dong, B.; Lally, E.; Wang, A.


    The Center for Photonics Technology (CPT) at Virginia Tech is engaged in cutting edge research of fiber optic sensing technologies. One current research area is the design of fiber optic temperature sensors for harsh environments. Fiber optic temperature sensing offers significant advantages over electronic sensing in terms of size and insensitivity to harsh environmental conditions and electromagnetic interference. In the field, fiber optic thermometers have been used in recent snow cover studies as well as fluvial temperature profiling projects. The extended capabilities of CPT optical sensors open further possibilities for application in additional geologic realms requiring high temperature sensing in corrosive environments. Significant strides have been made in developing single-crystal sapphire based fiber optic sensing elements for high temperature environments which are otherwise difficult to instrument. Utilization of strain insensitive designs and optical sapphire materials allow for thermometers capable of operation above 1500°C with reduced sensitivity to chemical corrosion and mechanical interference. Current efforts in fabrication techniques are reducing the footprint of temperature sensors below the millimeter scale while maintaining high resolution and operating range. The FEI Helios 600 NanoLab workstation at the Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technologies and Applied Science has been employed, providing the capabilities necessary to reduce the footprint of sensing elements to the dimensions of standard optical communication fiber using a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB). The capability of semi-distributed multi-point sensing can also be accomplished at this scale using similar FIB milling techniques. The fiber optic thermometer designs resulting from these methods are compact, lightweight, and able to provide remote sensing without need for electrical power at the measurement point. These traits make them an ideal sensing platform for laboratory

  11. Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected penicillin antibiotic residues from intact milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Michaelidou, Katia; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G


    Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium. Herein short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) provided optimum extraction sensitivity for the selected penicillins, which were analysed using an RP-HPLC method, validated according to the European Decision 657/2002/EC. The limit of quantitation was 10μg/kg for benzylpenicillin, 20μg/kg for cloxacillin, 25μg/kg dicloxacillin and 30μg/kg oxacillin. These are a similar order of magnitude with those reported in the literature and (with the exception of benzylpenicillin) are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by European legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The residual monomer content and mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM resins used in the fabrication of complete dentures as compared to heat cured resins. (United States)

    Ayman, Al-Dharrab


    The utilization of computer-assisted designing and computer-assisted milling CAD\\CAM resins in the fabrication of removable prostheses is a modern-day concept that offers many advantages over the use of the traditional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). This study instigated some of the mechanical properties of CAD\\CAM denture base resin including the amount of residual monomer. This study was conducted at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University from October 2016 to February 2017. A total of seventy rectangular specimens were fabricated (group A: 35 heat-cured PMMA and group B: 35 CAD/CAM pre-polymerized acrylic resin blocks). The flexural strength and surface hardness were tested while the residual monomer content at baseline, two-day and seven-day intervals was estimated using gas chromatography (GC). Means and standard deviations were determined for each group as well as independent-samples t-test and ANOVA with repeated measures for comparison between the groups and subgroups of varying time intervals. Heat cured PMMA (A), displayed higher flexural strength and low value flexural modulus compared to CAD/CAM acrylic resin denture base material (B). Student t-test indicated highly significant differences (pCAD/CAM resin may be considered suitable for use in the construction of denture bases.

  13. Fabrication of sucrose biosensor based on single mode planar optical waveguide using co-immobilized plant invertase and GOD. (United States)

    Bagal, Dipali S; Vijayan, Anu; Aiyer, R C; Karekar, R N; Karve, M S


    In present studies, the new optical sensing platform based on optical planar waveguide (OPWG) for sucrose estimation was reported. An evanescent-wave biosensor was designed by using novel agarose-guar gum (AG) biopolymer composite sol-gel with entrapped enzymes (acid invertase (INV) and glucose oxidase (GOD)). Partially purified watermelon invertase isolated from Citrullus vulgaris fruit (specific activity 832 units mg(-1)) in combination with GOD was physically entrapped in AG sol-gel and cladded on the surface of optical planar waveguide. Na(+)-K(+) ion-exchanged glass optical waveguides were prepared and employed for the fabrication of sucrose biosensor. By addressing the enzyme modified waveguide structure with, the optogeometric properties of adsorbed enzyme layer (12 microm) at the sensor solid-liquid interface were studied. The OPWG sensor with short response time (110 s) was characterized using the 0.2M acetate buffer, pH 5.5. The fabricated sucrose sensor showed concentration dependent linear response in the range 1 x 10(-10) to 1 x 10(-6)M of sucrose. Lower limit of detection of this novel AG-INV-GOD cladded OPWG sensor was found to be 2.5 x 10(-11)M sucrose, which indicates that the developed biosensor has higher sensitivity towards sucrose as compared to earlier reported sensors using various transducer systems. Biochips when stored at room temperature, showed high stability for 81 days with 80% retention of original sensitivity. These sucrose sensing biochips showed good operational efficiency for 10 cycles. The proper confinement of acid invertase and glucose oxidase in hydrogel composite was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The constructed OPWG sensor is versatile, easy to fabricate and can be used for sucrose measurements with very high sensitivity.

  14. Fabrication of Cheap Optical Transducers (CHOTs) on film carriers for in-situ application and generation of surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Ageeva, V.; Stratoudaki, T.; Clark, M.; Somekh, M. G.


    Cheap optical transducers (CHOTs) are patterns on the surface of a component activated by lasers to generate and detect ultrasound. Excited optically, with minimal surface impact, and fully customizable, CHOTs provide a simple alternative to conventional piezoelectric transducers, offering wireless, remote operation. Of particular interest is application of CHOTs for in-situ ultrasonic inspection of hard-to reach and complex-geometry components such as those of aero-engines. A suitable fabrication method has been developed to allow in-situ application of CHOTs onto large size and curved components, as well as those already in service, challenging for current laboratory-based micro-patterning methods. This work describes the fabrication of a transferable g-CHOT for generation of ultrasound. The g- CHOT has been made on an SU8 carrier film using a sacrificial polystyrene layer, allowing the transducer to be transferred from the substrate and subsequently delivered and applied to the surface of the sample in-situ. The functionality of the fabricated transducer is demonstrated by detection of the Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) generated by the g-CHOT transferred onto glass and aluminium samples.

  15. Effect of Refractive Index of Substrate on Fabrication and Optical Properties of Hybrid Au-Ag Triangular Nanoparticle Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu


    Full Text Available In this study, the nanosphere lithography (NSL method was used to fabricate hybrid Au-Ag triangular periodic nanoparticle arrays. The Au-Ag triangular periodic arrays were grown on different substrates, and the effect of the refractive index of substrates on fabrication and optical properties was systematically investigated. At first, the optical spectrum was simulated by the discrete dipole approximation (DDA numerical method as a function of refractive indexes of substrates and mediums. Simulation results showed that as the substrates had the refractive indexes of 1.43 (quartz and 1.68 (SF5 glass, the nanoparticle arrays would have better refractive index sensitivity (RIS and figure of merit (FOM. Simulation results also showed that the peak wavelength of the extinction spectra had a red shift when the medium’s refractive index n increased. The experimental results also demonstrated that when refractive indexes of substrates were 1.43 and 1.68, the nanoparticle arrays and substrate had better adhesive ability. Meanwhile, we found the nanoparticles formed a large-scale monolayer array with the hexagonally close-packed structure. Finally, the hybrid Au-Ag triangular nanoparticle arrays were fabricated on quartz and SF5 glass substrates and their experiment extinction spectra were compared with the simulated results.

  16. Residual stress and its effect on the mechanical properties of Y-doped Mg alloy fabricated via back-pressure assisted equal channel angular pressing (ECAP-BP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jianghua, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Gärtnerová, Viera [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, CZ – 182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaragi, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Jäger, Aleš, E-mail: [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, CZ – 182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wei, Qiuming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)


    In this study, pure magnesium (Mg) and Mg-0.6 wt% yttrium (Y) binary alloy were fabricated via casting followed by room temperature equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using an applied back pressure (BP). Microstructural examination after ECAP-BP revealed a fine-grained Mg-Y alloy with a high residual stress level, whereas, the pure Mg exhibited a well-recrystallized microstructure with uniform and equiaxed grains, but retaining very little residual stress. The Y atoms were present in the Mg matrix as solid solutes and acted as dislocation and grain boundary blockers, thus suppressing dynamic recovery and/or recrystallization during the ECAP process. The Mg-Y alloy had an average grain size of ~400 nm, approximately one order smaller than that of pure Mg. The combination of high residual stress and ultrafine grains of the Mg-Y alloy gave rise to a significant difference in its mechanical behavior from that of the pure Mg, under both quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading.

  17. Studies of geometrical profiling in fabricated tapered optical fibers using whispering gallery modes spectroscopy (United States)

    Kavungal, Vishnu; Farrell, Gerald; Wu, Qiang; Kumar Mallik, Arun; Semenova, Yuliya


    This paper experimentally demonstrates a method for geometrical profiling of asymmetries in fabricated thin microfiber tapers with waist diameters ranging from ∼10 to ∼50 μm with submicron accuracy. The method is based on the analysis of whispering gallery mode resonances excited in cylindrical fiber resonators as a result of evanescent coupling of light propagating through the fiber taper. The submicron accuracy of the proposed method has been verified by SEM studies. The method can be applied as a quality control tool in fabrication of microfiber based devices and sensors or for fine-tuning of microfiber fabrication set-ups.

  18. Enhanced density of optical data storage using near-field concept: fabrication and test of nanometric aperture array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, J.; Park, J. H.; Kim, Myong R.; Jhe, W.


    We have tried to enhance the density of the near-field optical memory and to improve the recording/readout speed. The current optical memory has the limitation in both density and speed. This barrier due to the far-field nature can be overcome by the use of near-field. The optical data storage density can be increased by reducing the size of the nanometric aperture where the near-field is obtained. To fabricate the aperture in precise dimension, we applied the orientation-dependent / anisotropic etching property of crystal Si often employed in the field of MEMS. And so we fabricated the 10 x 10 aperture array. This array will be also the indispensable part for speeding up. One will see the possibility of the multi-tracking pickup in the phase changing type memory through this array. This aperture array will be expected to write the bit-mark whose size is about 100 nm. We will show the recent result obtained. (author)

  19. Fabrication and Atomic Force Microscopy Characterization of Molecular Composites of Fullerenes in Aerogel Matrix for Optical Limiting (United States)

    Lu, W. J .; Sunkara, H. B.; Shi, D.; Morgan, S. H.; Penn, B.; Frazier, D.; Collins, W. E.


    An optical limiter is a device which exhibits a decrease in the transmittance in a material with an increase in intensity of light. Sol-gel techniques offer many advantages in the fabrication of materials. These materials possess many desirable properties for nonlinear optical (NLO) device applications which include transparency, high thermal and chemical stabilities, very low refractive index and dielectric constants. C60 shows a higher excited state absorption cross section than the ground state absorption cross section over the complete visible spectrum, and the spectrum of the excited state absorption of C60 has the same general shape as the ground state absorption. This fact suggests that fullerenes are ideal optical limiting materials. Aerogels are fabricated by sol-gel processing. One of the key issues is the dispersion of fullerenes into small and uniform pores of silica aerogel host matrices. The aerogel network was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy is a technique with many advantages to characterize the aerogel materials. The morphology of the cleaved surface for a C60/aerogel sample shows that there are long paralleled shaped stripes with 20-30 nm in width and about 500 nm in length on the cleaved surface. The cleaved surface also was etched by 5% HF solution for one minutes, and it became smoother after HF etching. The main feature in on the surface is the spherical particles with the size of few nanometers, and no aggregated fullerenes appear. The fullerenes are well dispersed in the aerogel matrices.

  20. Improvement of the optical and morphological properties of microlens arrays fabricated by laser using a sol–gel coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Daniel, E-mail: [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela E15782 (Spain); Gómez-Varela, Ana Isabel [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela E15782 (Spain); Martín, Yolanda Castro [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); O’Connor, Gerard M. [School of Physics, National Centre for Laser Applications, National University of Ireland, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Flores-Arias, María Teresa, E-mail: [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Physics, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela E15782 (Spain)


    Highlights: • Microlens arrays were fabricated on soda-lime glass using a Ti:Sapphire laser. • A SiO{sub 2} coating prepared via sol–gel route was used to improve the microlens quality. • The sol–gel coating was deposited at the microlens top surface using a dip coating. • Optical properties of the microlenses were improved by the coating. - Abstract: We present a simple, repeatable and non-contaminant method to improve the optical and morphological properties of microlens arrays. It consists on depositing hybrid SiO{sub 2} (TEOS, MTES) coatings via sol–gel route onto microlens arrays fabricated using a Ti:Sapphire Femtosecond Amplitude Systems S-pulse HP laser operating at 1030 nm. The deposited silica sol–gel layer reduces the surface roughness (quantified as the root mean square) and increases the quality of the interstices between the microlenses generated by the ablation process, thus improving the contrast and homogeneity of the foci of the microlens array. The proposed technique allows us to obtain microlenses with a diameter in the range of 15–20 μm and a depth of 1.5–15 μm. For the characterization of the micro-optical structures, the UV–visible spectroscopy, spectral ellipsometry, confocal microscopy and beam profilometry were used. The proof-of-principle presented in this paper can be used to improve the optical and morphological properties of micro-optical systems of different nature by tailoring the parameters involved in both the laser ablation and sol–gel processes comprising the starting materials, solvent and catalysts nature and concentration, hydrolysis ratio, aging time and/or deposition conditions.

  1. Fabrication of optical waveguides by imprinting: usage of positive tone resist as a mould for UV-curable polymer. (United States)

    Hiltunen, Jussi; Hiltunen, Marianne; Puustinen, Jarkko; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Karioja, Pentti


    Optical ridge type waveguides based on UV-curable polymer were fabricated by imprinting method. Positive tone resist patterned on a silicon wafer was used as a mould. The characterization of waveguides was carried out by coupling TE-polarized light from a tapered fiber into a waveguide with 30 mm length and mapping the intensity distribution with another tapered fiber at the output facet of a waveguide. Proper single- or multimode operation was observed depending on the waveguide width being either 2 microm or 6 microm. Experimental observations on the mode profiles were also supported by the simulation results. Average power transmissions of 32% at 1530 nm wavelength and 45% at 1310 nm wavelength were characterized. The results suggest that the simple mould fabrication process might be a useful technique for device prototyping and that the performance of replicated waveguides can meet the requirements for certain applications.

  2. Synergistic analyses of optical and microphysical properties of agricultural crop residue burning aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) (United States)

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shibata, Takashi


    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). The present study deals with the spatial variability including the vertical structure of optical and microphysical properties of aerosols, during the crop residue burning season (October and November) of 2009 over the IGB. Increased number of fire counts observed by MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) that is associated with high aerosol optical depth (MODIS-AOD > 0.7) and enhanced tropospheric columnar NO2 concentrations observed by OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), suggests agriculture crop residue burning as a main source of aerosol loading over the IGB during October and November. PARASOL (Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Science coupled with Observations from a Lidar) observations show an increase in fine mode AOD (at 865 nm) from October (0.1-0.2) to November (0.2-0.3) over the IGB, which is well corroborated with MODIS observations. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) data shows the elevated aerosol plume (4.0-4.5 km) over the north-west IGB (associated with burning activities) that could have been caused by positive buoyancy through pyro-convection. However, large concentrations of aerosol were found below 1.0 km altitude. The averaged vertical structure of crop residue burning aerosols shows an exponential decrease with altitude (mean scale height ˜1.44 ± 0.20 km). Aerosol optical and microphysical properties coupled with backward air trajectories analyses at Kanpur indicated regional transport of biomass burning aerosols in a downwind direction from north-west IGB to south-east IGB. Aerosol classification, using AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)-derived absorption properties coupled with size parameter (2006-2010) showed clear seasonal dependency of aerosol types which revealed the presence of biomass burning aerosols only during the crop

  3. Fabrication of highly nonlinear germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots using atomization doping process and its optical nonlinearity. (United States)

    Ju, Seongmin; Watekar, Pramod R; Han, Won-Taek


    Germano-silicate glass optical fiber incorporated with PbTe semiconductor quantum dots (SQDs) in the core was fabricated by using the atomization process in modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. The absorption bands attributed to PbTe semiconductor quantum dots in the fiber core were found to appear at around 687 nm and 1055 nm. The nonlinear refractive index measured by the long-period fiber grating (LPG) pair method upon pumping with laser diode at 976.4 nm was estimated to be ~1.5 × 10(-16) m2/W.

  4. Composite Cure Process Modeling and Simulations using COMPRO(Registered Trademark) and Validation of Residual Strains using Fiber Optics Sensors (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Hudson, Tyler B.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Grimsley, Brian W.


    Composite cure process induced residual strains and warping deformations in composite components present significant challenges in the manufacturing of advanced composite structure. As a part of the Manufacturing Process and Simulation initiative of the NASA Advanced Composite Project (ACP), research is being conducted on the composite cure process by developing an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms by which the process induced factors influence the residual responses. In this regard, analytical studies have been conducted on the cure process modeling of composite structural parts with varied physical, thermal, and resin flow process characteristics. The cure process simulation results were analyzed to interpret the cure response predictions based on the underlying physics incorporated into the modeling tool. In the cure-kinetic analysis, the model predictions on the degree of cure, resin viscosity and modulus were interpreted with reference to the temperature distribution in the composite panel part and tool setup during autoclave or hot-press curing cycles. In the fiber-bed compaction simulation, the pore pressure and resin flow velocity in the porous media models, and the compaction strain responses under applied pressure were studied to interpret the fiber volume fraction distribution predictions. In the structural simulation, the effect of temperature on the resin and ply modulus, and thermal coefficient changes during curing on predicted mechanical strains and chemical cure shrinkage strains were studied to understand the residual strains and stress response predictions. In addition to computational analysis, experimental studies were conducted to measure strains during the curing of laminated panels by means of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGs) embedded in the resin impregnated panels. The residual strain measurements from laboratory tests were then compared with the analytical model predictions. The paper describes the cure process

  5. Zeonex microstructured polymer optical fiber: fabrication friendly fibers for high temperature and humidity insensitive Bragg grating sensing


    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos; Stefani, Alessio; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Bang, Ole


    In the quest of finding the ideal polymer optical fiber (POF) for Bragg grating sensing, we have fabricated and characterized an endlessly single mode microstructured POF (mPOF). This fiber is made from cyclo-olefin homopolymer Zeonex grade 480R which has a very high glass transition temperature of 138 °C and is humidity insensitive. It represents a significant improvement with respect to the also humidity insensitive Topas core fibers, in that Zeonex fibers are easier to manufacture, has bet...

  6. Fiber Optic Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: Fabrication, Advancement, and Application. (United States)

    Liang, Gaoling; Luo, Zewei; Liu, Kunping; Wang, Yimin; Dai, Jianxiong; Duan, Yixiang


    Fiber optic-based biosensors with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology are advanced label-free optical biosensing methods. They have brought tremendous progress in the sensing of various chemical and biological species. This review summarizes four sensing configurations (prism, grating, waveguide, and fiber optic) with two ways, attenuated total reflection (ATR) and diffraction, to excite the surface plasmons. Meanwhile, the designs of different probes (U-bent, tapered, and other probes) are also described. Finally, four major types of biosensors, immunosensor, DNA biosensor, enzyme biosensor, and living cell biosensor, are discussed in detail for their sensing principles and applications. Future prospects of fiber optic-based SPR sensor technology are discussed.

  7. Nanofiltration and sensing of picomolar chemical residues in aqueous solution using an optical porous resonator in a microelectrofluidic channel. (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Guo, Zhixiong


    For the first time the use of a porous microresonator placed in a microelectrofluidic system for integrated functions of nanofiltration and sensing of small biomolecules and chemical analytes in extremely dilute solution was proposed and investigated. As an example, aminoglycosides in drug residues in food and livestock products were considered as the trace chemical analyte. The filtration process of the charged analyte in aqueous solution driven by an applied electrical field and the accompanying optical whispering-gallery modes in the resonator are modeled. The dynamic process of adsorption and desorption of the analyte onto the porous matrix is studied. Deposition of the analyte inside the porous structure will alter the material refractive index of the resonator, and thus induce an optical resonance frequency shift. By measuring the optical frequency shift, the analyte concentration as well as the absorption/desorption process can be analyzed. Through an intensive numerical study, a correlation between the frequency shift and the analyte concentration and the applied electrical voltage gradient was obtained. This reveals a linear relationship between the resonance frequency shift and the analyte concentration. The applied electrical voltage substantially enhances the filtration capability and the magnitude of the optical frequency shift, pushing the porous resonator-based sensor to function at the extremely dilute picomolar concentration level for small bio/chemical molecules down to the sub-nanometer scale. Moreover, use of the second-order whispering-gallery mode is found to provide better sensitivity compared with the first-order mode.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of a 3-D non-homogeneous tissue-like mouse phantom for optical imaging (United States)

    Avtzi, Stella; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Zacharakis, Giannis


    In vivo optical imaging of biological tissue not only requires the development of new theoretical models and experimental procedures, but also the design and construction of realistic tissue-mimicking phantoms. However, most of the phantoms available currently in literature or the market, have either simple geometrical shapes (cubes, slabs, cylinders) or when realistic in shape they use homogeneous approximations of the tissue or animal under investigation. The goal of this study is to develop a non-homogeneous realistic phantom that matches the anatomical geometry and optical characteristics of the mouse head in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The fabrication of the phantom consisted of three stages. Initially, anatomical information extracted from either mouse head atlases or structural imaging modalities (MRI, XCT) was used to design a digital phantom comprising of the three main layers of the mouse head; the brain, skull and skin. Based on that, initial prototypes were manufactured by using accurate 3D printing, allowing complex objects to be built layer by layer with sub-millimeter resolution. During the second stage the fabrication of individual molds was performed by embedding the prototypes into a rubber-like silicone mixture. In the final stage the detailed phantom was constructed by loading the molds with epoxy resin of controlled optical properties. The optical properties of the resin were regulated by using appropriate quantities of India ink and intralipid. The final phantom consisted of 3 layers, each one with different absorption and scattering coefficient (μa,μs) to simulate the region of the mouse brain, skull and skin.

  9. Fabrication and Optical Recombination in III-Nitride Microstructures and Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, H. X


    ... their optical and optoelectronic properties. By optimizing the epilayer mobilities and optical emission properties, we have produced GaN,Al(x)Ga(1-x)N (x up to 1), In(x)Ga(1-x)N (x<0.3), and In(x)Al( y)Ga(1-x-y...

  10. Design and fabrication of an optical dosimeter for UV and gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramirez-Nino, J; Castano, V M


    A simple UV and gamma radiation optical dosimeter is presented. The organic dye degradation with radiation absorption is used to measure the radiation dose. The design, the electronic circuit, the calibration and the operation procedure are also described in detail. Finally, the results of actual applications are shown with beta-carotene in an acetone/ethanol solution utilised as an optical probe.

  11. Fast extraction of amphenicols residues from raw milk using novel fabric phase sorptive extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Galanopoulos, Lavrentis-Demetrios; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G


    A simple, sensitive, reliable, and fast analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of amphenicols residues in raw milk by combining fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. FPSE, a new generation green sample preparation technique, efficiently incorporates the advanced and tunable material properties of sol-gel derived microextraction sorbents with the rich surface chemistry of a cellulose fabric substrate, resulting in a flexible, highly sensitive, and fast microextraction device capable of extracting target analytes directly from complicated sample matrices. Due to the strong chemical bonding between the sol-gel sorbent and substrate, the microextraction device demonstrates a very high chemical and solvent stability. Therefore, any organic solvent/solvent mixture can be used as the eluent/back-extraction solvent. Herein, a highly polar polymer coated FPSE media was created using short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the applicability of this novel microextraction device to extract highly polar amphenicol antibiotics from raw milk was investigated. Due to the intense affinity of amphenicols towards the strongly polar sol-gel PEG-coated FPSE device, absolute recovery of the selected antibiotics residues were found to be 44% for thiamphenicol, 66.4% for florfenicol, and 81.4% for chloramphenicol. The developed method was validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity according to European Decision 657/2002/EC. Decision limit (CCα) values were 52.49 μg kg(-1) for thiamphenicol, 55.23 μg kg(-1) for florfenicol, and 53.8 μg kg(-1) for chloramphenicol, while the corresponding results for detection capability (CCβ) were 56.8 μg kg(-1), 58.99 μg kg(-1), and 55.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Validation and perspectives of a femtosecond laser fabricated monolithic optical stretcher (United States)

    Bellini, Nicola; Bragheri, Francesca; Cristiani, Ilaria; Guck, Jochen; Osellame, Roberto; Whyte, Graeme


    The combination of high power laser beams with microfluidic delivery of cells is at the heart of high-throughput, single-cell analysis and disease diagnosis with an optical stretcher. So far, the challenges arising from this combination have been addressed by externally aligning optical fibres with microfluidic glass capillaries, which has a limited potential for integration into lab-on-a-chip environments. Here we demonstrate the successful production and use of a monolithic glass chip for optical stretching of white blood cells, featuring microfluidic channels and optical waveguides directly written into bulk glass by femtosecond laser pulses. The performance of this novel chip is compared to the standard capillary configuration. The robustness, durability and potential for intricate flow patterns provided by this monolithic optical stretcher chip suggest its use for future diagnostic and biotechnological applications. PMID:23082304

  13. Dynamic metrology and data processing for precision freeform optics fabrication and testing (United States)

    Aftab, Maham; Trumper, Isaac; Huang, Lei; Choi, Heejoo; Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan; Oh, Chang Jin; Kim, Dae Wook


    Dynamic metrology holds the key to overcoming several challenging limitations of conventional optical metrology, especially with regards to precision freeform optical elements. We present two dynamic metrology systems: 1) adaptive interferometric null testing; and 2) instantaneous phase shifting deflectometry, along with an overview of a gradient data processing and surface reconstruction technique. The adaptive null testing method, utilizing a deformable mirror, adopts a stochastic parallel gradient descent search algorithm in order to dynamically create a null testing condition for unknown freeform optics. The single-shot deflectometry system implemented on an iPhone uses a multiplexed display pattern to enable dynamic measurements of time-varying optical components or optics in vibration. Experimental data, measurement accuracy / precision, and data processing algorithms are discussed.

