WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual life indicator

  1. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  2. Monitoring the residual life of atomic power station equipment based on the indices of stress-corrosion strength of constructional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of a constructional material determining life are strength, plasticity, and crack resistance. Loss of properties occurs as the result of corrosion, temperature action, actual and residual stresses, and neutron and gamma-radiation. Corrosion leads to a decrease in thickness, loss of density, changes in the composition and structure of the surface layers, and a reduction in strength, plasticity, and crack resistance of constructional materials. The influence of temperature on the loss of properties of materials is revealed as possible phase and structural transformations of the metal and the surface layers and a reduction in the stress-rupture, plastic, and thermal-fatigue properties. The actual and residual stresses not only strengthen the influence of corrosive media but also directly determine the stress-rupture strength and cyclic life. The influence of neutron and gamma-radiation is based o the change in composition of the corrosive medium (radiolysis), radiation embrittlement of the material, and the change in properties of the surface and oxide layers. The authors discuss the concepts and design of automated monitoring systems for determining the fitness of the components of on atomic power plant

  3. Life cycle assessment of shredder residue management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Damgaard, Anders; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen

    This report provides a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of the treatment of shredder residue (SR) in Denmark. The LCA was conducted for the Environmental Protection Agency by DTU Environment in the period March-July 2014, as part of a service agreement between the Danish Environmental Protection Agency...... wood waste, wood waste for recycling and district heating pipes. The LCA was conducted using the EASETECH LCA model developed by DTU Environment for the environmental assessment of waste management systems and environmental technologies. The LCA was conducted in accordance with the LCA principles...

  4. Predicting the residual life of plant equipment - Why worry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Predicting the residual life of plant equipment that has been in service for 20 to 30 years or more is a major concern of many industries. This paper reviews the reasons for increased concern for residual-life assessment and the general procedures used in performing such assessments. Some examples and case histories illustrating procedures for assessing remaining service life are discussed. Areas where developments are needed to improve the technology for remaining-life estimation are pointed out. Then, some of the critical issues involved in residual-life assessment are identified. Finally, the future role of residual-life prediction is addressed

  5. Improved crop residue cover estimates by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing assessment of soil residue cover (fR) and tillage intensity will improve our predictions of the impact of agricultural practices and promote sustainable management. Spectral indices for estimating fR are sensitive to soil and residue water content, therefore, the uncertainty of estima...

  6. Dimensionality reduction of quality of life indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Jindrová; Julie Poláčková

    2012-01-01

    Selecting indicators for assessing the quality of life at the regional level is not unambigous. Currently, there are no precisely defined indicators that would give comprehensive information about the quality of life on a local level. In this paper we focus on the determination (selection) of groups of indicators that can be interpreted, on the basis of studied literature, as factors characterizing the quality of life. Furthermore, on the application of methods to reduce the dimensionality of...

  7. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline....... For the suggested model, some covariate effects are allowed to be time-varying. To estimate the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the large sample properties of the resulting estimators are established. In addition, to assess the adequacy of the model, we investigate a goodness...

  8. Dimensionality reduction of quality of life indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jindrová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting indicators for assessing the quality of life at the regional level is not unambigous. Currently, there are no precisely defined indicators that would give comprehensive information about the quality of life on a local level. In this paper we focus on the determination (selection of groups of indicators that can be interpreted, on the basis of studied literature, as factors characterizing the quality of life. Furthermore, on the application of methods to reduce the dimensionality of these indicators, from the source of the database CULS KROK, which provides statistics on the regional and districts level. To reduce the number of indicators and the subsequent creation of derived variables that capture the relationships between selected indicators multivariate statistical analysis methods, especially method of principal components and factor analysis were used. This paper also indicates the methodology grant project “Methodological Approaches to assess Subjective Aspects of the life quality in regions of the Czech Republic”.

  9. Semiparametric regression for restricted mean residual life under right censoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    A mean residual life function (MRLF) is the remaining life expectancy of a subject who has survived to a certain time point. In the presence of covariates, regression models are needed to study the association between the MRLFs and covariates. If the survival time tends to be too long or the tail...... is not observed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose the proportional restricted mean residual life model for fitting survival data under right censoring. For inference on the model parameters, martingale estimating equations are developed, and the asymptotic properties...

  10. Summarising censored survival data using the mean residual life function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Iglesias, Alberto; Newell, John; Scarrott, Carl; Hinde, John

    2015-05-20

    The mean residual life function provides a clear and simple summary of the effect of a treatment or a risk factor in units of time, avoiding hazard ratios or probability scales, which require careful interpretation. Estimation of the mean residual life is complicated by the upper tail of the survival distribution not being observed as, for example, patients may still be alive at the end of the follow-up period. Various approaches have been developed to estimate the mean residual life in the presence of such right censoring. In this work, a novel semi-parametric method that combines existing non-parametric methods and an extreme value tail model is presented, where the limited sample information in the tail (prior to study termination) is used to estimate the upper tail behaviour. This approach will be demonstrated with simulated and real-life examples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  12. Health condition and residual life of deteriorating technical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinertsen, Rune

    1997-12-31

    Many offshore installations in the Norwegian Sector of the North Sea approach the end of their useful life. The same is true of many power plants and technical systems in general. This thesis describes the theory and improves the methods for the determination of the health condition and residual life of technical systems. Rather than developing new methods it discusses new ways of using existing statistical methods. The main contributions are: (1) A survey of the literature of diagnosis, prediction and life extension for deteriorating technical systems, (2) A discussion of some consequences of selecting the wrong life model, (3) A description of problems related to the determination of mean residual life of non-repairable technical systems, (4) Presentation of the concept of `technical health` to describe the soundness of a system exposed to failure mechanisms, (5) A model for predicting the technical health and residual life of a corroding system, (6) Recommends requirements and methods for using expert knowledge in safety and reliability analysis, (7) A general inspection strategy for system fault diagnosis by using Shannon entropy, (8) Points out weaknesses and strengths of risk measures used in the offshore industry today. 237 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Preservation properties for the discrete mean residual life ordering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Al-Babtain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to prove several preservation properties of stochastic comparisons based on the discrete mean residual life ordering d-MRL under the reliability operations of convolutions, mixtures. Fi…nally we introduce a discrete renewal process application

  14. A review of experimental methods for determining residual creep life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.J.

    1977-11-01

    Experimental methods available for determining how much creep life remains at a particular time in the high temperature service of a component are reviewed. After a brief consideration of the limitations of stress rupture extrapolation techniques, the application of post-exposure creep testing is considered. Ways of assessing the effect of microstructural degradation on residual life are then reviewed. It is pointed out that while this type of work will be useful for certain materials, there are other materials in which 'mechanical damage' such as cavitation will be more important. Cavitation measurement techniques are therefore reviewed. The report ends with a brief consideration of the use of crack growth measurements in assessing the residual life of cracked components. (author)

  15. Residue influences quality of life independently of penetration and aspiration in head and neck cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tanya K; Pisegna, Jessica M; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Pauloski, Barbara R; Langmore, Susan E

    2017-07-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most significant side effects of the treatment of head and neck cancer. Residue and aspiration are two indicators of dysphagia, but aspiration is historically the only indicator of interest, because it may impact health outcomes. Clinicians have anecdotally used residue as another marker of swallowing dysfunction, but it is understudied. This project investigated the impact of aspiration versus residue on function and quality of life (QoL) in these patients. Observational study. A total of 168 head and neck cancer survivors with moderate to severe dysphagia were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing two swallow therapy interventions. Data at time of entry were used for the current study. A modified barium swallow study was done to compute Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores, percentage oral residue, and percentage pharyngeal residue with three bolus consistencies (5 mL thin, nectar, and pudding). The Performance Status Scale (PSS) and the Head Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI) questionnaires were administered. Data were analyzed to determine associations between aspiration and residue estimates with function and QoL scores. Worsening aspiration and residue estimates were all correlated with decreased scores on the PSS functional scales (r = -0.190 to -0.324, P ≤ .031). However, only increasing residue estimates were significantly related to decreased patient-perceived QoL on the HNCI (r = -.178 to -.194, P < .046). This effect was more pronounced with oral versus pharyngeal residue. In this group of head and neck cancer survivors, penetration/aspiration and residue show independent effects. PAS affects functional status only, but residue affects both functional status and QoL. This study supports that residue should be considered a primary measurement of swallowing function and be a target for identification, treatment, and evaluation of swallowing. 2c. Laryngoscope, 127:1615-1621, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological

  16. Estimating residual life of alloy 600 RPV penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; White, G.A.; Pathania, R.; Arey, M.L.; Whitaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetrations PWR in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads has become a significant economic concern worldwide. PWSCC of these penetrations has led to extended maintenance outages, expensive inspections and repairs, and in some cases, replacement of the entire vessel head. This paper describes methodology developed to predict the remaining life of Alloy 600 penetrations in reactor vessel heads. Predictions of remaining life are an important input to planning models used by utilities to select a strategy for responding to the PWSCC issue at the lowest life cycle cost with an acceptably low risk of leakage. The remaining life of RPV penetrations is determined using the results of inspections of penetrations and statistical methods to predict future degradation. The analysis takes into account the effects of material properties, welding residual stresses, and operating temperature on PWSCC initiation and growth. The probability of developing cracks of various depths is assessed using Monte Carlo methods which provide for uncertainties in the input assumptions. For plants which have not yet performed inspections, remaining life predictions are based on inspection results from similar plants which have performed inspections with corrections made for known differences in design details, material properties and operating conditions

  17. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares available options for the aquatic ecotoxicological effect factor component in life cycle assessment (LCA). The effect factor is expressed here as the change in risk per unit change in cumulative exposure, ƒ´Effect/ƒ´Exposure. The comparison is restricted to approaches linked...

  18. Improving post-detonation energetics residues estimations for the Life Cycle Environmental Assessment process for munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael; Gullett, Brian; Walsh, Marianne; Bigl, Matthew; Aurell, Johanna

    2018-03-01

    The Life Cycle Environmental Assessment (LCEA) process for military munitions tracks possible environmental impacts incurred during all phases of the life of a munition. The greatest energetics-based emphasis in the current LCEA process is on manufacturing. A review of recent LCEAs indicates that energetics deposition on ranges from detonations and disposal during training is only peripherally examined through assessment of combustion products derived from closed-chamber testing or models. These assessments rarely report any measurable energetic residues. Field-testing of munitions for energetics residues deposition has demonstrated that over 30% of some energetic compounds remain after detonation, which conflicts with the LCEA findings. A study was conducted in the open environment to determine levels of energetics residue deposition and if combustion product results can be correlated with empirical deposition results. Energetics residues deposition, post-detonation combustion products, and fine aerosolized energetics particles following open-air detonation of blocks of Composition C4 (510 g RDX/block) were quantified. The deposited residues amounted to 3.6 mg of energetic per block of C4, or less than 0.001% of the original energetics. Aerial emissions of energetics were about 7% of the amount of deposited energetics. This research indicates that aerial combustion products analysis can provide a valuable supplement to energetics deposition data in the LCEA process but is insufficient alone to account for total residual energetics. This study demonstrates a need for the environmental testing of munitions to quantify energetics residues from live-fire training. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Spectral Indices to Improve Crop Residue Cover Estimation under Varying Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Quemada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface protect the soil against erosion, increase water infiltration and reduce agrochemicals in runoff water. Crop residues and soils are spectrally different in the absorption features associated with cellulose and lignin. Our objectives were to: (1 assess the impact of water on the spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover (fR; (2 evaluate spectral water indices for estimating the relative water content (RWC of crop residues and soils; and (3 propose methods that mitigate the uncertainty caused by variable moisture conditions on estimates of fR. Reflectance spectra of diverse crops and soils were acquired in the laboratory over the 400–2400-nm wavelength region. Using the laboratory data, a linear mixture model simulated the reflectance of scenes with various fR and levels of RWC. Additional reflectance spectra were acquired over agricultural fields with a wide range of crop residue covers and scene moisture conditions. Spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover that were evaluated in this study included the Normalized Difference Tillage Index (NDTI, the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI and the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI. Multivariate linear models that used pairs of spectral indices—one for RWC and one for fR—significantly improved estimates of fR using CAI and SINDRI. For NDTI to reliably assess fR, scene RWC should be relatively dry (RWC < 0.25. These techniques provide the tools needed to monitor the spatial and temporal changes in crop residue cover and help determine where additional conservation practices may be required.

  20. Residual fatigue life evaluation of rail at squats seeds using 3D explicit finite element analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    A modeling procedure to predict the residual fatigue life of rail at squats seeds is developed in this article. Two models are involved: a 3D explicit Finite Element (FE) model to compute the stress and strain at squats in rail, and the J-S fatigue damage model to determine the residual fatigue life

  1. Indicators for human toxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Pennington, David W.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of this task group under SETAC-Europe’s Second Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA-WIA2) were to identify and discuss the suitability of toxicological impact measures for human health for use in characterization in LCIA. The current state of the art of defining......, as well as potency. Quantitative severity-based indicators yield measures in terms of Years of Life Lost (YOLL), Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY) and other similar measures. DALYs and QALYs are examples of approaches that attempt to account for both years of life...... lost (mortality) and years of impaired life (morbidity). Qualitative severity approaches tend to arrange potency-based indicators in categories, avoiding the need to quantitatively express differences in severity. Based on the proposed criteria and current state of the knowledge, toxicological potency...

  2. Bacillus cereus as indicator in the sterilization of residual water with high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, E.

    2000-01-01

    One of the main causes of water pollution is the presence of microorganisms that provoke infections, moreover of chemical substances. The processes of residual water treatment finally require of the disinfection for its use or final disposition. The radiation technology for the residual water treatment by mean of electron beams is an innovator process because as well as decomposing the chemical substance or to degrade them, also it provokes a disinfection by which this is proposed as alternative for disinfection of residual water, with the purpose in reusing the water treated in the agriculture, recreation and industry among others secondary activities, solving environmental or health problems. The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of Bacillus cereus as biological indicator in the disinfection by radiation, using High Energy Electrons. To fulfil with this objective, the work was developed in three stages, the first one consisted in the acquisition, propagation and conservation of the Bacillus cereus stumps, considering Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as pathogenic germs present in residual water. Moreover, the inocule standardization and the conditions of the Electron accelerator Type Pelletron. In the second stage it was performed the irradiation of aqueous samples of the microorganisms simulating biological pollution and the application to problem samples of a treatment plant sited in the Lerma River zone of mixed residual water. And in the third stage was performed a regression analysis to the reported survival for each kind of microorganisms. The results obtained show that with the use of Electron beams was reduced 6 logarithmic units de E. coli at 129 Gy, for S. typhimurium it was reduced 8 logarithmic units at 383 Gy and the B. cereus at 511 Gy was reduced 6.8 logarithmic units. Of the problem samples irradiated at 500 Gy, the concentration of the total account diminished from 8.70 x 10 7 UFC/ml to 550 UFC/ml, the presence of B. Cereus

  3. Approaches for Modelling the Residual Service Life of Marine Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the service life design of existing reinforced concrete structures in a marine environment. The general procedure of condition assessment for estimating the residual service life of structures before a repair measure is illustrated. For assessment of the residual service life of structures which have undergone a repair measure a simplified mathematical model of chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system is presented. Preliminary probabilistic calculations demonstrate the effect of various conditions on the residual service life. First studies of the chloride diffusion in a 2-layer system have been conducted using the finite element method. Results of a long-term exposure test are presented to illustrate the performance of two different repair materials. The distribution of residual chlorides after application of a repair material is being studied in laboratory investigations. The residual chlorides migrate from the concrete layer into the new layer immediately after the repair material has been applied to the concrete member. The content and gradient of residual chlorides, along with the thickness and the chloride ingress resistance of both the remaining and the new layer of cover, will determine the residual service life of the repaired structures.

  4. Analysis of plant harvest indices for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, A.; Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P. J.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Harvest indices, which are measures of the ratio of edible to total plant weight, are redefined to include edible sugars derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose content of inedible plant components. Compositional analysis and carbohydrate contents of rapeseed, rice, soybeans, cowpea, wheat, sweet potato, white potato, and lettuce were analyzed to develop such generalized harvest indices. Cellulose conversion is shown to extend considerably the food available from plants otherwise grown for their oil and protein content in a bioregenerative life support system.

  5. HEALTH AS THE QUALITY OF LIFE KEY INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Z. Biktimirova

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review health is regarded in the Quality of Life (QOL concept context. Definitions of health that go beyond other components of national well-being and allow to use it as the QOL indicator are distinguished. Systemic approaches to health estimation, their benefits and shortcomings are analyzed. We propose to use birth rate, newborn, infant and maternal mortality as the most important indicators.

  6. Assessing Smart Phones for Generating Life-space Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Neng; Qu, Wenyu; Whittington, Jackie; Witbrodt, Bradley C; Henderson, Mary Pearl; Goulding, Evan H; Schenk, A Katrin; Bonasera, Stephen J; Lin, Ge

    2013-04-01

    Life-space is a promising method for estimating older adults' functional status. However, traditional life-space measures are costly and time consuming because they often rely on active subject participation. This study assesses the feasibility of using the global positioning system (GPS) function of smart phones to generate life-space indicators. We first evaluated the location accuracy of smart phone collected GPS points versus those acquired by a commercial GPS unit. We then assessed the specificity of the smart phone processed life-space information against the traditional diary method. Our results suggested comparable location accuracy between the smart phone and the standard GPS unit in most outdoor situations. In addition, the smart phone method revealed more comprehensive life-space information than the diary method, which leads to higher and more consistent life-space scores. We conclude that the smart phone method is more reliable than traditional methods for measuring life-space. Further improvements will be required to develop a robust application of this method that is suitable for health-related practices.

  7. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechersky, Martin J.

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  8. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsey, Shawn O.; Payne, Yasser A.; Jackson, Ebonique S.; Jones, Antoine M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, institutional racism-related stress was a…

  9. Relation Between Residual and Hoop Stresses and Rolling Bearing Fatigue Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Rolling-element bearings operated at high speed or high vibration may require a tight interference fit between the bore of the bearing and shaft to prevent rotation of the bearing bore around the shaft and fretting damage at the interfaces. Previous work showed that the hoop stresses resulting from tight interference fits can reduce bearing lives by as much as 65 percent. Where tight interference fits are required, case-carburized steel such as AISI 9310 or M50 NiL is often used because the compressive residual stresses inhibit subsurface crack formation and the ductile core inhibits inner-ring fracture. The presence of compressive residual stress and its combination with hoop stress also modifies the Hertz stress-life relation. This paper analyzes the beneficial effect of residual stresses on rolling-element bearing fatigue life in the presence of high hoop stresses for three bearing steels. These additional stresses were superimposed on Hertzian principal stresses to calculate the inner-race maximum shearing stress and the resulting fatigue life of the bearing. The load-life exponent p and Hertz stress-life exponent n increase in the presence of compressive residual stress, which yields increased life, particularly at lower stress levels. The Zaretsky life equation is described and is shown to predict longer bearing lives and greater load- and stress-life exponents, which better predicts observed life of bearings made from vacuum-processed steel.