  14. Adiabatic tapered optical fiber fabrication for exciting whispering gallery modes in microcavities (United States)

    Chenari, Z.; Latifi, H.; Hashemi, R. S.; Doroudmand, F.


    This article demonstrates an investigation and analysis of a tapered fiber fabrication using an etchant droplet method. To achieve precise control on process, a two-step etching method is proposed (using 48% concentration of HF acid and Buffered HF) which results in low-loss adiabatic tapered fiber. A spectrum analysis monitoring in addition to a microscopy system was used to verify the etching progress. Tapers with losses less than 0.4 dB in air and 4.5 dB in water are demonstrated. A biconical fiber taper fabricated using this method was used to excite the WGMs on a microsphere surface in aquatic environment.

  15. Fabrication and optical trapping of handling structures for reconfigurable microsphere magnifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Búzás, András


    We demonstrate the use of microfabricated supporting structures for maneuvering and supporting polystyrene microspheres for use as magnifying lenses in imaging applications. The supporting structure isolates the trapping light from the magnifier, hence avoiding direct radiation to the sample being...... observed which could be damaging, especially for biological specimens. Using an optical trapping setup, we demonstrate the actuation of a microsphere not held by optical traps, and show the possibility of imaging through such microspheres. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation...

  16. Functionalizing 2PP-fabricated microtools for optical manipulation on the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Nishi, Masayuki; Sakakura, Masaaki

    Functionalization of the structures fabricated by two-photon polymerization was achieved by coating them with sol-gel materials, which contain calcium indicators. The structures are expected to work potentially as nano-sensors on the BioPhotonics Workstation....

  17. Nonintrusive Optical Thermometers for Real-Time Control of Fabrication Processes, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed SBIR Phase I program LGR will develop and deploy a novel instrument ("Optical Thermometer") that provides real-time, in situ, non-contact...

  18. Fabrication Technology for X-Ray Optics and Mandrels, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a cross-project need for large format aspheric x-ray optics, which, demonstrate exceptionally low periodic surface errors. Available technologies to both...

  19. Nonintrusive Optical Thermometers for Real-Time Control of Fabrication Processes, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed SBIR Phase I program is to develop an instrument that provides real-time, in situ measurements of substrate temperature in optical...

  20. Fabrication of Micro-Optics for Diode Lasers and Amplifiers Using Ink-Jet Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, W


    ...) and flexibility (data driven process). Using print heads capable of dispensing picoliter droplets of optical thermal plastic and UV-curing resin formulations at temperatures up to 230 deg C, both hemispherical and anamorphic plano/convex...

  1. HEU Measurements of Holdup and Recovered Residue in the Deactivation and Decommissioning Activities of the 321-M Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper contains a summary of the holdup and material control and accountability (MC&A) assays conducted for the determination of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 321-M at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The 321-M facility was the Reactor Fuel Fabrication Facility at SRS and was used to fabricate HEU fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the SRS production reactors. The facility operated for more than 35 years. During this time thousands of uranium-aluminum-alloy (U-Al) production reactor fuel tubes were produced. After the facility ceased operations in 1995, all of the easily accessible U-Al was removed from the building, and only residual amounts remained. The bulk of this residue was located in the equipment that generated and handled small U-Al particles and in the exhaust systems for this equipment (e.g., Chip compactor, casting furnaces, log saw, lathes A & B, cyclone separator, Freon{trademark} cart, riser crusher, ...etc). The D&D project is likely to represent an important example for D&D activities across SRS and across the Department of Energy weapons complex. The Savannah River National Laboratory was tasked to conduct holdup assays to quantify the amount of HEU on all components removed from the facility prior to placing in solid waste containers. The U-235 holdup in any single component of process equipment must not exceed 50 g in order to meet the container limit. This limit was imposed to meet criticality requirements of the low level solid waste storage vaults. Thus the holdup measurements were used as guidance to determine if further decontamination of equipment was needed to ensure that the quantity of U-235 did not exceed the 50 g limit and to ensure that the waste met the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the solid waste storage vaults. Since HEU is an accountable nuclear material, the holdup assays and assays of recovered

  2. Characterisation of hydrogen and erbium in carbon layers fabricated by PACVD for optical applications (United States)

    Macková, A.; Peřina, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Nekvindová, P.; Prajzler, V.; Hüttel, I.; Špirková, J.


    Carbon films prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition were doped by laser active ion Er 3+. The characterisation of the layers was performed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and elastic recoil detection analysis. Optical properties of the waveguides were measured at 660 nm wave length using standard prism spectroscopy. The correlation between the layer composition and the content of incorporated erbium and layer optical properties shows very interesting aspects [SPIE 4281, San Jose (2001) 13].

  3. Fabrication of PMMA doped with griseofulvin material and its optical rotatory dispersion (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Feng; Tao, Wei-Dong; Yan, Fei-Biao; Bai, Gui-Ru


    Chiral molecule C17H17CIO6 was incorporated in MMA by sol-gel process and its optical polarization response was measured. The optical rotatory dispersion was measured with self-manufactured apparatus. The results show that the maximum and minimum rotation angles of the chiral PMMA are 69° at the wavelength of 450 nm and 17° at the wavelength of 700 nm, respectively. The experimental results accord with the simulation results by the Boltzmann formula.

  4. Age Estimation Robust to Optical and Motion Blurring by Deep Residual CNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Seong Kang


    Full Text Available Recently, real-time human age estimation based on facial images has been applied in various areas. Underneath this phenomenon lies an awareness that age estimation plays an important role in applying big data to target marketing for age groups, product demand surveys, consumer trend analysis, etc. However, in a real-world environment, various optical and motion blurring effects can occur. Such effects usually cause a problem in fully capturing facial features such as wrinkles, which are essential to age estimation, thereby degrading accuracy. Most of the previous studies on age estimation were conducted for input images almost free from blurring effect. To overcome this limitation, we propose the use of a deep ResNet-152 convolutional neural network for age estimation, which is robust to various optical and motion blurring effects of visible light camera sensors. We performed experiments with various optical and motion blurred images created from the park aging mind laboratory (PAL and craniofacial longitudinal morphological face database (MORPH databases, which are publicly available. According to the results, the proposed method exhibited better age estimation performance than the previous methods.

  5. Optical fiber pressure and acceleration sensor fabricated on a fiber endface (United States)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Wang, Xingwei; Xu, Juncheng; Wang, Anbo


    A fiber optic sensor has a hollow tube bonded to the endface of an optical fiber, and a diaphragm bonded to the hollow tube. The fiber endface and diaphragm comprise an etalon cavity. The length of the etalon cavity changes when applied pressure or acceleration flexes the diaphragm. The entire structure can be made of fused silica. The fiber, tube, and diaphragm can be bonded with a fusion splice. The present sensor is particularly well suited for measuring pressure or acceleration in high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environments (e.g., oil well downholes and jet engines). The present sensors are also suitable for use in biological and medical applications.

  6. Fabrication and properties of Er-doped nanocrystalline phase-seperated optical fibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dhar, Anirban; Kašík, Ivan; Podrazký, Ondřej; Matějec, Vlastimil


    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-35 ISSN 1336-1376 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/10/P554; GA ČR GAP102/10/2139 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Er-doping * Phase-separated glass * Nano-crystalline optical fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  7. A database of wavefront measurements for laser system modeling, optical component development and fabrication process qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.M.; English, R.E.


    In the second half of the 1990's, LLNL and others anticipate designing and beginning construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF will be capable of producing the worlds first laboratory scale fusion ignition and bum reaction by imploding a small target. The NIF will utilize approximately 192 simultaneous laser beams for this purpose. The laser will be capable of producing a shaped energy pulse of at least 1.8 million joules (MJ) with peak power of at least 500 trillion watts (TV). In total, the facility will require more than 7,000 large optical components. The performance of a high power laser of this kind can be seriously degraded by the presence of low amplitude, periodic modulations in the surface and transmitted wavefronts of the optics used. At high peak power, these phase modulations can convert into large intensity modulations by non-linear optical processes. This in turn can lead to loss in energy on target via many well known mechanisms. In some cases laser damage to the optics downstream of the source of the phase modulation can occur. The database described here contains wavefront phase maps of early prototype optical components for the NIF. It has only recently become possible to map the wavefront of these large aperture components with high spatial resolution. Modem large aperture static fringe and phase shifting interferometers equipped with large area solid state detectors have made this possible. In a series of measurements with these instruments, wide spatial bandwidth can be detected in the wavefront

  8. Sol-gel fabrication and optical absorption properties of C-NiO nanocomposite coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N


    Full Text Available of the sunlight as possible, then prevent thermal emittance The manufacturing process for most commercial thermal products is complicated C-NiO/Al has been fabricated using a simple and cheap sol-gel procedure combined with spin coating technique C... SOLUTION) Structure directing templateFinal C-NiO gel By suitable choice of precursor, we can engineer novel composite materials Sol-gel technique can be adapted to different coating methods coating substrate Spray coating Spin coating The material...

  9. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.


    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  10. Controllable Fabrication and Optical Properties of Uniform Gadolinium Oxysulfate Hollow Spheres


    Chen, Fashen; Chen, Gen; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaohe; Luo, Hongmei; Li, Junhui; Chen, Limiao; Ma, Renzhi; Qiu, Guanzhou


    Uniform gadolinium oxysulfate (Gd2O2SO4) hollow spheres were successfully fabricated by calcination of corresponding Gd-organic precursor obtained via a facile hydrothermal process. The Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres have a mean diameter of approximately 550?nm and shell thickness in the range of 30?70?nm. The sizes and morphologies of as-prepared Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres could be deliberately controlled by adjusting the experimental parameters. Eu-doped Gd2O2SO4 hollow spheres have also been prepare...

  11. Spectral phase shift and residual angular dispersion of an accousto-optic programme dispersive filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerzsoenyi, A.; Meroe, M.


    Complete text of publication follows. There is an increasing demand for active and precise dispersion control of ultrashort laser pulses. In chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems, the dispersion of the optical elements of the laser has to be compensated at least to the fourth order to obtain high temporal contrast compressed pulses. Nowadays the most convenient device for active and programmable control of spectral phase and amplitude of broadband laser pulses is the acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF), claimed to be able to adjust the spectral phase up to the fourth order. Although it has been widely used, surprisingly enough there has been only a single, low resolution measurement reported on the accuracy of the induced spectral phase shift of the device. In our paper we report on the first systematic experiment aiming at the precise characterization of an AOPDF device. In the experiment the spectral phase shift of the AOPDF device was measured by spectrally and spatially resolved interferometry, which is especially powerful tool to determine small dispersion values with high accuracy. Besides the spectral phase dispersion, we measured both the propagation direction angular dispersion (PDAD) and the phase front angular dispersion (PhFAD). Although the two quantities are equal for plane waves, there may be noticeable difference for Gaussian pulses. PDAD was determined simply by focusing the beam on the slit of an imaging spectrograph, while PhFAD was measured by the use of an inverted Mach-Zehnder interferometer and an imaging spectrograph. In the measurements, the spectral phase shift and both types of angular dispersion have been recorded upon the systematic change of all the accessible functions of the acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter. The measured values of group delay dispersion (GDD) and third order dispersion (TOD) have been found to agree with the preset values within the error of the measurement (1 fs 2 and 10 fs 3

  12. New Meta Nanomaterials Extension II of Optical Enhancement and Photorefractive Two-Beam Coupling - Synthesis and Fabrication of Quantum Dot NLO Polymer Composites (United States)


    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0221 New Meta Nanomaterials Extension II of Optical Enhancement and Photorefractive Two-Beam Coupling - Synthesis and Fabrication...DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-08-2013 - 01-02-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE New Meta Nanomaterials Extension II of Optical Enhancement and...conjugated copolymer at different pH (5.5., 7 and 10) at 50 °C for 3 h, under magnetic stirring. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots with face centered

  13. Flexible Holographic Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystal Templates with Polarization Control through a 3D Printed Reflective Optical Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lowell


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have systematically studied the holographic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D structures using a single 3D printed reflective optical element (ROE, taking advantage of the ease of design and 3D printing of the ROE. The reflective surface was setup at non-Brewster angles to reflect both s- and p-polarized beams for the interference. The wide selection of reflective surface materials and interference angles allow control of the ratio of s- and p-polarizations, and intensity ratio of side-beam to central beam for interference lithography. Photonic bandgap simulations have also indicated that both s and p-polarized waves are sometimes needed in the reflected side beams for maximum photonic bandgap size and certain filling fractions of dielectric inside the photonic crystals. The flexibility of single ROE and single exposure based holographic fabrication of 3D structures was demonstrated with reflective surfaces of ROEs at non-Brewster angles, highlighting the capability of the ROE technique of producing umbrella configurations of side beams with arbitrary angles and polarizations and paving the way for the rapid throughput of various photonic crystal templates.

  14. Experimental and numerical optical characterization of plasmonic copper nanoparticles embedded in ZnO fabricated by ion implantation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Khai Q. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Nguyen, Hieu P.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ 07102 (United States); Ngo, Quang Minh [Institute of Material Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Canimoglu, Adil [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Nigde (Turkey); Can, Nurdogan, E-mail: [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)


    Here we describe the successfully fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting copper (Cu) ions into single zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals with ion energy of 400 keV at ion doses of 1 × 10{sup 16} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation and post-annealing treatment, the Cu implanted ZnO produces a broad range of luminescence emissions, ranging from green to yellow. A green luminescence peak at 550 nm could be ascribed to the isolated Cu ions. The changes in luminescence emission bands between the initial implant and annealed suggest that the implants give rise to clustering Cu nanoparticles in the host matrix but that the annealing process dissociates these. Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed to simulate their optical properties including the extinction cross section, electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence. We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances corresponding to the generation of multiple resonances, while the isolation of nanoparticles results in intensity amplification. - Highlights: • We present the fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting Cu into ZnO. • The luminescence properties were studied at different annealing temperature. • Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed. • We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances.

  15. Optical waveguides fabricated in Cr:LiSAF by femtosecond laser micromachining (United States)

    Biasetti, Demian A.; Di Liscia, Emiliano J.; Torchia, Gustavo A.


    In this work we present the fabrication of double-track type II waveguides written in 1% doped Cr:LiSrAlF6 (Cr:LiSAF) crystal by femtosecond laser micromachining. We studied waveguides fabricated at energies from 1 to 7 μJ per pulse at writing speeds of 15-45 μm/s. We found good wave-guiding performance for both, Transversal Magnetic (TM) and Transversal Electric (TE) polarization modes as well as acceptable losses according to the expected values addressed to technological applications. Also, we performed a high-resolution μ-luminescence waveguide cross-section mapping between the tracks, in order to identify possible spectral changes caused for active ions Cr3+ corresponding to the 4T2 →4A2 vibronic transition in the focal volume zone, due to induced anisotropic graded stress. Finally, their lifetimes were measured for bulk as well as for waveguide trapped ions. We found that for the range of parameters of ultra-short micromachining used, the Cr3+ ions embedded in the waveguides remained spectroscopically unchanged compared with those observed in bulk material.

  16. Fabrication of multipoint side-firing optical fiber by laser micro-ablation. (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang; Parvez Arnob, Md Masud; Becker, Aaron T; Wolfe, John C; Hogan, Matthew K; Horner, Philip J; Shih, Wei-Chuan


    A multipoint, side-firing design enables an optical fiber to output light at multiple desired locations along the fiber body. This provides advantages over traditional end-to-end fibers, especially in applications requiring fiber bundles such as brain stimulation or remote sensing. This Letter demonstrates that continuous wave (CW) laser micro-ablation can controllably create conical-shaped cavities, or side windows, for outputting light. The dimensions of these cavities determine the amount of firing light and their firing angle. Experimental data show that a single side window on a 730 μm fiber can deliver more than 8% of the input light. This can be increased to more than 19% on a 65 μm fiber with side windows created using femtosecond laser ablation and chemical etching. Fine control of light distribution along an optical fiber is critical for various biomedical applications such as light-activated drug-release and optogenetics studies.

  17. Design and fabrication of binary optical element for ICF target uniform illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guofan; Yan Yingbai; Tan Qiaofeng; Zhai Jinhui; Zheng Xuezhe; Wu Minxian


    In the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) system, rigorous requirements of target illumination are requested, such as top flat, steep edge, low side lobes and high light efficiency. Binary optical element (BOE) is a very important approach to realize the above requirements. A hybrid algorithm, GLUSA (Global/local united search algorithm), was developed for designing phases of the BOE. The simulated results showed that BOE arrays applied can decrease the sensitivity of the input phase and amplitude distortion. A 16-phase-level BOE was manufactured by a pattern generator, photolithography and ion-etching sequentially. Based on the optical Computerized Tomography (CT), a measurement system for two-dimensional intensity distribution has been set up. Experiment results declare that the focal spot of the BOE obtained has the expected intensity envelope, but a gap still exists between the experiment result and the designed value

  18. Nonlinear optical properties of Cu nanocluster composite fabricated by 180 keV ion implantation (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Wang, Y. M.; Lu, J. D.; Ji, L. L.; Zang, R. G.; Wang, R. W.


    Metal nanocluster composite glass prepared by 180 keV Cu ions into silica with dose of 5×10 16 ions/cm 2 has been studied. The microstructural properties of the nanoclusters has been verified by optical absorption spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Third-order nonlinear optical properties of the nanoclusters were measured at 1064 and 532 nm excitations using Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refraction index, nonlinear absorption coefficient, and the real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility were deduced. Results of the investigation of nonlinear refraction by the off-axis Z-scan configuration were presented and the mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear response were discussed. Third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) of this kind of sample was determined to be 8.7×10 -8 esu at 532 nm and 6.0×10 -8 esu at 1064 nm, respectively.

  19. UV/Vis visible optical waveguides fabricated using organic-inorganic nanocomposite layers. (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppina; Perozziello, Gerardo


    Nanocomposite layers based on silica nanoparticles and a methacrylate matrix are synthesized by a solvent-free process and characterized in order to realize UV/Vis transparent optical waveguides. Chemical functionalization of the silica nanoparticles permits to interface the polymers and the silica. The refractive index, roughness and wettability and the machinability of the layers can be tuned changing the silica nanoparticle concentration and chemical modification of the surface of the nanoparticles. The optical transparency of the layers is affected by the nanoparticles organization between the organic chains, while it increased proportionally with respect to silica concentration. Nanocomposite layers with a concentration of 40 wt% in silica reached UV transparency for a wavelength of 250 nm. UV/Vis transparent waveguides were micromilled through nanocomposite layers and characterized. Propagation losses were measured to be around 1 dB cm(-1) at a wavelength of 350 nm.

  20. Nano-fabrication of diffractive optics for soft X-ray and atom beam focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, S.


    Nano-structuring processes are described for manufacturing diffractive optics for the condenser-monochromator set-up of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) and for the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the BESSY II electron storage ring in Berlin. Furthermore, a process for manufacturing free-standing nickel zone plates for helium atom beam focusing experiments is presented. (author)

  1. Fabrication of optical channel waveguides in crystals and glasses using macro- and micro ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Veres, M.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.


    Roč. 331, JUL (2014), s. 157-162 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * focussed ion beam * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * Bismuth germanate * Micro Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  2. Fabrication and Analysis Signal Optical Fiber Sensor Based On Bend Loss for Weight in Motion Applications (United States)

    Aftah Syukron, Ahmad; Marzuki, Ahmad; Setyawan, Ary


    Road network plays very important role in economic development. Overweight is one of the main factors contributing to road damage. To minimize this factor, road authority has to make sure that all vehicles operate in according to maximum vehicle regulation set by the government. The one solution can use from this problem is Weight in motion (WIM) technology. WIM technology allows measuring vehicle weight quickly. The sensor is one of the important components in the WIM system. This paper presents a model of WIM fiber sensor work based on bend loss. Fiber sensor has made by coiling optical fiber. Coiling optical fiber has managed in the elliptical shape rubber coil. Rubber coil then is planted in the pad of sensor. The principle of this sensor is a detecting of the shift light intensity output of optical fiber when the vehicles a passing through on fiber sensor. Loading was carried out using loaded truck model. Data was carried out with variations of load and load positions in the truck. The results can be concluded that the shift light intensity is greater with the more shift loads. The loader of the truck has also resulted in the greater loss. Loads in the truck distributed on the axles due to the position of loads.

  3. Research Progress of Optical Fabrication and Surface-Microstructure Modification of SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Jiang


    Full Text Available SiC has become the best candidate material for space mirror and optical devices due to a series of favorable physical and chemical properties. Fine surface optical quality with the surface roughness (RMS less than 1 nm is necessary for fine optical application. However, various defects are present in SiC ceramics, and it is very difficult to polish SiC ceramic matrix with the 1 nm RMS. Surface modification of SiC ceramics must be done on the SiC substrate. Four kinds of surface-modification routes including the hot pressed glass, the C/SiC clapping, SiC clapping, and Si clapping on SiC surface have been reported and reviewed here. The methods of surface modification, the mechanism of preparation, and the disadvantages and advantages are focused on in this paper. In our view, PVD Si is the best choice for surface modification of SiC mirror.

  4. Fabrication and optical characterization of GaN waveguides on (−201)-oriented β-Ga_2O_3

    KAUST Repository

    Awan, Kashif M.


    Gallium nitride (GaN), a wide-bandgap III-V semiconductor material with a bandgap wavelength λ = 366 nm (for Wurtzite GaN) and transparency window covering the visible spectrum, has a large number of applications for photonics and optoelectronics. However, the optical quality of this material suffers from growth imperfections due to the lack of a suitable substrate. Recent studies have shown that GaN grown on (-201) β - GaO (gallium oxide) has better lattice matching and hence superior optical quality as compared to GaN grown traditionally on AlO (sapphire). In this work, we report on the fabrication of GaN waveguides on GaO substrate, followed by a wet-etch process aimed at the reduction of waveguide surface roughness and improvement of side-wall verticality in these waveguides. The propagation loss in the resulting waveguides has been experimentally determined to be 7.5 dB/cm.

  5. Optical planar waveguides in photo-thermal-refractive glasses fabricated by single- or double-energy carbon ion implantation (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Zheng, Rui-Lin; Guo, Hai-Tao; Lv, Peng; Liu, Chun-Xiao


    Ion implantation has demonstrated to be an efficient and reliable technique for the fabrication of optical waveguides in a diversity of transparent materials. Photo-thermal-refractive glass (PTR) is considered to be durable and stable holographic recording medium. Optical planar waveguide structures in the PTR glasses were formed, for the first time to our knowledge, by the C3+-ion implantation with single-energy (6.0 MeV) and double-energy (5.5+6.0 MeV), respectively. The process of the carbon ion implantation was simulated by the stopping and range of ions in matter code. The morphologies of the waveguides were recorded by a microscope operating in transmission mode. The guided beam distributions of the waveguides were measured by the end-face coupling technique. Comparing with the single-energy implantation, the double-energy implantation improves the light confinement for the dark-mode spectrum. The guiding properties suggest that the carbon-implanted PTR glass waveguides have potential for the manufacture of photonic devices.

  6. Total body irradiation with a compensator fabricated using a 3D optical scanner and a 3D printer. (United States)

    Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Jung-In; Joo, Yoon Ha; Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Jong Min


    We propose bilateral total body irradiation (TBI) utilizing a 3D printer and a 3D optical scanner. We acquired surface information of an anthropomorphic phantom with the 3D scanner and fabricated the 3D compensator with the 3D printer, which could continuously compensate for the lateral missing tissue of an entire body from the beam's eye view. To test the system's performance, we measured doses with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) as well as EBT3 films with the anthropomorphic phantom during TBI without a compensator, conventional bilateral TBI, and TBI with the 3D compensator (3D TBI). The 3D TBI showed the most uniform dose delivery to the phantom. From the OSLD measurements of the 3D TBI, the deviations between the measured doses and the prescription dose ranged from  -6.7% to 2.4% inside the phantom and from  -2.3% to 0.6% on the phantom's surface. From the EBT3 film measurements, the prescription dose could be delivered to the entire body of the phantom within  ±10% accuracy, except for the chest region, where tissue heterogeneity is extreme. The 3D TBI doses were much more uniform than those of the other irradiation techniques, especially in the anterior-to-posterior direction. The 3D TBI was advantageous, owing to its uniform dose delivery as well as its efficient treatment procedure.

  7. Synthesis, optical properties and residual strain effect of GaN nanowires generated via metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel


    Herein, we report on the studies of GaN nanowires (GaN NWs) prepared via a metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method with Pt as the catalyst. It has been found that etching time greatly influences the growth of GaN NWs. The density and the length of nanowires increased with longer etching time, and excellent substrate coverage was observed. The average nanowire width and length are around 35 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a single-crystalline wurtzite structure and is confirmed by X-ray measurements. The synthesis mechanism of GaN NWs using the metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method was presented. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of GaN NWs show red-shift PL peaks compared to the as-grown sample associated with the relaxation of compressive stress. Furthermore, a shift of the E2 peak to the lower frequency in the Raman spectra for the samples etched for a longer time confirms such a stress relaxation. Based on Raman measurements, the compressive stress σxx and the residual strain εxx were evaluated to be 0.23 GPa and 2.6 × 10−4, respectively. GaN NW synthesis using a low cost method might be used for the fabrication of power optoelectronic devices and gas sensors.

  8. Structural optical and electrical transport properties of ALD-fabricated CuCrO2 films


    Tripathi, T.S.; Karppinen, Maarit


    We report the structural, optical and electrical transport properties of CuCrO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Copper tetramethyl heptanedionate (Cu(thd)2) and chromium acetyl acetonate (Cr(acac)3) have been used as the precursors for copper and chromium whereas ozone as the oxygen source. The effect of post-deposition annealing on the crystallinity of the films, band gap as well as electrical transport properties has been investigated. A direct band-gap of 3.10 eV was estimated ...

  9. Fabrication and Characterisation of Silicon Waveguides for High-Speed Optical Signal Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Asger Sellerup

    This Ph.D. thesis treats various aspects of silicon photonics. From the limitations of silicon as a linear and nonlinear waveguide medium to its synergy with other waveguide materials. Various methods for reducing sidewall roughness and line edge roughness of silicon waveguides are attempted...... was too high for any practical applications. It is speculated that the attempt at creating a material with low density of dangling bonds was unsuccessful. Nevertheless, linear losses of 2.4dB/cm at 1550nm wavelength in the silicon waveguides remained sufficiently low that high speed nonlinear optical...

  10. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.


    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  11. Design, fabrication, and characterization of silicon pore optics for ATHENA/IXO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collon, Maximilien J.; Günther, Ramses; Ackermann, Marcelo


    Silicon pore optics is a technology developed to enable future large area X-ray telescopes, such as the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) or the Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA), an L-class candidate mission in the ESA Space Science Programme 'Cosmic Visions 2015......-2025'. ATHENA/IXO use nested mirrors in Wolter-I configuration to focus grazing incidence X-ray photons on a detector plane. The x-ray optics will have to meet stringent performance requirements including an effective area of a few m2 at 1.25 keV and angular resolution between 5(IXO) and 9(ATHENA) arc seconds....... To achieve the collecting area requires a total polished mirror surface area close to 1000 m2 with a surface roughness better than 0.5 nm rms. By using commercial high-quality 12" silicon wafers which are diced, structured, wedged, coated, bent and stacked, the stringent performance requirements can be met...

  12. A Feasibility Study on Monitoring Residual Sugar and Alcohol Strength in Kiwi Wine Fermentation Using a Fiber-Optic FT-NIR Spectrometry and PLS Regression. (United States)

    Wang, Bingqian; Peng, Bangzhu


    This work aims to investigate the potential of fiber-optic Fourier transform-near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectrometry associated with chemometric analysis, which will be applied to monitor time-related changes in residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation. NIR calibration models for residual sugar and alcohol strength during kiwi wine fermentation were established on the FT-NIR spectra of 98 samples scanned in a fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometer, and partial least squares regression method. The results showed that R 2 and root mean square error of cross-validation could achieve 0.982 and 3.81 g/L for residual sugar, and 0.984 and 0.34% for alcohol strength, respectively. Furthermore, crucial process information on kiwi must and wine fermentations provided by fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry was found to agree with those obtained from traditional chemical methods, and therefore this fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry can be applied as an effective and suitable alternative for analyses and monitoring of those processes. The overall results suggested that fiber-optic FT-NIR spectrometry is a promising tool for monitoring and controlling the kiwi wine fermentation process. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Conformal Fabrication of Colloidal Quantum Dot Solids for Optically Enhanced Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, André J.


    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Colloidal quantum dots (CQD) are an attractive thin-film material for photovoltaic applications due to low material costs, ease of fabrication, and size-tunable band gap. Unfortunately, today they suffer from a compromise between light absorption and photocarrier extraction, a fact that currently prevents the complete harvest of incoming above-band-gap solar photons. We have investigated the use of structured substrates and/or electrodes to increase the effective light path through the active material and found that these designs require highly conformal application of the light-absorbing films to achieve the greatest enhancement. This conformality requirement derives from the need for maximal absorption enhancement combined with shortest-distance charge transport. Here we report on a means of processing highly conformal layer-by-layer deposited CQD absorber films onto microstructured, light-recycling electrodes. Specifically, we engineer surface hydrophilicity to achieve conformal deposition of upper layers atop underlying ones. We show that only with the application of conformal coating can we achieve optimal quantum efficiency and enhanced power conversion efficiency in structured-electrode CQD cells.

  14. Biomimetic self-templating optical structures fabricated by genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage. (United States)

    Kim, Won-Geun; Song, Hyerin; Kim, Chuntae; Moon, Jong-Sik; Kim, Kyujung; Lee, Seung-Wuk; Oh, Jin-Woo


    Here, we describe a highly sensitive and selective surface plasmon resonance sensor system by utilizing self-assembly of genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage. About 2700 copies of genetically expressed peptide copies give superior selectivity and sensitivity to M13 phage-based SPR sensor. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the M13 phage-based SPR sensor was enhanced due to the aligning of receptor matrix in specific direction. Incorporation of specific binding peptide (His Pro Gln: HPQ) gives M13 bacteriophage high selectivity for the streptavidin. Our M13 phage-based SPR sensor takes advantage of simplicity of self-assembly compared with relatively complex photolithography techniques or chemical conjugations. Additionally, designed structure which is composed of functionalized M13 bacteriophage can simultaneously improve the sensitivity and selectivity of SPR sensor evidently. By taking advantages of the genetic engineering and self-assembly, we propose the simple method for fabricating novel M13 phage-based SPR sensor system which has a high sensitivity and high selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural Optical and Electrical Transport Properties of ALD-Fabricated CuCrO2 Films (United States)

    Tripathi, T. S.; Karppinen, Maarit

    We report the structural, optical and electrical transport properties of CuCrO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Copper tetramethyl heptanedionate (Cu(thd)2) and chromium acetyl acetonate (Cr(acac)3) have been used as the precursors for copper and chromium whereas ozone as the oxygen source. The effect of post-deposition annealing on the crystallinity of the films, band gap as well as electrical transport properties has been investigated. A direct band-gap of 3.10 eV was estimated from the UV visible spectrophotometric measurements for the films annealed at 800 0C in Ar environment. Electrical resistivity measurements show a semiconducting behavior. Seebeck coefficient shows an increasing trend with annealing temperature and with temperature sweep measurements.

  16. Fabrication of optical fiber of zinc tin borophosphate glass with zero photoelastic constant (United States)

    Saitoh, Akira; Oba, Yuya; Takebe, Hiromichi


    An optical fiber made of zinc tin boro-phosphate glass having a zero photoelastic constant, good water durability, and excluding hazardous elements was drawn from a prepared preform for use in a fiber-type current sensor device. The proposed cladding compositions enable single-mode propagation for a wavelength of 1550 nm, which is estimated from the difference in the refractive index between the core and cladding compositions. The drawing conditions should be controlled since the multiple-component glass is very sensitive to changes in viscosity and crystal precipitation during the heat-treated stretching of the preform. The temperature dependence of viscosity in the core and cladding reveals the feasibility of drawing.

  17. Alignment and fabrication of micro-optic assemblies using fiber fusion (United States)

    Florence, James M.; Hoggins, James T.


    Considerable time for alignment is typically spent in the assembly of fiber optic components and subsystems. Presented here is a process that allows for pick-and-place assembly and automated alignment of these components. Fibers that are normally pre-attached to collimating or coupling lenses are left free in this process. The fiber position can then be re-located at the point of optimum performance by actively monitoring system performance. The fiber alignment can compensate for misalignment of the primary assembly components. Once the optimum fiber position is achieved the fiber is fused to the collimating or coupling lens element to provide the best mechanical and thermal stability of the finished assembly.

  18. Annealing effect on optical properties of ZnO films fabricated by cathodic electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qingtao; Wang Guanzhong; Jie Jiansheng; Han Xinhai; Xu Bo; Hou, J.G.


    (001)-oriented ZnO films on Zn substrates were synthesized by cathodic electrodeposition from an aqueous solution composed only of 0.05 M zinc nitrate at 65 deg. C. A bound exciton emission band around 3.34 eV along with three longitudinal optical (LO) phonon replicas and an intensive broad emission band around 2.17 eV were observed from the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnO films prepared at more positive potential (- 0.6∼- 0.8 V). When more negative potential (- 1.0∼- 1.4 V) was applied, the ultraviolet emission band disappeared. These results indicate that more positive electrodeposition potential favors the high quality ZnO film growth. The PL spectra of the annealed ZnO films prepared at more positive electrodeposition potentials - 0.6∼- 1.0 V exhibit the ultraviolet emission at 3.35 eV and a negligibly weak emission from defects. Annealing resulted in the enhancement and sharpening of the excitonic emission band and decrease of the deep level emission. The bandgap (E g ) of the ZnO film prepared at - 1.0 V on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate decreased from 3.56 to 3.29 eV due to the removing of Zn(OH) 2 from the film after annealing

  19. Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared via a Simple Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hedayati


    Full Text Available In this research zinc oxide (ZnO nano-crystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel method using zinc acetate. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using XRD pattern. The crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the SEM. The grain size of zinc oxide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by XRD results. The optical properties of particles were studied with UV-Vis an FTIR absorption spectrum. The Raman spectrum measurements were carried out using a micro-laser Raman spectrometer forms the ZnO nanoparticles. At the end studied the effect of calcined temperature on the photoluminescence (PL emission of ZnO nanoparticles.

  20. Classification of Vegetation over a Residual Megafan Landform in the Amazonian Lowland Based on Optical and SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édipo Henrique Cremon


    Full Text Available The origin of large areas dominated by pristine open vegetation that is in sharp contrast with surrounding dense forest within the Amazonian lowland has generally been related to past arid climates, but this is still an issue open for debate. In this paper, we characterize a large open vegetation patch over a residual megafan located in the northern Amazonia. The main goal was to investigate the relationship between this paleolandform and vegetation classes mapped based on the integration of optical and SAR data using the decision tree. Our remote sensing dataset includes PALSAR and TM/Landsat images. Five classes were identified: rainforest; flooded forest; wooded open vegetation; grassy-shrubby open vegetation; and water body. The output map resulting from the integration of PALSAR and TM/Landsat images showed an overall accuracy of 94%. Narrow, elongated and sinuous belts of forest within the open vegetation areas progressively bifurcate into others revealing paleochannels arranged into distributary pattern. Such characteristics, integrated with pre-existing geological information, led us to propose that the distribution of vegetation classes highlight a morphology attributed to a Quaternary megafan developed previous to the modern fluvial tributary system. The characterization of such megafan is important for reconstructing landscape changes associated with the evolution of the Amazon drainage basin.

  1. Fabrication and optical characteristics of silicon-based two-dimensional wavelength division multiplexing splitter with photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang


    Photonic crystals have many potential applications because of their ability to control lightwave propagation. We report on the fabrication and optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional photonic crystals with triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air. Rod-type photonic crystal structures were fabricated in silicon by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. Wavelength division multiplexing splitters were fabricated from two-dimensional photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers. Transmission spectra were measured and device operation was shown to be in agreement with theoretical calculations. The splitters can be used in visible light region. Such an approach to photonic element systems should enable new applications for designing components in photonic integrated circuits. -- Highlights: → We report the fabrication and optical properties of rod-type photonic crystal. → The splitter was fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. → The splitter was composed of directional waveguide couplers. → Measured transmission spectra are in agreement with theoretical calculations. → The splitters can be used in visible light region.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of anthracene thin films for wide-scale organic optoelectronic applications based on linear/nonlinear analyzed optical dispersion parameters (United States)

    Nawar, Ahmed M.; Yahia, I. S.


    This research work is devoted to studying the linear and nonlinear optical properties of anthracene thin films. For the first time, the fabrication of nanocrystalline anthracene films is presented by using the thermal evaporation conventional technique. All the studied anthracene films exhibit monoclinic crystal structure with dominant preferred orientation along the (001) plane in accordance with X-ray diffraction analysis. The average crystalline size and the strain parameter were calculated and found to be ≈ 14 nm and 42 lines2. nm, respectively. The transparency of the fabricated anthracene films is high (>80%) from the end of the visible to the near-infrared region at 1500 nm, after that; it reaches to 87%. The characteristic behavior, analysis of refractive index and absorption coefficient based on the measured spectrophotometric data of the transmittance and reflectance spectra. The transition is allowed one and the evaluated optical band gap ∼3.1 eV with energy tail ∼105 meV. The dispersion curves of the refractive index were found to follow the Wemple-DiDomenico model. The static optical dielectric constant was found to be 2.592. The molecular polarizability of anthracene thin films presented and its value ∼56.58 (Å)3. A simple spectroscopic method is used to characterize and estimate the nonlinear optical susceptibilities. Thermal evaporation technology could be useful to fabricate blue OLED and window film in photodetector devices based-anthracene films.

  3. The residual pattern of double thin-film over-etching for the fabrication of continuous patterns with dimensions varying from 50 nm to millimeters over a large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L Q; Chan-Park, Mary B; Yang Chun; Zhang Qing


    Attempts at heavy edge over-etching of a single thin film under a photoresist to leave behind a residual smaller patterned line as a mask for nanostructure fabrication frequently fail due to detachment of the photoresist above it. We have accordingly developed a technique named 'residual pattern of double thin-film over-etching' (RDTO) to obtain a nanoscale residual pattern of the bottom thin film after extensive edge over-etching. When Au and Cr were used as the top and bottom thin films, respectively, heavy over-etching of Cr for use as a mask for nanopatterning of the underlying silicon substrate was feasible. Three patterns were fabricated for demonstration of the RDTO technique, and nanopatterns with linewidths as small as 50 nm were obtained. More importantly, our technique allows the fabrication of a single pattern with feature dimensions that vary continuously from a few tens of nanometers to a few millimeters at different positions. In addition, we have developed simple models to analyze the hydrodynamic and surface tension effects during the over-etching procedure to show the feasibility of RDTO. This technique will find diverse applications in micro- and nano-fluidics, lab-on-a-chip nano-arrays and biomedical engineering

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy of OH lines in N2 and Ar plasma during the treatments of cotton fabric (United States)

    Skoro, Nikola; Puac, Nevena; Spasic, Kosta; Malovic, Gordana; Gorjanc, Marija; Petrovic, Zoran Lj


    Low pressure non-equilibrium plasmas are proven to be irreplaceable tool in material processing. Among other fields their applications in treatments of textiles are still diversifying, but the main role of plasma is activation of the surface of treated sample. After, or during, the treatments these surfaces can be covered with different materials or species (such as microcapsules) that enhance properties of the fabric. In order to investigate mechanisms how active species from plasma interact with the cotton surface, we studied both plasma and surface properties. Bleached cotton samples were treated in low-pressure nitrogen and argon plasma in a chamber with parallel-plate electrodes. The effect of the plasma treatment on the cotton samples was investigated with the colorimetric measurements on dyes absorption by a spectrophotometer. Optical emission spectroscopy was performed by using spectrometer with a sensitive CCD camera. We have recorded the evolution of the maximum of the intensity of OH and N2 second positive band lines. Measurement were done with and without samples in the chamber and comparison between the lines intensity was made. The parameters for optimal plasma treatment conditions were determined. Research supported by the MESTD, projects III41011 and ON171037.

  5. Optical nanosphere sensor based on shell-by-shell fabrication for removal of toxic metals from human blood. (United States)

    El-Safty, S A; Abdellatef, S; Ismael, M; Shahat, A


    Because toxic heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate, they represent a substantial human health hazard. Various methods are used to identify and quantify toxic metals in biological tissues and environment fluids, but a simple, rapid, and inexpensive system has yet to be developed. To reduce the necessity for instrument-dependent analysis, we developed a single, pH-dependent, nanosphere (NS) sensor for naked-eye detection and removal of toxic metal ions from drinking water and physiological systems (i.e., blood). The design platform for the optical NS sensor is composed of double mesoporous core-shell silica NSs fabricated by one-pot, template-guided synthesis with anionic surfactant. The dense shell-by-shell NS construction generated a unique hierarchical NS sensor with a hollow cage interior to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, longevity, selectivity, and signal stability. Here, we examined the application of the NS sensor for the removal of toxic metals (e.g., lead ions from a physiological system, such as human blood). The findings show that this sensor design has potential for the rapid screening of blood lead levels so that the effects of lead toxicity can be avoided. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. One-step Maskless Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Silicon Surfaces with Antireflective Properties and a White Color Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Telecka, Agnieszka


    We report a simple one-step maskless fabrication of inverted pyramids on silicon wafers by reactive ion etching. The fabricated surface structures exhibit excellent anti-reflective properties: The total reflectance of the nano inverted pyramids fabricated by our method can be as low as 12% without...

  7. Fabrication of planar optical waveguides by 6.0 MeV silicon ion implantation in Nd-doped phosphate glasses (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Liang; Dai, Han-Qing; Zhang, Liao-Lin; Wang, Yue; Zhu, Qi-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Liu, Chun-Xiao


    We report the fabrication of a planar optical waveguide by silicon ion implantation into Nd-doped phosphate glass at an energy of 6.0 MeV and a dose of 5.0 × 1014 ions/cm2. The change in the surface morphology of the glass after the implantation can be clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy. The measurement of the dark mode spectrum of the waveguide is conducted using a prism coupler at 632.8 nm. The refractive index distribution of the waveguide is reconstructed by the reflectivity calculation method. The near-field optical intensity profile of the waveguide is measured using an end-face coupling system. The waveguide with good optical properties on the glass matrix may be valuable for the application of the Nd-doped phosphate glass in integrated optical devices.

  8. Thermo-Optical Properties of Thin-Film TiO2–Al2O3 Bilayers Fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ali


    Full Text Available We investigate the optical and thermo-optical properties of amorphous TiO\\(_2\\–Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ thin-film bilayers fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD. Seven samples of TiO\\(_2\\–Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ bilayers are fabricated by growing Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ films of different thicknesses on the surface of TiO\\(_2\\ films of constant thickness (100 nm. Temperature-induced changes in the optical refractive indices of these thin-film bilayers are measured by a variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer VASE\\textsuperscript{\\textregistered}. The optical data and the thermo-optic coefficients of the films are retrieved and calculated by applying the Cauchy model and the linear fitting regression algorithm, in order to evaluate the surface porosity model of TiO\\(_2\\ films. The effects of TiO\\(_2\\ surface defects on the films' thermo-optic properties are reduced and modified by depositing ultra-thin ALD-Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ diffusion barrier layers. Increasing the ALD-Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ thickness from 20 nm to 30 nm results in a sign change of the thermo-optic coefficient of the ALD-TiO\\(_2\\. The thermo-optic coefficients of the 100 nm-thick ALD-TiO\\(_2\\ film and 30 nm-thick ALD-Al\\(_2\\O\\(_3\\ film in a bilayer are (0.048 \\(\\pm\\ 0.134 \\(\\times 10 ^{-4} {^\\circ}\\mathrm {C}^{-1}\\ and (0.680 \\(\\pm\\ 0.313 \\(\\times 10^{-4} {^\\circ} \\mathrm {C}^{-1}\\, respectively, at a temperature \\(T = 62 ^\\circ \\mathrm{C}\\.

  9. Optical properties and residual stress in aluminum nitride films prepared by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. (United States)

    Tang, Chien-Jen; Jaing, Cheng-Chung; Lee, Kun-Hsien; Lee, Cheng-Chung


    Aluminum nitride films were deposited by alternating-current dual reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of different nitrogen flow and working pressures at a sputtering power of 5 kW on the refractive index, extinction coefficient, crystalline structure, residual stress, and surface roughness of aluminum nitride films was discussed. The aluminum nitride film would have high refractive index, low extinction coefficient and small residual stress at suitable nitrogen flow rate and low working pressure.

  10. Stresses and residual stresses optical measurements systems evaluation; Avaliacao de sistemas opticos de medicao de tensoes e tensoes residuais em dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto Filho, Flavio Tito; Goncalves Junior, Armando Albertazzi [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia e Automatizacao (LABMETRO)


    There is always a constant concern about the pipelines' integrity. An important control parameter is the level of total mechanical stresses acting over the pipeline. However, the loading and residual stresses acting on a pipeline are not measured in the field as much as necessary. Technical difficulties and the high cost of the nowadays techniques and the hostile measurement conditions are the main reason for that. An alternative method has been developed at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) since 1992. A new optical measurement device is used to measure strains, mechanical stresses and residual stresses acting over the structure. A metrological and functional evaluation of this system is the main focus of this paper. (author)

  11. Investigations on microstructural and optical properties of CdS films fabricated by a low-cost, simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K.; Philominathan, P. [PG and Research Department of Physics, AVVM, Sri Pushpam College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Good quality CdS films were fabricated by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer. CdS films have been deposited from aqueous solutions of sulphur and cadmium, keeping the molar concentrations of S:Cd = 0.01:0.01, 0.02:0.02, 0.04:0.04 and 0.06:0.06 in the starting solutions. The structural studies reveal that the S:Cd concentration has a strong influence on the microstructural characteristics of the sprayed CdS films. It was found that there is a transition in the preferred orientation from (0 0 2) plane to (1 0 1) plane when S:Cd molar concentration increases. The SEM images depict that the films are uniform and homogeneous. All the films have high optical transmittance (>80%) in the visible range. The optical band gap values are found to be in the range of 2.46-2.52 eV. CdS films fabricated by this simple and economic spray technique without using any carrier gas are found to be good in structural and optical properties which are desirable for photovoltaic applications. Hence, this simplified version of spray technique can be considered as an economic alternative to conventional spray pyrolysis (using carrier gas), for the mass production of low-cost, large area CdS coatings for solar cell applications. (author)

  12. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.


    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... testing. Reflectivity measurements at 8 keV on ERAFs with and without multilayer coatings show a 4.4 to 4.8 A root mean square (rms) microroughness for correlation lengths less than or equal to 15 mum. To reduce the dominant contribution of mirror assembly and large-scale distortion in the overall...

  13. Si-nanowire-based multistage delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical MUX/DeMUX fabricated by an ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300 mm SOI wafer. (United States)

    Jeong, Seok-Hwan; Shimura, Daisuke; Simoyama, Takasi; Horikawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Yu; Morito, Ken


    We report good phase controllability and high production yield in Si-nanowire-based multistage delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometer-type optical multiplexers/demultiplexers (MUX/DeMUX) fabricated by an ArF-immersion lithography process on a 300 mm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. Three kinds of devices fabricated in this work exhibit clear 1×4 Ch wavelength filtering operations for various optical frequency spacing. These results are promising for their applications in high-density wavelength division multiplexing-based optical interconnects.

  14. Fabrication and Characterization of a SPR Based Fiber Optic Sensor for the Detection of Chlorine Gas Using Silver and Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sruthi P. Usha


    Full Text Available A fiber optic chlorine gas sensor working on surface plasmon resonance (SPR technique fabricated using coatings of silver and zinc oxide films over unclad core of the optical fiber is reported. The sensor probe is characterized using wavelength interrogation and recording SPR spectra for different concentrations of chlorine gas around the probe. A red shift is observed in the resonance wavelength on increasing the concentration of the chlorine gas. The thickness of the zinc oxide film is optimized to achieve the maximum sensitivity of the sensor. In addition to wavelength interrogation, the sensor can also work on intensity modulation. The selectivity of the sensor towards chlorine gas is verified by carrying out measurements for different gases. The sensor has various advantages such as better sensitivity, good selectivity, reusability, fast response, low cost, capability of online monitoring and remote sensing.