  10. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoni, P.

    1999-01-01

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described [it

  11. How Common Is Disorder? Occurrence of Disordered Residues in Four Domains of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Yu. Lobanov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Disordered regions play important roles in protein adaptation to challenging environmental conditions. Flexible and disordered residues have the highest propensities to alter the protein packing. Therefore, identification of disordered/flexible regions is important for structural and functional analysis of proteins. We used the IsUnstruct program to predict the ordered or disordered status of residues in 122 proteomes, including 97 eukaryotic and 25 large bacterial proteomes larger than 2,500,000 residues. We found that bacterial and eukaryotic proteomes contain comparable fraction of disordered residues, which was 0.31 in the bacterial and 0.38 in the eukaryotic proteomes. Additional analysis of the total of 1540 bacterial proteomes of various sizes yielded a smaller fraction of disordered residues, which was only 0.26. Together, the results showed that the larger is the size of the proteome, the larger is the fraction of the disordered residues. A continuous dependence of the fraction of disordered residues on the size of the proteome is observed for four domains of life: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea, and Viruses. Furthermore, our analysis of 122 proteomes showed that the fraction of disordered residues increased with increasing the length of homo-repeats for polar, charged, and small residues, and decreased for hydrophobic residues. The maximal fraction of disordered residues was obtained for proteins containing lysine and arginine homo-repeats. The minimal fraction was found in valine and leucine homo-repeats. For 15-residue long homo-repeats these values were 0.2 (for Val and Leu and 0.7 (for Lys and Arg.

  12. Evaluation of residual life of material of power plant construction elements after long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osasyuk, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Existing methods are analyzed for estimation of residual resource of elements of constructions, working in creep conditions. A suggested and experimentally verified new method of residual durability forecasting is described permitting the value of the supplementary resource to be specified according to the real state of the material after preoperation. Evaluation results are given for residual life of steam lines received by different methods and advantages of the technique proposed are shown. Reliability of the new technique is confirmed by steam line operation at thermal power plants

  13. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The prediction of the residual life of electromechanical equipment based on the artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Yu L.; Korolev, N. A.; Babanova, I. S.; Boikov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    This article is devoted to the prediction of the residual life based on an estimate of the technical state of the induction motor. The proposed system allows to increase the accuracy and completeness of diagnostics by using an artificial neural network (ANN), and also identify and predict faulty states of an electrical equipment in dynamics. The results of the proposed system for estimation the technical condition are probability technical state diagrams and a quantitative evaluation of the residual life, taking into account electrical, vibrational, indirect parameters and detected defects. Based on the evaluation of the technical condition and the prediction of the residual life, a decision is made to change the control of the operating and maintenance modes of the electric motors.

  15. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  16. Fatigue life estimation considering welding residual stress and hot-spot stress of welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. H.; Lee, T. K.; Shin, B. C.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation have to be considered quantitatively which are equivalent to mean stress by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can be reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which are composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is confirmed that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  17. Defining biominerals and organominerals: Direct and indirect indicators of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Randall S.; Mcloughlin, Nicola; Lynne, Bridget Y.; Sephton, Mark A.; Oliver, Joan D.; Perry, Carole C.; Campbell, Kathleen; Engel, Michael H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Brasier, Martin D.; Staley, James T.

    2007-09-01

    By introducing the new term 'organomineral' to apply to minerals that are affected by organics, mostly life-related, but not directly produced by living cells, we hope to increase the accuracy of the terminology in present usage. We believe that the term 'biomineral' does not describe all mineral deposits precisely enough and offer case studies to support instances where the use of the new term 'organomineral' is more appropriate. We provide examples of some materials that are biominerals such as those in diatoms and human bones and which perform a functional purpose. We then attempt to show that terminology can sometimes mislead investigators, drive the direction and prejudice interpretations of scientific investigation. This is achieved by presenting case studies of minerals that have been investigated as biominerals although they may not actually be directly controlled by biology. For this reason we pay special attention to desert varnish, hot-spring siliceous deposits, stromatolites, and bacterial encrustations. We go on to explain why we regard biominerals as direct indictors of life whereas organominerals should be treated as indirect indicators of life that require careful characterization to establish the origin of contained organics and whether these are biotic in origin. How organic compounds are preserved and transformed in sedimentary environments and in the mineral matrix is as highly relevant to the study of modern Earth environments as it is in the search for the oldest evidence of life in the terrestrial rock record. It is also important to many disciplines such as microbiology and archaeology and especially to scientists planning missions to look for evidence of 'life' on other planetary surfaces.

  18. Bioethanol production from corn stover residues. Process design and Life Cycle Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, I.; Dinnino, G.; Braccio, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this report, the mass and energy balance along with a land-to-wheel Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is described for a corn stover-to-ethanol industrial process assumed to consist of the main technologies being researched at ENEA TRISAIA: pretreatment by steam explosion and enzymatic hydrolysis. The modelled plant has a processing capacity of 60kt/y (dimensioned on realistic supplying basins of residues in Italy); biomass is pre-treated by acid catalyzed-steam explosion; cellulose and hemicelluloses are hydrolyzed and separately fermented; enzymes are on-site produced. The main target was to minimize the consumption of fresh water, enzymes and energy. The results indicate that the production of 1kg bio ethanol (95.4 wt%) requires 3.5 kg biomass dry matter and produces an energy surplus up to 740 Wh. The main purpose of the LCA analysis was to assess the environmental impact of the entire life cycle from the bio ethanol production up to its end-use as E10 blended gasoline. Boustead Model was used as tool to compile the life cycle inventory. The results obtained and discussed in this reports suffer of some limitations deriving from the following main points: some process yields have been extrapolated according to optimistic development scenarios; the energy and steam recovery could be lower than that projected because of lacks in the real systems; water recycle could be limited by the yeast tolerance toward the potential accumulation of toxic compounds. Nevertheless, the detailed process analysis here provided has its usefulness in: showing the challenging targets (even if they are ambitious) to bet on to make the integrated process feasible; driving the choice of the most suitable technologies to bypass some process bottlenecks [it

  19. Life cycle analysis of biogas from residues; Livscykelanalys av biogas fraan restprodukter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufvesson, Linda; Lantz, Mikael [Dep. for Miljoe- och Energisystem, Lunds Tekniska Hoegskola, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to carry out life cycle assessments for different biogas systems where biogas is produced from different residues. The investigated residues are distiller's waste, rapeseed cake, whey permeate, concentrated whey permeate, fodder milk, fish residues, bakery residues and glycerol. The environmental impact categories included are climate change, eutrophication, acidification, photochemical ozone creation potential, particles and energy balance. The calculations include emissions from technical systems, especially the energy input in various operations and processes. A general conclusion is that all studied residues are very well suited for production of biogas if there is no demand for them as animal feed today. All biogas systems also reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases compared to petrol and diesel and meet the requirements presented in the EU renewable energy directive (RED). The results of the study also show that the investigated biogas systems are complex and many different parameters affect the result. These parameters are both integrated in the life cycle assessment method, but also in the inventory data used.

  20. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  1. SAR Ground Moving Target Indication Based on Relative Residue of DPCA Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For modern synthetic aperture radar (SAR, it has much more urgent demands on ground moving target indication (GMTI, which includes not only the point moving targets like cars, truck or tanks but also the distributed moving targets like river or ocean surfaces. Among the existing GMTI methods, displaced phase center antenna (DPCA can effectively cancel the strong ground clutter and has been widely used. However, its detection performance is closely related to the target’s signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR as well as radial velocity, and it cannot effectively detect the weak large-sized river surfaces in strong ground clutter due to their low SCR caused by specular scattering. This paper proposes a novel method called relative residue of DPCA (RR-DPCA, which jointly utilizes the DPCA cancellation outputs and the multi-look images to improve the detection performance of weak river surfaces. Furthermore, based on the statistics analysis of the RR-DPCA outputs on the homogenous background, the cell average (CA method can be well applied for subsequent constant false alarm rate (CFAR detection. The proposed RR-DPCA method can well detect the point moving targets and distributed moving targets simultaneously. Finally, the results of both simulated and real data are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed SAR/GMTI method.

  2. How do soil quality indicators (SOC and nutrients) change with long-term different crop residue management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Heide; Lehtinen, Taru; Dersch, Georg; Baumgarten, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Leaving the crop residues (cereal grain straw, maize stover, sugar beet leaves) on the field may enhance SOC and soil nutrient contents (e.g. P, K, Mg). In contrast, harvesting crop residues for livestock bedding or energy production are often connected with a loss of soil fertility (Lehtinen et al., 2014). We have evaluated the effects of different management of crop residues on selected soil parameters of the upper soil (0-25 cm) in two long-term field experiments in Austria focused on P-dynamics (Marchfeld, since 1982 and Alpenvorland, since 1986). In four P-fertilisation stages (0, 75, 150, 300 kg P2O5 ha-1y-1) all crop residues were incorporated in one treatment and all removed in the other one, respectively. The results show that the effects are different at the two investigated sites. At the site Marchfeld, a medium textured soil, on average SOC was significantly higher with the incorporation of crop residues (21.6 g kg-1) compared to the removal (19.9 g kg-1) after 32 years. In the long run, SOC levels could be maintained, if crop residues remained at the field, whereas the constant removal of crop residues resulted in a SOC decline. At the site Alpenvorland, SOC was only slightly higher with the incorporation of the crop residues after 28 years. In this case, in the long run, even with this management practice and, moreover, with the residue removal, SOC tended to decrease generally. At the Marchfeld, crop residue incorporation resulted in a significant increase of "plant available" phosphorus (P-CAL) only with very high P fertilization. However, "plant available" Mg (according to Schachtschabel) and potassium (K-CAL) were significantly higher in all P fertilisation stages compared to the residue removal treatments. At the site Alpenvorland, the soils are rich in silt and clay and with long-term incorporation of crop residues a significant increase only of „plant available" K of about 50% occurred. This indicates the necessity of taking into account the

  3. Computational models for residual creep life prediction of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Ramamoortry, M.

    2006-01-01

    All high temperature - high pressure power plant components are prone to irreversible visco-plastic deformation by the phenomenon of creep. The steady state creep response as well as the total creep life of a material is related to the operational component temperature through, respectively, the exponential and inverse exponential relationships. Minor increases in the component temperature can thus have serious consequences as far as the creep life and dimensional stability of a plant component are concerned. In high temperature steam tubing in power plants, one mechanism by which a significant temperature rise can occur is by the growth of a thermally insulating oxide film on its steam side surface. In the present paper, an elegantly simple and computationally efficient technique is presented for predicting the residual creep life of steel components subjected to continual steam side oxide film growth. Similarly, fabrication of high temperature power plant components involves extensive use of welding as the fabrication process of choice. Naturally, issues related to the creep life of weldments have to be seriously addressed for safe and continual operation of the welded plant component. Unfortunately, a typical weldment in an engineering structure is a zone of complex microstructural gradation comprising of a number of distinct sub-zones with distinct meso-scale and micro-scale morphology of the phases and (even) chemistry and its creep life prediction presents considerable challenges. The present paper presents a stochastic algorithm, which can be' used for developing experimental creep-cavitation intensity versus residual life correlations for welded structures. Apart from estimates of the residual life in a mean field sense, the model can be used for predicting the reliability of the plant component in a rigorous probabilistic setting. (author)

  4. Wetting of nonconserved residue-backbones: A feature indicative of aggregation associated regions of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mohan R; Pal, Arumay; Hu, Zhongqiao; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Chee Keong, Kwoh; Lane, David P; Verma, Chandra S

    2016-02-01

    Aggregation is an irreversible form of protein complexation and often toxic to cells. The process entails partial or major unfolding that is largely driven by hydration. We model the role of hydration in aggregation using "Dehydrons." "Dehydrons" are unsatisfied backbone hydrogen bonds in proteins that seek shielding from water molecules by associating with ligands or proteins. We find that the residues at aggregation interfaces have hydrated backbones, and in contrast to other forms of protein-protein interactions, are under less evolutionary pressure to be conserved. Combining evolutionary conservation of residues and extent of backbone hydration allows us to distinguish regions on proteins associated with aggregation (non-conserved dehydron-residues) from other interaction interfaces (conserved dehydron-residues). This novel feature can complement the existing strategies used to investigate protein aggregation/complexation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reliability residual-life prediction method for thermal aging based on performance degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shuhong; Xue Fei; Yu Weiwei; Ti Wenxin; Liu Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    The paper makes the study of the nuclear power plant main pipeline. The residual-life of the main pipeline that failed due to thermal aging has been studied by the use of performance degradation theory and Bayesian updating methods. Firstly, the thermal aging impact property degradation process of the main pipeline austenitic stainless steel has been analyzed by the accelerated thermal aging test data. Then, the thermal aging residual-life prediction model based on the impact property degradation data is built by Bayesian updating methods. Finally, these models are applied in practical situations. It is shown that the proposed methods are feasible and the prediction accuracy meets the needs of the project. Also, it provides a foundation for the scientific management of aging management of the main pipeline. (authors)

  6. A procedure for evaluating residual life of major components in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Fujimori, H.; Ibe, E.; Kuniya, J.; Hayashi, M.; Fuse, M.; Yamauchi, K.

    1995-01-01

    A computer program for evaluating residual life of major components in boiling water reactors is proposed. It divides the stress corrosion cracking process into two stages; a probabilistic crack generation stage and a deterministic crack propagation one. The minimum period of the crack generation stage is evaluated assuming an exponential distribution of the stage. The crack propagation rate is calculated by the slip-dissolution/film-rupture model. The neutron flux and fluence dependence of the neutron radiation effects on material properties was evaluated by using theoretical models of radiation damage. The computer program works on an engineering work station. Evaluated results are displayed as a map of the residual life, or as graphs of crack length evolution

  7. The prediction of reliability and residual life of reactor pressure components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Antalovsky, S.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of PWR pressure components reliability and residual life evaluation and prediction. A physical model of damage cumulation which serves as a theoretical basis for all considerations presents two major aspects. The first one describes the dependence of the degree of damage in the crack leading-edge in pressure components on the reactor system load-time history, i.e. on the number of transient loads. Both stages, fatigue crack initiation and growth through the wall until the critical length is reached, are investigated. The crack is supposed to initiate at the flaws in a strength weld joint or in the bimetallic weld of the base ferritic steel and the austenitic stainless overlay cladding. The growth rates of developed cracks are analysed in respect to different load-time histories. Important cyclic properties of some steels are derived from the low-cycle fatigue theory. The second aspect is the load-time history-dependent process of precipitation, deformation and radiation aging, characterized entirely by the critical crack-length value mentioned above. The fracture point, defined by the equation ''crack-length=critical value'' and hence the residual life, can be evaluated using this model and verified by in-service inspection. The physical model described is randomized by considering all the parameters of the model as random. Monte Carlo methods are applied and fatigue crack initiation and growth is simulated. This permits evaluation of the reliability and residual life of the component. The distributions of material and load-time history parameters are needed for such simulation. Both the deterministic and computer-simulated probabilistic predictions of reliability and residual life are verified by prior-to-failure sequential testing of data coming from in-service NDT periodical inspections. (author)

  8. Residual Stress Estimation and Fatigue Life Prediction of an Autofrettaged Pressure Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyung Jin; Kim, Eun Kyum; Koh, Seung Kee [Kunsan Nat’l Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Fatigue failure of an autofrettaged pressure vessel with a groove at the outside surface occurs owing to the fatigue crack initiation and propagation at the groove root. In order to predict the fatigue life of the autofrettaged pressure vessel, residual stresses in the autofrettaged pressure vessel were evaluated using the finite element method, and the fatigue properties of the pressure vessel steel were obtained from the fatigue tests. Fatigue life of a pressure vessel obtained through summation of the crack initiation and propagation lives was calculated to be 2,598 cycles for an 80% autofrettaged pressure vessel subjected to a pulsating internal pressure of 424 MPa.

  9. Bayesian nonparametric inference on quantile residual life function: Application to breast cancer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taeyoung; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae Won

    2012-08-15

    There is often an interest in estimating a residual life function as a summary measure of survival data. For ease in presentation of the potential therapeutic effect of a new drug, investigators may summarize survival data in terms of the remaining life years of patients. Under heavy right censoring, however, some reasonably high quantiles (e.g., median) of a residual lifetime distribution cannot be always estimated via a popular nonparametric approach on the basis of the Kaplan-Meier estimator. To overcome the difficulties in dealing with heavily censored survival data, this paper develops a Bayesian nonparametric approach that takes advantage of a fully model-based but highly flexible probabilistic framework. We use a Dirichlet process mixture of Weibull distributions to avoid strong parametric assumptions on the unknown failure time distribution, making it possible to estimate any quantile residual life function under heavy censoring. Posterior computation through Markov chain Monte Carlo is straightforward and efficient because of conjugacy properties and partial collapse. We illustrate the proposed methods by using both simulated data and heavily censored survival data from a recent breast cancer clinical trial conducted by the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-21

    Each year, more than 50 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world. More than 95% of these vehicles enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, about 75% of automotive materials are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobiles, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials (about 25% of the weight of the vehicle)--commonly called shredder residue--is disposed of in landfills. Over the past 10 to 15 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs), including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has focused on developing technology to recover materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lighter-weight materials--primarily polymers and polymer composites--will be used in manufacturing these vehicles. These materials increase the percentage of shredder residue that must be disposed of, compared with the percentage of metals. Therefore, as the complexity of automotive materials and systems increases, new technologies will be required to sustain and maximize the ultimate recycling of these materials and systems at end-of-life. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in cooperation

  11. Life-cycle assessment of transportation biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction of forest residues in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuhao; Bi, Xiaotao

    2018-01-01

    Biofuels from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of abundantly available forest residues in British Columbia (BC) can potentially make great contributions to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transportation sector. A life-cycle assessment was conducted to quantify the GHG emissions of a hypothetic 100 million liters per year HTL biofuel system in the Coast Region of BC. Three scenarios were defined and investigated, namely, supply of bulky forest residues for conversion in a central integrated refinery (Fr-CIR), HTL of forest residues to bio-oil in distributed biorefineries and subsequent upgrading in a central oil refinery (Bo-DBR), and densification of forest residues in distributed pellet plants and conversion in a central integrated refinery (Wp-CIR). The life-cycle GHG emissions of HTL biofuels is 20.5, 17.0, and 19.5 g CO 2 -eq/MJ for Fr-CIR, Bo-DBR, and Wp-CIR scenarios, respectively, corresponding to 78-82% reduction compared with petroleum fuels. The conversion stage dominates the total GHG emissions, making up more than 50%. The process emitting most GHGs over the life cycle of HTL biofuels is HTL buffer production. Transportation emission, accounting for 25% of Fr-CIR, can be lowered by 83% if forest residues are converted to bio-oil before transportation. When the credit from biochar applied for soil amendment is considered, a further reduction of 6.8 g CO 2 -eq/MJ can be achieved. Converting forest residues to bio-oil and wood pellets before transportation can significantly lower the transportation emission and contribute to a considerable reduction of the life-cycle GHG emissions. Process performance parameters (e.g., HTL energy requirement and biofuel yield) and the location specific parameter (e.g., electricity mix) have significant influence on the GHG emissions of HTL biofuels. Besides, the recycling of the HTL buffer needs to be investigated to further improve the environmental performance of HTL biofuels.