  15. Sol-gel-graphene-based fabric-phase sorptive extraction for cow and human breast milk sample cleanup for screening bisphenol A and residual dental restorative material before analysis by HPLC with diode array detection. (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Filippou, Olga; Marinou, Eirini; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G


    Fabric-phase sorptive extraction has already been recognized as a simple and green alternative to the conventional sorbent-based sorptive microextraction techniques, using hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings chemically bonded to a flexible fabric surface. Herein, we have investigated the synergistic combination of the advanced material properties offered by sol-gel graphene sorbent and the simplicity of Fabric phase sorptive extraction approach in selectively extracting bisphenol A and residual monomers including bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate derived dental restorative materials from cow and human breast milk samples. Different coatings were evaluated. Final method development employed sol-gel graphene coated media. The main experimental parameters influencing extraction of the compounds, such as sorbent chemistry used, sample loading conditions, elution solvent, sorption stirring time, elution time, impact of protein precipitation, amount of sample, and matrix effect, were investigated and optimized. Absolute recovery values from standard solutions were 50% for bisphenol A, 78% for T triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 110% for urethane dimethacrylate, and 103% for bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, while respective absolute recovery values from milk were 30, 52, 104, and 42%. Method validation was performed according to European Decision 657/2002/EC in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Strong and Optically Transparent Films Prepared Using Cellulosic Solid Residue Recovered from Cellulose Nanocrystals Production Waste Stream (United States)

    Qianqian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; John M. Considine


    We used a new cellulosic material, cellulosic solid residue (CSR), to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for potential high value applications. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were produced from CSR recovered from the hydrolysates (waste stream) of acid hydrolysis of a bleached Eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEP) to produce nanocrystals (CNC). Acid hydrolysis greatly facilitated...

  17. Black carbon and particulate matter optical properties from agricultural residue burning in the Pacific Northwest United States (United States)

    Holder, A. L.; Aurell, J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Hays, M. D.; Gullett, B.


    Burning of agricultural residues in field is a common management practice that is used to quickly clear fields of post-harvest vegetation and to stimulate seed production in some grass species. Although cropland burning contributes only a minor fraction to the United States particulate matter and black carbon emissions, it can have substantial impacts on local and regional air quality and visibility. During the 2013 burning season in the Pacific Northwest United States emissions were measured from a series of burns carried out on cropland. Kentucky bluegrass residues (Poa pratensis), winter wheat stubble (Triticum aestivum), and chemically fallowed winter wheat stubble were burned in field. Particulate matter, light absorption and scattering, and black carbon concentrations were measured at ground level downwind of the field. Although particulate emissions varied substantially by fuel type and even among fields of the same fuel with different treatments (i.e., light versus heavy residues) the black carbon fraction of particulate matter was consistently less than 5% and accordingly single scattering albedos were above 0.9. The emissions exhibited strong spectral variation, with absorption angstrom exponents in the range of 3 - 5 in the wavelength range of 405 to 532 nm. Laboratory burns with residues collected from the fields produced emissions that were considerably more absorbing with single scattering albedos near 0.65 and lower absorption angstrom exponents of 1 - 2.

  18. Fabrication of an electro-absorption transceiver with a monolithically integrated optical amplifier for fiber transmission of 40–60 GHz radio signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Andy Zhenzhong; Wang, Qin; Fonjallaz, Pierre-Yves; Almqvist, Susanne; Karlsson, Stefan; Kjebon, Olle; Schatz, Richard; Chacinski, Marek; Thylén, Lars; Berggren, Jesper; Hammar, Mattias; Honecker, Jörg; Steffan, Andreas


    We report on the fabrication of a monolithically integrated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a reflective electro-absorption transceiver (EAT) for 40–60 GHz radio-over-fiber applications. The EAT can either function as a transmitter (reflective modulator) or as a receiver (photodetector) depending on operation mode. The SOA and the EAT sections are based on different InGaAsP multiple quantum-well active layers connected by a butt joint. Benzocyclobutene is used to reduce the capacitance beside the ridge mesa. Devices are designed to have a peaked response at the operating frequency through the design of microwave waveguides on top of the devices. The packaged device exhibits at 0.1 mW optical input power an amplified DC responsivity of 18.5 mA mW −1 and a modulation efficiency of 0.67 mW V −1 . The estimated radio frequency loss at 40 GHz of an optical link consisting of two SOA–EAT devices was 23 dB using an unmodulated optical input carrier to the transmitter of 0.94 mW

  19. Design and fabrication of a scanning electron microscope using a finite element analysis for electron optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Man Jin; Kim, Dong Hwan; Park, Keun; Jang, Dong Young; Han, Dong Chul


    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of a thermionic scanning electron microscope (SEM) and examine its characteristics analytically. In the design process, the dimensions and capacity of the SEM components, such as the electron column, lenses, and apertures, were determined using finite element analysis. All components were integrated systematically during fabrication in order to achieve the maximum performance by adjusting the lens parameters, high voltage source, and image calibration methods. As a result, a thermionic SEM image with high resolution was achieved. We discuss the primary considerations required to achieve a high-performance image

  20. Quantitative analysis of the radiation error for aerial coiled-fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing deployments using reinforcing fabric as support structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sigmund


    Full Text Available In recent years, the spatial resolution of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS has been enhanced in various studies by helically coiling the fiber around a support structure. While solid polyvinyl chloride tubes are an appropriate support structure under water, they can produce considerable errors in aerial deployments due to the radiative heating or cooling. We used meshed reinforcing fabric as a novel support structure to measure high-resolution vertical temperature profiles with a height of several meters above a meadow and within and above a small lake. This study aimed at quantifying the radiation error for the coiled DTS system and the contribution caused by the novel support structure via heat conduction. A quantitative and comprehensive energy balance model is proposed and tested, which includes the shortwave radiative, longwave radiative, convective, and conductive heat transfers and allows for modeling fiber temperatures as well as quantifying the radiation error. The sensitivity of the energy balance model to the conduction error caused by the reinforcing fabric is discussed in terms of its albedo, emissivity, and thermal conductivity. Modeled radiation errors amounted to −1.0 and 1.3 K at 2 m height but ranged up to 2.8 K for very high incoming shortwave radiation (1000 J s−1 m−2 and very weak winds (0.1 m s−1. After correcting for the radiation error by means of the presented energy balance, the root mean square error between DTS and reference air temperatures from an aspirated resistance thermometer or an ultrasonic anemometer was 0.42 and 0.26 K above the meadow and the lake, respectively. Conduction between reinforcing fabric and fiber cable had a small effect on fiber temperatures (< 0.18 K. Only for locations where the plastic rings that supported the reinforcing fabric touched the fiber-optic cable were significant temperature artifacts of up to 2.5 K observed. Overall, the

  1. Comparison of quartz crystallographic preferred orientations identified with optical fabric analysis, electron backscatter and neutron diffraction techniques. (United States)

    Hunter, N J R; Wilson, C J L; Luzin, V


    Three techniques are used to measure crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in a naturally deformed quartz mylonite: transmitted light cross-polarized microscopy using an automated fabric analyser, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and neutron diffraction. Pole figure densities attributable to crystal-plastic deformation are variably recognizable across the techniques, particularly between fabric analyser and diffraction instruments. Although fabric analyser techniques offer rapid acquisition with minimal sample preparation, difficulties may exist when gathering orientation data parallel with the incident beam. Overall, we have found that EBSD and fabric analyser techniques are best suited for studying CPO distributions at the grain scale, where individual orientations can be linked to their source grain or nearest neighbours. Neutron diffraction serves as the best qualitative and quantitative means of estimating the bulk CPO, due to its three-dimensional data acquisition, greater sample area coverage, and larger sample size. However, a number of sampling methods can be applied to FA and EBSD data to make similar approximations. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Low-cost optical fabrication of flexible copper electrode via laser-induced reductive sintering and adhesive transfer (United States)

    Back, Seunghyun; Kang, Bongchul


    Fabricating copper electrodes on heat-sensitive polymer films in air is highly challenging owing to the need of expensive copper nanoparticles, rapid oxidation of precursor during sintering, and limitation of sintering temperature to prevent the thermal damage of the polymer film. A laser-induced hybrid process of reductive sintering and adhesive transfer is demonstrated to cost-effectively fabricate copper electrode on a polyethylene film with a thermal resistance below 100 °C. A laser-induced reductive sintering process directly fabricates a high-conductive copper electrode onto a glass donor from copper oxide nanoparticle solution via photo-thermochemical reduction and agglomeration of copper oxide nanoparticles. The sintered copper patterns were transferred in parallel to a heat-sensitive polyethylene film through self-selective surface adhesion of the film, which was generated by the selective laser absorption of the copper pattern. The method reported here could become one of the most important manufacturing technologies for fabricating low-cost wearable and disposable electronics.

  3. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T


    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  4. Quantitative analysis of the radiation error for aerial coiled-fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing deployments using reinforcing fabric as support structure (United States)

    Sigmund, Armin; Pfister, Lena; Sayde, Chadi; Thomas, Christoph K.


    In recent years, the spatial resolution of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) has been enhanced in various studies by helically coiling the fiber around a support structure. While solid polyvinyl chloride tubes are an appropriate support structure under water, they can produce considerable errors in aerial deployments due to the radiative heating or cooling. We used meshed reinforcing fabric as a novel support structure to measure high-resolution vertical temperature profiles with a height of several meters above a meadow and within and above a small lake. This study aimed at quantifying the radiation error for the coiled DTS system and the contribution caused by the novel support structure via heat conduction. A quantitative and comprehensive energy balance model is proposed and tested, which includes the shortwave radiative, longwave radiative, convective, and conductive heat transfers and allows for modeling fiber temperatures as well as quantifying the radiation error. The sensitivity of the energy balance model to the conduction error caused by the reinforcing fabric is discussed in terms of its albedo, emissivity, and thermal conductivity. Modeled radiation errors amounted to -1.0 and 1.3 K at 2 m height but ranged up to 2.8 K for very high incoming shortwave radiation (1000 J s-1 m-2) and very weak winds (0.1 m s-1). After correcting for the radiation error by means of the presented energy balance, the root mean square error between DTS and reference air temperatures from an aspirated resistance thermometer or an ultrasonic anemometer was 0.42 and 0.26 K above the meadow and the lake, respectively. Conduction between reinforcing fabric and fiber cable had a small effect on fiber temperatures (cable were significant temperature artifacts of up to 2.5 K observed. Overall, the reinforcing fabric offers several advantages over conventional support structures published to date in the literature as it minimizes both radiation and conduction errors.

  5. M-line spectroscopic, spectroscopic ellipsometric and microscopic measurements of optical waveguides fabricated by MeV-energy N{sup +} ion irradiation for telecom applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bányász, I., E-mail: [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Berneschi, S. [“Enrico Fermi” Center for Study and Research, Piazza del Viminale 2, 00184 Roma (Italy); MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Fried, M.; Lohner, T. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary); Conti, G. Nunzi; Righini, G.C.; Pelli, S. [MDF-Lab, “Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, IFAC-CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Zolnai, Z. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525, Budapest (Hungary)


    Irradiation with N{sup +} ions of the 1.5–3.5 MeV energy range was applied to optical waveguide formation. Planar and channel waveguides have been fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass, and in both types of bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals: Bi{sub 4}Ge{sub 3}O{sub 12} (eulytine) and Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} (sillenite). Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used for the characterisation of the ion beam irradiated waveguides. Planar waveguides fabricated in the Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass using irradiation with N{sup +} ions at 3.5 MeV worked even at the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength. 3.5 MeV N{sup +} ion irradiated planar waveguides in eulytine-type BGO worked up to 1550 nm and those in sillenite-type BGO worked up to 1330 nm. - Highlights: ► Waveguides were fabricated in glass and crystals using MeV energy N{sup +} ions. ► SRIM simulation and spectroscopic ellipsometry yielded similar waveguide structures. ► Multi-wavelength m-line spectroscopy was used to study the waveguides. ► Waveguides fabricated in an Er-doped tungsten–tellurite glass worked up to 1.5 μm. ► Waveguides in Bi{sub 12}GeO{sub 20} remained operative up to 1.5 μm.

  6. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul


    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  7. Design and fabrication of a projection display using optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal light valves (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takanori; Kawakita, Masahiro; Fujikake, Hideo; Takizawa, Kuniharu


    A prototype projection display consisting of optically addressed polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) light valves and a schlieren optics is designed, built, and evaluated. This projection display which controls light by a scattering effect in the PDLC film, can be configured without requiring a polarizer and can create a brighter high-definition picture display with which high optical efficiency is possible. The relationship between the contrast ratio and the optical efficiency of a schlieren projection system is discussed. To design a projection display with both high brightness and a high contrast ratio, the scattering characteristics of a reflection-mode PDLC cell is evaluated and the optical efficiency of the total projection system is studied using a simple model with perfect diffusion of a light source. Using these results, we design and prototype PDLC light valves for a full-color display and construct a projection display. We succeed in displaying pictures with a contrast ratio of 80:1 and a brightness greater than 1800 ANSI lumens.

  8. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.


    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  9. Fabrication of silica optical fibers doped in the core with aluminium oxide and rare-earth elements by using xerogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Kašík, Ivan; Hayer, Miloš; Berková, Daniela; Chomát, Miroslav; Skokánková, Jana


    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2002), s. 1233-1239 ISSN 0035-3930 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Projekt 07/01:4074 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical fibres * lasers * sol-gel processing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2002

  10. Correlations between optical properties, microstructure, and processing conditions of Aluminum nitride thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jonghoon; Ma, James; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio


    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto sapphire (0001) substrates with varying processing conditions (temperature, pressure, and laser fluence). We have studied the dependence of optical properties, structural properties and their correlations for these AlN films. The optical transmission spectra of the produced films were measured, and a numerical procedure was applied to accurately determine the optical constants for films of non-uniform thickness. The microstructure and texture of the films were studied using various X-ray diffraction techniques. The real part of the refractive index was found to not vary significantly with processing parameters, but absorption was found to be strongly dependent on the deposition temperature and the nitrogen pressure in the deposition chamber. We report that low optical absorption, textured polycrystalline AlN films can be produced by PLD on sapphire substrates at both low and high laser fluence using a background nitrogen pressure of 6.0 x 10 -2 Pa (4.5 x 10 -4 Torr) of 99.9% purity

  11. Fabrication and properties of GeSi and SiON layers for above-IC integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; Rangarajan, B.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    A study is presented on silicon oxynitride material for waveguides and germanium–silicon alloys for p-i-n diodes. The materials are manufactured at low, CMOS-backend compatible temperatures, targeting the integration of optical functions on top of CMOS chips. Low-temperature germanium–silicon

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A


    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  13. Optimizing the fabrication of aluminum-coated fiber probes and their application to optical near-field lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, S; Holme, NCR; Ramanujam, PS


    We report on routine fabrication of fiber probes suitable for metal coating. We have investigated how aperture sizes ranging from 75 to 300 nm can be produced using an appropriate set of pulling parameters in a combined heating/pulling process. The quality of the metal coating has been investigated...... in terms of roughness and the presence of leaking holes in the coating. We report on how the quality of the coating depends on parameters such as deposition rate and background pressure during evaporation. We have used aluminum-coated fiber probes in lithographical studies of different materials, like side...

  14. Optimization of the Refractive-Index Distribution of Graded-Index Polymer Optical Fiber by the Diffusion-Assisted Fabrication Process (United States)

    Mukawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Atsushi; Koike, Yasuhiro


    Graded-index polymer optical fiber (GI-POF) is a promising high-speed communication medium for very-short-reach networks, such as home or office networks. The refractive-index distribution of GI-POF needs to be accurately controlled to maximize the bandwidth. We attempted to control the refractive-index distribution by developing a simulation for dopant diffusion. In the rod-in-tube method, GI-POF with an optimal refractive-index distribution was obtained by adjusting the diffusion temperature and the diffusion time, whereas in the coextrusion process, GI-POF with an optimal refractive-index distribution was fabricated by controlling the length of the diffusion tube and the rate of discharge of polymer.

  15. Moth eye-inspired anti-reflective surfaces for improved IR optical systems & visible LEDs fabricated with colloidal lithography and etching. (United States)

    Chan, Lesley W; Morse, Daniel E; Gordon, Michael J


    Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes. Light-matter interactions at structured and heterogeneous surfaces over different length scales are discussed, as are the various methods used to create ME-inspired surfaces. Special interest is placed on a simple, scalable, and tunable method, namely colloidal lithography with plasma dry etching, to fabricate ME-inspired nanostructures in a vast suite of materials. Anti-reflective surfaces and coatings for IR devices and enhancing light extraction from visible light emitting diodes (LEDs) are highlighted. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Fabrication and optical properties of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays made by sol-gel electrophoresis deposition into anodic alumina membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Y; Yuan, X Y; Xie, T; Zhang, L D


    Ordered TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays have been successfully fabricated into the nanochannels of a porous anodic alumina membrane by sol-gel electrophoretic deposition. After annealing at 500 deg. C, the TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays and the individual nanowires were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM and TEM images show that these nanowires are dense and continuous with a uniform diameter throughout their entire length. XRD and SAED analysis together indicate that these TiO sub 2 nanowires crystallize in the anatase polycrystalline structure. The optical absorption band edge of TiO sub 2 nanowire arrays exhibits a blue shift with respect of that of the bulk TiO sub 2 owing to the quantum size effect.

  17. Using aerosol-based techniques and solution-doping for the fabrication of optical fibers for fiber lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašík, Ivan; Matějec, Vlastimil; Kaňka, Jiří; Peterka, Pavel; Honzátko, Pavel; Langrová, Anna


    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2002), s. 1241-1245 ISSN 0035-3930 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Projekt 07/01:4074; GA ČR GA102/99/0393 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : optical fibres * fibre lasers Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.192, year: 2002

  18. Implications of diamond-turned versus diamond-ground mold fabrication techniques on precision-molded optics (United States)

    Mertus, Lou; Symmons, Alan


    In recent years, the trend within the molded optics community has been an overall advancement in the capability to diamond grind molds using a variety of grinding techniques. Improvements in grinding equipment, materials and tooling have enabled higher quality ceramic and carbide molds and thereby lenses. Diamond turned molds from ductile metals are still used prevalently throughout the molding industry. Each technology presents a unique set of advantages and disadvantages whether used for precision injection molding of plastic optics or precision glass molding. This paper reviews the manufacturing techniques for each approach and applicable molding process. The advantages and disadvantages of each are compared and analyzed. The subtle differences that exist in optics molded from each technique and the impact they have on the performance in various applications is reviewed. Differences stemming from tooling material properties, material-specific minor defects, as well as cutting and grinding process-induced artifacts are described in detail as well as their influence on the roughness, waviness, and form errors present on the molded surface. A comparison with results between similar surfaces for both diamond grinding and diamond turning is presented.

  19. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A


    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  20. Detailed study of silver metallic film diffusion in a soda-lime glass substrate for optical waveguide fabrication (United States)

    Belkhir, Abdelhak


    We present the study of multimode glass waveguides fabricated by a silver-ion electromigration process followed by a diffusion process. The study is concerned mainly with the diffusion process, which occurs by variation of the diffusion time. The obtained guides are analyzed by the prism-coupling technique, which determines their effective refractive indices that are treated by the inverse WKB method, assumed to be proportional to the silver ions' concentration profiles, for which a Gaussian model is attributed. Diffusion coefficients then are determined from these Gaussian profiles experimentally by both methods. These diffusion coefficients show a concentration dependence related to the variation of the diffusion time. A mathematical model representing the best fit to this dependence is also presented. Finally, our results are compared with other research results, with which we find good agreement.

  1. Localised doping of Li-silicate glasses by Er3+ ion exchange to fabricate thin optical layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salavcova, L.; Špirková, J.; Míka, M.; Macková, Anna; Oswald, Jiří; Langrová, Anna; Vacík, Jiří


    Roč. 29, č. 7 (2007), s. 753-759 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891; GA ČR GA106/05/0706; GA ČR GA106/03/0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : erbium * ion exchange * silicate glass * photonics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2007

  2. Design and fabrication of a piezoelectric mode 2 sensor based on optical modulated liquid crystal and spiropyran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuan-Ting; Lee, Chih-Kung; Chang, Chin-Kai; Kuo, Hui-Lung


    In this paper, we propose an innovative photoelectric material made of a mixture of liquid crystal and spiropyran which can be used to tailor the performance of piezoelectric sensors. The impedance variation of this photoelectric material can be controlled using different ultraviolet (UV) irradiation times. We found that the impedance of the liquid crystal–spiropyran mixture remains stable after the UV irradiation. Results showed that UV irradiation at 180 s resulted in the lowest mixture impedance. It appears that the electrical properties of the mixture have great potential to modulate a piezoelectric system since UV irradiation can be used to tailor the impedance of a photosensitive electrode made of a liquid crystal–spiropyran sensor for PZT (i.e. lead zirconate titanate) modal actuator/sensor applications. The main innovation of this paper is the demonstration of a new approach towards producing a positive and negative bias voltage in different regions of a sensor by using UV illumination for different time periods. A one-dimensional mode 2 sensor for a cantilever beam was designed and tested to verify the validity of this innovative approach. Since UV illumination can be changed in situ or in real time, this research also represents the creation of an optically defined/tailored modal sensor. In the future, a two-dimensional optical modal control could also be obtained using the method demonstrated

  3. Fabrication of Bi-doped YIG optical thin film for electric current sensor by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Iwasa, Souhachi; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Kiyotaka; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Higuchi, Sadao; Takeshita, Hirohito; Nakahara, Michitaka


    Bi-doped yttrium iron garnet (Bi x Y 3-x Fe 5 O 12 , Bi:YIG) thin films, which can be used as electric current sensors, are grown on Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 (GGG) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using an ArF excimer laser. The growth condition for high quality epitaxial Bi:YIG thin films is investigated by varying the PLD process parameters, such as the substrate temperature and ambient oxygen gas pressure. The epitaxial film growth is attained at the substrate temperature of around 500 deg. C and at ambient oxygen pressure between 125 and 175 mTorr. The optical properties of epitaxial films are measured and the maximum magneto-optic sensitivity coefficient is observed to be 44.1 deg. /T with a film thickness of about 0.7 μm at a wavelength of 500 nm. The results indicate that the PLD technique can be useful for realizing a miniature current sensing device with the Bi:YIG thin film

  4. Fabrication of thin ZnO films with wide-range tuned optical properties by reactive magnetron sputtering (United States)

    Davydova, A.; Tselikov, G.; Dilone, D.; Rao, K. V.; Kabashin, A. V.; Belova, L.


    We report the manufacturing of thin zinc oxide films by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and examine their structural and optical properties. We show that the partial oxygen pressure in DC mode can have dramatic effect on absorption and refractive index (RI) of the films in a broad spectral range. In particular, the change of the oxygen pressure from 7% to 5% can lead to either conventional crystalline ZnO films having low absorption and characteristic descending dependence of RI from 2.4–2.7 RIU in the visible to 1.8–2 RIU in the near-infrared (1600 nm) range, or to untypical films, composed of ZnO nano-crystals embedded into amorphous matrix, exhibiting unexpectedly high absorption in the visible–infrared region and ascending dependence of RI with values varying from 1.5 RIU in the visible to 4 RIU in the IR (1600 nm), respectively. Untypical optical characteristics in the second case are explained by defects in ZnO structure arising due to under-oxidation of ZnO crystals. We also show that the observed defect-related film structure remains stable even after annealing of films under relatively high temperatures (30 min under 450 °C). We assume that both types of films can be of importance for photovoltaic (as contact or active layers, respectively), as well as for chemical or biological sensing, optoelectronics etc.

  5. Fabrication of a Porous Fiber Cladding Material Using Microsphere Templating for Improved Response Time with Fiber Optic Sensor Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Henning


    Full Text Available A highly porous optical-fiber cladding was developed for evanescent-wave fiber sensors, which contains sensor molecules, maintains guiding conditions in the optical fiber, and is suitable for sensing in aqueous environments. To make the cladding material (a poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA polymer highly porous, a microsphere templating strategy was employed. The resulting pore network increases transport of the target analyte to the sensor molecules located in the cladding, which improves the sensor response time. This was demonstrated using fluorescein-based pH sensor molecules, which were covalently attached to the cladding material. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the structure of the templated polymer and the large network of interconnected pores. Fluorescence measurements showed a tenfold improvement in the response time for the templated polymer and a reliable pH response over a pH range of five to nine with an estimated accuracy of 0.08 pH units.

  6. Influence of fabrication conditions on characteristics of phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer for holographic memory (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan Huei; Cho, Sheng-Lung; Lin, June-Hua; Hsu, Ken Y.; Chi, Sien


    In this paper, we experimentally investigate the influence of the fabrication conditions on holographic characteristics in phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ:PMMA) bulk photopolymer. In our investigation, the PQ:PMMA bulk samples are fabricated by use of a two-step thermo-polymerization method. We firstly propose to monitor relative viscosity of the monomer solution during the sample preparation to obtain a reliable criterion for material fabrication. We then compare experimentally characteristics of 2-mm thick samples fabricated with different conditions for holographic memory. The results show that the conditions in the first step play a important rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA samples with good optical uniformity. In addition, the conditions in the second step play the rule for controlling the concentration of residual monomer and determine holographic characteristics. These results can provide a useful rule for fabricating bulk PQ:PMMA photopolymers for further applications on volume holographic data storage.

  7. Uniform fabrication of thick SU-8 patterns on small-sized wafers for micro-optics applications (United States)

    Abada, S.; Reig, B.; Daran, E.; Doucet, JB; Camps, T.; Charlot, S.; Bardinal, V.


    This paper reports on an alternative method for precise and uniform fabrication of 100μm-thick SU-8 microstructures on small-sized or non-circular samples. Standard spin-coating of high-viscosity resists is indeed known to induce large edge beads, leading to an air gap between the mask and the SU-8 photo-resist surface during UV photolithography. This results in a non uniform thickness deposition and in a poor pattern definition. This problem becomes highly critical in the case of small-sized samples. To overcome it, we have developed a soft thermal imprint method based on the use of a nano-imprint equipment and applicable whatever sample fragility, shape and size (from 2cm to 6 inches). After final photolithography, the SU8 pattern thickness variation profile is measured. Thickness uniformity is improved from 30% to 5% with a 5μm maximal deviation to the target value over 2cm-long samples.

  8. Powder metallurgy inspired low-temperature fabrication of high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide products with good optical transparency (United States)

    Bai, Dongyu; Liu, Huili; Bai, Hongwei; Zhang, Qin; Fu, Qiang


    Stereocomplexation between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA) provides an avenue to greatly enhance performance of eco-friendly polylactide (PLA). Unfortunately, although the manufacturing of semicrystalline polymers generally involves melt processing, it is still hugely challenging to create high-performance stereocomplexed polylactide (sc-PLA) products from melt-processed high-molecular-weight PLLA/PDLA blends due to the weak crystallization memory effect of stereocomplex (sc) crystallites after complete melting as well as the substantial degradation of PLA chains at elevated melt-processing temperatures of ca. 240–260 °C. Inspired by the concept of powder metallurgy, here we report a new facile route to address these obstacles by sintering of sc-PLA powder at temperatures as low as 180–210 °C, which is distinctly different from traditional sintering of polymer powders performed at temperatures far exceeding their melting temperatures. The enantiomeric PLA chain segments from adjacent powder particles can interdiffuse across particle interfaces and co-crystallize into new sc crystallites capable of tightly welding the interfaces during the low-temperature sintering process, and thus highly transparent sc-PLA products with outstanding heat resistance, mechanical strength, and hydrolytic stability have been successfully fabricated for the first time. PMID:26837848

  9. Formation and characterization of ZnO : Tm+ optical waveguides fabricated by Tm+ and O+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Xianbing; Lu Fei; Liu Hanping; Chen Ming; Wang Lei


    Planar optical waveguides were formed in ZnO crystal by Tm + and O + ion implantation. The distributions of Tm + in as-implanted and annealed ZnO samples were investigated by the RBS technique. A shift of the Tm + peak towards the sample surface and out diffusion were observed after thermal treatment and subsequent O + ion implantation. Waveguide formation was determined after O + implantation in Tm + -implanted ZnO crystal. By using the prism-coupling method two guided modes were detected. The refractive index profile in the implanted waveguide was reconstructed according to the SRIM and RCM simulation. The RBS/channelling measurements show that the lattice structure of ZnO did not suffer detectable damage after O + implantation.

  10. The design and fabrication of an optical periscope for core viewing of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.C.; Sanjiva Kumar; Udupa, D.V.; Shukla, R.P.; Kadu, A.M.; Modi, R.K.


    A FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor) periscope has been designed and fabricated indigenously for viewing and photography/ video recording the objects in the reactor core. The periscope consists of a scanning prism mechanism, zoom lens objective, a system of relay lenses and an eyepiece sub-assembly for viewing the objects. The objective of the periscope is a zoom lens system for obtaining a continuously varying magnification from 2X to 5X. Zoom lens objective system has a variable focal length from 100 mm to 250 mm with an aperture varying from 10 mm to 25 mm respectively. This covers a semi- field angle of 3 deg for the objective lens of focal length of 250 mrn and 4 deg for the objective of focal length of l00 mm. Two prisms of 45 deg -90 deg -45 deg types are used for scanning the object space in vertical direction. One prism is fixed, whereas the prism facing the object can be rotated about the horizontal axis through an angle of 110 deg. The rotation of the entire periscope assembly along the vertical axis scans the object space on the horizontal plane. The combination of these two rotations is used to scan the field of interest. It may be noted here that it is absolutely essential to introduce a Pechan prism before each eyepiece. Pechan prism is used for the rotation of the image, which is produced due to the rotation of the scanning prisms. The measured value of the linear resolution of the instrument is 0.7 mm at an object distance of 2.5 meter from the zoom lens objective system. The periscope has two arm labeled I and II. The arm I is used for visual inspection, while the arm II is used for video recording/photography. The periscope will be used as an in-service instrument for Fast Breeder Test Reactor, IGCAR, Kalpakkam. (author)

  11. Electrical and optical characteristics of n-Zno/p-GaN hetero-junction diode fabricated by ultra-high vacuum sputter. (United States)

    Cho, Seong Gook; Lee, Dong Uk; Kim, Eun Kyu


    We investigated the electrical and optical properties of n-ZnO/p-GaN hetero-junction diode fabricated by an ultra-high vacuum radio frequency magnetron sputter. A physical relationship between the rotation rate during deposition process and post annealing conditions after deposited ZnO layer on p-GaN layer was discussed. When the rotation rates during deposition process of n-ZnO layer were 5 rpm and 15 rpm, the full width at half maximum of photoluminescence spectra of ZnO layer on the p-GaN layer was about 106 and 133 meV, respectively. Also, the ratio of deep level emission to near band edge emission was dramatically increased as increasing the rotation rate from 5 to 15 rpm. The n-ZnO/p-GaN hetero-junction diode grown at 5 rpm has a higher ratio of forward to reverse currents than the diode grown at 15 rpm. Also, the 600 degrees C-annealed diodes with 5 rpm showed good rectifying behavior with the barrier height of 0.74 eV, the ideality factor of 12.2, and the forward to reverse current ratio of 614 at +/- 8 V.

  12. Fabrication of microlens arrays using a CO2-assisted embossing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tzu-Chien; Chan, Bin-Da; Ciou, Jyun-Kai; Yang, Sen-Yeu


    This paper reports a method to fabricate microlens arrays with a low processing temperature and a low pressure. The method is based on embossing a softened polymeric substrate over a mold with micro-hole arrays. Due to the effect of capillary and surface tension, microlens arrays can be formed. The embossing medium is CO 2 gas, which supplies a uniform pressing pressure so that large-area microlens arrays can be fabricated. CO 2 gas also acts as a solvent to plasticize the polymer substrates. With the special dissolving ability and isotropic pressing capacity of CO 2 gas, microlens arrays can be fabricated at a low temperature (lower than T g ) and free of thermal-induced residual stress. Such a combined mechanism of dissolving and embossing with CO 2 gas makes the fabrication of microlens arrays direct with complex processes, and is more compatible for optical usage. In the study, it is also found that the sag height of microlens changes when different CO 2 dissolving pressure and time are used. This makes it easy to fabricate microlens arrays of different geometries without using different molds. The quality, uniformity and optical property of the fabricated microlens arrays have been verified with measurements of the dimensions, surface smoothness, focal length, transmittance and light intensity through the fabricated microlens arrays

  13. Integrated optics technology study (United States)

    Chen, B.


    The materials and processes available for the fabrication of single mode integrated electrooptical components are described. Issues included in the study are: (1) host material and orientation, (2) waveguide formation, (3) optical loss mechanisms, (4) wavelength selection, (5) polarization effects and control, (6) laser to integrated optics coupling,(7) fiber optic waveguides to integrated optics coupling, (8) souces, (9) detectors. The best materials, technology and processes for fabrication of integrated optical components for communications and fiber gyro applications are recommended.

  14. Fabrication Facilities (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  15. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M


    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  16. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko


    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates.......We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  17. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.


    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  18. Development of Interference Lithography Capability Using a Helium Cadmium Ultraviolet Multimode Laser for the Fabrication of Sub-Micron-Structured Optical Materials (United States)


    28 PBG Photonic Band-Gap...A PBG is analogous to energy band-gaps in that it acts as an optical conductor by capturing and projecting light into certain directions. The...optical properties of a PC with an inclusive PBG provide great interest because of their light redistribution abilities. Refractive index contrast

  19. Diffusion process applied in fabrication of ion-exchanged optical waveguides in novel Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+-doped silicate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Špirková, J.; Janáková, S.; Mika, K.; Oswald, Jiří; Macková, Anna


    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2009), s. 510-513 ISSN 0957-4522 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Er, Yb diffusion * silicate glasses * optical waveguides Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2009

  20. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server


    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  1. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of HgxCd1-xTe polycrystalline films fabricated by two-source evaporation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basharat, M.; Hannan, M.A.; Shah, N.A.; Ali, A.; Arif, M.; Maqsood, A.


    Two-source thermal evaporation technique was used to prepare Hg x Cd 1-x Te thin films onto scratch free transparent glass substrates. The structural investigations revealed that thin films were polycrystalline in nature. Transmittance measurements in the wavelength range (500-2700 nm) were used to calculate optical constants. The analysis of the optical absorption data showed that the optical band gap was of indirect type. In the composition range 0.05 2 and 10 -1 Ω-cm. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee


    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our...... advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which...

  3. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of Mach–Zehnder interferometer based on a hollow optical fiber filled with radial-aligned liquid crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Bo-Yan; Hwang, Shug-June; Peng, Fenglin; Wu, Shin-Tson


    We demonstrate a high sensitivity all-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) based on radial-aligned liquid crystal (LC) in a hollow optical fiber (HOF). The transmission spectrum of the liquid crystal-filled fiber MZI (LCF-MZI) was measured at different temperatures, and the thermal-induced wavelength shift of the interference spectrum probed. The experimental results indicate that the LC alignment and refractive indices inside the hollow capillary are significantly influenced by the temperature, which in turn changes the optical properties of LCF-MZI. Our experimental data on notch wavelength shift agree well with the measured refractive index temperature gradient. (paper)

  5. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.


    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  6. Fabrication of a quartz optical fiber tip for dental treatment with Nd:YAG laser—Proposal of a new process with TiO 2 powder (United States)

    Furumoto, Tatsuaki; Aoki, Shintaro; Ueda, Takashi; Hosokawa, Akira


    In dental treatment with Nd:YAG laser beam, a quartz optical fiber is generally used to transmit the laser beam, which is irradiated to the hard and soft tissues for a caries treatment and a periodontal tissue excision. Since a normal optical fiber, which the laser beam comes out from the tip of the fiber, has difficulty irradiating to a narrow space and an inner root canal uniformly, it is effective to use a processed optical fiber tip from which is obtained a diffused and circumferential laser beam. In this paper, a new process to obtain these laser beams with TiO 2 powder is proposed, and the characteristics and the performances of the processed optical fiber were investigated. An experimental instrument was developed to measure the energy partition radiated from the processed fiber tip, and the ratio of a straight beam, a sideways beam and heat generated by the absorption of the laser beam was measured in each condition. As a result, the ratio of an energy partition was controllable by changing the incidence parameter to process the fiber tip, and the processed fiber tip corresponding to the clinical purpose could be obtained. The parameters which affected the processability of the fiber tip were processing time and incidence laser energy. The prepared cavity with processed fiber on the enamel was influenced by a straight beam, and the removal of enamel to the depth direction was controllable by using the processed fiber.

  7. Near perfect optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeke, R.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Neumann, C.C.; Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Weed, J.W.


    This report discusses a novel fabrication process to produce nearly perfect optics. The process utilizes vacuum deposition techniques to optimally modify polished optical substrate surfaces. The surface figure, i.e. contour of a polished optical element, is improved by differentially filling in the low spots on the surface using flux from a physical vapor deposition source through an appropriate mask. The process is expected to enable the manufacture of diffraction-limited optical systems for the UV, extreme UV, and soft X-ray spectral regions, which would have great impact on photolithography and astronomy. This same technique may also reduce the fabrication cost of visible region optics with aspheric surfaces.

  8. Democratizing science with the aid of parametric design and additive manufacturing: Design and fabrication of a versatile and low-cost optical instrument for scattering measurement. (United States)

    Nadal-Serrano, Jose M; Nadal-Serrano, Adolfo; Lopez-Vallejo, Marisa


    This paper focuses on the application of rapid prototyping techniques using additive manufacturing in combination with parametric design to create low-cost, yet accurate and reliable instruments. The methodology followed makes it possible to make instruments with a degree of customization until now available only to a narrow audience, helping democratize science. The proposal discusses a holistic design-for-manufacturing approach that comprises advanced modeling techniques, open-source design strategies, and an optimization algorithm using free parametric software for both professional and educational purposes. The design and fabrication of an instrument for scattering measurement is used as a case of study to present the previous concepts.

  9. Fabrication of off-axis parabolic mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezik, M.J.; Gerth, H.L.; Sladky, R.E.; Washington, C.A.


    The report describes the fabrication process, including metal preparation, copper electroplating, single-crystal-diamond turning, optical inspection, and polishing, used to manufacture the focusing mirrors for the 10-kJ laser fusion experiment being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Fabrication of these mirrors by the techniques described resulted in diffraction-limited optics at a 10.6 μm wavelength

  10. Plasmonic nanoparticles: Towards the fabrication of biosensors (United States)

    Shen, Hui


    Au and Ag nanoparticles are mainly employed in the fabrication of biosensors owing to their unique optical properties compared to other noble metal nanoparticles. Many biosensors are fabricated for the rapid detection of different analytes such as organic and inorganic molecules, biomolecules like DNA, proteins, biotoxins and pathogens. In this mini review we mainly discuss on the usage of Au and Ag nanoparticles for the fabrication of colorimetric, SERS and two photon based photoluminescence biosensors.

  11. Fabrication, Morphological and Optoelectronic Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of MSM photodetector. We investigated the surface morphological and the structural properties of the porous silicon by optical microscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray diffraction. The metal–semiconductor–metal photodetector were fabricated by using Sb as ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GROSU Marian C


    Full Text Available A coated material is a composite structure that consists of at least two components: base material and coating layer. The purpose of coating is to provide special properties to base material, with potential to be applied in EMI shielding and diverse smart technical fields. This paper reports the results of a study about some physical and magnetic properties of coated woven fabrics made from cotton yarns with fineness of 17 metric count. For this aim, a plain woven fabric was coated with a solution hard magnetic polymer based. As hard magnetic powder, barium hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 was selected. The plain woven fabric used as base has been coated with five solutions having different amounts of hard magnetic powder (15% - 45% in order to obtain five different magnetic woven fabrics. A comparison of physical properties regarding weight (g/m2, thickness (mm, degree of charging (% and magnetic properties of magnetic woven samples were presented. Saturation magnetizing (emu/g, residual magnetizing (emu/g and coercive force (kA/m of pure hard magnetic powder and woven fabrics have been studied as hysteresis characteristics. The magnetic properties of the woven fabrics depend on the mass percentage of magnetic powder from coating solution. Also, the residual magnetism and coercive field of woven fabrics represents only a part of bulk barium hexafferite residual magnetism and coercive field.


    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  14. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.


    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  15. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V


    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  16. Reduction of polymer residue on wet-transferred CVD graphene surface by deep UV exposure (United States)

    Suhail, A.; Islam, K.; Li, B.; Jenkins, D.; Pan, G.


    Polymer residue from Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) on transferred graphene is a common issue for graphene devices. This residue affects the properties of graphene. Herein, we have introduced an improved technique to reduce the effect of this residue by deep UV (DUV) exposure of PMMA coated graphene samples within the wet transfer process. This technique has systematically been evaluated by optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. The results show that this residue is effectively reduced on the graphene surface after DUV treatment. In addition, the electrical characteristics of transferred graphene confirm that the sheet resistance and contact resistance are reduced by about 60 and 80%, respectively, after the DUV exposure. Electrical current transport characteristics also show that minimizing this residue on the graphene surface gives less hysteresis of electronic transport in back-gate graphene field-effect transistors. Furthermore, repeating electrical tests and aging shift the neutral point voltage of graphene. We attribute these improvements to cleaving of the chemical bonds in PMMA by DUV exposure and hence increasing the solubility of PMMA in acetone for subsequent processing steps. This work provides a unique route to enhance the electrical properties of transferred graphene after the fabrication process.

  17. ELID Grinding of Large Aspheric Optics, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Large aperture aspheric optics are among the most susceptible optical surfaces to the accumulation of periodic surface artifacts during fabrication. Periodic...

  18. Ray-Tracing-Based Modeling of Clad-Removed Step-Index Plastic Optical Fiber in Smart Textiles: Effect of Curvature in Plain Weave Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Moon


    Full Text Available Plastic optical fiber was chosen for information delivery media in smart textile. Cladding layer was peeled off by chemical and mechanical methods to find optimal peeling conditions. Both radial side illumination and longitudinal end-tip illumination were measured for visible light of 627 µm wavelength. A half-cone-shaped jig was manufactured using 3D printing to give various curvature conditions to fibers. Also POFs were embedded in plain weave textile structure to measure the light dissipation effect. The waveguide phenomenon was modeled using discrete ray tracing technique and ray-to-interface collision detection algorithm. Results from the proposed modeling technique showed linear relationship with those from experiment.

  19. Optics of Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordo, Vladimir

    During the last decade, fabrication and investigation of submicron-sized optical fibers have been received growing attention. Such nanofibers or nanowires can be grown from both inorganic and organic semiconductor materials being arranged in mutually parallel nanoaggregates. Also, selected...

  20. Integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jekowski, J.; Aeby, I.


    The purpose of the R and D effort is to establish a baseline technology in integrated optic techniques within the EMG. Significant investment presently being made by industry in this area indicates that this technology may offer an alternative solution for high speed digital data acquisition and transmission. The objectives of this year's integrated optics program were three-fold: (1) to establish a literature search and maintain industry contacts in an attempt to make the needs of the Weapons Test Program known; (2) to assist the Las Vegas Hybrid facility in establising integrated optic fabrication techniques for their new Thin Film Laboratory; and (3) to conduct basic experiments at Los Alamos in the construction of photolithograhicaly etched plastic film devices. The report describes the successful completion of preliminary investigations into photolithographic techniques and continuing investigations into newly announced integrated optic techniques and devices that would be applicable to the weapons test program

  1. The optical properties of regenerated silk fibroin films obtained from different sources (United States)

    Perotto, Giovanni; Zhang, Yuji; Naskar, Deboki; Patel, Nereus; Kaplan, David L.; Kundu, Subhas C.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.


    Silk fibroin possesses unique properties for bio-functional optical interfaces and has been attracting increasing interest as an optical material. Here, we report on the refractive index and absorption coefficient of silk fibroin extracted from Bombyx mori, Antheraea mylitta, Samia ricini, and Antheraea assamensis. The influence of protein molecular weight, residual water content, and crystallinity on refractive index was investigated. The parameters for the Cauchy dispersion law and Urbach absorption were determined for each of the silk fibroins. By exploiting the differences in refractive index between the different fibroins, an all-protein slab waveguide was fabricated.

  2. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.


    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  3. Broadband optical absorption enhancement of N719 dye in ethanol by gold-silver alloy nanoparticles fabricated under laser ablation technique (United States)

    Al-Azawi, Mohammed A.; Bidin, Noriah; Abbas, Khaldoon N.; Bououdina, Mohamed; Azzez, Shrook A.


    The formation of gold-silver alloy nanoparticles (Au-Ag alloy NPs) by a two-step process with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser without any additives is presented. Mixtures of Au and Ag colloidal suspensions were separately obtained by 1064-nm laser ablation of metallic targets immersed in ethanol. Subsequently, the as-mixed colloidal suspensions were reirradiated by laser-induced heating at the second-harmonic generation (532 nm) for different irradiation periods of time. The absorption spectra and morphology of the colloidal alloys were studied as a function of exposure time to laser irradiation. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of monodispersed spherical nanoparticles with a homogeneous size distribution in all the synthesized samples. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were also employed to characterize the changes in the light absorption and emission of N719 dye solution with different concentrations of Au-Ag colloidal alloys, respectively. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-Ag alloy NPs enhanced the absorption and fluorescence peak of the dye solution. The mixture of dye molecules with a higher concentration of alloy NPs exhibited an additional coupling of dipole moments with the LSPR, thereby contributing to the improvement of the optical properties of the mixture.

  4. Effect of N-substituents on redox, optical, and electronic properties of naphthalene bisimides used for field-effect transistors fabrication. (United States)

    Gawrys, Pawel; Djurado, David; Rimarcík, Ján; Kornet, Aleksandra; Boudinet, Damien; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Lukes, Vladimír; Wielgus, Ireneusz; Zagorska, Malgorzata; Pron, Adam


    , operating in air. The fabricated "all organic" transistors show effective charge carrier mobilities in the range 10(-2) to 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and the ON/OFF ratios exceed 10(5) for the majority of cases.

  5. High-yield fabrication of W18O49-TiO2 core–shell nanoparticles: microstructures and optical-thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hsuan-Ching; Su, Cherng-Yuh; Lin, Chung-Kwei


    In the present study, high-yield W 18 O 49 -TiO 2 core–shell nanoparticles were prepared by modified plasma arc gas condensation without any catalysts or substrates. All the as-prepared samples were characterized by FEG-SEM, XRD, FEG-STEM, and HAADF analytic techniques. The results of the structural analysis show that the as-prepared nanoparticles presenting a core–shell morphology with an average diameter of 43.5 ± 8.0 nm were composed of non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide (W 18 O 49 phase) as the core (20–40 nm) and rutile-phase TiO 2 as the shell with non-uniform thickness (10–20 nm). For the optical properties of the as-prepared W 18 O 49 -TiO 2 core–shell nanoparticles, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used. Compared with pure TiO 2 and W 18 O 49 nanocrystals, the experimental results reveal that the defects in the lattice between the core and shell layers induced the board and shifted peaks in Raman spectra. Also, W 18 O 49 -TiO 2 core–shell nanoparticles exhibited green emission at 483 nm wavelength observed in PL spectrum. Thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) results indicate that the TiO 2 shell served a stable layer and prevented further oxidation from the atmosphere of the W 18 O 49 core, thereby improving the thermal stability of W 18 O 49 nanoparticles.

  6. Optimization and application of fabric phase sorptive extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of cytostatic drug residues in environmental waters. (United States)

    Santana-Viera, Sergio; Guedes-Alonso, Rayco; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G


    Every year, hundreds of tons of organic pollutants reach the environment through effluents released from wastewater treatment plants worldwide, and many of these compounds have harmful effects on the aquatic ecosystem. A new class of emerging pollutants of high concern is cytostatic drugs, which are designed to treat different types of cancers by attacking cells. Environmental concentrations of cytostatic drugs are known to be in the range of ngL -1 , and for this reason, it is imperative to develop analytical methods of extraction and preconcentration to allow for subsequent instrumental analysis of these drugs. In this work, a rapid, simple and green method for the analysis of seven cytostatic drug compounds that are commonly used in anti-cancer therapies was developed using a novel extraction process based on a powerful miniaturized technique, fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The major parameters that affect the extraction process were optimized. The new method shows good linearity, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 12%. Relative recoveries higher than 40% were obtained for the studied compounds, and the detection limit of the method was within the values at which these compounds are usually found in environmental water (0.20ngL -1 to 80ngL -1 ). The Limit of Quantification ranged from 0.68 to 267ngL -1 . Significant suppression of the signal due to the matrix effect, a common shortcoming attributed to interference from the extraction process as well as the use of ionization mode, was not observed. Subsequently, the method was applied to real wastewater samples from an effluent obtained from a hospital area and three wastewater treatment plants located in Gran Canaria Island, Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning


    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  8. Functional modification of Nylon fabrics based on noble metal nanoparticles (United States)

    Lin, Xia; Zou, Fan; Chen, Xinzhu; Tang, Bin


    In situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles was realized on Nylon fabrics through heat treatment with assistance of citrate. The synthesized gold nanoparticles imparted bright colors to Nylon fabrics due to its localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) features. Optical properties of the treated fabrics were analyzed by recording color strength (K/S) curves of fabrics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the surface morphologies of Nylon fabrics with gold nanoparticles. The influence of pH value on the in situ synthesis of gold nanoparticles was discussed. Moreover, the coloration with gold nanoparticles improved the UV protection of Nylon fabrics.

  9. Studies on structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated by selenization of chemical bath deposited CdS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tianyu; Gu, Han; Ge, Zhenhua; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Zhicheng; Fang, Yong; Han, Zhida; Qian, Bin; Jiang, Xuefan [Department of Physics, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu (China); Wu, Wangping [School of Mechanical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou (China)


    In this paper, high-photosensitive CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are synthesized by a two-step technique, which includes the chemical bath deposition of CdS films and a following selenization process. The structural, optical, and photoelectric properties of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films were investigated. With the substitution of selenium for sulfur atoms, grain sizes of the as-prepared CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films are effectively enlarged and reach the scales of the films thickness when the selenization temperature exceeds 450 C. With increasing the selenization temperature from 350 to 550 C, the band gaps of CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films gradually decrease from 2.37 to 1.82 eV. Under the co-action of the grain-size enlargement and band-gap decrease, the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} films fabricated at 450 C show very pronounced photosensitivity. Noteworthy, the ratio of photo to dark conductivity of the CdS{sub 1-x}Se{sub x} film selenized at 450 C reaches 1.1 x 10{sup 5}, suggesting a promising application potential in the photoelectric devices. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  11. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok


    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  12. Silicon fabric for multi-functional applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.