  12. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  13. Quality of life and psychological health indicators in the national social life, health, and aging project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Leitsch, Sara; Graber, Jessica; Karraker, Amelia

    2009-11-01

    The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) measures seven indicators of quality of life (QoL) and psychological health. The measures used for happiness, self-esteem, depression, and loneliness are well established in the literature. Conversely, measures of anxiety, stress, and self-reported emotional health were modified for their use in this unique project. The purpose of this paper is to provide (a) an overview of NSHAP's QoL assessment and (b) evidence for the adequacy of the modified measures. First, we examined the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Second, the established QoL measures were used to examine the concurrent validity of the modified measures. Finally, gender- and age-group differences were examined for each modified measure. The anxiety index exhibited good internal reliability and concurrent validity. Consistent with the literature, a single-factor structure best fit the data. Stress was satisfactory in terms of concurrent validity but with only fair internal consistency. Self-reported emotional health exhibited good concurrent validity and moderate external validity. The modified indices used in NSHAP tended to exhibit good internal reliability and concurrent validity. These measures can confidently be used in the exploration of QoL and psychological health in later life and its many correlates.

  14. Residual γH2AX foci as an indication of lethal DNA lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banáth, Judit P; Klokov, Dmitry; MacPhail, Susan H; Banuelos, C Adriana; Olive, Peggy L

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that tumor cells exposed to some DNA damaging agents are more likely to die if they retain microscopically visible γH2AX foci that are known to mark sites of double-strand breaks. This appears to be true even after exposure to the alkylating agent MNNG that does not cause direct double-strand breaks but does produce γH2AX foci when damaged DNA undergoes replication. To examine this predictive ability further, SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells were exposed to 8 DNA damaging drugs (camptothecin, cisplatin, doxorubicin, etoposide, hydrogen peroxide, MNNG, temozolomide, and tirapazamine) and the fraction of cells that retained γH2AX foci 24 hours after a 30 or 60 min treatment was compared with the fraction of cells that lost clonogenicity. To determine if cells with residual repair foci are the cells that die, SiHa cervical cancer cells were stably transfected with a RAD51-GFP construct and live cell analysis was used to follow the fate of irradiated cells with RAD51-GFP foci. For all drugs regardless of their mechanism of interaction with DNA, close to a 1:1 correlation was observed between clonogenic surviving fraction and the fraction of cells that retained γH2AX foci 24 hours after treatment. Initial studies established that the fraction of cells that retained RAD51 foci after irradiation was similar to the fraction of cells that retained γH2AX foci and subsequently lost clonogenicity. Tracking individual irradiated live cells confirmed that SiHa cells with RAD51-GFP foci 24 hours after irradiation were more likely to die. Retention of DNA damage-induced γH2AX foci appears to be indicative of lethal DNA damage so that it may be possible to predict tumor cell killing by a wide variety of DNA damaging agents simply by scoring the fraction of cells that retain γH2AX foci

  15. Investigation of the use of luminescent markers as gunshot residue indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Marcella A M; Ordoñez, Carlos; Weber, Ingrid T; Torre, Mercedes; García-Ruiz, Carmen; López-López, María

    2017-11-01

    The addition of luminescent markers into ammunition cartridges is an appealing proposal to achieve a greater individual identification of the ammunition. The lanthanide elements present in these luminescent materials act as characteristic chemical markers that, also, offer the great benefit of making gunshot residues (GSR) collection easier. Although the use of luminescent markers offers numerous advantages, and can be a reliable future option in the cartridge ammunition market, little or nothing is known about the interaction of the marker with the ammunition compounds after the shot. For the forensic laboratories, it is of utmost importance to anticipate the commercialization of tagged luminescent ammunition by knowing the type of particles produced after the discharge. That is, to investigate if markers merge with GSR to form single particles or, on the contrary, they form individual particles that travel separately from the GSR particles. In this work, conventional ammunition cartridges tagged with two types of luminescent markers were shot. Then, the particles produced were visualized under UV light on the floor, clothing targets and the shooter. The luminescent particles spread over the floor determined the shooter position and the bullet trajectory. The illumination of the shot targets allows the visualization of the GSR patterns only using a portable UV lamp, avoiding the use of colorimetric test. The GSR particles were collected and subjected to SEM-EDX and Raman spectroscopy analysis to get information about their inorganic and organic composition. The results indicated that part of the marker and the GSR merge and travel together. With this, particles composed by the marker and propellant organic compounds can be identified by Raman spectroscopy, and the unequivocal identification of the GSR and the marker can be achieved by SEM-EDX. Consequently, the luminescent particles detected under UV light improve the evidence collection and offer information

  16. Assessment of the Residual Life of Steam Pipeline Material beyond the Computational Working Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Sroka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of durability for the material of repair welded joints made from (13HMF 14MoV6-3 steel after long-term service, and from material in the as-received condition and after long-term service. Microstructure examinations using a scanning electron microscope, hardness measurements and creep tests of the basic material and welded joints of these steels were carried out. These tests enabled the time of further safe service of the examined repair welded joints to be determined in relation to the residual life of the materials. The evaluation of residual life and disposable life, and thus the estimation and determination of the time of safe service, is of great importance for the operation of components beyond the design service life. The obtained test results are part of the materials’ characteristics developed by the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy for steels and welded joints made from these steels to work under creep conditions.

  17. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis as indicator in the disinfection of residual water by means of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata J, M.; Colin C, A.; Lopez V, H.; Brena V, M.; Carrasco A, H.; Pavon R, S.

    2002-01-01

    In the attempt to get more alternatives of disinfection of residual water, the Bacillus subtilis was isolated by means of gamma radiation as a bio indicator of disinfection since it turned out to be resistant to the 5 KGy dose, comparing this one with other usual microorganisms as biondicators like E. coli and S typhimurium which turn out more sensitive to such dose. (Author)

  18. An additive-multiplicative mean residual life model for right-censored data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingheng; He, Haijin; Song, Xinyuan; Sun, Liuquan

    2017-05-01

    Many studies have focused on determining the effect of the body mass index (BMI) on the mortality in different cohorts. In this article, we propose an additive-multiplicative mean residual life (MRL) model to assess the effects of BMI and other risk factors on the MRL function of survival time in a cohort of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients. The proposed model can simultaneously manage additive and multiplicative risk factors and provide a comprehensible interpretation of their effects on the MRL function of interest. We develop an estimation procedure through pseudo partial score equations to obtain parameter estimates. We establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators and conduct simulations to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The application of the procedure to a study on the life expectancy of type 2 diabetic patients reveals new insights into the extension of the life expectancy of such patients. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Determination of Activated Carbon Residual Life using a Microwave Cavity Resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, A; Wylie, S; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I; Thomas, A; Keele, H

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the continuation of work conducted jointly between Dstl and LJMU. This unique body of work has been, largely, concerned with detecting the residual life of high performance filter materials using electromagnetic (EM) waves within a resonant cavity. Past work has considered both HEPA [1] and ASZM-TEDA[2] activated carbon filter materials. This paper continues the later work, considering the response of ASZM-TEDA activated carbon through the co-ageing of two distinct batches of the material. The paper briefly introduces activated carbon, discusses theory relevant to the work and the methodology used for investigation. A comprehensive set of results is included which seek to validate this technique for determining the residual lifespan of activated carbon.

  20. The Discussion of Subjective Quality of Working Life Indicators

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinopal, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2012), s. 385-401 ISSN 0049-1225 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Job Satisfaction * Quality of Working Life * Work Satisfaction Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2012 http://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/06251222Vinopal%203-2012.pdf

  1. Quality of Life Indicators for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Extending Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life is a social construct that is measured by what are considered to be its most appropriate indicators. Quality of life measurement in intellectual disability reflects a variety of indicators, often grouped under life domains. Subjective and objective methods of measuring indicators each have strengths and drawbacks, but it is…

  2. A CHARACTERIZATION OF ERLANG-TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION IN RECORD VALUES AND ITS USE IN MEAN RESIDUAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mohsin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Erlang-truncated exponential distribution is characterized by the conditional expectation of record values. The utility of our result is demonstrated in mean residual life by using this characterization.

  3. Nondestructive indication of fatigue damage and residual lifetime in ferromagnetic construction materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kovářík, O.; Vértesy, G.; Kadlecová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2014), "065601-1"-"065601-10" ISSN 0957-0233. [International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments /11./ (ISMTII). Aachen, 01.07.2013-03.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fatigue * residual lifetime * magnetic nondestructive evaluation * ferromagnetic construction materials Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2014

  4. End-of-life vehicle recycling : state of the art of resource recovery from shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Daniels, E. J.; Duranceau, C. M.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S. (Energy Systems)

    2011-02-22

    Each year, more than 25 million vehicles reach the end of their service life throughout the world, and this number is rising rapidly because the number of vehicles on the roads is rapidly increasing. In the United States, more than 95% of the 10-15 million scrapped vehicles annually enter a comprehensive recycling infrastructure that includes auto parts recyclers/dismantlers, remanufacturers, and material recyclers (shredders). Today, over 75% of automotive materials, primarily the metals, are profitably recycled via (1) parts reuse and parts and components remanufacturing and (2) ultimately by the scrap processing (shredding) industry. The process by which the scrap processors recover metal scrap from automobiles involves shredding the obsolete automobile hulks, along with other obsolete metal-containing products (such as white goods, industrial scrap, and demolition debris), and recovering the metals from the shredded material. The single largest source of recycled ferrous scrap for the iron and steel industry is obsolete automobiles. The non-metallic fraction that remains after the metals are recovered from the shredded materials - commonly called shredder residue - constitutes about 25% of the weight of the vehicle, and it is disposed of in landfills. This practice is not environmentally friendly, wastes valuable resources, and may become uneconomical. Therefore, it is not sustainable. Over the past 15-20 years, a significant amount of research and development has been undertaken to enhance the recycle rate of end-of-life vehicles, including enhancing dismantling techniques and improving remanufacturing operations. However, most of the effort has been focused on developing technology to separate and recover non-metallic materials, such as polymers, from shredder residue. To make future vehicles more energy efficient, more lightweighting materials - primarily polymers, polymer composites, high-strength steels, and aluminum - will be used in manufacturing these

  5. Quality of life development during initial hemodialysis therapy and association with loss of residual renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Christina G; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Peters, Christian D

    2017-01-01

    , especially diabetes, hospital admissions, female gender, and age were strongly associated with lower HRQOL in cross sectional analysis. DISCUSSION: Preservation of residual renal function seems to be important for HRQOL. In newly started HD patients, HRQOL showed little change after 12 months. HRQOL...... was negatively affected by comorbidity, especially diabetes, hospital admissions, female gender, and age.......INTRODUCTION: Health related quality of life (HRQOL) is markedly reduced in hemodialysis patients compared to the general population. We investigated the course of self-reported HRQOL over time and the association with selected factors, focusing on changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR...

  6. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgisdottir, Harpa; Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase...... layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals...

  7. Contribution of spirituality to quality of life in patients with residual schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ruchita; Kulhara, Parmanand; Grover, Sandeep; Kumar, Suresh; Malhotra, Rama; Tyagi, Shikha

    2011-12-30

    There is increasing recognition that a person's spiritual or religious experiences contribute to quality of life (QOL). However, research exploring the relation between spirituality and QOL has mainly been in the context of chronic and life-threatening illnesses, and studies examining this important correlate of QOL in chronically mentally ill subjects are sparse. This study aimed to explore the relationship between spirituality and QOL, and to investigate if spirituality contributes to other domains of QOL (both physical and psycho-social) in subjects with residual schizophrenia. In a study with a cross-sectional design, 103 patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale, and their quality of life, spirituality and religiousness were assessed with the WHO Quality of Life-Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB) scale. The SRPB domain and all its facets other than spiritual connection correlated significantly with all other domains of QOL and overall QOL. On regression analysis, the inner peace domain of spirituality explained 21.6 to 37.6% of variance of all QOL domains except the domain of level of independence. The spirituality domain explained 33.8% of the variance of the 'level of independence domain of QOL. Taken together, inner peace and spirituality facets explained 23 to 40% of the variance of the social relationships domain, the psychological domain and the level of independence domain of QOL. This study suggests that spirituality and religiosity have an important influence on overall QOL of patients with schizophrenia. Hence, besides pharmacological and non-pharmacological management for schizophrenia, clinicians should focus on this aspect and encourage their patients to follow their religious practices and spiritual beliefs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic-Environmental Indicators to Support Investment Decisions: A Focus on the Buildings’ End-of-Life Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fregonara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for supporting decision making in design activities; in case of new projects or retrofitting of existing buildings. A multidisciplinary approach is adopted; involving Real Estate Appraisal and Economic Evaluation of Project and Building Environmental Design. It is proposed a methodology for selecting the preferable solutions among technological options; considering both economic and environmental aspects; in terms of global performance. Assuming the principles of Life Cycle Thinking and Circular Economy focus is posed at the end-of-life stage. Attention is paid on disposal costs and residual value as relevant items enable to orient investment decisions. This is done through an approach for quantifying environmental indicators related to Life Cycle Assessment (Standard ISO 14040:2006; and economic indicators adopting the Life Cycle Costing (Standard ISO 15686:2008. The paper proposes a conjoint “economic-environmental indicator”. An application of Global Cost calculation is illustrated; including monetized environmental impacts (Embodied energy and Embodied carbon; disposal/dismantling costs and residual value. The result of the Global Cost calculation is expressed through a “synthetic economic-environmental indicator” in order to select; between two different technologies; the most viable solution for a multifunctional building glass façade project; in Northern Italy. The study demonstrates that the initial investment decisions depend on the design solutions; since the early stages; related to the whole building life cycle considering conjointly the construction-management phases and the end-of-life stage.

  9. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: the importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, E; Butera, S; Kosson, D S; Van Zomeren, A; Van der Sloot, H A; Astrup, T F

    2015-04-01

    Residues from industrial processes and waste management systems (WMSs) have been increasingly reutilised, leading to landfilling rate reductions and the optimisation of mineral resource utilisation in society. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a holistic methodology allowing for the analysis of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens, due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system boundaries. The importance of data quality and parameter selection in the overall LCA results was evaluated, and an innovative method to assess metal transport into the environment was applied, in order to determine emissions to the soil and water compartments for use in an LCA. It was found that toxic impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities in the scenario (e.g. electricity production). Based on the analysis of relevant parameters relative to leaching, and on general results of the study, recommendations are provided regarding the use of leaching data in LCA studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Regression models for the restricted residual mean life for right-censored and left-truncated data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Holmboe, Stine A.; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    estimators to model potential right censoring. Furthermore, we show how to extend the models and the estimators to deal with delayed entries. We demonstrate that the restricted residual mean life estimator is equivalent to integrals of Kaplan-Meier estimates in the case of simple factor variables. Estimation...... to interpret than the hazard ratio; the residual mean time is an important example of those measures. However, because of the presence of right censoring, the tail of the survival distribution is often difficult to estimate correctly. Therefore, we consider the restricted residual mean time, which represents...... a partial area under the survival function, given any time horizon τ, and is interpreted as the residual life expectancy up to τ of a subject surviving up to time t. We present a class of regression models for this measure, based on weighted estimating equations and inverse probability of censoring weighted...

  11. Empirical likelihood based detection procedure for change point in mean residual life functions under random censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ju; Ning, Wei; Gupta, Arjun K

    2016-05-01

    The mean residual life (MRL) function is one of the basic parameters of interest in survival analysis that describes the expected remaining time of an individual after a certain age. The study of changes in the MRL function is practical and interesting because it may help us to identify some factors such as age and gender that may influence the remaining lifetimes of patients after receiving a certain surgery. In this paper, we propose a detection procedure based on the empirical likelihood for the changes in MRL functions with right censored data. Two real examples are also given: Veterans' administration lung cancer study and Stanford heart transplant to illustrate the detecting procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Inspection procedure of buildings for the purpose of subsequent assessment of their residual life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers and asserts the need to obtain the results of inspection of a building at the stage of its commissioning in order to apply comprehensive methodology for assessing its residual life. The author proposes to build regression relationship by correlating the levels of the time series dynamics of stress at certain points of the object calculation scheme considering the results of subsequent surveys. It allows estimating the wear rate of structural elements. The assessment of the reliability and durability of the building frame in a deterministic form is based on the limit states method. The application of this method allows taking into account the random nature of not only the combination of existing loads, but also the strength properties of construction materials by creating a system of safety factors.

  13. Effect of laser shock peening on residual stress and fatigue life of clad 2024 aluminium sheet containing scribe defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorman, M.; Toparli, M.B.; Smyth, N.; Cini, A.; Fitzpatrick, M.E.; Irving, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of laser peen intensity on local residual stress fields in 2024 aluminium. ► Peening induces significant changes in surface topography and local hardness. ► Residual stress at peen spot centre in tension, spot overlap in compression. ► Notched fatigue lives increased; crack morphology correlated to residual stress field. ► Large peening power densities can cause fatigue life reduction in notched samples. - Abstract: Laser peening at a range of power densities has been applied to 2 mm-thick sheets of 2024 T351 aluminium. The induced residual stress field was measured using incremental hole drilling and synchrotron X-ray diffraction techniques. Fatigue samples were subjected to identical laser peening treatments followed by scribing at the peen location to introduce stress concentrations, after which they were fatigue tested. The residual stresses were found to be non-biaxial: orthogonal to the peen line they were tensile at the surface, moving into the desired compression with increased depth. Regions of peen spot overlap were associated with large compression strains; the centre of the peen spot remaining tensile. Fatigue lives showed moderate improvement over the life of unpeened samples for 50 μm deep scribes, and slight improvement for samples with 150 μm scribes. Use of the residual stress intensity K resid approach to calculate fatigue life improvement arising from peening was unsuccessful at predicting the relative effects of the different peening treatments. Possible reasons for this are explored.

  14. Residual life assessment of overhead transmission lines 110 kV and above and determination of their reconstruction terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uteuliyev Bauyrzhan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is given a method for assessment the residual life of overhead transmission lines on reinforced concrete supports with centrifuged poles. Reinforced concrete poles of supports, wires and lightning protection cables are adopted as the main elements. The intensity of change in the actual state parameters of these elements is determined by the laws of random variables distribution that allow predicting the residual life and the timing of repairs and reconstruction of overhead transmission lines. The parameters of natural climatic conditions and other external factors are considered by including of coefficients into the formula for changing the actual state parameters.

  15. Neurophysiological Indicators of Residual Cognitive Capacity in the Minimally Conscious State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig L. Hauger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnostic usefulness of electrophysiological methods in assessing disorders of consciousness (DoC remains to be established on an individual patient level, and there is need to determine what constitutes robust experimental paradigm to elicit electrophysiological indices of covert cognitive capacity. Objectives. Two tasks encompassing active and passive conditions were explored in an event-related potentials (ERP study. The task robustness was studied in healthy controls, and their utility to detect covert signs of command-following on an individual patient level was investigated in patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS. Methods. Twenty healthy controls and 20 MCS patients participated. The active tasks included (1 listening for a change of pitch in the subject’s own name (SON and (2 counting SON, both contrasted to passive conditions. Midline ERPs are reported. Results. A larger P3 response was detected in the counting task compared to active listening to pitch change in the healthy controls. On an individual level, the counting task revealed a higher rate of responders among both healthy subjects and MCS patients. Conclusion. ERP paradigms involving actively counting SON represent a robust paradigm in probing for volitional cognition in minimally conscious patients and add important diagnostic information in some patients.

  16. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Life cycle of soil sggregates: from root residue to microbial and physical hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzehei, T. A.; Or, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil aggregation is a physical state of soil in which clumps of primary soil particles are held together by biological and/or chemical cementing agents. Aggregations plays important role in storage and movement of water and essential gases, nutrient cycling, and ultimately supporting microbial and plant life. It is also one of the most dynamic and sensitive soil qualities, which readily responds to disturbances such as cultivation, fire, drought, flooding, and changes in vegetation. Soil aggregation that is primarily controlled by organic matter generally exhibits hierarchical organization of soil constituents into stable units that range in size from a few microns to centimeters. However, this conceptual model of soil aggregation as the key unifying mechanism remains poorly quantified and is rarely included in predictive soil models. Here we provide a biophysical framework for quantitative and predictive modeling of soil aggregation and its attendant soil characteristics. The framework treats aggregates as hotspots of biological, chemical and physical processes centered around roots and root residue. We keep track of the life cycle of an individual aggregate from it genesis in the rhizosphere, fueled by rhizodeposition and mediated by vigorous microbial activity, until its disappearance when the root-derived resources are depleted. The framework synthesizes current understanding of microbial life in porous media; water holding and soil binding capacity of biopolymers; and environmental controls on soil organic matter dynamics. The framework paves a way for integration of processes that are presently modeled as disparate or poorly coupled processes, including storage and protection of carbon, microbial activity, greenhouse gas fluxes, movement and storage of water, resistance of soils against erosion.

  18. Life cycle assessment of innovative technology for energy production from automotive shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Caterina; Masoni, Paolo; Salvati, Fabio; Tolve, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) is a problematic waste material remaining after shredding and recovery processes of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). Its heterogeneous grain size and composition make difficult its recovery or disposal. Although ASR accounts for approximately 20% to 25% of the weight of an ELV, the European Union (EU)'s ELV Directive (2000/53/EC) requires that by 2015 a minimum 95% of the weight of an ELV must be reused or recovered, including a 10% weight energy recovery. The quantity of ASR is relevant: Approximately 2.4 million tons are generated in the EU each year and most of it is sent to landfills. This article describes a life cycle model of the "TEKNE-Fluff" process designed to make beneficial use of ASR that is based on the results of an experimental pilot plant for pyro-gasification, combustion, cogeneration, and emissions treatment of ASR. The goal of the research was the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to identify the environmental hot spots of the "TEKNE system" and use scenario analysis to check solutions to improve its environmental profile, supporting the design and industrialization process. The LCA was conducted based on data modeled from the experimental campaign. Moreover, different scenarios on shares of electricity and thermal energy produced by the cogeneration system and alternative treatment processes for the waste produced by the technology were compared. Despite the limitation of the research (results based on scaling up experimental data by modeling), impact assessment results are promising and sufficiently robust, as shown by Monte Carlo analysis. The TEKNE technology may become an interesting solution for the problem of ASR management: Besides representing an alternative to landfill disposal, the energy produced could avoid significant impacts on fossil resources depletion (a plant of 40,000 tons/y capacity could produce ∼ 147,000 GJ/yr, covering the annual need of ∼ 13,500 households). © 2015

  19. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Trust, K.A.; Iverson, S.A.; Reed, J.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; McAdie, M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (-2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Trust, Kimberly A; Iverson, Samuel A; Reed, John A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; McAdie, Malcolm; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Wilson, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (≥ 2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of climate variability on N and C flux within the life cycle of biofuels produced from crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhashem, G.; Block, P. J.; Adler, P. R.; Spatari, S.

    2013-12-01

    Biofuels from agricultural feedstocks (lignocellulose) are under development to meet national policy objectives for producing domestic renewable fuels. Using crop residues such as corn stover as feedstock for biofuel production can minimize the risks associated with food market disruption; however, it demands managing residue removal to minimize soil carbon loss, erosion, and to ensure nutrient replacement. Emissions of nitrous oxide and changes to soil organic carbon (SOC) are subject to variability in time due to local climate conditions and cultivation practices. Our objective is to investigate the effect of climate inputs (precipitation and temperature) on biogeochemical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O and SOC expressed as CO2) within the life cycle of biofuels produced from agricultural residues. Specifically, we investigate the impact of local climate variability on soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes over a 20-year biorefinery lifetime where biomass residue is used for lignocellulosic ethanol production. We investigate two cases studied previously (Pourhashem et al, 2013) where the fermentable sugars in the agricultural residue are converted to ethanol (biofuel) and the lignin byproduct is used in one of two ways: 1) power co-generation; or 2) application to land as a carbon/nutrient-rich amendment to soil. In the second case SOC losses are mitigated through returning the lignin component to land while the need for fertilizer addition is also eliminated, however in both cases N2O and SOC are subject to variability due to variable climate conditions. We used the biogeochemical model DayCent to predict soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes considering soil characteristics, tillage practices and local climate (e.g. temperature and rainfall). We address the impact of climate variability on the soil carbon and nitrogen fluxes by implementing a statistical bootstrap resampling method based on a historic data set (1980 to 2000). The ensuing probabilistic outputs from the

  2. The procedure for determining the residual life of high-temperature aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, A. S.; Prihodko, E. V.; Kinzhibekova, A. K.; Karmanov, A. E.

    2018-01-01

    One of the main reasons for the withdrawal of high-temperature aggregates for repairs is the destruction of enclosing structures due to the occurrence of temperature stresses. A wide range of refractory materials used, a large number of product names, a difference in the operation of even the same aggregates makes it impossible to apply general principles for determining the residual resource of high-temperature aggregates, which is based, as a rule, on the determination of temperature stresses. In the article there is suggested a technique based on the method of simulation modeling, allowing to estimate the remaining resource and reliability of the operating equipment. There are given data on the calculation of these indicators for a 25-ton steel-casting ladle. The values obtained make it possible to evaluate the rationality of the further operation of the high-temperature unit by the condition of reliability of the enclosing structures.

  3. Greenhouse gas reductions through enhanced use of residues in the life cycle of Malaysian palm oil derived biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Balle; Olsen, Stig Irving; Ujang, Zaini

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions, which can be achieved by optimizing the use of residues in the life cycle of palm oil derived biodiesel. This is done through compilation of data on existing and prospective treatment technologies as well as practical experiments...... on methane potentials from empty fruit bunches. Methane capture from the anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent was found to result in the highest GHG reductions. Among the solid residues, energy extraction from shells was found to constitute the biggest GHG savings per ton of residue, whereas energy...... extraction from empty fruit bunches was found to be the most significant in the biodiesel production life cycle. All the studied waste treatment technologies performed significantly better than the conventional practices and with dedicated efforts of optimized use in the palm oil industry, the production...

  4. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin, Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, Brenda B.; Pearsons, Todd N.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Select ecological interactions and spring chinook salmon residual/precocial abundance were monitored in 1998 as part of the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project's supplementation monitoring program. Monitoring these variables is part of an effort to help evaluate the factors that contribute to, or limit supplementation success. The ecological interactions that were monitored were prey consumption, competition for food, and competition for space. The abundance of spring chinook salmon life-history forms that have the potential to be influenced by supplementation and that have important ecological and genetic roles were monitored (residuals and precocials). Residual spring chinook salmon do not migrate to the ocean during the normal emigration period and continue to rear in freshwater. Precocials are those salmon that precocially mature in freshwater. The purpose of sampling during 1998 was to collect baseline data one year prior to the release of hatchery spring chinook salmon which occurred during the spring of 1999. All sampling that the authors report on here was conducted in upper Yakima River during summer and fall 1998. The stomach fullness of juvenile spring chinook salmon during the summer and fall averaged 12%. The food competition index suggested that mountain whitefish (0.59), rainbow trout (0.55), and redside shiner (0.55) were competing for food with spring chinook salmon. The space competition index suggested that rainbow trout (0.31) and redside shiner (0.39) were competing for space with spring chinook salmon but mountain whitefish (0.05) were not. Age-0 spring chinook salmon selected a fairly narrow range of microhabitat parameters in the summer and fall relative to what was available. Mean focal depths and velocities for age 0 spring chinook salmon during the summer were 0.5 m ± 0.2 m and 0.26 m/s ± 0.19 m/s, and during the fall 0.5 m ± 0.2 m and 0.24 m/s ± 0.18 m/s. Among potential competitors, age 1+ rainbow trout exhibited the greatest degree

  5. Nonparametric Bayesian inference for mean residual life functions in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poynor, Valerie; Kottas, Athanasios

    2018-01-19

    Modeling and inference for survival analysis problems typically revolves around different functions related to the survival distribution. Here, we focus on the mean residual life (MRL) function, which provides the expected remaining lifetime given that a subject has survived (i.e. is event-free) up to a particular time. This function is of direct interest in reliability, medical, and actuarial fields. In addition to its practical interpretation, the MRL function characterizes the survival distribution. We develop general Bayesian nonparametric inference for MRL functions built from a Dirichlet process mixture model for the associated survival distribution. The resulting model for the MRL function admits a representation as a mixture of the kernel MRL functions with time-dependent mixture weights. This model structure allows for a wide range of shapes for the MRL function. Particular emphasis is placed on the selection of the mixture kernel, taken to be a gamma distribution, to obtain desirable properties for the MRL function arising from the mixture model. The inference method is illustrated with a data set of two experimental groups and a data set involving right censoring. The supplementary material available at Biostatistics online provides further results on empirical performance of the model, using simulated data examples. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development project for a residual life evaluation system in LWR NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia, F.; Francia, L.

    1995-01-01

    Economic and safety factors have stimulated the interest of Spanish NPPs towards the optimisation of NPP Residual Life Management, and consequently the need to have access to tools to support such management. This requirement has been the subject of a project, the main objectives of which are the identification of the most significant ageing factors in NPPs and their corresponding parameters, and the development of an associated integrated monitoring system. Work on the project was started by UNESA in September 1992 and is partly financed from PIE funds. This paper gives a general description of the objectives and activities of Phase 1, the Definition of the Core Project, which is nearing completion, and Phase 2, the Application of the Integrated System in a Pilot Plant. Phase 1 has confirmed the technical feasibility of the system and its suitability as a tool for the continuous evaluation of the plant condition. Furthermore, it has raised issues of great interest to NPPs. The results and conclusions of Phase 1 are currently being used to define the most suitable scope for the development and implementation of the system in the pilot plant (Phase 2), so that all the main functions of the system are tested without incurring unnecessary costs

  8. Indicators of quality of work as predictors of quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Mariuca Ionescu

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to analyze the extent to which the indicators of the quality of work can be seen as good predictors of the quality of life. To describe the various aspects of the quality of work and employment, data on answers to 12 questions covering 7 dimensions of quality of work were extracted from the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) database available on Eurofound website. Four wellknown composite indicators were considered for the assessment of the quality of life: Economist In...

  9. POPULATION STUDIES OF QUALITY OF LIFE INDICATORS IN THE CITY OF KIZILURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bekshokova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We studied quality of life indicators in the city of Kizilurt (Republic of Dagestan by representative sampling of 1,354 people aged from18 to 86 years (785 women and 569 men. Methods. The study was performed using the SF-36 Health Survey in accordance with the requirements of the International Quality of Life Assessment Project. Results. As the study showed, with age there is a decrease in quality of life among both male and female population. The most marked age-related decline of population quality of life is marked by physical functioning scale. The average values of life quality indicators, studied for 8 scales SF-36, ranged from 59.4 (the scale of general health to 80.5 (the scale of physical functioning. Quality of life of the male population is higher than that of the female on all rating scales of the survey. Thus, we revealed the biggest gender differences on the physical functioning scale, while the smallest on the social functioning scale. Conclusion. These population-based studies of life quality made possible to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of various medical and social and economic programs aimed at improving the quality of life and well-being. They can serve as indicators of the environmental component, significantly complementing the overall picture of environmental research. 

  10. Analyzing the Impact of Ambient Temperature Indicators on Transformer Life in Different Regions of Chinese Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cui-fen; Gao, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis is applied to quantitatively analyze the impact of different ambient temperature characteristics on the transformer life at different locations of Chinese mainland. 200 typical locations in Chinese mainland are selected for the study. They are specially divided into six regions so that the subsequent analysis can be done in a regional context. For each region, the local historical ambient temperature and load data are provided as inputs variables of the life consumption model in IEEE Std. C57.91-1995 to estimate the transformer life at every location. Five ambient temperature indicators related to the transformer life are involved into the partial least squares regression to describe their impact on the transformer life. According to a contribution measurement criterion of partial least squares regression, three indicators are conclusively found to be the most important factors influencing the transformer life, and an explicit expression is provided to describe the relationship between the indicators and the transformer life for every region. The analysis result is applicable to the area where the temperature characteristics are similar to Chinese mainland, and the expressions obtained can be applied to the other locations that are not included in this paper if these three indicators are known. PMID:23843729

  11. Validity and reliability of subjective wellbeing indicators in sociological research: The measurement of life satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the level of accuracy i.e. validity and reliability of subjective well-being indicators in sociological research, in case of life satisfaction. First, the relationship between subjective and objective indicators of well-being is presented. Second, the concept of life satisfaction is defined, and the findings of research related to the validity (convergent, discriminant, and predictive and reliability (test-retest, and internal consistency of life satisfaction measures are presented. Third, these findings were reassessed using data originating from large international surveys, which have not been used for this purpose yet. The results in this paper generally contribute to, in quite a large extent existing agreement within the scientific literature about the satisfactory level of validity and reliability of life satisfaction measures i.e. subjective indicators of well-being.

  12. Cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of syngas electricity from woody biomass residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; Richard Bergman

    2017-01-01

    Forest restoration and fire suppression activities in the western United States have resulted in large volumes of low-to-no value residues. An environmental assessment would enable greater use while maintaining environmental sustainability of these residues for energy products. One internationally accepted sustainable metric tool that can assess environmental impacts...

  13. Regression models for the restricted residual mean life for right-censored and left-truncated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Giuliana; Holmboe, Stine A; Scheike, Thomas H

    2017-05-20

    The hazard ratios resulting from a Cox's regression hazards model are hard to interpret and to be converted into prolonged survival time. As the main goal is often to study survival functions, there is increasing interest in summary measures based on the survival function that are easier to interpret than the hazard ratio; the residual mean time is an important example of those measures. However, because of the presence of right censoring, the tail of the survival distribution is often difficult to estimate correctly. Therefore, we consider the restricted residual mean time, which represents a partial area under the survival function, given any time horizon τ, and is interpreted as the residual life expectancy up to τ of a subject surviving up to time t. We present a class of regression models for this measure, based on weighted estimating equations and inverse probability of censoring weighted estimators to model potential right censoring. Furthermore, we show how to extend the models and the estimators to deal with delayed entries. We demonstrate that the restricted residual mean life estimator is equivalent to integrals of Kaplan-Meier estimates in the case of simple factor variables. Estimation performance is investigated by simulation studies. Using real data from Danish Monitoring Cardiovascular Risk Factor Surveys, we illustrate an application to additive regression models and discuss the general assumption of right censoring and left truncation being dependent on covariates. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cumulative damage and estimation of residual life in metallic alloys under creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, T.L. da.

    1980-07-01

    The mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics have been determined for a group of materials tested under conditions of creep, and the ability of various models detailed in the literature to describe these observed characteristics discussed. The parametric methods employed in formulating the indices which define the allowable stresses for design codes have been analysed, and a method of Minimum Standard Deviation (MSD) for construction of reference curves has been proposed. The constitutive equations used in the methods of analysis of creep stresses have been discussed. Finally, the accumulated damage by creep in a particular structure which had been in extended service has been characterized and, based on these observations, the methods for estimation of remaining life in industrial equipment have been analysed. (Author) [pt

  15. Prospective Analysis of Life-Cycle Indicators through Endogenous Integration into a National Power Generation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego García-Gusano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasing importance of sustainability aspects in national energy plans, this article deals with the prospective analysis of life-cycle indicators of the power generation sector through the case study of Spain. A technology-rich, optimisation-based model for power generation in Spain is developed and provided with endogenous life-cycle indicators (climate change, resources, and human health to assess their evolution to 2050. Prospective performance indicators are analysed under two energy scenarios: a business-as-usual one, and an alternative scenario favouring the role of carbon dioxide capture in the electricity production mix by 2050. Life-cycle impacts are found to decrease substantially when existing fossil technologies disappear in the mix (especially coal thermal power plants. In the long term, the relatively high presence of natural gas arises as the main source of impact. When the installation of new fossil options without CO2 capture is forbidden by 2030, both renewable technologies and—to a lesser extent—fossil technologies with CO2 capture are found to increase their contribution to electricity production. The endogenous integration of life-cycle indicators into energy models proves to boost the usefulness of both life cycle assessment and energy systems modelling in order to support decision- and policy-making.

  16. Emotional intelligence as an indicator of satisfaction with life of patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basińska, Małgorzata A; Drozdowska, Marta

    2013-12-01

    Research reports confirm the existence of a relation between emotional intelligence and various aspects of human functioning. It protects psychical and physical health of an individual, helps to adapt to new conditions and, consequently, contributes to the increase in life quality expressed in satisfaction with life. Psoriasis, a chronic skin disease, may negatively influence the psychical state of a patient and his or her social functioning, which leads to the decrease in satisfaction with life. This research aimed at determining the relation between emotional intelligence and satisfaction with life in a group of patients with psoriasis. The research group consisted of 81 people with psoriasis (40 men and 41 women) with the average age of 41.22 (SD = 14.18). The research tools used included the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire INTE, Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), personal questionnaire and PASI scale. There is a positive correlation between emotional intelligence and satisfaction with life in the group of patients with psoriasis. Especially factor I - using emotions in thinking and operating - positively correlates with satisfaction with life. Emotional intelligence together with the percentage of body area taken by pathological changes are the indicators of satisfaction with life in patients with psoriasis.