    This paper reports a generic process flow to fabricate mechanically flexible and optically semi-transparent thermoelectric generators (TEGs), micro lithium-ion batteries (μLIB) and metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) on mono-crystalline silicon fabric platforms from standard bulk silicon (100) wafers. All the fabricated devices show outstanding mechanical flexibility and performance, making an important step towards monolithic integration of Energy Chip (self-powered devices) including energy harvesters and electronic devices on flexible platforms. We also report a recyclability process for the remaining bulk substrate after release, allowing us to achieve a low cost flexible platform for high performance applications. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Residual stress measurement for injection molded components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Adhikari


    Full Text Available Residual stress induced during manufacturing of injection molded components such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA affects the mechanical and optical properties of these components. These residual stresses can be visualized and quantified by measuring their birefringence. In this paper, a low birefringence polariscope (LBP is used to measure the whole-field residual stress distribution of these injection molded specimens. Detailed analytical and experimental study is conducted to quantify the residual stress measurement in these materials. A commercial birefringence measurement system was used to validate the results obtained to our measurement system. This study can help in material diagnosis for quality and manufacturing purpose and be useful for understanding of residual stress in imaging or other applications.

  14. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  15. Polymorphous computing fabric (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM


    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  16. Woven Apparel Fabrics


    Redmore, Nicola


    This chapter considers the different woven manufacturing\\ud processes used in the production of apparel fabrics. It details the mainapparel fabric types and looks at the key performance requirements of those fabrics, in relation to both the weave structure and the fibre type. The chapter then goes on to briefly describe important considerations in the design process and the various end uses for woven fabric. Application examples detailed towards the end of the chapter include fabrics that are...

  17. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William A


    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  18. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon


    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  19. Fabrication, structural and optical characterizations of thermally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bi-layer of metallic Cu-Sn precursors was thermally evaporated sequentially on microscopic glass substrates at the controlled thickness of 100nm, 500nm and 1000nm and at different substrate temperatures of 270C, 1000C and 2000C. The bi-layer was subsequently sulphurized in a custom-built reactor for 1hour at ...

  20. Fabrication and optical characterization of improved electroless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin semi conductor films of strontium fluoride (SrF2) were successfully deposited on glass microscope slides using simple and cheap electroless chemical bath deposition methods at 320K and pH values of 9, 10 and 12. Controlled addition of ethylenediamine tetra acetate (EDTA), another complexing agent with pH to ...

  1. Design and Fabrication of Multimode Optical Switches. (United States)


    down in a pure argon atmosphere (0.020 Torr partial pressure) from a mixed oxide sputtering target: 88’ Ino 3 and 12% SnO ,,. The resulting ITO film...control cir- cuits and other semiconductor IC logic circuits. We have not tested these multi-way structures but are confident that they will perform as

  2. Fabrication and Characterisation of Optical Semiconductor Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lotte Jin


    Formålet med projektet har været at fremstille en ny og simpel halvleder komponent til regenerering af optiske telekommunikations signaler. Mange af de hidtil mest brugte komponenter til dette formål er såkaldte interferometre, som kan være meget svære at fremstille rent procesteknisk, samtidig m...

  3. Fabrication of optically transparent chitin nanocomposites (United States)

    Shams, M. Iftekhar; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Nogi, Masaya; Oku, Takeshi; Yano, Hiroyuki


    This paper demonstrates the preparation of chitin nanofibers from crab shells using a simple mechanical treatment. The nanofibers are small enough to retain the transparency of neat acrylic resin. Possessing hydroxyl and amine/ N-acetyl functionalities, water suspension of chitin nanofibers was vacuum-filtered 9 times faster than cellulose nanofibers to prepare a nanofiber sheet of 90 mm in diameter. This is a prominent advantage of chitin nanofibers over cellulose nanofibers in terms of commercial application. Interestingly, chitin acrylic resin films exhibited much higher transparency than cellulose acrylic resin films owing to the close affinity between less hydrophilic chitin and hydrophobic resin. Furthermore, the incorporation of chitin nanofibers contributes to the significant improvement of the thermal expansion and mechanical properties of the neat acrylic resin. The properties of high light transmittance and low thermal expansion make chitin nanocomposites promising candidates for the substrate in a continuous roll-to-roll process in the manufacturing of various optoelectronic devices such as flat panel displays, bendable displays, and solar cells.

  4. Solid residues from Ruminococcus cellulose fermentations as components of wood adhesive formulations (United States)

    P.J. Weimer; A.H. Conner; L.F. Lorenz


    Residues from the fermentation of cellulose by the anaerobic bacteria Ruminococcus albus (strain 7) or Ruminococcus flavefaciens (strains FD-1 or B34b) containing residual cellulose, bacterial cells and their associated adhesins, were examined for their ability to serve as components of adhesives for plywood fabrication. The residues contained differing amounts of...

  5. Nonlinear Optics and Applications (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin A. (Editor); Frazier, Donald O. (Editor)


    Nonlinear optics is the result of laser beam interaction with materials and started with the advent of lasers in the early 1960s. The field is growing daily and plays a major role in emerging photonic technology. Nonlinear optics play a major role in many of the optical applications such as optical signal processing, optical computers, ultrafast switches, ultra-short pulsed lasers, sensors, laser amplifiers, and many others. This special review volume on Nonlinear Optics and Applications is intended for those who want to be aware of the most recent technology. This book presents a survey of the recent advances of nonlinear optical applications. Emphasis will be on novel devices and materials, switching technology, optical computing, and important experimental results. Recent developments in topics which are of historical interest to researchers, and in the same time of potential use in the fields of all-optical communication and computing technologies, are also included. Additionally, a few new related topics which might provoke discussion are presented. The book includes chapters on nonlinear optics and applications; the nonlinear Schrodinger and associated equations that model spatio-temporal propagation; the supercontinuum light source; wideband ultrashort pulse fiber laser sources; lattice fabrication as well as their linear and nonlinear light guiding properties; the second-order EO effect (Pockels), the third-order (Kerr) and thermo-optical effects in optical waveguides and their applications in optical communication; and, the effect of magnetic field and its role in nonlinear optics, among other chapters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU


    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  7. Residual thermal stresses in injection moulded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, W.F.; Douven, L.F.A.; Ingen Housz, A.J.; Ingen housz, A.J.


    Nonisothermal flow of a polymer melt in a cold mold cavity introduces stresses that are partly frozen-in during solidification. Flow-induced stresses cause anisotropy of mechanical, thermal, and optical properties, while the residual thermal stresses induce warpage and stress-cracking. In this

  8. Development of a Fabric Lustre Scale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    In the textile industry, there is no satisfactory and simple method for either the subjective or objective assessment of fabric lustre. ..... Similar Appearance”, ASTM 1997, Section 6- Paints, Related Coatings and Aromatics, Vol. 6.01- Paint: Test for Chemical Physical and Optical Properties, D 4449, Race St.,. Philadelphia, USA.

  9. Fabrication and characterization of woodpile structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei


    In this paper we present the whole fabrication and characterization cycle for obtaining 3D metal-dielectric woodpile structures. The optical properties of these structures have been measured using different setups showing the need of considering e.g. border effects when planning their use in real...

  10. Fiberless Optical Gyroscope, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a very...

  11. Fiberless Optical Gyroscope, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a...

  12. LSST Camera Optics Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  13. Fabrication of an all-metal atomic force microscope probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan Pihl; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Ole


    This paper presents a method for fabrication of an all-metal atomic force microscope probe (tip, cantilever and support) for optical read-out, using a combination of silicon micro-machining and electroforming. The paper describes the entire fabrication process for a nickel AFM-probe. In addition...

  14. Characterisation of new natural cellulosic fabric Grewia tilifolia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jayaramudu, J


    Full Text Available optical micro-scopic techniques. The effect of alkali treatment on the mechanical, morphological, and thermal properties of the fabric was examined.The tensile strength, modulus, and the thermal stability of the fabric were found to improve on alkali...

  15. Integration of active and passive polymer optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Schøler, Mikkel; Kristensen, Anders


    We demonstrate a wafer scale fabrication process for integration of active and passive polymer optics: Polymer DFB lasers and waveguides. Polymer dye DFB lasers are fabricated by combined nanoimprint and photolithography (CNP). The CNP fabrication relies on an UV transparent stamp with nm sized...

  16. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)


    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  17. The new null testing method for the special optical window (United States)

    Huang, Changchun


    The high speed, high precision and wide range specifications are requirement for the modern aircraft, which the traditional hemispherical dome can't achieve now, and the novel conformal window instead can enhance the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft obviously. To reduce the aerodynamic drag and radar cross-section, the window geometry is generally aspheric in shape. As a result, the involved fabrication and testing processes are much more challenging than that of conventional optics and must be mastered before these windows and systems can be implemented at an acceptable cost and risk. Metrology is one of the critical areas required to advance the conformal window technology. But as the surface of these conformal windows is not the traditional sphere lens, the measurement method for it is infeasible with the conventional optics measurement processes. This paper we express the development of testing technology for the special conformal windows in brief, and emphatically introduces one available novel testing method- a new null testing, and here based on the theory of compensation methods, The principle of Offner's refractive null lens has been extended to test the transmission wavefront through conformal window optics and provide feedback during surface fabrication. a compensator system for the was designed for the conformal window is given which parameters are 100mm for its aperture and two parabolic surface as conformal window, the final residual wavefront error(RMS) of which is less than 1/20λ(λ=632.8nm).

  18. Improving Beamline X-ray Optics by Analyzing the Damage to Crystallographic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zientek, John; Maj, Jozef; Navrotski, Gary; Srajer, George; Harmata, Charles; Maj, Lech; Lazarski, Krzysztof; Mikula, Stanislaw


    The mission of the X-ray Characterization Laboratory in the X-ray Science Division (XSD) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to support both the users and the Optics Fabrication Facility that produces high performance optics for synchrotron X-ray beamlines. The Topography Test Unit (TTU) in the X-ray Lab has been successfully used to characterize diffracting crystals and test monochromators by quantifying residual surface stresses. This topographic method has also been adapted for testing standard X-ray mirrors, characterizing concave crystal optics and in principle, can be used to visualize residual stresses on any optic made from single crystalline material. The TTU has been instrumental in quantitatively determining crystal mounting stresses which are mechanically induced by positioning, holding, and cooling fixtures. It is this quantitative aspect that makes topography so useful since the requirements and responses for crystal optics and X-ray mirrors are quite different. In the case of monochromator crystals, even small residual or induced stresses, on the order of tens of kPa, can cause detrimental distortions to the perfect crystal rocking curves. Mirrors, on the other hand, are much less sensitive to induced stresses where stresses that are an order of magnitude greater can be tolerated. This is due to the fact that the surface rather than the lattice-spacing determines a mirror’s performance. For the highly sensitive crystal optics, it is essential to measure the in-situ rocking curves using topographs as mounting fixtures are adjusted. In this way, high heat-load monochromator crystals can be successfully mounted with minimum stress. Topographical analysis has been shown to be a highly effective method to visualize and quantify the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that mitigate stresses, and most notably to improve diffractive crystal optic rocking curves.

  19. Monitoring Pre-Stressed Composites Using Optical Fibre Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Krishnamurthy


    Full Text Available Residual stresses in fibre reinforced composites can give rise to a number of undesired effects such as loss of dimensional stability and premature fracture. Hence, there is significant merit in developing processing techniques to mitigate the development of residual stresses. However, tracking and quantifying the development of these fabrication-induced stresses in real-time using conventional non-destructive techniques is not straightforward. This article reports on the design and evaluation of a technique for manufacturing pre-stressed composite panels from unidirectional E-glass/epoxy prepregs. Here, the magnitude of the applied pre-stress was monitored using an integrated load-cell. The pre-stressing rig was based on a flat-bed design which enabled autoclave-based processing. A method was developed to end-tab the laminated prepregs prior to pre-stressing. The development of process-induced residual strain was monitored in-situ using embedded optical fibre sensors. Surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauges were used to measure the strain when the composite was unloaded from the pre-stressing rig at room temperature. Four pre-stress levels were applied prior to processing the laminated preforms in an autoclave. The results showed that the application of a pre-stress of 108 MPa to a unidirectional [0]16 E-glass/913 epoxy preform, reduced the residual strain in the composite from −600 µε (conventional processing without pre-stress to approximately zero. A good correlation was observed between the data obtained from the surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauge and the embedded optical fibre sensors. In addition to “neutralising” the residual stresses, superior axial orientation of the reinforcement can be obtained from pre-stressed composites. A subsequent publication will highlight the consequences of pres-stressing on fibre alignment, the tensile, flexural, compressive and fatigue performance of unidirectional E

  20. Monitoring Pre-Stressed Composites Using Optical Fibre Sensors. (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Badcock, Rodney A; Machavaram, Venkata R; Fernando, Gerard F


    Residual stresses in fibre reinforced composites can give rise to a number of undesired effects such as loss of dimensional stability and premature fracture. Hence, there is significant merit in developing processing techniques to mitigate the development of residual stresses. However, tracking and quantifying the development of these fabrication-induced stresses in real-time using conventional non-destructive techniques is not straightforward. This article reports on the design and evaluation of a technique for manufacturing pre-stressed composite panels from unidirectional E-glass/epoxy prepregs. Here, the magnitude of the applied pre-stress was monitored using an integrated load-cell. The pre-stressing rig was based on a flat-bed design which enabled autoclave-based processing. A method was developed to end-tab the laminated prepregs prior to pre-stressing. The development of process-induced residual strain was monitored in-situ using embedded optical fibre sensors. Surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauges were used to measure the strain when the composite was unloaded from the pre-stressing rig at room temperature. Four pre-stress levels were applied prior to processing the laminated preforms in an autoclave. The results showed that the application of a pre-stress of 108 MPa to a unidirectional [0]16 E-glass/913 epoxy preform, reduced the residual strain in the composite from -600 µε (conventional processing without pre-stress) to approximately zero. A good correlation was observed between the data obtained from the surface-mounted electrical resistance strain gauge and the embedded optical fibre sensors. In addition to "neutralising" the residual stresses, superior axial orientation of the reinforcement can be obtained from pre-stressed composites. A subsequent publication will highlight the consequences of pres-stressing on fibre alignment, the tensile, flexural, compressive and fatigue performance of unidirectional E-glass composites.

  1. Photochemical cutting of fabrics (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.


    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  2. Peptide Optical waveguides. (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Shostak, Tamar; Rosenman, Gil


    Small-scale optical devices, designed and fabricated onto one dielectric substrate, create integrated optical chip like their microelectronic analogues. These photonic circuits, based on diverse physical phenomena such as light-matter interaction, propagation of electromagnetic waves in a thin dielectric material, nonlinear and electro-optical effects, allow transmission, distribution, modulation, and processing of optical signals in optical communication systems, chemical and biological sensors, and more. The key component of these optical circuits providing both optical processing and photonic interconnections is light waveguides. Optical confinement and transmitting of the optical waves inside the waveguide material are possible due to the higher refractive index of the waveguides in comparison with their surroundings. In this work, we propose a novel field of bionanophotonics based on a new concept of optical waveguiding in synthetic elongated peptide nanostructures composed of ordered peptide dipole biomolecules. New technology of controllable deposition of peptide optical waveguiding structures by nanofountain pen technique is developed. Experimental studies of refractive index, optical transparency, and linear and nonlinear waveguiding in out-of-plane and in-plane diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes have been conducted. Optical waveguiding phenomena in peptide structures are simulated by the finite difference time domain method. The advantages of this new class of bio-optical waveguides are high refractive index contrast, wide spectral range of optical transparency, large optical nonlinearity, and electro-optical effect, making them promising for new applications in integrated multifunctional photonic circuits. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.


    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  4. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens (United States)

    Bionta, Richard M.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Skulina, Kenneth M.


    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  5. Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Chui, Chunghin; Tao, Xiaoming


    In this paper, a flexible luminous fabric device was developed and investigated for wearable three-dimensionally fitted low-level light therapy. The fabric device exhibited excellent optical and thermal properties. Its optical power density and operating temperature were stable during usage for 10 hours. In vitro experiments demonstrated a significant increase in collagen production in human fibroblast irradiated by the fabric device, compared with the fibroblast without light irradiation. A series of tests were conducted for the safety of the fabric for human skin contact according to ISO standard ISO 10993-1:2003. The results showed that there was no potential hazard when the luminous fabrics were in direct contact with human skin. PMID:24409391

  6. Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Interconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Thourhout, D.; Spuesens, T.; Selvaraja, S.K.


    We review recent progress in nanophotonic devices for compact optical interconnect networks. We focus on microdisk-laser-based transmitters and discuss improved design and advanced functionality including all-optical wavelength conversion and flip-flops. Next we discuss the fabrication uniformity...

  7. Peptide Integrated Optics. (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Lapshina, Nadezda; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil


    Bio-nanophotonics is a wide field in which advanced optical materials, biomedicine, fundamental optics, and nanotechnology are combined and result in the development of biomedical optical chips. Silk fibers or synthetic bioabsorbable polymers are the main light-guiding components. In this work, an advanced concept of integrated bio-optics is proposed, which is based on bioinspired peptide optical materials exhibiting wide optical transparency, nonlinear and electrooptical properties, and effective passive and active waveguiding. Developed new technology combining bottom-up controlled deposition of peptide planar wafers of a large area and top-down focus ion beam lithography provides direct fabrication of peptide optical integrated circuits. Finding a deep modification of peptide optical properties by reconformation of biological secondary structure from native phase to β-sheet architecture is followed by the appearance of visible fluorescence and unexpected transition from a native passive optical waveguiding to an active one. Original biocompatibility, switchable regimes of waveguiding, and multifunctional nonlinear optical properties make these new peptide planar optical materials attractive for application in emerging technology of lab-on-biochips, combining biomedical photonic and electronic circuits toward medical diagnosis, light-activated therapy, and health monitoring. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Photothermal fabrication of microscale patterned DNA hydrogels (United States)

    Shimomura, Suguru; Nishimura, Takahiro; Ogura, Yusuke; Tanida, Jun


    This paper introduces a method for fabricating microscale DNA hydrogels using irradiation with patterned light. Optical fabrication allows for the flexible and tunable formation of DNA hydrogels without changing the environmental conditions. Our scheme is based on local heat generation via the photothermal effect, which is induced by light irradiation on a quenching species. We demonstrate experimentally that, depending on the power and irradiation time, light irradiation enables the creation of local microscale DNA hydrogels, while the shapes of the DNA hydrogels are controlled by the irradiation patterns.

  9. Fabrication of miniaturized electrostatic deflectors using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.H.; Khan-Malek, C.; Muray, L.P.


    Miniaturized electron beam columns (open-quotes microcolumnsclose quotes) have been demonstrated to be suitable candidates for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), e-beam lithography and other high resolution, low voltage applications. In the present technology, microcolumns consist of open-quotes selectively scaledclose quotes micro-sized lenses and apertures, fabricated from silicon membranes with e-beam lithography, reactive ion beam etching and other semiconductor thin-film techniques. These miniaturized electron-optical elements provide significant advantages over conventional optics in performance and ease of fabrication. Since lens aberrations scale roughly with size, it is possible to fabricate simple microcolumns with extremely high brightness sources and electrostatic objective lenses, with resolution and beam current comparable to conventional e-beam columns. Moreover since microcolumns typically operate at low voltages (1 KeV), the proximity effects encountered in e-beam lithography become negligible. For high throughput applications, batch fabrication methods may be used to build large parallel arrays of microcolumns. To date, the best reported performance with a 1 keV cold field emission cathode, is 30 nm resolution at a working distance of 2mm in a 3.5mm column. Fabrication of the microcolumn deflector and stigmator, however, have remained beyond the capabilities of conventional machining operations and semiconductor processing technology. This work examines the LIGA process as a superior alternative to fabrication of the deflectors, especially in terms of degree of miniaturization, dimensional control, placement accuracy, run-out, facet smoothness and choice of suitable materials. LIGA is a combination of deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, and injection molding processes which allow the fabrication of microstructures

  10. Thin film coated submicron gratings: theory, design, fabrication and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, C.


    The realization of new applications of submicron grating structures requires efficient theoretical methods and elaborate fabrication techniques. In this work rigorous diffraction theory for one-dimensional gratings has been investigated and optimization techniques, based on methods used in thin film optics, have been developed. Submicron gratings embossed in polycarbonate have been fabricated and characterized. This includes transmission measurements which are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Designs for a wide range of optical filters, which lead to improved optical and mechanical properties, are presented. This has been demonstrated for broadband antireflection structures for solar energy applications, based on MgF{sub 2}-coated gratings. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Machining approach of freeform optics on infrared materials via ultra-precision turning. (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Fang, Fengzhou; Chen, Jinjin; Zhang, Xiaodong


    Optical freeform surfaces are of great advantage in excellent optical performance and integrated alignment features. It has wide applications in illumination, imaging and non-imaging, etc. Machining freeform surfaces on infrared (IR) materials with ultra-precision finish is difficult due to its brittle nature. Fast tool servo (FTS) assisted diamond turning is a powerful technique for the realization of freeform optics on brittle materials due to its features of high spindle speed and high cutting speed. However it has difficulties with large slope angles and large rise-and-falls in the sagittal direction. In order to overcome this defect, the balance of the machining quality on the freeform surface and the brittle nature in IR materials should be realized. This paper presents the design of a near-rotational freeform surface (NRFS) with a low non-rotational degree (NRD) to constraint the variation of traditional freeform optics to solve this issue. In NRFS, the separation of the surface results in a rotational part and a residual part denoted as a non-rotational surface (NRS). Machining NRFS on germanium is operated by FTS diamond turning. Characteristics of the surface indicate that the optical finish of the freeform surface has been achieved. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the freeform optics shows a good agreement to the design expectation. Images of the final optical system confirm that the fabricating strategy is of high efficiency and high quality. Challenges and prospects are discussed to provide guidance of future work.

  12. Electro-optical switching of liquid crystals of graphene oxide (United States)

    Song, Jang-Kun

    Electric field effects on aqueous graphene-oxide (GO) dispersions are reviewed in this chapter. In isotropic and biphasic regimes of GO dispersions, in which the inter-particle friction is low, GO particles sensitively respond to the application of electric field, producing field-induced optical birefringence. The electro-optical sensitivity dramatically decreases as the phase transits to the nematic phase; the increasing inter-particle friction hinders the rotational switching of GO particles. The corresponding Kerr coefficient reaches the maximum near the isotropic to biphasic transition concentration, at which the Kerr coefficient is found be c.a. 1:8 · 10-5 mV-2, the highest value ever reported in all Kerr materials. The exceptionally large Kerr effect arises from the Maxwell- Wagner polarization of GO particles with an extremely large aspect ratio and a thick electrical double layer (EDL). The polarization sensitively depends on the ratio of surface and bulk conductivities in dispersions. As a result, low ion concentration in bulk solvent is highly required to achieve a quality electro-optical switching in GO dispersions. Spontaneous vinylogous carboxylic reaction in GO particles produces H+ ions, resulting in spontaneous degradation of electro-optical response with time, hence the removal of residual ions by using a centrifuge cleaning process significantly improves the electro-optical sensitivity. GO particle size is another important parameter for the Kerr coefficient and the response time. The best performance is observed in a GO dispersion with c.a. 0.5 μm mean size. Dielectrophoretic migration of GO particles can be also used to manipulate GO particles in solution. Using these unique features of GO dispersions, one can fabricate GO liquid crystal devices similar to conventional liquid crystal displays; the large Kerr effect allows fabricating a low power device working at extremely low electric fields.

  13. Fabrics for aeronautic construction (United States)

    Walen, E D


    The Bureau of Standards undertook the investigation of airplane fabrics with the view of finding suitable substitutes for the linen fabrics, and it was decided that the fibers to be considered were cotton, ramie, silk, and hemp. Of these, the cotton fiber was the logical one to be given primary consideration. Report presents the suitability, tensibility and stretching properties of cotton fabric obtained by laboratory tests.

  14. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn


    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on....... The development of fabrication techniques in the work presented is considered an inherent part of architectural design and shares the aspiration of developing approaches to manufacturing architecture that are scalable to architectural proportions1 and of practical relevance....

  15. Automated laser fabrication of cemented carbide components (United States)

    Paul, C. P.; Khajepour, A.


    Automated Laser Fabrication (ALFa) is one of the most rapidly growing rapid-manufacturing technologies. It is similar to laser cladding at process level with different end applications. In general, laser cladding technique is used to deposit materials on the substrate either to improve the surface properties or to refurbish the worn-out parts, while ALFa is capable of near net shaping the components by layer-by-layer deposition of the material directly from CAD model. This manufacturing method is very attractive for low volume manufacturing of hard materials, as near net shaping minimizes machining of hard material and subsequently brings significant savings in time and costly material. To date, many researchers have used this technology to fabricate components using various alloy steels, nickel-based alloys and cobalt-based alloys. In the present study, the work is extended to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) composites. A set of comprehensive experiments was carried out to study the effect of processing parameters during multi-layer fabrication. The process parameters were optimized for the component-level fabrication. Fabricated components were subjected to dye-penetrant testing, three-point flexural testing, hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The test results revealed that the laser-fabricated material was defect free and more ductile in nature. Thus, ALFa technology, not only produced the quality components, but also minimized machining of hard material and brought significant saving of time and costly WC-Co material.

  16. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.


    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  17. IC-Compatible Technologies for Optical MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krygowski, T.W.; Sniegowski, J.J.