  17. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wäger, Patrick A.; Hischier, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses

  18. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  19. Does ICD indication affect quality of life and levels of distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Sears, Samuel F; Burg, Matthew M

    2009-01-01

    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the treatment of choice for life-threatening arrhythmias, with ICD indications having recently been extended to include primary prophylaxis. Despite the medical benefits of the ICD, there is an ongoing debate as to the impact of the ICD...... on patients' lives, particularly whether primary prophylaxis implantation may impact adversely on patient-centered outcomes such as quality of life (QoL) and distress. We examined the evidence for a role of ICD indication on these patient-centered outcomes. A literature search was conducted on PubMed and Web...... of Science from 2002 to present, focusing on indication for ICD therapy and patient-centered outcomes (i.e., anxiety, depression, disease-specific, or general QoL). We identified five studies (seven articles) concerning the impact of indication on patient-centered outcomes. Sample sizes varied from 91...

  20. Modeling of the fatigue damage accumulation processes in the material of NPP design units under thermomechanical unstationary effects. Estimation of spent life and forecast of residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriushin, A.I.; Korotkikh, Yu.G.; Gorodov, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The estimation problems of spent life and forecast of residual life of NPP equipment design units, operated at unstationary thermal force loads are considered. These loads are, as a rule, unregular and cause rotation of main stress tensor platforms of the most loaded zones of structural elements and viscoelastic plastic deformation of material in the places of stresses concentrations. The existing engineering approaches to the damages accumulation processes calculation in the material of structural units, their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. For the processes of fatigue damages accumulation a model is proposed, which allows to take into account the unregular pattern of deformation multiaxiality of stressed state, rotation of main platforms, non-linear summation of damages at the loading mode change. The model in based on the equations of damaged medium mechanics, including the equations of viscoplastic deformation of the material and evolutionary equations of damages accumulation. The algorithms of spent life estimation and residual life forecast of the controlled equipment and systems zones are made on the bases of the given model by the known real history of loading, which is determined by real model of NPP operation. The results of numerical experiments on the basis of given model for various processes of thermal force loads and their comparison with experimental results are presented. (author)

  1. How Many Environmental Impact Indicators Are Needed in the Evaluation of Product Life Cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Zoran J N; Schipper, Aafke M; Hauck, Mara; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2016-04-05

    Numerous indicators are currently available for environmental impact assessments, especially in the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Because decision-making on the basis of hundreds of indicators simultaneously is unfeasible, a nonredundant key set of indicators representative of the overall environmental impact is needed. We aimed to find such a nonredundant set of indicators based on their mutual correlations. We have used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in combination with an optimization algorithm to find an optimal set of indicators out of 135 impact indicators calculated for 976 products from the ecoinvent database. The first four principal components covered 92% of the variance in product rankings, showing the potential for indicator reduction. The same amount of variance (92%) could be covered by a minimal set of six indicators, related to climate change, ozone depletion, the combined effects of acidification and eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and land use. In comparison, four commonly used resource footprints (energy, water, land, materials) together accounted for 84% of the variance in product rankings. We conclude that the plethora of environmental indicators can be reduced to a small key set, representing the major part of the variation in environmental impacts between product life cycles.

  2. Physico-chemical shelf-life indicators of meat from broilers given ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of using Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as an additive on physico-chemical shelf life indicators of meat from broilers. A total of 432 1-day-old chicks were randomly allocated to four treatments (TRT's). Water and feed was provided ad libitum. The feeding phases were ...

  3. Life cycle and masting of a recovering keystone indicator species under climate fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Stanley J. Zarnoch; Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem health and sustainability, to a large degree, depend on the performance of keystone or dominant species. The role of climate on population dynamics of such species has been extensively examined, especially for health indicator species. Yet the life-cycle processes and response lags for many species could complicate efforts to detect clear climate signals....

  4. Quality of life before and after lung transplantation in patients with emphysema versus other indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TenVergert, EM; Vermeulen, KM; van Enckevort, PJ

    2001-01-01

    Whether lung transplantation improves Health-related Quality of Life in patients with emphysema and other end-stage lung diseases before and after lung transplantation was examined. Between 1992 and 1999, 23 patients with emphysema and 19 patients with other indications completed self-administered

  5. Life cycle assessment of cellulosic ethanol and biomethane production from forest residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaobo Liang; Hongmei Gu; Richard D. Bergman

    2017-01-01

    There is a strong need to manage low-value forest residues generated from the management practices associated with wildfire, pest, and disease control strategies to improve both the environmental and economic sustainability of forestlands. The conversion of this woody biomass into value-added products provides a great opportunity to benefit both the environment and...

  6. The Effect of Weld Residual Stress on Life of Used Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald G. Ballinger; Sara E. Ferry; Bradley P. Black; Sebastien P. Teysseyre

    2013-08-01

    With the elimination of Yucca Mountain as the long-term storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in the United States, a number of other storage options are being explored. Currently, used fuel is stored in dry-storage cask systems constructed of steel and concrete. It is likely that used fuel will continue to be stored at existing open-air storage sites for up to 100 years. This raises the possibility that the storage casks will be exposed to a salt-containing environment for the duration of their time in interim storage. Austenitic stainless steels, which are used to construct the canisters, are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride-containing environments if a continuous aqueous film can be maintained on the surface and the material is under stress. Because steel sensitization in the canister welds is typically avoided by avoiding post-weld heat treatments, high residual stresses are present in the welds. While the environment history will play a key role in establishing the chemical conditions for cracking, weld residual stresses will have a strong influence on both crack initiation and propagation. It is often assumed for modeling purposes that weld residual stresses are tensile, high and constant through the weld. However, due to the strong dependence of crack growth rate on stress, this assumption may be overly conservative. In particular, the residual stresses become negative (compressive) at certain points in the weld. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a probabilistic model with quantified uncertainties for SCC failure in the dry storage casks. In this paper, the results of a study of the residual stresses, and their postulated effects on SCC behavior, in actual canister welds are presented. Progress on the development of the model is reported.

  7. Compassionate collaborative care: an integrative review of quality indicators in end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Kathryn; Markaki, Adelais

    2017-12-01

    Compassion and collaborative practice are individually associated with high quality healthcare. When combined in a compassionate collaborative care (CCC) practice framework, they are reported to improve health, strengthen care provision, and control health costs. Little is known about how to integrate and measure CCC, yet it is fundamentally applied in palliative and end-of-life care settings. This study aimed to identify quality indicators of CCC by systematically reviewing and synthesizing the current state of the palliative and end-of-life care literature. An integrative review of the palliative and end-of-life care literature was conducted using Whittemore and Knafl's method. Donabedian's healthcare quality framework was applied in the data analysis phase to organize and display the data. The analysis involved an iterative process that applied a constant comparative method. The final literature sample included 25 articles. Patient and family-centered care emerged as a primary structure for CCC, with overarching values including empathy, sharing, respect, and partnership. The analysis revealed communication, shared decision-making, and goal setting as overarching processes for achieving CCC at end-of-life. Patient and family satisfaction, enhanced teamwork, decreased staff burnout, and organizational satisfaction are exemplars of outcomes that suggest high quality CCC. Specific quality indicators at the individual, team and organizational levels are reported with supporting exemplar data. CCC is inextricably linked to the inherent values, needs and expectations of patients, families and healthcare providers. Compassion and collaboration must be enacted and harmonized to fully operationalize and sustain patient and family-centered care in palliative and end-of-life practice settings. Towards that direction, the quality indicators that emerged from this integrative review provide a two-fold application in palliative and end-of-life care. First, to evaluate the

  8. Nutrient retention capabilities of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) fed bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS) waste residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Brown, Paul B.

    Nile tilapia were evaluated as a bio-regenerative sub-process for reducing solid waste potentially encountered in bio-regenerative life support systems. Ten juvenile Nile tilapia (mean weight = 2.05 g) were stocked into triplicate aquaria and fed one of seven experimental diets consisting of vegetable, bacterial, or food waste for a period of seven weeks. Weight gain (g), specific growth rate (mg/d), and daily consumption (g) was significantly higher ( p diet (37.99 and 68.54, respectively) followed by fish fed the wheat bran/wheat germ diet (23.19 and 63.67, respectively). Nitrogen, sulfur, and crude protein retention was significantly higher ( p diet (23.68, 21.89, and 23.68, respectively). A general loss of minerals was observed among all groups. Strong associations were observed between crude lipid retention and sulfur retention ( r2 = 0.94), crude lipid retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.92), WG and fiber content of dietary treatments ( r2 = 0.92), WG and carbon retention and ( r2 = 0.88), WG and lysine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.86), crude protein retention and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.84), sulfur retention and crude protein retention ( r2 = 0.84), and total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) content of residues and WG ( r2 = 0.81). Weaker associations existed between WG and crude lipid retention ( r2 = 0.77), crude fiber content and carbon retention ( r2 = 0.76), and WG and methionine content of waste residues ( r2 = 0.75). Additional research is needed to improve the nutritional quality of fibrous residues as a means to improve tilapia's ability to utilize these residues as a food source in bio-regenerative support systems.

  9. Growth of residual herbicide (imazethapyr+imazapic) bio-indicators sown in rotation with Clearfield® rice

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, C.P.; Bacarin, M.A.; Pinto, J.J.O

    2012-01-01

    Neste trabalho, determinou-se o efeito residual do herbicida Only® (imazethapyr+imazapic) sobre plantas de milho, pepino, rabanete e tomate, semeadas em solo no qual o herbicida foi aplicado há 1.100 dias. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com o delineamento experimental de casualização por bloco, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos avaliados foram o residual do herbicida Only® aplicado sob as plantas de arroz CL na safra 2006/2007, nas doses de 0, 100, 150 e 200 g...

  10. Evaluating Indicators and Life Cycle Inventories for Processes in Early Stages of Technical Readiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Raymond [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    2017-11-01

    This presentation examines different methods for analyzing manufacturing processes in the early stages of technical readiness. Before developers know much detail about their processes, it is valuable to apply various assessments to evaluate their performance. One type of assessment evaluates performance indicators to describe how closely processes approach desirable objectives. Another type of assessment determines the life cycle inventories (LCI) of inputs and outputs for processes, where for a functional unit of product, the user evaluates the resources used and the releases to the environment. These results can be compared to similar processes or combined with the LCI of other processes to examine up-and down-stream chemicals. The inventory also provides a listing of the up-stream chemicals, which permits study of the whole life cycle. Performance indicators are evaluated in this presentation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's GREENSCOPE (Gauging Reaction Effectiveness for ENvironmental Sustainability with a multi-Objective Process Evaluator) methodology, which evaluates processes in four areas: Environment, Energy, Economics, and Efficiency. The method develops relative scores for indicators that allow comparisons across various technologies. In this contribution, two conversion pathways for producing cellulosic ethanol from biomass, via thermochemical and biochemical routes, are studied. The information developed from the indicators and LCI can be used to inform the process design and the potential life cycle effects of up- and down-stream chemicals.

  11. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: Progress and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frischknecht, Rolf; Fantke, Peter; Tschümperlin, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) guidance flagship project of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)/Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Life Cycle Initiative aims at providing global guidance and building scientific consensus on environmental LCIA......-cutting issues TF agreed upon maintaining disabilityadjusted life years (DALY) as endpoint unit for the safeguard subject "human health". The footprint TF defined main attributes that should characterise all footprint indicators. "Rice cultivation" and "cooking" stages of the rice LCA case study contribute most...... to the environmental impacts assessed. Conclusions The results of the TF will be documented in white papers and some published in scientific journals. These white papers represent the input for the Pellston workshop ™, taking place inValencia, Spain, from24 to 29 January 2016, where best practice, harmonised LCIA...

  12. Quality of life and physical activity as indicators of health-preserving competence of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Iu.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of life and physical activity of teachers of physical culture, basic of health, labour, the defense of Motherland and pedagogue-organizers from secondary schools Lviv region (Ukraine were investigated. The 402 persons (age 24-78 years were surveyed with the use of questionnaires MOS SF 36 and IPAQ. The highest quality of life and level of physical activity have teachers of physical culture. It is considered the quality of life of teachers of other subjects similar to persons with chronic diseases. The level of physical activity in leisure time was particularly low for teachers of Basic of Health and pedagogue-organizers. The teachers spent no more than 433 MET-min/ week for moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity. The level of physical activity of teachers (besides the physical education teachers was insufficient to improve health and indicate about low level of health-preserving competence.

  13. Life cycle assessment and residue leaching: The importance of parameter, scenario and leaching data selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Butera, Stefania; Kosson, D.S.

    2015-01-01

    , due to the potential leaching of toxic substances. In waste LCA studies where residue utilisation is included, leaching has generally been neglected. In this study, municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash (MSWI BA) was used as a case study into three LCA scenarios having different system...... of systems and products and can be applied to waste management systems to identify environmental benefits and critical aspects thereof. From an LCA perspective, residue utilisation provides benefits such as avoiding the production and depletion of primary materials, but it can lead to environmental burdens...... impacts as a result of leaching were dominant in systems including only MSWI BA utilisation, while leaching appeared negligible in larger scenarios including the entire waste system. However, leaching could not be disregarded a priori, due to large uncertainties characterising other activities...

  14. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease, psychiatric indicators and quality of life: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Joana L.C.; Marques, Wilson; Hallak, Jaime E.C.; Osório, Flávia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to conduct a systematic literature review regarding the associations between psychiatric symptoms, functional impairments, and quality of life in patients with CMT (Charcot–Marie–Tooth). The PUBMED, PsycInfo, SCIELO, and LILACS electronic databases were used, and the following search terms were employed: CMT, HMSN (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy), mental disorder, quality of life, psychiatry, psychiatric, and psychological without the use of time-limit filters. According to the adopted inclusion criteria, 20 studies were included and appraised. These studies indicated that patients with CMT exhibited an increased trend toward depressive symptoms compared with the general population. In addition, CMT patients were exposed to a higher risk of reduced quality of life and significant sleep impairment. Considering the comorbidity of CMT with other psychiatric disorders, the heterogeneity of the instruments used to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms compromised the ability to compare the studies examined. Our results indicate a need for a systematic evaluation of these conditions to minimize the impairments and decreased quality of life caused by CMT. PMID:24654889

  15. The Relationship between Science Indicator and Life Expectancy in Pioneer Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghadami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between scientific productivity in the field of psychiatry and life expectancy in pioneer countries. Material and Methods : A rigorous search strategy was applied on Scopus database using psychiatry terms. The search results were narrowed to 2000-2012. No language limitation was applied. Life expectancy was extracted from World Bank database using Pearson correlation. Results : The search was led to 27516 articles. The US, England and Germany were identified as leading countries in producing the psychiatry articles, respectively. Pearson correlation test results indicated that there is a direct correlation between scientific products and life expectancy index. In other words, with the increase in producing scientific articles in psychiatry field, life expectancy rises as well. Conclusion : With increase in scientific productivity, life expectancy increases and mortality rate decreases. The results of this study can serve as a guiding document in the field of health and mental health. ​

  16. Quality Indicators of End-of-Life Care in Patients With Cancer: What Rate Is Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Lisa; Seow, Hsien; Sutradhar, Rinku; Chu, Anna; Burge, Fred; Fassbender, Konrad; McGrail, Kim; Lawson, Beverley; Liu, Ying; Pataky, Reka; Potapov, Alex

    2015-05-01

    To develop data-driven and achievable benchmark rates for end-of-life quality indicators using administrative data from four provinces in Canada. Indicators of end-of-life care were defined and measured using linked administrative data for 33 health regions across British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Nova Scotia. These were emergency department use, intensive care unit admission, physician house calls and home care visits before death, and death in hospital. An empiric benchmark was defined using indicator rates from the top-ranked regions to include the top decile of patients overall. Funnel plots were used to graph each region's age- and sex-adjusted indicator rates along with the overall rate and 95% confidence limits. Rates varied approximately two- to four-fold across the regions, with physician house calls showing the greatest variation. Benchmark rates based on the top decile performers were emergency department use, 34%; intensive care unit admission, 2%; physician house calls, 34%; home care visits, 63%; and death in hospital, 38%. With the exception of intensive care unit admission, funnel plots demonstrated that overall indicator rates and their confidence limits were uniformly worse than benchmarks even after adjusting for age and sex. Few regions met the benchmark rates. There is significant variation in end-of-life quality indicators across regions in four provinces in Canada. Using this study's methods-deriving empiric benchmarks and funnel plots-regions can determine their relative performance with greater context that facilitates priority setting and resource deployment. Applying this study's methods can support quality improvement by decreasing variation and striving for a target. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Which role for Life Cycle Thinking in the definition of meaningful indicators for the circular economy?

    OpenAIRE

    Niero, Monia

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to provide companies with guidance on how to measure the performance of their products and activities in the implementation of circular economy (CE) strategies. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the identification of the most suited metrics for CE at the micro level. We discuss the role of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) in the development of meaningful circularity indicators at the product level taking into account the absolute perspective on CE. Our analys...

  18. Road Traffic Accident Rate as an Indicator of the Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Igorevich Petrov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the issues devoted to assessing the connection between the quality of life and road traffic accident rate in different countries. The hypothesis put forward in the paper is based on the idea that the organization and functioning of the state road traffic safety management system and the outcome characteristics of road traffic accident rate in the road complex are closely related and are derived from the level of development of non-governmental institutions in a particular country. In order to determine how true this hypothesis is, the author carried out statistical studies of the relations between the estimates of the Quality of Life presented for 60 countries in the US News & World Report and the Human Risk indicators estimated for these countries. This indicator proposed by R. Smeed in 1949 for assessing the state of affairs in the field of road safety allows us to evaluate adequately the position of countries in the world ranking of road traffic accident rate. The research aims to establish a regularity that identifies the statistical relationship between the characteristics of the quality of life and human risk (by R. Smeed. The method of construction of correlation-regression models of the processes under consideration is used to achieve this goal. It has been established that there exists a noticeable inverse statistical relationship between the variables of the Quality of Life in different countries (according to the US News & World Report and Human Risk (according to the World Health Organization. The paper discusses reasons for a decline in road traffic accident rate when the quality of life becomes better. The main conclusion of the study lies in the understanding that there exists a strong cause and effect relationship between the level of development of social institutions and the level of transport culture of the population; this relationship is implemented in the form of specific cases of transport

  19. Surplus Cost Potential as a Life Cycle Impact Indicator for Metal Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa D.M. Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the evaluation of product life cycles, methods to assess the increase in scarcity of resources are still under development. Indicators that can express the importance of an increase in scarcity of metals extracted include surplus ore produced, surplus energy required, and surplus costs in the mining and the milling stage. Particularly the quantification of surplus costs per unit of metal extracted as an indicator is still in an early stage of development. Here, we developed a method that quantifies the surplus cost potential of mining and milling activities per unit of metal extracted, fully accounting for mine-specific differences in costs. The surplus cost potential indicator is calculated as the average cost increase resulting from all future metal extractions, as quantified via cumulative cost-tonnage relationships. We tested the calculation procedure with 12 metals and platinum-group metals as a separate group. We found that the surplus costs range six orders of magnitude between the metals included, i.e., between $0.01–$0.02 (iron and $13,533–$17,098 (rhodium USD (year 2013 per kilogram of metal extracted. The choice of the reserve estimate (reserves vs. ultimate recoverable resource influenced the surplus costs only to a limited extent, i.e., between a factor of 0.7 and 3.2 for the metals included. Our results provide a good basis to regularly include surplus cost estimates as resource scarcity indicator in life cycle assessment.

  20. A Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Rita, E-mail: rita.puig@eei.upc.edu [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Fullana-i-Palmer, Pere [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger [Escola d’Enginyeria d’Igualada (EEI), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Plaça del Rei, 15, 08700 Igualada (Spain); Bala, Alba [UNESCO Chair in Life Cycle and Climate Change, Escola Superior de Comerç Internacional, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), c/Passeig Pujades, 1, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We developed a methodology useful to environmentally compare industrial waste management options. • The methodology uses a Net Energy Demand indicator which is life cycle based. • The method was simplified to be widely used, thus avoiding cost driven decisions. • This methodology is useful for governments to promote the best environmental options. • This methodology can be widely used by other countries or regions around the world. - Abstract: Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport.

  1. Increased risks of malaria due to limited residual life of insecticide and outdoor biting versus protection by combined use of nets and indoor residual spraying on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea, with year-round transmission. In 2004 an intensive malaria control strategy primarily based on indoor residual spraying (IRS was launched. The limited residual life of IRS poses particular challenges in a setting with year-round transmission, such as Bioko. Recent reports of outdoor biting by Anopheles gambiae are an additional cause for concern. In this study, the effect of the short residual life of bendiocarb insecticide and of children spending time outdoors at night, on malaria infection prevalence was examined. Methods Data from the 2011 annual malaria indicator survey and from standard WHO cone bioassays were used to examine the relationship between time since IRS, mosquito mortality and prevalence of infection in children. How often children spend time outside at night and the association of this behaviour with malaria infection were also examined. Results Prevalence of malaria infection in two to 14 year-olds in 2011 was 18.4%, 21.0% and 28.1% in communities with median time since IRS of three, four and five months respectively. After adjusting for confounders, each extra month since IRS corresponded to an odds ratio (OR of 1.44 (95% CI 1.15–1.81 for infection prevalence in two to 14 year-olds. Mosquito mortality was 100%, 96%, 81% and 78%, at month 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively after spraying. Only 4.1% of children spent time outside the night before the survey between the hours of 22.00 and 06.00 and those who did were not at a higher risk of infection (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.50–1.54. Sleeping under a mosquito net provided additive protection (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86. Conclusions The results demonstrate the epidemiological impact of reduced mosquito mortality with time since IRS. The study underscores that in settings of year-round transmission there is a compelling need for longer-lasting IRS insecticides, but that in the interim, high coverage of long

  2. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

  4. Assessment of Residual Life of concrete structures affected by reinforcement corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor F. Ortega

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement corrosion is an electrochemical process that can be quantified by measuring the intensity of the current on the concrete surface. In this paper, to simulate the corrosion process, a current is externally applied to the studied structure reinforcement and then crack widths and vibration natural frequencies are measured. Based on these measurements a mathematical model is proposed to predict structure remaining life.

  5. Isolation of a bacteria of the Bacillus genus as indicator in the disinfection of residual waters by means of the ionizing radiation (e- , γ)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata J, M.

    2003-01-01

    The pollutants of the water can be chemical, physical and biological. Among those biological we find to the microorganisms: bacterias, virus and protozoa. These cause important infections in many countries, mainly of Latin America. With the advance of the technology and the quick demographic growth, the biological pollution of the water has already become an important topic since it would damage the public health and it causes that their disinfection has greater attention. In the treatment of residual waters three basic treatments exist the one primary, secondary and tertiary; in this last we find the disinfection, which can be taken to end by chemical and physical methods. For this work of investigation it was used the ionizing radiation, because it is an innovative technology that it eliminates microorganisms in residual waters. The investigation consisted on treating, samples of residual water after the biological treatment of the plant RECICLAGUA with ionizing radiation (electrons and gammas), for the case of electrons it was used the dose of 0.5 kGy and for gamma the dose, of 5 kGy, later the survivor bacteria was isolated to these doses in both cases and they were carried out the tests of identification. In accordance with the obtained results can say that it is about a B. subtilis. The isolated B.subtilis was presented as a pollutant of the flora of the residual water, having a greater survival to the dose of 0.5 and 5 kGy with electrons and gammas, respectively that other present polluting microorganisms in the samples of residual water. For it fits signalize that this microorganism shows characteristics as it easy isolation and identification, the presence with pathogen microorganisms and a greater survival when being irradiated, therefore it can use as indicator in the disinfection of residual waters through ionizing radiation (electrons and gammas). (Author)

  6. Satellite Lithium-Ion Battery Remaining Cycle Life Prediction with Novel Indirect Health Indicator Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Liao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prognostics and remaining useful life (RUL estimation for lithium-ion batteries play an important role in intelligent battery management systems (BMS. The capacity is often used as the fade indicator for estimating the remaining cycle life of a lithium-ion battery. For spacecraft requiring high reliability and long lifetime, in-orbit RUL estimation and reliability verification on ground should be carefully addressed. However, it is quite challenging to monitor and estimate the capacity of a lithium-ion battery on-line in satellite applications. In this work, a novel health indicator (HI is extracted from the operating parameters of a lithium-ion battery to quantify battery degradation. Moreover, the Grey Correlation Analysis (GCA is utilized to evaluate the similarities between the extracted HI and the battery’s capacity. The result illustrates the effectiveness of using this new HI for fading indication. Furthermore, we propose an optimized ensemble monotonic echo state networks (En_MONESN algorithm, in which the monotonic constraint is introduced to improve the adaptivity of degradation trend estimation, and ensemble learning is integrated to achieve high stability and precision of RUL prediction. Experiments with actual testing data show the efficiency of our proposed method in RUL estimation and degradation modeling for the satellite lithium-ion battery application.

  7. First determination of impact and outcome indicators following indoor residual spraying (IRS with deltamethrin in a new focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghaei Afshar Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the impact and outcome indicators following residual spraying with deltamethrin in new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis during 2010-2011. Methods: Deltamethrin WP 5% was applied at 25 mg a.i/m2.in intervention area using Hudson compression sprayer. Sticky trap were used to collect sand flies twice each month from human and animal dwelling in either or intervention and control areas. Results: The incidence of disease was significantly decreased (3.65 versus 8.43. There was a significant difference between treats and control areas on blood fed and gravidity of sand flies. Conclusions: The results of current study clearly indicated that indoor residual spraying caused a significant decline of density, blood fed and gravidity of vectors resulting a sharp reduction of disease incidence.

  8. A framework for energy use indicators and their reporting in life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Rickard; Svanström, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Energy use is a common impact category in life cycle assessment (LCA). Many different energy use indicators are used in LCA studies, accounting for energy use in different ways. Often, however, the choice behind which energy use indicator is applied is poorly described and motivated. To contribute to a more purposeful selection of energy use indicators and to ensure consistent and transparent reporting of energy use in LCA, a general framework for energy use indicator construction and reporting in LCA studies will be presented in this article. The framework differentiates between 1) renewable and nonrenewable energies, 2) primary and secondary energies, and 3) energy intended for energy purposes versus energy intended for material purposes. This framework is described both graphically and mathematically. Furthermore, the framework is illustrated through application to a number of energy use indicators that are frequently used in LCA studies: cumulative energy demand (CED), nonrenewable cumulative energy demand (NRCED), fossil energy use (FEU), primary fossil energy use (PFEU), and secondary energy use (SEU). To illustrate how the application of different energy use indicators may lead to different results, cradle-to-gate energy use of the bionanomaterial cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) is assessed using 5 different indicators and showing a factor of 3 differences between the highest and lowest results. The relevance of different energy use indicators to different actors and contexts will be discussed, and further developments of the framework are then suggested. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:429-436. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.

  9. Which role for Life Cycle Thinking in the definition of meaningful indicators for the circular economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to provide companies with guidance on how to measure the performance of their products and activities in the implementation of circular economy (CE) strategies. This paper aims to contribute to the discussion on the identification of the most suited metrics for CE...... at the micro level. We discuss the role of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) in the development of meaningful circularity indicators at the product level taking into account the absolute perspective on CE. Our analysis is limited to the environmental aspect of sustainability with a focus on the climate change impact....... We use a case study of an aluminium can to illustrate the challenges arising from the use of some of the available metrics either directly or indirectly based on LCT, i.e. the Material Circularity Indicator and the Materials Reutilization Score for the product and the Sectorial Decarbonization...

  10. Environmental impacts of residual Municipal Solid Waste incineration: A comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beylot, Antoine, E-mail: a.beylot@brgm.fr; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • 110 French incinerators are compared with LCA based on plant-specific data. • Environmental impacts vary as a function of plants energy recovery and NO{sub x} emissions. • E.g. climate change impact ranges from −58 to 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq/tonne of residual MSW. • Implications for LCA of waste management in a decision-making process are detailed. - Abstract: Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e. 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of −58 kg CO{sub 2}-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO{sub 2}-eq, with 294 kg CO{sub 2}-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NO{sub x} process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available.

  11. Life cycle water consumption and withdrawal requirements of ethanol from corn grain and residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Yeh, Sonia

    2011-05-15

    We assessed the water requirements of ethanol from corn grain and crop residue. Estimates are explicit in terms of sources-green (GW) and blue (BW) water, consumptive and nonconsumptive requirements across the lifecycle, including evapotranspiration, application and conveyance losses, biorefinery uses, and water use of energy inputs, and displaced requirements or credits due to coproducts. Ethanol consumes 50-146 L/vehicle kilometer traveled (VKT) of BW and 1-60 L/VKT of GW for irrigated corn and 0.6 L/VKT of BW and 70-137 L/VKT of GW for rain-fed corn after coproduct credits. Extending the system boundary to consider application and conveyance losses and the water requirements of embodied energy increases the total BW withdrawal from 23% to 38% and BW + GW consumption from 5% to 16%. We estimate that, in 2009, 15-19% of irrigation water is used to produce the corn required for ethanol in Kansas and Nebraska without coproduct credits and 8-10% after credits. Harvesting and converting the cob to ethanol reduces both the BW and GW intensities by 13%. It is worth noting that the use of GW is not without impacts, and the water quantity and water quality impacts at the local/seasonal scale can be significant for both fossil fuel and biofuel.

  12. Biomass Residues to Renewable Energy: A Life Cycle Perspective Applied at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Neri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy, like every country member of the European Union (EU, will have to achieve the objectives required by the Energy Roadmap 2050. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of residue recovery arising from the management of public and private green feedstocks, activity of the cooperative “Green City” in the Bologna district, and usage in a centralized heating system to produce thermal energy for public buildings. Results, obtained using the ReCipe impact assessment method, are compared with scores achieved by a traditional methane boiler. The study shows some advantages of the biomass-based system in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and consumption of non-renewable fuels, which affect climate change (−41% and fossil resources depletion (−40%, compared to the use of natural gas (NG. Moreover, scores from network analysis denote the great contribution of feedstock transportation (98% of the cumulative impact. The main reason is attributable to all requirements to cover distances, in particular due to stages involved in the fuel supply chains. Therefore, it is clear that greater environmental benefits could be achieved by reducing supply transport distances or using more sustainable engines.

  13. Application of DIALIFE system for residual life time assessment on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincour, D.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control Systems (I and C), Monitoring and Diagnostic Systems (MDS), Special Temporary Measurement (STM) and Chemical and Laboratory Parameters System enable to obtain detailed information about actual service conditions of power plant components. Thermocouples and strain gauges are used for local measuring near the critical spots of components. The saved data from these systems serve as input data to methods for evaluation in DIALIFE system. A systematic evaluation of experience, safety influence, and design were used for the selection of the critical spots subjected to a degradation. Critical spots are mostly damaged places and consequently determine residual lifetime of whole structure. If critical spots of structure are known, then they have to be included in monitoring the whole structure lifetime. The rapid stress determination on the base of continually measured values by Diagnostic and Monitoring systems is shown. The artificial neural network, prepared stress databases and analytical equation can be used for stress determination for the next assessment using mechanisms of degradation. The experiences from creating database of DIALIFE, selection, acquiring and processing of measured data from various systems of NPP are discussed. Few examples of assessment, opinions and experiences of DIALIFE users are presented. Results from assessment on the base of design transients and measured conditions are shown

  14. Environmental impacts of residual municipal solid waste incineration: a comparison of 110 French incinerators using a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beylot, Antoine; Villeneuve, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    Incineration is the main option for residual Municipal Solid Waste treatment in France. This study compares the environmental performances of 110 French incinerators (i.e., 85% of the total number of plants currently in activity in France) in a Life Cycle Assessment perspective, considering 5 non-toxic impact categories: climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication. Mean, median and lower/upper impact potentials are determined considering the incineration of 1 tonne of French residual Municipal Solid Waste. The results highlight the relatively large variability of the impact potentials as a function of the plant technical performances. In particular, the climate change impact potential of the incineration of 1 tonne of waste ranges from a benefit of -58 kg CO2-eq to a relatively large burden of 408 kg CO2-eq, with 294 kg CO2-eq as the average impact. Two main plant-specific parameters drive the impact potentials regarding the 5 non-toxic impact categories under study: the energy recovery and delivery rate and the NOx process-specific emissions. The variability of the impact potentials as a function of incinerator characteristics therefore calls for the use of site-specific data when required by the LCA goal and scope definition phase, in particular when the study focuses on a specific incinerator or on a local waste management plan, and when these data are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Hospices from the DPCM 20/1/2000 perspective: requirements to ensure a better quality of "residual life"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urciuoli, R; Abetti, P; Bossi, A; Ciapetti, C; Varrenti, D

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the increasing number of oncological patients, above all the terminal ones. The aim of hospice is to guarantee a high quality residual life. Hospice must not be regarded as a place of sweet death; on the contrary it's a hospital where palliative cares take place. It is, then, an alternative to home in the most critical phases of illness. Despite a lasting interest in the matter, a law setting up a standard has been lacked until DPCM of 20/1/2000 that established structural, technological and managerial requirements for the centres of palliative cares. New hospices must be built in sunny places, in close contact with nature and easily reachable both by private and public means of transport. The law provides for three areas: a residential area, an evaluation and therapy area and a general area of support.

  16. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  17. Residual life assessment of major LWR components: NPAR approach and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, V.N.; Weidenhamer, G.H.; Vora, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear plant aging research (NPAR) program is systematically addressing the technical issues associated with understanding and managing aging of major LWR components. Twenty-one major components have been identified and prioritized according to their relevance to plant safety. Qualitative aging assessment has identified pertinent design features, materials, stressors, environments, aging mechanisms. and failure modes for each of the components. Emerging inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods to characterize aging damage and mitigation methods to reduce the damage are currently being assessed. The results of all these assessments are used to develop life-assessment procedures for the components and are included in appropriate documents supporting the regulatory requirements for license renewal. (author)

  18. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  19. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Dichotomous "Good Outcome" Indicates Mobility More Than Cognitive or Social Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Berman, Michael; Francis, Brandon; Liotta, Eric; Maas, Matthew B; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Holl, Jane; Cella, David

    2015-08-01

    Worthwhile interventions for intracerebral hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage generally hinge on whether they improve the odds of good outcome. Although good outcome is correlated with mobility, correlations with other domains of health-related quality of life, such as cognitive function and social functioning, are not well described. We tested the hypothesis that good outcome is more closely associated with mobility than other domains. We defined "good outcome" as 0 through 3 (independent ambulation or better) versus 4 through 5 (dependent) on the modified Rankin Scale at 1, 3, and 12 months. We simultaneously assessed the modified Rankin Scale and health-related quality of life using web-based computer adaptive testing in the domains of mobility, cognitive function (executive function and general concerns), and satisfaction with social roles and activities. We compared the area under the curve between different health-related quality of life domains. Neurologic ICU with web-based follow-up. One hundred fourteen patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage. None. We longitudinally followed 114 survivors with data at 1 month, 62 patients at 3 months, and 58 patients at 12 months. At 1 month, area under the curve was highest for mobility (0.957; 95% CI, 0.904-0.98), higher than cognitive function-general concerns (0.819; 95% CI, 0.715-0.888; p = 0.003 compared with mobility), satisfaction with social roles and activities (0.85; 95% CI, 0.753-0.911; p = 0.01 compared with mobility), and cognitive function-executive function (0.879; 95% CI, 0.782-0.935; p = 0.058 compared with mobility). Optimal specificity and sensitivity for receiver operating characteristic analysis were approximately 1.5 SD below the U.S. population mean. Health-related quality of life assessments reliably distinguished between good and poor outcomes as determined by the modified Rankin Scale. Good outcome indicated health-related quality of life about 1.5 SD below the U

  1. [The role of clinical-electrophysiological indices in therapy for late-stage residual stroke by dynamic correction of proprioception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veĭn, A M; Shvarkov, S B; Khaspekova, N B; Vendrova, M I; Davydov, O S; Bobrovskaia, A N

    2001-01-01

    The new method dynamic proprioceptive correction using a medical loading costume was included into complex therapy in patients with late-stage residual stroke. Application of the costume promoted normalization of complex locomotor acts of walking by correcting proprioceptive pulsation resulted from the system of elastic draughts. Thus, a new motor stereotype was forced upon the patients. Clinical observation, computer analysis of the motor potential, spectrum of heart rhythm variabilities before and after therapy, and psychological testing were performed in 120 patients with motor disorders (pareses, paralyses) resulted from acute cerebral circulatory disorders. A steady-state clinical effect (p < 0.05) was found in 71.9% of the patients after 15 sessions of therapy. The patients became to walk independently, a possibility to self-attendance appeared, their speech became better. Lateralization of a damage and preservation of both the most significant homeostatic vasomotor mechanisms and the cerebral mechanisms of preparation of a movement with the minimal manifestations of emotional-affective disorders were shown to have impact on the patients' rehabilitation and on the early clinical features of pyramidal defect.