    Optical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Optical MEMS) Technology holds the promise of one-day producing highly integrated optical systems on a common, monolithic substrate. The choice of fabrication technology used to manufacture Optical MEMS will play a pivotal role in the size, functionality and ultimately the cost of optical Microsystems. By leveraging the technology base developed for silicon integrated circuits, large batches of routers, emitters, detectors and amplifiers will soon be fabricated for literally pennies per part. In this article we review the current status of technologies used for Optical MEMS, as well as fabrication technologies of the future, emphasizing manufacturable surface micromachining approaches to producing reliable, low-cost devices for optical communications applications.

  18. A Quantum Dot Optical Modulator for Integration With Si CMOS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xie, Y. H


    During the period covered by this report, we have successfully overcome several technical challenges for the device fabrication and made solid progress heading toward a functional optical modulator...

  19. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn


    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  20. Smart Fabrics Technology Development (United States)

    Simon, Cory; Potter, Elliott; Potter, Elliott; McCabe, Mary; Baggerman, Clint


    Advances in Smart Fabrics technology are enabling an exciting array of new applications for NASA exploration missions, the biomedical community, and consumer electronics. This report summarizes the findings of a brief investigation into the state of the art and potential applications of smart fabrics to address challenges in human spaceflight.

  1. From optics testing to micro optics testing (United States)

    Brock, Christian; Dorn, Ralf; Pfund, Johannes


    Testing micro optics, i.e. lenses with dimensions down to 0.1mm and less, with high precision requires a dedicated design of the testing device, taking into account propagation and wave-optical effects. In this paper, we discuss testing methods based on Shack-Hartmann wavefront technology for functional testing in transmission and for the measurement of surface shape in reflection. As a first example of more conventional optics testing, i.e. optics in the millimeter range, we present the measurement of binoculars in transmission, and discuss the measured wave aberrations and imaging quality. By repeating the measurement at different wavelengths, information on chromatic effects is retrieved. A task that is often tackled using Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors is the alignment of collimation optics in front of a light source. In case of a micro-optical collimation unit with a 1/e² beam diameter of ca. 1mm, we need adapted relay optics for suitable beam expansion and well-defined imaging conditions. In this example, we will discuss the alignment process and effects of the relay optics magnification, as well as typical performance data. Oftentimes, micro optics are fabricated not as single pieces, but as mass optics, e.g. by lithographic processes. Thus, in order to reduce tooling and alignment time, an automated test procedure is necessary. We present an approach for the automated testing of wafer- or tray-based micro optics, and discuss transmission and reflection measurement capabilities. Exemplary performance data is shown for a sample type with 30 microns in diameter, where typical repeatabilities of a few nanometers (rms) are reached.

  2. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines


    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  3. Integrated Optoelectronic Switching Technology for Fiber-Optic Communications Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fan, Regis


    .... most of the effort in optical amplifier switch modules have been focused on monolithic switches in which the entire device is fabricated on an InP substrate together with the semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs...

  4. Optic neuritis (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  5. Digital Moiré based transient interferometry and its application in optical surface measurement (United States)

    Hao, Qun; Tan, Yifeng; Wang, Shaopu; Hu, Yao


    Digital Moiré based transient interferometry (DMTI) is an effective non-contact testing methods for optical surfaces. In DMTI system, only one frame of real interferogram is experimentally captured for the transient measurement of the surface under test (SUT). When combined with partial compensation interferometry (PCI), DMTI is especially appropriate for the measurement of aspheres with large apertures, large asphericity or different surface parameters. Residual wavefront is allowed in PCI, so the same partial compensator can be applied to the detection of multiple SUTs. Excessive residual wavefront aberration results in spectrum aliasing, and the dynamic range of DMTI is limited. In order to solve this problem, a method based on wavelet transform is proposed to extract phase from the fringe pattern with spectrum aliasing. Results of simulation demonstrate the validity of this method. The dynamic range of Digital Moiré technology is effectively expanded, which makes DMTI prospective in surface figure error measurement for intelligent fabrication of aspheric surfaces.

  6. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.


    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  7. Nanophotonic Fabrication Self-Assembly and Deposition Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsui, Takashi


    Nanophotonics, a novel optical technology, utilizes the local interaction between nanometric particles via optical near fields. The optical near fields are the elementary surface excitations on nanometric particles, i.e. dressed photons that carry material energy. Of the variety of qualitative innovations in optical technology realized by nanophotonics, this books focuses on fabrication. To fabricate nano-scale photonic devices with nanometer-scale controllability in size and position, we developed a self-assembly method for size- and position-controlled ultra-long nanodot chains using a novel effect of near-field optical desorption. A novel deposition and etching scheme under nonresonant conditions is also demonstrated and its origin is reviewed.

  8. [Residual neuromuscular blockade]. (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D


    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  9. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  10. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan


    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  11. Effect of fire retardants on cotton fabric grafted with acrylic acid by EB radiation: a thermal analysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, D.; Sabharwal, S.; Majali, A.B.


    Electron beam irradiation technique has been utilized to graft acrylic acid to cotton fabric in order to provide suitable functional groups that can subsequently react with urea or borax for making the fabric fire resistant. Thermal analytical technique such as, DSC and TG have been utilized to investigate the flame retardency characteristic of the grafted and treated fabric. The result shows that decay curve of exothermic peak due to combustion of cotton fabric in case of urea treated fabric at 330 degC becomes broad and shifts to higher temperature in DSC analysis as compared to pure cotton fabric and char residue in TG analysis is 20% in both the case. In borax treated fabric, char residue is found to be 40% in TG analysis and DSC profile is similar to that of urea treated fabric. (author)

  12. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.


    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  13. Disk Refining and Ultrasonication Treated Sugarcane Bagasse Residues for Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Bio-composites (United States)

    Qingzheng Cheng; Zhaohui Tong; Luisa Dempere; Lonnie Ingram; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu


    Disk refining and ultrasonication treated sugarcane bagasse residues reclaimed from the waste stream of a simplified bioethanol process after fermentation were used to fabricate biobased composites with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by film casting. The morphologies and the size distributions of residue particles were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy and...

  14. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise


    to the establishment of an initial framework for the project it has a focus on how to explore costumers and users emotional experiences with fabrics. The three year research project is based on experimental design research and the textile designer's competences and knowledge. During the research project exploring...... sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  15. Particle Fabrication Using Inkjet Printing onto Hydrophobic Surfaces for Optimization and Calibration of Trace Contraband Detection Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gillen


    Full Text Available A method has been developed to fabricate patterned arrays of micrometer-sized monodisperse solid particles of ammonium nitrate on hydrophobic silicon surfaces using inkjet printing. The method relies on dispensing one or more microdrops of a concentrated aqueous ammonium nitrate solution from a drop-on-demand (DOD inkjet printer at specific locations on a silicon substrate rendered hydrophobic by a perfluorodecytrichlorosilane monolayer coating. The deposited liquid droplets form into the shape of a spherical shaped cap; during the evaporation process, a deposited liquid droplet maintains this geometry until it forms a solid micrometer sized particle. Arrays of solid particles are obtained by sequential translation of the printer stage. The use of DOD inkjet printing for fabrication of discrete particle arrays allows for precise control of particle characteristics (mass, diameter and height, as well as the particle number and spatial distribution on the substrate. The final mass of an individual particle is precisely determined by using gravimetric measurement of the average mass of solution ejected per microdrop. The primary application of this method is fabrication of test materials for the evaluation of spatially-resolved optical and mass spectrometry based sensors used for detecting particle residues of contraband materials, such as explosives or narcotics.

  16. 3D optical imagery for motion compensation in a limb ultrasound system (United States)

    Ranger, Bryan J.; Feigin, Micha; Zhang, Xiang; Mireault, Al; Raskar, Ramesh; Herr, Hugh M.; Anthony, Brian W.


    Conventional processes for prosthetic socket fabrication are heavily subjective, often resulting in an interface to the human body that is neither comfortable nor completely functional. With nearly 100% of amputees reporting that they experience discomfort with the wearing of their prosthetic limb, designing an effective interface to the body can significantly affect quality of life and future health outcomes. Active research in medical imaging and biomechanical tissue modeling of residual limbs has led to significant advances in computer aided prosthetic socket design, demonstrating an interest in moving toward more quantifiable processes that are still patient-specific. In our work, medical ultrasonography is being pursued to acquire data that may quantify and improve the design process and fabrication of prosthetic sockets while greatly reducing cost compared to an MRI-based framework. This paper presents a prototype limb imaging system that uses a medical ultrasound probe, mounted to a mechanical positioning system and submerged in a water bath. The limb imaging is combined with three-dimensional optical imaging for motion compensation. Images are collected circumferentially around the limb and combined into cross-sectional axial image slices, resulting in a compound image that shows tissue distributions and anatomical boundaries similar to magnetic resonance imaging. In this paper we provide a progress update on our system development, along with preliminary results as we move toward full volumetric imaging of residual limbs for prosthetic socket design. This demonstrates a novel multi-modal approach to residual limb imaging.

  17. Direct ink write fabrication of transparent ceramic gain media (United States)

    Jones, Ivy Krystal; Seeley, Zachary M.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Duoss, Eric B.; Payne, Stephen A.


    Solid-state laser gain media based on the garnet structure with two spatially distinct but optically contiguous regions have been fabricated. Transparent gain media comprised of a central core of Y2.97Nd0.03Al5.00O12.00 (Nd:YAG) and an undoped cladding region of Y3Al5O12 (YAG) were fabricated by direct ink write and transparent ceramic processing. Direct ink write (DIW) was employed to form the green body, offering a general route to preparing functionally structured solid-state laser gain media. Fully-dense transparent optical ceramics in a "top hat" geometry with YAG/Nd:YAG have been fabricated by DIW methods with optical scatter at 1064 nm of <3%/cm.

  18. Nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alayo, Nerea; Bausells, Joan; Pérez-Murano, Francesc; Conde-Rubio, Ana; Labarta, Amilcar; Batlle, Xavier; Borrisé, Xavier


    Cone-like and empty cup-shaped nanoparticles of noble metals have been demonstrated to provide extraordinary optical properties for use as optical nanoanntenas or nanoresonators. However, their large-scale production is difficult via standard nanofabrication methods. We present a fabrication approach to achieve arrays of nanoparticles with tunable shape and composition by a combination of nanoimprint lithography, hard-mask definition and various forms of metal deposition. In particular, we have obtained arrays of empty cup-shaped Au nanoparticles showing an optical response with distinguishable features associated with the excitations of localized surface plasmons. Finally, this route avoids the most common drawbacks found in the fabrication of nanoparticles by conventional top-down methods, such as aspect ratio limitation, blurring, and low throughput, and it can be used to fabricate nanoparticles with heterogeneous composition. (paper)

  19. Construction, fabrication, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This standard specifies the construction, fabrication, and installation requirements that apply to concrete containment structures of a containment system designated as class containment components, parts and appurtenances for nuclear power plants

  20. Experimental Fabrication Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  1. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  2. Fabrication and test of Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, R.; Mattioli, F.; Castellano, M.G.; Cibella, S.; Carelli, P.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.; Ejrnaes, M.; Lisitskyi, M.P.; Esposito, E.; Cristiano, R.; Nappi, C.


    We report here on the state of our fabrication process for Superconducting Single Photon Detectors (SSPDs). We have fabricated submicrometer SSPD structures by electron beam lithography using very thin (10 nm) NbN films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on different substrates and at room substrate temperature. The structures show a fast optical response (risetime <500 ps limited by readout electronics) and interesting self-resetting features

  3. Femtosecond laser fabrication of optofluidic devices for single cell manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragheri Francesca


    Full Text Available In this work we fabricate and validate two optofludic devices for the manipulation and analysis of single cells. The chips are fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining exploiting the 3D capabilities of the technique and the inherent perfect alignment between microfluidic channels and optical networks. Both devices have been validated by probing the mechanical properties of different cancer cell lines, which are expected to show different elasticity because of their different metastatic potential.

  4. Fiber inline Michelson interferometer fabricated by a femtosecond laser. (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Wei, Tao; Han, Qun; Wang, Hanzheng; Huang, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Xiao, Hai


    A fiber inline Michelson interferometer was fabricated by micromachining a step structure at the tip of a single-mode optical fiber using a femtosecond laser. The step structure splits the fiber core into two reflection paths and produces an interference signal. A fringe visibility of 18 dB was achieved. Temperature sensing up to 1000°C was demonstrated using the fabricated assembly-free device.

  5. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)


    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  6. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  7. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  8. Miniaturized High Performance Optical Gyroscope Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new approach for to the design and fabrication of miniaturized Interferometric Fiber Optical Gyroscope (FOG) that enables the production of smaller IRU...

  9. The fabrication and characterization of replicated and lacquer coated grazing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, M.P.; Haidle, R.; Altkorn, R.; Georgeopolos, P.; Rodricks, B.; Takacs, P.Z.


    This paper reports on work done over the past two years in our laboratory to produce X-ray optics. We also report on tests that we have made to evaluate the performance of pieces that we have produced. As we progress towards the 21st century, there is a growing need to understand fabrication techniques for grazing incidence optics. To this end we report our results of fabricating, testing, and measuring both Wolter I optics and flats. We have used the techniques of lacquer coating. We have made flats to determine our ability to coat surfaces with lacquer and gold, as well as to demonstrate reflectivity up to 40 keV. We also produced Wolter I optics nickel optics with a gold coated optical surface. Here we report and interpret results from X-ray reflectivity and Wyko profiler optical measurements. We also describe our fabrication process and provide a critique of the process and describe how we hope to further improve upon the basic technique

  10. Simulation and fabrication of integrated polystyrene microlens in microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang


    This paper presents a simple and quick method to integrate microlens with the microfluidics systems. The polystyrene (PS) based microlens is fabricated with the free surface thermal compression molding methods, a thin PS sheet with the microlens is bonded to a PMMA substrate which contains the laser ablated microchannels. The convex profiler of the microlens will give a magnified images of the microchannels for easier observation. Optical simulation software is being used for the design and simulation of the microlens to have optimal optical performance with the desired focal length. A microfluidic system with the integrated PS microlens is also fabricated for demonstration.

  11. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)


    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  12. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics. (United States)

    Lin, Song; Wang, Zheng; Qi, Jian-cheng; Wu, Jin-hui; Tian, Tao; Hou, Li-li; Hao, Li-mei; Yang, Jing-quan


    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ε-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd

  13. One-pot fabrication and antimicrobial properties of novel PET nonwoven fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Wang Zheng; Qi Jiancheng; Wu Jinhui; Tian Tao; Hao Limei; Yang Jingquan; Hou Lili


    Recently, with the ever-growing demand for healthy living, more and more research is focused on materials capable of killing harmful microorganisms around the world. It is believed that designing such protective materials for hygienic and biomedical applications can benefit people in professional areas and daily life. Thus, in this paper, one novel kind of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabrics was conveniently one-pot prepared, with the combined immobilization of two biological antimicrobial agents, i.e. ε-polylysine and natamycin, by using the soft methacrylate nonwoven fabrics adhesives. Then, the antimicrobial activities of the functional fabrics were investigated by using the standard shaking-flask method, showing excellent antibacterial efficiency (AE) against both Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538) (AE > 99.99%) compared with untreated PET nonwoven fabrics. The anti-bioaerosol tests also showed similar trends. Meantime, scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that the bacteria on the antibacterial PET appeared to be partly bacteriolyzed and showed much less viability than those on the pristine ones. Moreover, the long residual biocidal action of such modified PET fabrics was also evaluated, and the antibacterial activity of antibacterial fibers was unaffected by the 3 month artificially accelerated aging.

  14. UV written 1x8 optical splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael


    In this paper the first demonstration of 1x8 optical power splitters made by direct UV writing is presented. Design and optimization of the process as well as the performance of the fabricated components are discussed.......In this paper the first demonstration of 1x8 optical power splitters made by direct UV writing is presented. Design and optimization of the process as well as the performance of the fabricated components are discussed....

  15. Displacement Talbot lithography: an alternative technique to fabricate nanostructured metamaterials (United States)

    Le Boulbar, E. D.; Chausse, P. J. P.; Lis, S.; Shields, P. A.


    Nanostructured materials are essential for many recent electronic, magnetic and optical devices. Lithography is the most common step used to fabricate organized and well calibrated nanostructures. However, feature sizes less than 200 nm usually require access to deep ultraviolet photolithography, e-beam lithography or soft lithography (nanoimprinting), which are either expensive, have low-throughput or are sensitive to defects. Low-cost, high-throughput and low-defect-density techniques are therefore of interest for the fabrication of nanostructures. In this study, we investigate the potential of displacement Talbot lithography for the fabrication of specific structures of interest within plasmonic and metamaterial research fields. We demonstrate that nanodash arrays and `fishnet'-like structures can be fabricated by using a double exposure of two different linear grating phase masks. Feature sizes can be tuned by varying the exposure doses. Such lithography has been used to fabricate metallic `fishnet'-like structures using a lift-off technique. This proof of principle paves the way to a low-cost, high-throughput, defect-free and large-scale technique for the fabrication of structures that could be useful for metamaterial and plasmonic metasurfaces. With the development of deep ultraviolet displacement Talbot lithography, the feature dimensions could be pushed lower and used for the fabrication of optical metamaterials in the visible range.

  16. Fabrication of Periodic Gold Nanocup Arrays Using Colloidal Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.


    Within recent years, the field of plasmonics has exploded as researchers have demonstrated exciting applications related to chemical and optical sensing in combination with new nanofabrication techniques. A plasmon is a quantum of charge density oscillation that lends nanoscale metals such as gold and silver unique optical properties. In particular, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances—collective charge density oscillations on the surface of the nanoparticle—in the visible spectrum. Here, we focus on the fabrication of periodic arrays of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures. These half-shell (or nanocup) structures can exhibit additional unique light-bending and polarization dependent optical properties that simple isotropic nanostructures cannot. Researchers are interested in the fabrication of periodic arrays of nanocups for a wide variety of applications such as low-cost optical devices, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and tamper indication. We present a scalable technique based on colloidal lithography in which it is possible to easily fabricate large periodic arrays of nanocups using spin-coating and self-assembled commercially available polymeric nanospheres. Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy from the visible to near-IR was performed to confirm successful nanocup fabrication. We conclude with a demonstration of the transfer of nanocups to a flexible, conformal adhesive film.

  17. Carbon layers for integrated optics (United States)

    Prajzler, Vaclav; Huettel, Ivan; Schroefel, Josef; Nekvindova, Pavla; Gurovic, Jan; Mackova, Anna


    Study of fabrication and properties of the carbon layers by using the PACVD (Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition) apparatus is reported. The layers were grown on silicon substrates with methane as the precursor and were then doped with the erbium ions by treating the fabricated samples in glycerin or in the solution of erbium nitrate. To obtain deeper erbium containing carbon layers (up to 1 μm) the "sandwich method" was used based on repetition (three times) of carbon deposition and subsequent diffusion of erbium after which followed annealing in vacuum oven. The obtained results proved that it is in principle possible to fabricate the erbium containing carbon thin optical layers.

  18. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  19. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt


    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  20. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.


    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  1. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E


    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  2. Springer handbook of lasers and optics

    CERN Document Server


    The Springer Handbook of Lasers and Optics provides fast, up-to-date, comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the wide fields of optics and lasers. It is written for daily use in the office or laboratory and offers explanatory text, data, and references needed for anyone working with lasers and optical instruments. This second edition features numerous updates and additions. Especially four new chapters on Fiber Optics, Integrated Optics, Frequency Combs, and Interferometry reflect the major changes. In addition, chapters Optical Materials and Their Properties, Optical Detectors, Nanooptics, and Optics far Beyond the Diffraction Limit have been thoroughly revised and updated. The now 25 chapters are grouped into four parts which cover basic principles and materials, fabrication and properties of optical components, coherent and incoherent light sources, and, finally, selected applications and special fields such as terahertz photonics, x-ray optics and holography. Each chapter is authored by respected exp...

  3. MOX Fabrication Isolation Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric L. Shaber; Bradley J Schrader


    This document provides a technical position on the preferred level of isolation to fabricate demonstration quantities of mixed oxide transmutation fuels. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative should design and construct automated glovebox fabrication lines for this purpose. This level of isolation adequately protects the health and safety of workers and the general public for all mixed oxide (and other transmutation fuel) manufacturing efforts while retaining flexibility, allowing parallel development and setup, and minimizing capital expense. The basis regulations, issues, and advantages/disadvantages of five potential forms of isolation are summarized here as justification for selection of the preferred technical position.

  4. Differential RF MEMS interwoven capacitor immune to residual stress warping

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.


    A RF MEMS capacitor with an interwoven structure is designed, fabricated in the PolyMUMPS process and tested in an effort to address fabrication challenges usually faced in MEMS processes. The interwoven structure was found to offer several advantages over the typical MEMS parallel-plate design including eliminating the warping caused by residual stress, eliminating the need for etching holes, suppressing stiction, reducing parasitics and providing differential capability. The quality factor of the proposed capacitor was higher than five throughout a 2–10 GHz range and the resonant frequency was in excess of 20 GHz.

  5. Optical Data Processing in Europe, (United States)


    conjugate reflection optics and Faraday isolator cells were fabricated and used to separate different multiple fringe patterns present. Recording of ellip...statistical optical pattern rec- ognition. Duvernoy has used K-L transforms and chromatic filtering with a hyperspace analysis to do data clustering...polarized input light, and the small (40 Hz) frequency bandpass (this seems to be the major problems). The device tested had 80 Um cells with 10 pm

  6. Magnetic fabric vs. magnetite and biotite shape fabrics of the magnetite-bearing granite pluton of Gameleiras (Northeast Brazil) (United States)

    Archanjo, Carlos Jose; Launeau, Patrick; Bouchez, Jean Luc


    A well-defined orientation pattern has been evidenced by the magnetic fabric (lineation and foliation) of the granite pluton of Gameleiras, Northeast Brazil. This magnetic fabric is roughly parallel to the magmatic fabric defined by the elongate mafic enclaves, and by the planar arrangement of tabular K-feldspar phenocrysts. Low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility properties, as well as magnetic mineralogy studies and optical microscopy observations, indicate that multidomian, iron-rich magnetite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy. To examine in more detail the relationships between the magnetic and magmatic fabrics, measurements of two-dimensional shape fabrics of grain populations of biotite and magnetite have been carried out on a total of 500 grains using an automatic shape fabric analysis procedure on carefully selected and oriented thin sections. Angular departure (α) has been calculated between the maximum elongation of the mineral shape fabric of the given grain population and the maximum susceptibility axis of the corresponding macroscopic specimen. We found that the fabric of biotite correlates strongly with the magnetic fabric (α = 7° ± 8°). The fabric of magnetite, although not as well defined, mainly because of its weak shape anisotropy, still correlates with the magnetic fabric (α = 12° ± 18°). Origin of low-field magnetic fabric in the pluton of Gameleiras is concluded to be controlled principally by the statistical alignment of the long axes of inequant magnetite grains. Magnetic interactions between the grains of magnetite, where they form clusters, may account for the observed scattering or abnormal magnitudes of the magnetic anisotropy. Concerning the orientation of the magnetic fabric, as the long dimensions of the magnetites preferentially align with the boundaries of the other minerals, particularly biotite and titanite, the magnetic fabric as defined by the grains of magnetite is concluded

  7. Gallium arsenide deep-level optical emitter for fibre optics. (United States)

    Pan, Janet L; McManis, Joseph E; Osadchy, Thomas; Grober, Louise; Woodall, Jerry M; Kindlmann, Peter J


    Fibre-optic components fabricated on the same substrate as integrated circuits are important for future high-speed communications. One industry response has been the costly push to develop indium phosphide (InP) electronics. However, for fabrication simplicity, reliability and cost, gallium arsenide (GaAs) remains the established technology for integrated optoelectronics. Unfortunately, the GaAs bandgap wavelength (0.85 microm) is far too short for fibre optics at 1.3-1.5 microm. This has led to work on materials that have a large lattice mismatch on GaAs. Here we demonstrate the first light-emitting diode (LED) that emits at 1.5 microm fibre-optic wavelengths in GaAs using optical transitions from arsenic antisite (As(Ga)) deep levels. This is an enabling technology for fibre-optic components that are lattice-matched to GaAs integrated circuits. We present experimental results showing significant internal optical power (24 mW) and speed (in terahertz) from GaAs optical emitters using deep-level transitions. Finally, we present theory showing the ultimate limit to the efficiency-bandwidth product of semiconductor deep-level optical emitters.

  8. Technology Development for Ultra-High-Resolution X-ray Optics (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Readiness of the fabrication method is needed to justify future NASA astrophysics & heliophysics Missions.We propose to develop a novel optics fabrication method...

  9. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma (United States)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul


    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  10. Residual stresses in material processing (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  11. Selenium semiconductor core optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Tang


    Full Text Available Phosphate glass-clad optical fibers containing selenium (Se semiconductor core were fabricated using a molten core method. The cores were found to be amorphous as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and corroborated by Micro-Raman spectrum. Elemental analysis across the core/clad interface suggests that there is some diffusion of about 3 wt % oxygen in the core region. Phosphate glass-clad crystalline selenium core optical fibers were obtained by a postdrawing annealing process. A two-cm-long crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers, electrically contacted to external circuitry through the fiber end facets, exhibit a three times change in conductivity between dark and illuminated states. Such crystalline selenium semiconductor core optical fibers have promising utility in optical switch and photoconductivity of optical fiber array.