  2. Quality indicators and shelf life of red octopus (Octopus maya in chilling storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariel GULLIAN-KLANIAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are no precedents concerning the quality of Octopus maya during chilled storage. This study evaluated the shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage (4oC and the correlation of the sensory quality index with microbiological counting and the biochemical indicators (hypoxanthine, histamine and volatile amines. A total of 112 whole raw octopi (average weight of 896 g were randomly selected from seven batches and exposed to 4°C for 18, 24, 48, 72, 84, 96, and 100 h. The histamine concentration (91.7%, followed by the counts of psychrotrophic bacteria (5.5% and hypoxanthine (2.2%, were the predictors from the redundancy analysis that better explained the changes taking place during the chilling hours. After 72 h of chilling, the microbial count was determined to be log 4.7 CFU/g, and the octopus samples were classified as B quality (minor sensory quality defects based on the sensory quality scale. Although the samples were not classified as unacceptable at 100 h of refrigeration by the sensory index, the level of histamine reached the defect action level (5 mg/100 g as ruled by the International Food Safety Authorities. The shelf life of the red octopus in chilling storage was predicted to be 119 h.

  3. A cumulative energy demand indicator (CED), life cycle based, for industrial waste management decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Rita; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere; Baquero, Grau; Riba, Jordi-Roger; Bala, Alba

    2013-12-01

    Life cycle thinking is a good approach to be used for environmental decision-support, although the complexity of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies sometimes prevents their wide use. The purpose of this paper is to show how LCA methodology can be simplified to be more useful for certain applications. In order to improve waste management in Catalonia (Spain), a Cumulative Energy Demand indicator (LCA-based) has been used to obtain four mathematical models to help the government in the decision of preventing or allowing a specific waste from going out of the borders. The conceptual equations and all the subsequent developments and assumptions made to obtain the simplified models are presented. One of the four models is discussed in detail, presenting the final simplified equation to be subsequently used by the government in decision making. The resulting model has been found to be scientifically robust, simple to implement and, above all, fulfilling its purpose: the limitation of waste transport out of Catalonia unless the waste recovery operations are significantly better and justify this transport. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Residual life and strength estimates of aircraft structural components with MSD/MED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Park, Jai H.; Atluri, Satya N.

    1994-01-01

    Economic and safe operation of the flight vehicles flying beyond their initial design life calls for an in-depth structural integrity evaluation of all components with potential for catastrophic damages. Fuselage panels with cracked skin and/or stiffening elements is one such example. A three level analytical approach is developed to analyze the pressurized fuselage stiffened shell panels with damaged skin or stiffening elements. A global finite element analysis is first carried out to obtain the load flow pattern through the damaged panel. As an intermediate step, the damaged zone is treated as a spatially three-dimensional structure modeled by plate and shell finite elements, with all the neighboring elements that can alter the stress state at the crack tip. This is followed by the Schwartz-Neumann alternating method for local analysis to obtain the relevant crack tip parameters that govern the onset of fracture and the crack growth. The methodology developed is generic in nature and aims at handling a large fraction of problem areas identified by the Industry Committee on Wide-Spread Fatigue Damage.

  5. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  6. Relating life cycle assessment indicators to gross value added for Dutch dairy farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomassen, M.A.; Dolman, M.A.; Van Calker, K.J.; De Boer, I.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable dairy production requires farms that are economically viable, environmentally sound and socially acceptable. A low environmental impact of milk production is not necessarily associated with an economically viable farm. To gain insight into a possible trade-off between economic and environmental sustainability, the relation between the environmental and economic indicators of dairy farms was quantified, and farm characteristics that influence this relation were identified. Economic and environmental indicators were quantified for 119 specialized dairy farms in 2005, based on data from the Dutch Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). Economic indicators used were: gross value added expressed per kg fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM) or expressed per unit of labour, i.e. labour productivity. Environmental indicators used were: land use per kg FPCM, energy use per kg FPCM, global warming potential per kg FPCM, eutrophication and acidification potential per kg FPCM or per ha of land. Environmental indicators were deduced from a life cycle assessment. High labour productivity on dairy farms was associated with low on-farm energy use, total and on-farm land use, total and on-farm global warming potential, and total and off-farm acidification potential per kg FPCM. High labour productivity, however, was associated also with high on-farm eutrophication and acidification potential per hectare. From partial least squares regression analysis, it was concluded that relations between economic and environmental indicators were affected mainly by milk production per ha, annual milk production per cow, farm size, and amount of concentrates per kg FPCM. An increase in annual milk production per cow, for example, not only increased labour productivity, reduced energy use and global warming potential per kg FPCM but also, in the case of an unchanged stocking density, increased eutrophication and acidification per ha. To be economically and environmentally sustainable

  7. Role of Socioeconomic Indicators on Development of Obesity from a Life Course Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, M.K.; Kajantie, E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D.J.P.; Barker, D.J.P.; Eriksson, J.G.; Eriksson, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. Development of obesity is modified by several factors, including socioeconomic ones. We studied the importance of socioeconomic indicators on the development of obesity from a life course perspective. Methods. 2003 people born 1934-1944 in Helsinki, Finland, participated in clinical examinations in 2001-2004. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m 2 . Results. Prevalence of obesity was 22.3% in men and 27.2% in women. Lower educational attainment and lower adult social class were associated with higher BMI in both men (P=.03 and P<.01) and women (P<.001 and P=.01). Childhood social class was inversely associated with BMI only in men (P<.001); lower household income was associated with higher BMI in women only (P<.001). Those men belonging to the lowest childhood social class had higher risk of being obese than those of the highest childhood social class (OR 1.8 (95% CI: 1.0-3.1)). Household income was the strongest predictor of obesity among women. Conclusion. Overweight and obesity are inversely associated with socioeconomic status. Men seem to be more susceptible to adverse childhood socioeconomic circumstances than women, while adult socioeconomic indicators were more strongly associated with obesity in women.

  8. Stress and Fatigue Life Modeling of Cannon Breech Closures Including Effects of Material Strength and Residual Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Underwood, John

    2000-01-01

    ...; overload residual stress. Modeling of applied and residual stresses at the location of the fatigue failure site is performed by elastic-plastic finite element analysis using ABAQUS and by solid...

  9. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Glasser, Jay; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-08-01

    Life expectancy (LE) is a major marker of individual survival. It also serves as a guide to highlight both the progress and the gaps in total social and societal health. Comparative LE in concert with measures of gender-specific experience, indices of empowerment and societal happiness and development offer a comparative tool to examine trends and similarities of societal progress as seen through the lens of cross-national experience. To determine the gender gaps in LE (GGLE) trends, we performed a longitudinal analysis, covering a period of 49 years (1960-2008). To examine the association of GGLE with development indices, we used the 2007 GGLE data, the newest happiness data mostly drawn from 2006; the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) data and the 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) data. It revealed that most of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries had a GGLE trend that occurred in an inverted U-curve fashion. We divided them into three subgroups based on the peak years of respective GGLE. The earlier the peak year, the happier the countries, the higher the HDI and the smaller the current GGLE are. Association analysis indicates that Happiness, HDI and GEM are all negatively associated with GGLE. This pattern suggests that GGLE undergoes three phases of growth, peak and stability and decline. Japan will soon be seeing its GGLE gradually shrinking in the foreseeable future. The continuing increases in Happiness, HDI and GEM are associated with a decrease in GGLE, which should be carefully taken into consideration.

  10. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: IX. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and cow efficiency ratios based on harvest, carcass, and wholesale cut weight outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2018-03-06

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least one calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned three calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment at 240 d of age until three calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual BW gain (RG) of heifers that subsequently became dams were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. The correlation between RFI and DMI was large and positive (r = 0.67; P cow efficiency ratios that included harvest weight, carcass weight, or weight of trimmed wholesale cuts as measures of output ranged from -0.05 (P > 0.10) to -0.17 (P cows. Correlations of RG with life cycle and actual lifetime cow efficiency ratios ranged from 0.08 (P > 0.10) to 0.23 (P cows. The correlations were stronger when cow salvage value was included in the measures of cow efficiency. Correlations of DMI and mid-test metabolic BW (MMW) with life cycle cow efficiency ratios that did not include cow salvage value as output ranged from -0.15 (P cow efficiency ratios varied from -0.20 (P cow efficiency ratios. Correlations of RFI with carcass grade, backfat thickness, marbling score, and kidney fat of progeny indicated that heifers with superior RFI would tend to produce leaner offspring.

  11. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with lower indicators of psychological health and quality of life in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. However, there exists limited information regarding its effect on psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate association of SO with several indices of psychological health and quality of life (QoL) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 11521 participants older than 20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Sarcopenic obesity was defined by a low appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and by a high waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men and at least 85 cm for women. Psychological health status, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation, as well as QoL, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Association between SO and psychological health status was assessed under a logistic regression model. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, SO was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.44; P value = .004) and suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.50; P value = .010). In addition, SO was found to have a negative association with a range of QoL indicators. Interestingly, these association patterns were more significant in participants younger than 60 years. In conclusion, our results suggest that SO was associated with adverse psychological health and lower QoL more than body mass index-based general obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Life Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Agro-Industrial Residue Gasification—A Small Scale Power Plant Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rajabi Hamedani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the environmental profile of a real biomass-based hydrogen production small-scale (1 MWth system composed of catalytic candle indirectly heated steam gasifier coupled with zinc oxide (ZnO guard bed, water gas shift (WGS and pressure swing absorber (PSA reactors. Environmental performance from cradle-to-gate was investigated by life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. Biomass production shows high influence over all impact categories. In the syngas production process, the main impacts observed are global warming potential (GWP and acidification potential (AP. Flue gas emission from gasifier burner has the largest proportion of total GWP. The residual off gas use in internal combustion engine (ICE leads to important environmental savings for all categories. Hydrogen renewability score is computed as 90% due to over 100% decline in non-renewable energy demand. Sensitivity analysis shows that increase in hydrogen production efficiency does not necessarily result in decrease in environmental impacts. In addition, economic allocation of environmental charges increases all impact categories, especially AP and photochemical oxidation (POFP.

  14. Quality-of-life indicators and falls due to vitamin D deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema MR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Muhammad Raza Cheema, Ahmad Yar Chaudhry Department of Geriatrics, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire, NHS Hospitals, Coventry, UK Objective: To determine whether the number of falls and quality-of-life indicators relate to serum levels of vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH, and calcium levels.Design: A prospective study.Participants: Patients being admitted with a fall with or without sustaining a fragility fracture post fall.Measurements: Measured frequency of falling, SF-12 questionnaire, serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, and PTH levels before and after treatment with vitamin D supplementation.Results: The mean age (N=38 of the cohort was 80.2±12. In all, 76.3% of the cohort had sustained a fragility fracture after the fall. The cohort was vitamin D deficient with the pretreatment mean value of 24.2±17 nmol/L and posttreatment mean value of 99±40 nmol/L with a statistically significant mean difference of 74.7 nmol/L (confidence interval [CI] 61.27–88.3, P=0.001. The levels of calcium and PTH were statistically significant after treatment with a mean difference of 0.16 (CI 0.1–0.2, P=0.001, and 3.7 (CI –4.8 to –2.5, P=0.001, respectively. After treatment, the mean difference of physical component score (PCS and mental component score for the whole cohort was 2.9 (CI –0.69 to 6.6, P=0.10, and 1.05 (CI –2.6 to 4.7, P=0.56, respectively. However, a subgroup analysis for cohort aged ≤70 years provided a statistically significant effect on PCS with a mean difference of 8.9 (CI 1.3–16.4, P=0.03, but a statistically insignificant improvement in mental component score with a mean difference of 6.0 (CI –17 to –5.0, P=0.20. However, a statistically significant improvement in PCS SF-12 was observed in patients ≤70 years of age 2.9 (1.3–16.4, P=0.03. The mean number of falls for the whole cohort pre- and posttreatment was 1.11±0.92 vs 0.97±0.99 (P=0.68, respectively.Conclusion: Patients who had

  15. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  16. Life cycle management on Swiss fruit farms. Relating environmental and income indicators for apple-growing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouron, Patrik; Scholz, Roland W.; Weber, Olaf [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute for Human-Environment Systems, ETH Zentrum, HAD, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nemecek, Thomas [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station of Agroecology and Agriculture, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-25

    Integrated fruit production (IFP) has been practiced in Switzerland on a large scale basis since the late 1980s, with the aim of improving sustainable farming. The guidelines of IFP emphasise an ecosystem approach that is based on scientific knowledge about self-regulatory mechanisms at the tree and orchard level. Empirical studies at the farm level are rare. An understanding of the relationship between income and environmental impacts at the farm level is a prerequisite for devising a robust system for orchard portfolio management. An income analysis based on full cost principle and environmental life cycle assessment were applied to 445 annual data sets of apple orchards, recorded on 12 specialised fruit farms over a period of 4 years. The main result was that environmental impacts such as ecotoxicity, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use did not necessarily increase when farms increased their income. A higher input level of pesticides, fertilisers and machinery did not lead to increased yields and receipts. In contrast, the choice of apple cultivars and high investment in pre-harvest labour hours were significantly correlated with high eco-efficiency and high farm income. The results of this study were summarised in a pyramid-shaped management model, providing key issues of successful orchard farming and attributing management rules to master them. The management pyramid indicates that cognitive competences such as distributional, conditional and non-linear thinking are crucial when knowledge from tree and orchard management is integrated at the farm level. A main recommendation is that more attention should be paid to improving management competence in order to contribute to sustainable farming. (author)

  17. Life Time Risk of Maternal Death in districts of Maharashtra State, India: Mathematical Estimation Using Proxy Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Prabhakarrao Doke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal Mortality Ratio, Maternal Mortality Rate, Life Time Risk of Maternal Death are used to describe maternal mortality. First is most commonly quoted indicator. The Life Time Risk is most comprehensive. Three simple methods of calculations of Life Time Risk are documented. The calculations require Maternal Mortality Ratio and Total Fertility Rate; Maternal Mortality Rate and Reproductive Age Group Span. Reliable district wise data of these indicators is unavailable. Aim & Objectives: To calculate district wise life time risk of maternal deaths. Material & Methods: The proportion of non-institutional deliveries was used as proxy for Maternal Mortality Ratio and the proportion of couples not using any family planning method was used as proxy for the Total Fertility Rate. The correlation and regression equation between estimated Life Time Risk using standard method and using proxies was calculated. District wise Life Time Risk for Maharashtra state was calculated using the regression equation. Results: Good correlation was observed using proxies (r=0.97 and regression equation was: y=0.09+1.71x. For Maharashtra state the estimated of Life Time Risk was found to be 0.14% which exactly matched the estimate using conventional method. Conclusion: Using proxies reliable estimates of Life Time Risk for districts can be calculated.

  18. Study of the relationship between the indication rod of stent on implant CT and the real path of implant fixture insertion considering residual ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hoon; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Oh, Sung Ook; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon; Jeon, In Seong

    2003-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the direction of the indicating rod of the radiographic stent for ideal prosthetic design and the actual possible path of implant fixture placement when residual ridge resorption is considered. The study materials considered of 326 implant sites (male 214 cases and female 112 cases) from a total of 106 patients (male 65 patients and female 41 patients) who desired implant prostheses. Computed tomography of patients were taken and reformatted using ToothPix software. Bony defects, bony sclerosis, the change of the direction of indicating rod, and root proximity of the adjacent teeth were examined on the CT-derived images. The rate of the irregular crestal cortex was relatively high on premolar and molar area of maxilla. Mandibular molar area showed relatively high rate of focal sclerosis on the area of implant fixture insertion. The position of the including rods were relatively acceptable on the molar areas of both jaws. However, the position of the indicating rods should be shifted to buccal side with lingual rotation of the apical end on maxillary anterior teeth and premolar area. Clinically determined rod direction and position of the indicating rod for implant placement was not always acceptable for insertion according to the reformatted CT images. The pre-operative treatment plan for implant should be determined carefully, considering the state of the alveolar bone using the reformatted CT images.

  19. A comparative life-cycle assessment of briquetting logging residues and lumber manufacturing coproducts in western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum; Richard D. Bergman; Indroneil Ganguly; Francesca Pierobon

    2018-01-01

    Timber harvest activities in the western United States have resulted in large volumes of low- to no-value logging (forest) residues. Alternatives to pile-and-burning are needed to best utilize this material and to mitigate the resultant environmental impacts. Briquetting (densifying) forest residues near-woods is one such option and is the focus of this study. This...

  20. Use of life cycle assessment as decision-support tool for water reuse and handling of residues at a Danish industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kim; Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    This analysis presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) carried out on six alternative options for the recycling of water at a Danish industrial laundry for workwear. The study focuses on the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated when wastewater is treated for recycling......, and in accounting for long-term potential toxicity impacts. The analysed options are a combination of two water-upgrading technologies: biofilter and ultrafiltration, and three residue disposal alternatives: biogas followed by incineration of sludge at local wastewater treatment plant, thermal vitrification...... treatment for production of vitrified sand, and mineralization in a sludge bed. It is concluded from the results that with the current Danish environmental policy priorities, the environmental impacts of highest priority are the toxicity effects derived from the presence of heavy metals in the residues...

  1. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maria, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.dimaria@unipg.it [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela [LAR Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Via G. Duranti 93, Perugia (Italy); Sisani, Luciano [TSA spa, Via Case Sparse 107, Magione (Italy); Damiano, Roberto [GESENU spa, Via della Molinella 7, Perugia (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes.

  2. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LCA analysis of two option for residual waste management. • Exploitation of mechanical physical sorting facility for extracting recyclable from RMSW. • Processing the mechanically sorted organic fraction in bioreactor landfill. • Sensitivity analysis demonstrate high influence for impact assessment of substitution ratio for recycle materials. - Abstract: Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes

  3. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2013-01-01

    and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born...... in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83%) completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour...... participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational...

  4. Relevance of the Studying Quality of Life Indicator in Children with Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Ya. Tkachenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview focuses on global issues and conceptual approaches to understanding the quality of life. Despite the fairly large number of questionnaires for children, the data in this article demonstrate that the definition of quality of life should be more widely used in pediatric studies. Recently, this criterion is most frequently used to analyze the quality of medical care for patients with chronic diseases. Assessment of quality of life in children with allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, is especially important. This is primarily due to the high prevalence of allergic pathology, as well as its significant influence on the daily lives of patients, which certainly involves important social and economic spheres of activity. Improving quality of life is strongly correlated with the appropriate treatment, which is clearly demonstrated by the patients with bronchial asthma, especially in the pediatric population.

  5. End-of-Life Indicators for NIMA's High-Performance Cesium Frequency Standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, C; Tolman, B. W; Taylor, R. E

    2002-01-01

    .... The mean lifetime of the cesium-beam tube (CBT) is approximately 6 years; failure or end-of-life of the CBT is a significant cause in the reduction of data used to produce the NIMA GPS precise ephemeris...

  6. Is the detection of optical activity in extraterrestrial samples a safe indicator for life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, W

    1975-01-01

    Since Pasteur's times it has been accepted that optical activity and life are intimately correlated with each other, i.e. the one could not exist without the other. This argument logically allows the following speculation related to interplanetary exploration: detection of optical activity in an extraterrestrial sample would be the most straightforward proof of the existence of living matter outside the earth. On the other hand it has been shown that spontaneous production of optical activity can be achieved without the help of living matter, so that the close association of optical activity with life is not necessarily true. The paper discusses the possibilities which allow a proof of some sort of life on other planets by polarimetric methods.