  12. Pigmi mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.


    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. A discussion is given dealing with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development

  13. PIGMI mechanical fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, V.E.


    A prime goal of the mechanical design effort associated with the PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) program is to investigate new materials and fabrication techniques in an effort to obtain increased machine efficiency and reliability at a reasonable cost. The following discussion deals with the modeling program that LASL is pursuing for 450-MHz and 1350-MHz PIGMI development. (author)

  14. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  15. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.


    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  16. Magnetic and shape fabrics of magnetite in simple shear flows (United States)

    Arbaret, Laurent; Launeau, Patrick; Diot, Hervé; Sizaret, Stanislas


    The magnetite fabrics measured by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and by shape preferred orientation (SPO) optical methods are classically used as flow kinematics indicators in lava flows. The development of magnetite fabrics during simple shear strains γ ≤ 20 was performed using a suspension of 1% volume fraction of multidomain magnetite randomly contained in a mixture of silicone and wax. We measured AMS fabric and SPO ellipsoids by calculating a quadratic shape tensor from oriented thin-sections. For γ 8, fabric elements, foliation and lineation, are stabilised closely parallel to the flow plane and the shear direction, respectively. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations using measured aspect ratios of magnetite point out that the large scattering of aspect ratios and the initial orientation distribution of particles are together responsible for a wide-ranging loss of periodicity. The stable AMS and SPO fabrics observed at large strains in experiments are the result of these primary fabric properties combined to collisions between particles and, possibly, their complex three-dimensional shapes. In addition, the constant angular relationship observed at large strains between fabrics and flow components is related to the transient collisions. Consequently, the determination of the lava flow kinematics by using fabric properties measured either by AMS or by SPO analyses should be indubitably associated to a detailed study of the three-dimensional shape of the solid carriers. Regularly shaped populations of low elongated particles will be capable to produce cyclic to oscillating fabrics, while the fabric of elongated particles will be more sensitive to the shape parameters and collisions, ultimately favouring stable fabrics at large strains.

  17. Study on the fabrication of combined BSG-CSG element (United States)

    Zhang, Yixiao; Gao, Fuhua; Wen, Shenglin; Liu, Qian; Guo, Yongkang; Zhang, Jin


    In the final optics assembly of ICF driver, Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are applied to achieve some important functions. Due to the advantage of easy integration, DOEs that achieve different functions can be combined into one element, and thus the system structure and performance of ICF driver can be optimized. In this paper, we present a new means to fabricate color separation grating (CSG) and beam sampling grating (BSG) on two surfaces of one fused-silica substrate with two-surface exposure method. The mask for CSG can be fabricated with common optical method since the period of CSG is large; whereas the mask for BSG cannot be made with normal micro-fabrication system whose resolution cannot meet the requirement of fabrication precision of slowly changed BSG fringes (from 2μm to 4μm). Therefore, we use e-beam direct writing method to fabricate mask for BSG. The alignment of CSG and BSG is designed in accordance with the requirement of actual system. Thus the functions of harmonic wave separation and beam sampling are realized through one silica plate. The satisfying experimental results are illustrated.

  18. Automatic fiber Bragg grating fabrication system for mass production (United States)

    Wang, Yunmiao; Gong, Jianmin; Dong, Bo; Wang, Dorothy Y.; Wang, Anbo


    The large multiplexing number of FBGs exposes a requirement for the effective and repeatable fabrication method. In this paper we report the development of an automatic FBG fabrication system, which meets the requirement of mass production. There are four major functional parts in the system: fiber feeding system, CO2 laser coating removal system, FBG writing system and fiber collecting system. The fiber feeding system uses motors and gears to accurately move an optical fiber to where the FBGs will be made. The coating removal system is based on the heat effect of a CO2 laser, which will decompose and evaporate the selected coating of the optical fiber. The FBG writing system is based on the UV photosensitivity of the fiber. A phase-mask is placed between the UV light and the optical fiber to produce periodic interference pattern, which further modulates the refractive index along the fiber periodically. The fiber collecting system is driven by a linear motor and the fiber can be wound around a spool tightly and smoothly at a moderate speed. The whole FBG fabrication system is controlled and synchronized by a computer via some interface circuits and a Graphical User Interface (GUI). With this system, it takes 48 seconds to fabricate one FBG, and up to 500 FBGs can be made continuously, which is limited by the leakage of the gas inside the excimer laser. This mass production line not only improves the fabrication efficiency but also contributes to the multiplexing capability by reducing the splicing loss.

  19. Fabrication of High Resolution Lightweight X-ray Mirrors Using Mono-crystalline Silicon Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "Three factors characterize an X-ray optics fabrication technology: angular resolution, effective area per unit mass, and production cost per unit effective...

  20. Low-Cost, Silicon Carbide Replication Technique for LWIR Mirror Fabrication, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG proposes an innovative optical manufacturing approach that will enable the low-cost fabrication of lightweighted, Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Silicon Carbide (SiC)...

  1. SRC Residual fuel oils (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.


    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  2. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference small mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C. E.; Murphy, E. S.; Schneider, K. J.


    Volume 2 contains appendixes on small MOX fuel fabrication facility description, site description, residual radionuclide inventory estimates, decommissioning, financing, radiation dose methodology, general considerations, packaging and shipping of radioactive materials, cost assessment, and safety (JRD)

  3. Polarisation-sensitive optical elements in azobenzene polyesters and peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Berg, Rolf Henrik


    In this article, we describe fabrication of polarisation holographic optical elements in azobenzene polyesters. Both liquid crystalline and amorphous side-chain polyesters have been utilised. Diffractive optical elements such as lenses and gratings that are sensitive to the polarisation...... of the incident light have been fabricated with polarisation holography. Computer-generated optical elements and patterns have also been written with a single polarised laser beam. Recording of polarisation defects enabling easy visualisation is also shown to be feasible in azobenzene polyesters....

  4. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt


    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  5. Soft-mask fabrication of gallium arsenide nanomembranes for integrated quantum photonics. (United States)

    Midolo, L; Pregnolato, T; Kiršanskė, G; Stobbe, S


    We report on the fabrication of quantum photonic integrated circuits based on suspended GaAs membranes. The fabrication process consists of a single lithographic step followed by inductively coupled-plasma dry etching through an electron-beam-resist mask and wet etching of a sacrificial layer. This method does not require depositing, etching, and stripping a hard mask, greatly reducing fabrication time and costs, while at the same time yielding devices of excellent structural quality. We discuss in detail the procedures for cleaning the resist residues caused by the plasma etching and present a statistical analysis of the etched feature size after each fabrication step.

  6. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting


    of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected light...

  7. Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorfner, D.; Zabel, T.; Hürlimann, T.


    We present the design, fabrication and optical investigation of photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity drop filters for use as optical biosensors. The resonant cavity mode wavelength and Q-factor are studied as a function of the ambient refractive index and as a function of adsorbed proteins (bovine...

  8. Electrospun amplified fiber optics. (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario


    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  9. Design and fabrication of NDA standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.M.; Hsue, S.T.


    The Plutonium Facility, TA-55, at Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently producing NDA calibration standards used by various laboratories in the DOE complex. These NIST traceable standards have been produced to calibrate NDA instruments for accountability measurements used for resolving shipper/receiver differences, and for accountability in process residues and process waste. Standards are needed to calibrate various NDA (Non-destructive Assay) instruments such as neutron coincidence counters, gamma-ray counters, and calorimeters. These instruments measure various ranges of nuclear material being produced in the DOE nuclear community. Los Alamos National Laboratory has taken a lead role in fabrication of uranium and plutonium standards, along with other actinides such as neptunium and americium. These standards have been fabricated for several laboratories within the complex. This paper will summarize previous publications detailing the careful planning encompassing components such as precise weighing, destructive analysis, and the use of post fabrication NDA measurements to confirm that the standards meet all preliminary expectations before use in instrument calibration. The paper will also describe the specialized containers, diluents, and the various amount of nuclear materials needed to accommodate the calibration ranges of the instruments

  10. Thermal expansion behavior in fabricated cellular structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oruganti, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Mazumder, J.


    Thermal expansion behavior of cellular structures is of interest in applications where undesirable deformation and failure are caused by thermal expansion mismatch. This report describes the role of processing-induced effects and metallurgical aspects of melt-processed cellular structures, such as a bi-material structure designed to contract on heating, as well as uni-material structures of regular and stochastic topology. This bi-material structure utilized the principle of internal geometric constraints to alter the expansion behavior of the internal ligaments to create overall contraction of the structure. Homogenization design method was used to design the structure, and fabrication was by direct metal deposition by laser melting of powder in another part of a joint effort. The degree of porosity and grain size in the fabricated structure are characterized and related to the laser deposition parameters. The structure was found to contract upon heating over a short range of temperature subsequent to which normal expansion ensued. Also examined in this report are uni-material cellular structures, in which internal constraints arise from residual stress variations caused by the fabrication process, and thereby alter their expansion characteristics. A simple analysis of thermal strain of this material supports the observed thermal expansion behavior

  11. On-chip optical processing (United States)

    Motamedi, M. Edward; Wu, Ming C.; Pister, Kristofer S. J.


    Microoptical components, such as diffractive and refractive microlenses, micromirrors, beam splitter and beam combining have recently received considerable attention in the optics R&D centers and finally in the manufacturing community. This achievement is due to MEM technology that demonstrated major improvements in overall performance/cost of optical systems while offering the possibility of relatively rapid transition to products for military, industrial and consumer markets. Because of these technology advances, an industrial infrastructure is rapidly becoming established to provide combining microoptical components and MEM-based microactuators for on-chip optical processing. Optical systems that once were considered to be impractical due to the limitations of bulk optics can now easily be designed and fabricated with all required optical paths, signal conditioning, and electronic controls, integrated on a single chip. On-chip optical processing will enhance the performance of devices such as focal plane optical concentrator, smart actuators, color separation, beam shaping, FDDI switch, digital micromirror devices (DMDs), and miniature optical scanners. In this paper we review advances in microoptical components developed at Rockwell Science Center. We also review the potential of on-chip optical processing and recent achievement of free-space integrated optics and microoptical bench components developed at UCLA, and DMDs developed at Texas Instruments.

  12. Synthesis and fabrication of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} thin films for electroluminescent applications: Optical and structural characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcón-Flores, G., E-mail: [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, IPN, Legaría 694, Irrigación, C.P. 11500, México D.F. (Mexico); García-Hipólito, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 70-360, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04150, México D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Frutis, M. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, IPN, Legaría 694, Irrigación, C.P. 11500, México D.F. (Mexico); Carmona-Téllez, S. [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Coyoacán, C.P. 04150, México D.F. (Mexico); Martinez-Martinez, R. [Universidad Tecnológica de la Mixteca, Carretera Acatlima Km 2.5, Huajuapan de León Oaxaca, C.P. 69000, México (Mexico); Campos-Arias, M.P. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, IPN, Legaría 694, Irrigación, C.P. 11500, México D.F. (Mexico); Zaleta-Alejandre, E. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo-Escuela Superior de Apan, Carretera Apan-Calpulalpan Km. 8, C.P. 43920, Apan, Hidalgo (Mexico); and others


    Terbium, europium and yttrium β diketonates have been synthesized from acetylacetone and inorganic metal salts and used as precursors for the deposition of Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline films by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technique. The films were deposited on c-Si substrates at temperatures in the 400–550 °C range. The optical and structural characterization of these films as a function of substrate temperature and Tb{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} concentration was carried out by means of photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL), infrared (IR), ellipsometry, and UV–visible spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X ray diffraction (XRD) measurements respectively. The PL intensity from these films was found to depend on deposition temperature. Films deposited above 450 °C exhibited the characteristic PL peaks associated with either Tb{sup 3+} or Eu{sup 3+} intra electronic energy levels transitions. The most intense PL emission was found for dopant concentration of 10 at% for Tb{sup 3+} and at 8 at% for Eu{sup 3+} ions into precursor solution. In both cases concentration quenching of the PL emission was observed for concentrations above these values. The films had a refractive index (1.81), low average surface roughness (∼62 Å) and a UV–Vis. transmission of the order of 90 %T. - Highlights: • Terbium, europium and yttrium β diketonates have been synthesized. • Luminescent thin films of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Tb{sup 3+} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} were obtained. • Optical and structural characteristics of these thin films are presented. • The films had a refractive index (1.81) and low average surface roughness (∼62 Å)

  13. Degradation of Spacesuit Fabrics in Low Earth Orbit (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Baldwin, Sammantha M.; Folz, Angela D.; Waters, Deborah L.; McCue, Terry R.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Rogers, Kerry J.; Batman, Brittany; Bruce, John; hide


    Six samples of pristine and dust-abraded outer layer spacesuit fabrics were included in the Materials International Space Station Experiment-7, in which they were exposed to the wake-side low Earth orbit environment on the International Space Station (ISS) for 18 months in order to determine whether abrasion by lunar dust increases radiation degradation. The fabric samples were characterized using optical microscopy, optical spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and tensile testing before and after exposure on the ISS. Comparison of pre- and post-flight characterizations showed that the environment darkened and reddened all six fabrics, increasing their integrated solar absorptance by 7 to 38 percent. There was a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure of lunar dust abraded Apollo spacesuit fibers by a factor of four and an increase in the elastic modulus by a factor of two.

  14. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Wei, Chaoyang; Shao, Jianda


    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  15. Large area fabrication of plasmonic nanoparticle grating structure by conventional scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudheer,; Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K.; Mukharjee, C.


    Plasmonic nanoparticle grating (PNG) structure of different periods has been fabricated by electron beam lithography using silver halide based transmission electron microscope film as a substrate. Conventional scanning electron microscope is used as a fabrication tool for electron beam lithography. Optical microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been used for its morphological and elemental characterization. Optical characterization is performed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopic technique

  16. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)


    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  17. Fabrication of self-written waveguide in photosensitive polyimide resin by controlling photochemical reaction of photosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, K.; Kuro, T.; Oe, K.; Mune, K.; Tagawa, K.; Naitou, R.; Mochizuki, A.


    We have investigated optical properties of photosensitive polyimide appropriating for long self-written waveguide fabrication. From systematic measurements of absorption properties, it was found that photochemical reaction of photosensitizer dissolved in the photosensitive polyimide resins relates to transparency after the exposure, which limits the length of the fabricated self-written waveguide. By controlling the photochemical reaction, in which the photosensitive polyimide resin has sufficient transparency during exposure, four times longer self-written waveguide core was fabricated

  18. A novel fabrication technique for free-hanging homogeneous polymeric cantilever waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, M.; Calleja, M.; Hübner, Jörg


    We present a novel bonding technique developed for the fabrication of a cantilever-based biosensing system with integrated optical read-out. The read-out mechanism is based on single-mode waveguides fabricated monolithically in SU-8. For optimal operation of the read-out mode, the cantilever wave...

  19. Waveguide-coupled micro-ball lens array suitable for mass fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Lantian; Dijkstra, Meindert; Ismail, Nur; Pollnau, Markus; de Ridder, René M; Wörhoff, Kerstin; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S


    We demonstrate a fabrication procedure for the direct integration of micro-ball lenses on planar integrated optical channel waveguide chips with the aim to reduce the divergence of light that arises from the waveguide in both horizontal and vertical directions. Fabrication of the lenses is based on

  20. On the dielectric and optical properties of surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks: A study on epitaxially grown thin films (United States)

    Redel, Engelbert; Wang, Zhengbang; Walheim, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Wöll, Christof


    We determine the optical constants of two highly porous, crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Since it is problematic to determine the optical constants for the standard powder modification of these porous solids, we instead use surface-anchored metal-organic frameworks (SURMOFs). These MOF thin films are grown using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) on modified silicon substrates. The produced SURMOF thin films exhibit good optical properties; these porous coatings are smooth as well as crack-free, they do not scatter visible light, and they have a homogenous interference color over the entire sample. Therefore, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) can be used in a straightforward fashion to determine the corresponding SURMOF optical properties. After careful removal of the solvent molecules used in the fabrication process as well as the residual water adsorbed in the voids of this highly porous solid, we determine an optical constant of n = 1.39 at a wavelength of 750 nm for HKUST-1 (stands for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1; and was first discovered there) or [Cu3(BTC)2]. After exposing these SURMOF thin films to moisture/EtOH atmosphere, the refractive index (n) increases to n = 1.55-1.6. This dependence of the optical properties on water/EtOH adsorption demonstrates the potential of such SURMOF materials for optical sensing.

  1. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff


    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  2. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve


    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  3. DWDM DFB LD fabricated by nanoimprint process (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhang, Yiwen; Qiu, Fei; Xu, Zhimou


    DFB LDs are key components in DWDM optical network. Now they are very expensive because the feedback grating period has to be controlled with very high accuracy and EBL is currently the most popular solution. We propose a high throughput, low cost NIL process based on a large stamp fabricated by SFIL and soft stamp pattern transfer method. DFB chips on 30mm*30mm area were manufactured with both good uniformity and performance. 13 ITU channels from 1540nm to 1560nm of 200GHz space are made. Our results show NIL has high potential to become another popular technology for DFB LD production, this cost effective and high efficiency manufacture solution may yield a significant impact to the future optical communication industry development.

  4. Guided-Wave Optical Biosensors (United States)

    Passaro, Vittorio M. N.; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Casamassima, Biagio; De Leonardis, Francesco


    Guided-wave optical biosensors are reviewed in this paper. Advantages related to optical technologies are presented and integrated architectures are investigated in detail. Main classes of bio receptors and the most attractive optical transduction mechanisms are discussed. The possibility to use Mach-Zehnder and Young interferometers, microdisk and microring resonators, surface plasmon resonance, hollow and antiresonant waveguides, and Bragg gratings to realize very sensitive and selective, ultra-compact and fast biosensors is discussed. Finally, CMOS-compatible technologies are proved to be the most attractive for fabrication of guided-wave photonic biosensors.

  5. True and intentionally fabricated memories


    Justice, L.V.; Morrison, C.M.; Conway, M. A.


    The aim of the experiment reported here was to investigate the processes underlying the construction of truthful and deliberately fabricated memories. Properties of memories created to be intentionally false - fabricated memories - were compared to properties of memories believed to be true - true memories. Participants recalled and then wrote or spoke true memories and fabricated memories of everyday events. It was found that true memories were reliably more vivid than fabricated memories an...

  6. Scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive x ray analysis of impact residues in LDEF tray clamps (United States)

    Bernhard, Ronald P.; Durin, Christian; Zolensky, Michael E.


    Detailed optical scanning of tray clamps is being conducted in the Facility for the Optical Inspection of Large Surfaces at JSC to locate and document impacts as small as 40 microns in diameter. Residues from selected impacts are then being characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis at CNES. Results from this analysis will be the initial step to classifying projectile residues into specific sources.

  7. Preparation of durable flame retardant PAN fabrics based on amidoximation and phosphorylation (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ren, Yuanlin; Liu, Xiaohui; Huo, Tongguo; Qin, Yiwen


    This paper aims to develop a method to impart polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fabric durable flame retadancy. PAN fabric was modified with hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) to prepare amidoxime PAN fabric (A-PAN) followed by phosphorylation with phosphoric acid (PA) to obtain flame retardant PAN fabric (P-A-PAN). Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) were used to analyze the thermal degradation process and flame retardant mechanisms. The structure of the fabrics was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The surface morphology of fabrics was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the flame retardancy of fabrics before and after washing was evaluated by Limiting oxygen index (LOI) and horizontal burning test. The results showed that the P-A-PAN possessed an excellent thermal stability with the highest LOI value of 34.1% and the highest char residue of 55.67% at 800 °C. Most importantly, the P-A-PAN possessed a wonderful flame retardant durability with a little decrease of LOI after 20 washing cycles. When they were ignited, the P-A-PAN fabrics before and after washing were both nonflammable due to the char residue formation of modified fabric.

  8. Fabrication of Nanochannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Zhang


    Full Text Available Nature has inspired the fabrication of intelligent devices to meet the needs of the advanced community and better understand the imitation of biology. As a biomimetic nanodevice, nanochannels/nanopores aroused increasing interest because of their potential applications in nanofluidic fields. In this review, we have summarized some recent results mainly focused on the design and fabrication of one-dimensional nanochannels, which can be made of many materials, including polymers, inorganics, biotic materials, and composite materials. These nanochannels have some properties similar to biological channels, such as selectivity, voltage-dependent current fluctuations, ionic rectification current and ionic gating, etc. Therefore, they show great potential for the fields of biosensing, filtration, and energy conversions. These advances can not only help people to understand the living processes in nature, but also inspire scientists to develop novel nanodevices with better performance for mankind.

  9. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.


    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  10. Intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories


    Justice, LV; Morrison, CM; Conway, MA


    Participants generated both autobiographical memories (AMs) that they believed to be true and intentionally fabricated autobiographical memories (IFAMs). Memories were constructed while a concurrent memory load (random 8-digit sequence) was held in mind or while there was no concurrent load. Amount and accuracy of recall of the concurrent memory load was reliably poorer following generation of IFAMs than following generation of AMs. There was no reliable effect of load on memory generation ti...

  11. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  12. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco


    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  13. Fabrication of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, S.E.; Watson, R.H.; Loch, E.P.


    Commercial nuclear fuel fabrication is focused on providing quality products. Throughout manufacturing attention is placed on the precise control of processes, procedures and tooling to reduce product variability. This paper describes the processes used to manufacture fuel for the advanced gas cooled reactor, light water reactor, fast breeder reactor and Magnox reactor systems at the BNFL, Springfields, and Westinghouse Columbia, USA, facilities. It covers the chemical purification and conversion stages of fuel production before describing the fabrication of both oxide and metallic fuel and gives a general overview of the technology used. Although the principles of fuel fabrication in terms of providing a cladding designed to be the primary envelope to encase the fuel are similar for each system, there are detailed differences in manufacturing route and cladding type which arise from differing reactor requirements. These, together with developments made in response to customer needs, are reviewed and the need to maintain a high purity reliable product with low variability at all stages in manufacture is emphasized throughout. (author)

  14. Advanced fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, H.


    This paper deals with the fabrication of advanced fuels, such as mixed oxides for Pressurized Water Reactors or mixed nitrides for Fast Breeder Reactors. Although an extensive production experience exists for the mixed oxides used in the FBR, important work is still needed to improve the theoretical and technical knowledge of the production route which will be introduced in the future European facility, named Melox, at Marcoule. Recently, the feasibility of nitride fuel fabrication in existing commercial oxide facilities was demonstrated in France. The process, based on carbothermic reduction of oxides with subsequent comminution of the reaction product, cold pressing and sintering provides (U, Pu)N pellets with characteristics suitable for irradiation testing. Two experiments named NIMPHE 1 and 2 fabricated in collaboration with ITU, Karlsruhe, involve 16 nitride and 2 carbide pins, operating at a linear power of 45 and 73 kW/m with a smear density of 75-80% TD and a high burn-up target of 15 at%. These experiments are currently being irradiated in Phenix, at Marcoule. (orig.)

  15. Hybrid Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires: Fabrication, characterization, optical properties and application as magnetically reusable catalyst for the synthesis of N-monosubstituted ureas under ligand-free conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azarian, Abbas [Department of Physics, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sajadi, S.Mohammad [Department of Petroleum Geoscience, Faculty of Science, Soran University, PO Box 624, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government (Iraq); Babaei, Ferydon [Department of Physics, University of Qom, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Highlights: • Preparation of Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires as magnetically reusable catalysts. • The optical properties of the catalyst were studied using Gans theory. • N-arylation of benzylurea and in situ hydrogenolysis of 1-benzyl-3-arylureas. - Abstract: This paper reports the synthesis and use of Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires, as magnetically separable catalysts for ligand-free amidation coupling reactions of aryl halides with benzylurea under microwave irradiation. Then, the in situ hydrogenolysis of the products was performed to afford the N-monosubstituted ureas from good to excellent yields. This method has the advantages of high yields, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered by using a magnet and reused several times without significant loss of its catalytic activity. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, SEM, EDS and UV–vis spectroscopy. Experimental absorbance spectra was compared with results from the Gans theory.

  16. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S


    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  17. A Study of Residual Image in Charged-Coupled Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jin


    Full Text Available For an image sensor CCD, electrons can be trapped at the front-side Si-SiO_2 surface interface in a case of exceeding the full well by bright source. Residual images can be made by the electrons remaining in the interface. These residual images are seen in the front-side-illuminated CCDs especially. It is not easy to find a quantitative analysis for this phenomenon in the domestic reports, although it is able to contaminate observation data. In this study, we find residual images in dark frames which were obtained from the front-side-illuminated CCD at Mt. Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO, and analyze the effect to contaminated observation data by residual charges.

  18. Advanced Modulation Techniques for High-Performance Computing Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko


    We experimentally assess the performance of a 64 × 64 optical switch fabric used for ns-speed optical cell switching in supercomputer optical interconnects. More specifically, we study four alternative modulation formats and detection schemes, namely, 10-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-...

  19. Optical thin film devices (United States)

    Mao, Shuzheng


    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  20. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)


    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)