  7. Health-related quality of life: an indicator of quality of care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treurniet, H. F.; Essink-Bot, M. L.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the use of outcome indicators to monitor the quality of care. Traditionally, outcome indicators have been based mainly on biological indicators reflecting death or disease. Now that various instruments for health status measurement have become available, questions

  8. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; James, Brenda B.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-05-01

    . 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Three areas of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocial salmon monitoring (abundance). This report is organized into three chapters to represent these three areas of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2002 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Hatchery reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  9. Changing Communities, Community Satisfaction, and Quality of Life: A View of Multiple Perceived Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarrita-Cascante, David

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between a community's services and conditions, satisfaction, and overall quality of life were examined in this study. As these relationships respond to specific contextual and cultural settings, qualitative methods were used to account for their complexity and depth. Key informant interviews were conducted in two rural communities…

  10. Behaviour mechanisms and correlation between lead (Pb) and its isotope (210)Pb in industrial residue as an indicator for waste characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Bityukova, Liidia; Kiisk, Madis; Özden, Banu; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2016-12-01

    Total lead and (210)Pb concentrations were determined in various ash fractions (collected from two of the world's largest oil shale-fired power plants) by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry. Results show a clear increase in total lead (values up to 193 ppm in filter ashes) and (210)Pb (values up to 148 Bq kg(-1) in filter ashes) concentrations in the ash fractions from the furnace towards the filter ashes. A strong positive linear correlation (Pearson's bivariate correlation remained between 0.86 and 0.99) was determined between total lead concentration (ppm) and (210)Pb activity concentration (Bq kg(-1)) within all the boilers under observation. The constant concentration ratio between total lead and (210)Pb remained around one (with minor exceptions), independent of the sampling location and the used combustion technology. The determined concentration ratio can be applicable as an indicative tool in waste material characterization. It also provides multiple additions to the general material characterization approach, by integrating radiological and elemental studies and providing an option to rapidly obtain initial indicative information about the residues. This in turn helps to generate the initial information to work out the next steps in waste material management.

  11. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  12. Life Cycle Sustainability Evaluations of Bio-based Value Chains: Reviewing the Indicators from a Swedish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Martin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators. To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity. The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies.

  13. 77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    .... II. Background A. Introduction Under 42 CFR Part 84, ``Approval of Respiratory Protective Devices... the system. OC-SCBA are required by HHS regulations to have a ``remaining service life indicator or... in recent years.\\4\\ A majority of those deaths (over 63 percent) are due to smoke inhalation or...

  14. Better, but good enough? Indicators for absolute environmental sustainability in a life cycle perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Richardson, Katherine

    viewpoint article. The first chapter is concerned with operationalizing the concept of carrying capacity as reference value of environmental sustainability in environmental indicators in general and in LCA indicators specifically. LCA is a tool that quantifies environmental stressors (resource use...... identified concerns. Existing AESI are found to be based on different choices for concerns, such as “threshold value”, “quantifying environmental interferences of studied system” and “modelling of carrying capacity.” This difference in choices across AESI can lead to high uncertainties in indicator scores......, potentially 3 orders of magnitude, and should thus be reduced where possible. Existing AESI are also found to only partially cover all impact categories. LCA indicators can potentially contribute to increasing the coverage of impact categories in AESI and to reducing indicator uncertainties, due...

  15. Improving Health-Related Quality of Life in Wounded Warriors: The Promising Benefits of Laser Hair Removal to the Residual Limb-Prosthetic Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Nathanial R; Kim, Sang; Lezanski-Gujda, Amanda; Rossi, Anthony M; Marquart, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Wounded warriors with lower limb amputations using prosthetics commonly develop dermatologic complaints at the residual limb-prosthetic interface, which impact their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To optimize this interface, military dermatologists routinely treat the subset of issues related to the pilosebaceous unit with laser hair removal (LHR). To characterize the impact of residual limb skin conditions on HRQOL in wounded warriors using lower limb prosthetics before and after treatment with LHR. Twenty wounded warriors with lower limb amputations using prosthetics were administered a validated HRQOL survey, the Skindex-16, before and after an average of 3 treatments of LHR to their residual lower limbs. Responses were statistically analyzed within the symptoms, emotions, and functioning subscales of the survey and in aggregate. Statistically significant (p limb-prosthetic interface in patients with traumatic lower limb amputation are well-established in the literature. The authors present the first report subjectively quantifying this impact on HRQOL and the marked improvement observed with LHR to the residual limb.

  16. Ore grade decrease as life cycle impact indicator for metal scarcity: the case of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marisa D M; Goedkoop, Mark J; Storm, Per; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-12-04

    In the life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, the increasing scarcity of metal resources is currently addressed in a preliminary way. Here, we propose a new method on the basis of global ore grade information to assess the importance of the extraction of metal resources in the life cycle of products. It is shown how characterization factors, reflecting the decrease in ore grade due to an increase in metal extraction, can be derived from cumulative ore grade-tonnage relationships. CFs were derived for three different types of copper deposits (porphyry, sediment-hosted, and volcanogenic massive sulfide). We tested the influence of the CF model (marginal vs average), mathematical distribution (loglogistic vs loglinear), and reserve estimate (ultimate reserve vs reserve base). For the marginal CFs, the statistical distribution choice and the estimate of the copper reserves introduce a difference of a factor of 1.0-5.0 and a factor of 1.2-1.7, respectively. For the average CFs, the differences are larger for these two choices, i.e. respectively a factor of 5.7-43 and a factor of 2.1-3.8. Comparing the marginal CFs with the average CFs, the differences are higher (a factor 1.7-94). This paper demonstrates that cumulative grade-tonnage relationships for metal extraction can be used in LCA to assess the relative importance of metal extractions.

  17. A novel life cycle impact assessment method on biomass residue harvesting reckoning with loss of biomass productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiloso, E.I.; Heijungs, R.; Huppes, G.

    2014-01-01

    Second generation bioenergy such as cellulosic bioethanol is expected to become commercially available in the near future. Large scale production of this bioenergy will require secure and continuous supplies of raw materials. One promising source of materials is biomass residues that currently

  18. Improvement of the management of residual waste in areas without thermal treatment facilities: A life cycle analysis of an Italian management district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Morettini, Emanuela; Sisani, Luciano; Damiano, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Starting from an existing waste management district without thermal treatment facilities, two different management scenarios for residual waste were compared by life cycle assessment (LCA). The adoption of a bioreactor landfill for managing the mechanically sorted organic fraction instead of bio-stabilization led to reduction of global warming and fresh water eutrophication by 50% and 10%, respectively. Extraction of recyclables from residual waste led to avoided emissions for particulate matter, acidification and resource depletion impact categories. Marginal energy and the amount of energy recovered from landfill gas marginally affected the LCA results. On the contrary the quality of the recyclables extracted can significantly modify the eco profile of the management schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health-related quality of life of adolescents in the context of selected somatic development indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Krawczyńska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL is nowadays one of the most important methods of self-assessment of health, which makes it possible to detect abnormalities in physical, mental, and social functioning. The weight-growth body mass index (BMI, which determines the degree of nourishment, is essential in the evaluation of the somatic development. Aim of the research: The assessment of HRQOL depending on the weight-growth rate and gender of the pupils. Material and methods : The study involved 588 pupils aged 16–18 years. The authors applied in the study the methods of survey and analysis of pupils’ health records. The KIDSCREEN-52, designed to test the health-related quality of life, was the research tool. Results : The BMI analysis showed a clear advantage of pupils with normal weight. Among boys the percentage of individuals suspected of overweight and obesity was higher, whereas among girls the higher percentage involved individuals with body weight deficit. The results of HRQOL show that obese boys evaluated the highest their financial resources, autonomy, and relationships with parents. The pupils with body weight deficit evaluated the lowest their self-image. The overweight boys evaluated their mental wellbeing the lowest in comparison to others, and the highest their self-image. Overweight girls evaluated the lowest their self-image, emotions, and the school environment. The girls with body weight deficit evaluated the highest their relations with parents, and the lowest their autonomy. Conclusions : The values of the BMI among the surveyed pupils show an explicit prevalence of individuals with normal body mass. The results of the pupils with eating disorders were lower in all categories of HRQOL. No dependence was confirmed between the BMIs of pupils and the results of the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire in any of the assessed category of HRQOL (p > 0.05.

  20. Quality of life, work ability and other important indicators of women's occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli-Fard, Negah; Mortazavi, Seyed-Alireza; Kuhpayehzadeh, Jalil; Nojomi, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Work ability may be considered as an important aspect of well-being and health status. One of the most important factors in association with work ability is health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study has been to determine the association between work ability, individual characteristics and HRQoL of female workers. The design of this study has been cross-sectional. The work ability index (WAI) and Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaires were used to collect data. Three hundred and twenty female workers were selected from food supplier factories in Karaj. One-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression methods were used to analyze data. Mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) of the WAI stood at 35.02 and 5.57, respectively. The categories of the WAI for women being as follows: 8.8% poor, 62% moderate, 25.4% good and 3.7% excellent. Mean±SD for the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of quality of life was 58.84±11.12 and 57.45±9.94, respectively. There was a positive significant association between the PCS and MCS with the WAI (p = 0.0001). Workers with higher education had a better work ability (p = 0.002) and shift-work workers had a worse work ability (p = 0.03). Work ability of majority of women was moderate. Considering mean age of studied women (27.6 years old), this work ability is not satisfactory. Physical and mental components of the HRQoL were the important factors associated with work ability. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Biochemical indices and life traits of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Sara; Martins, Samir; Hawkes, Lucy A; Marco, Adolfo; Teodósio, M Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is an endangered marine reptile for whom assessing population health requires knowledge of demographic parameters such as individual growth rate. In Cape Verde, as within several populations, adult female loggerhead sea turtles show a size-related behavioral and trophic dichotomy. While smaller females are associated with oceanic habitats, larger females tend to feed in neritic habitats, which is reflected in their physiological condition and in their offspring. The ratio of RNA/DNA provides a measure of cellular protein synthesis capacity, which varies depending on changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined use of morphometric data and biochemical indices as predictors of the physiological condition of the females of distinct sizes and hatchlings during their nesting season and how temperature may influence the physiological condition on the offspring. Here we employed biochemical indices based on nucleic acid derived indices (standardized RNA/DNA ratio-sRD, RNA concentration and DNA concentration) in skin tissue as a potential predictor of recent growth rate in nesting females and hatchling loggerhead turtles. Our major findings were that the physiological condition of all nesting females (sRD) decreased during the nesting season, but that females associated with neritic habitats had a higher physiological condition than females associated with oceanic habitats. In addition, the amount of time required for a hatchling to right itself was negatively correlated with its physiological condition (sRD) and shaded nests produced hatchlings with lower sRD. Overall, our results showed that nucleic acid concentrations and ratios of RNA to DNA are an important tool as potential biomarkers of recent growth in marine turtles. Hence, as biochemical indices of instantaneous growth are likely temperature-, size- and age-dependent, the utility and

  2. Biochemical indices and life traits of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta from Cape Verde Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Vieira

    Full Text Available The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta is an endangered marine reptile for whom assessing population health requires knowledge of demographic parameters such as individual growth rate. In Cape Verde, as within several populations, adult female loggerhead sea turtles show a size-related behavioral and trophic dichotomy. While smaller females are associated with oceanic habitats, larger females tend to feed in neritic habitats, which is reflected in their physiological condition and in their offspring. The ratio of RNA/DNA provides a measure of cellular protein synthesis capacity, which varies depending on changes in environmental conditions such as temperature and food availability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined use of morphometric data and biochemical indices as predictors of the physiological condition of the females of distinct sizes and hatchlings during their nesting season and how temperature may influence the physiological condition on the offspring. Here we employed biochemical indices based on nucleic acid derived indices (standardized RNA/DNA ratio-sRD, RNA concentration and DNA concentration in skin tissue as a potential predictor of recent growth rate in nesting females and hatchling loggerhead turtles. Our major findings were that the physiological condition of all nesting females (sRD decreased during the nesting season, but that females associated with neritic habitats had a higher physiological condition than females associated with oceanic habitats. In addition, the amount of time required for a hatchling to right itself was negatively correlated with its physiological condition (sRD and shaded nests produced hatchlings with lower sRD. Overall, our results showed that nucleic acid concentrations and ratios of RNA to DNA are an important tool as potential biomarkers of recent growth in marine turtles. Hence, as biochemical indices of instantaneous growth are likely temperature-, size- and age

  3. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  4. Sexual services, drugs and human trafficking, smuggling – in GDP figures: Quality of life indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years different kind of antisocial and criminal activities, according to the EU regulations, are being included in GDP indicators. The activities, included in GDP indicators are as follows: those of criminal nature (drugs, arms and human trafficking, corruptive activities, etc.; illegal activities, which are not of criminal nature (businesses without licenses and special permits, poaching, etc.; legal activities, though the income from them is not taxed and not recorded (prostitution, alcohol production, etc.; illegal use of intellectual property objects (illegal use of unlicensed programmes. Estimates on the inclusion of illegal, among them criminal activities in GDP indicators are important not only to learn the actual size of GDP, but also to give a chance to the law enforcement authorities to pay attention to separate areas of unregulated economic activities. The author of the article outlines the approximate extent of illegal and informal economic activities and their share in GDP, describes the methods of determination of the economic sector, as well as analyzes some separate informal economic sectors, which should be included into GDP.

  5. Enantioselective separation of amino acids as biomarkers indicating life in extraterrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara

    2013-10-01

    Traces of prebiotic amino acids, i.e., the building blocks of proteins, are excellent biomarkers that could provide evidence of extinct or extant life in extra-terrestrial environments. In particular, characterization of the enantiomeric excess of amino acids gives relevant information about the biotic or abiotic origin of molecules, because it is generally assumed that life elsewhere could be based on either L or D amino acids, but not both. The analytical procedures used in in-situ space missions for chiral discrimination of amino acids must meet severe requirements imposed by flight conditions: short analysis time, low energy consumption, robustness, storage for long periods under extreme conditions, high efficiency and sensitivity, automation, and remote-control operation. Such methods are based on gas chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and capillary electrophoresis, usually coupled with mass spectrometry; of these, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is the only such combination yet used in space missions. Preliminary in-situ sample derivatization is required before GC-MS analysis to convert amino acids into volatile and thermally stable compounds. The silylation reagent most commonly used, N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide, is unsuitable for detection of homochirality, and alternative derivatization techniques have been developed that preserve the stereochemical configuration of the original compounds and are compatible with spaceflight conditions. These include the reagent N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal, which has already been used in the Rosetta mission, a mixture of alkyl chloroformate, ethanol, and pyridine, a mixture of perfluorinated anhydrides and perfluoro alcohols, and hexafluoroacetone, the first gaseous derivatizing agent. In all the space instruments, solvent extraction of organic matter and chemical derivatization have been combined in a single automatic and remote-controlled procedure in a

  6. Temporal pattern of microbial indicators of ready-to-eat rocket salads during shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: From 2001-2009 there have been numerous community alerts and notifications about the rocket salad produced in Italy and distributed in Europe. Our study describes the evolution of the microbial quality of ready to eat rocket salad during shelf life among three different Italian producers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total Mesophilic Count (TMC and Escherichia coli (EC count were measured in 248 samples. We used Wilcoxon test to compare the median values of TMC and EC counts and Kruskal Wallis test to compare the producers. RESULTS: The TMC and EC values differed among producers at the stages of raw material and in the finished product (Kruskall Wallis test, p < 0.05. The evolution of bacterial charges had significant differences among producers at expiration date (Wilcoxon test, p < 0.05. More than half of the samples (54.8% exceed reference standard for TMC after 48 h from packaging. CONCLUSION: Differences among producers may linked to the different minimal processing technologies adopted after harvesting.

  7. Use of life cycle assessment as decision-support tool for water reuse and handling of residues at a Danish industrial laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kim Riisgaard; Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2004-10-01

    This analysis presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) carried out on six alternative options for the recycling of water at a Danish industrial laundry for workwear. The study focuses on the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated when wastewater is treated for recycling, and in accounting for long-term potential toxicity impacts. The analysed options are a combination of two water-upgrading technologies: biofilter and ultrafiltration, and three residue disposal alternatives: biogas followed by incineration of sludge at local wastewater treatment plant, thermal vitrification treatment for production of vitrified sand, and mineralization in a sludge bed. It is concluded from the results that with the current Danish environmental policy priorities, the environmental impacts of highest priority are the toxicity effects derived from the presence of heavy metals in the residues. Heavy metals originate from the dirt in the workwear that is washed in the laundry. It is further concluded that the studied water treatment technologies satisfy both the need of clean water for recycling and simultaneously help controlling a safe disposal of pollutants by concentration of the residues. The results of the study also confirm the potential of LCA as a decision-support tool for assisting water recycling initiatives and for residue handling management. The handling of residues has been identified as a stage of the water recycling strategy that bears important environmental impacts. This holistic perspective provided by LCA can be used as input for the definition of environmental management strategies at an industrial laundry, and the prioritization of investments to the environmental profile of laundry processes. In this case-study, the results of the LCA are made operational by, for example, selecting the water treatment technology which is associated wih a safe disposal of the wet residue. It is important to bear in mind that such prioritization depends on

  8. Motor development as an indicator of child development in the first two years of life

    OpenAIRE

    Pollitt, Ernesto; Caycho, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to support the notion of the motor area as indicator of integrated child development in children from 3 to 24 months old, for its use in population studies. Knowledge of the objective differences in child development will help identify some of the causes that explain these differences and is relevant to the social programming necessary to prevent or mitigate its consequences in the population. El propósito de este trabajo es fundamentar la selección del área mo...

  9. Bioenergy from crops and biomass residues: a consequential life-cycle assessment including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    demonstrated that algae represent an interesting alternative to terrestrial energy crops. This study provides GHG emission factors for a wide number of bioenergy scenarios. The aim is to inform decision/policy makers on the environmental consequences of producing biofuels from different sources...... generation biofuels produced from residual biomass promise important environmental savings. However, since these residues are today in-use for specific purposes (e.g., feeding), a detailed modelling of the consequences (e.g., on the feed-market) induced by their diversion to energy should be performed...... at identifying all the consequences associated with the establishment of bioenergy systems compared with the reference (current use of fossil and biomass resource). The modelling was facilitated with the LCA-model EASETECH. The functional unit was 1 unit-energy produced (i.e., 1 kWh electricity, 1 MJ heat or 1...

  10. Toward a methodology for conducting social impact assessments using quality of social life indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M.E.; Merwin, D.J.

    1976-07-01

    The methodology proposed essentially argues that mankind is inexorably dependent on the natural environment, and that collective social life is always constrained and shaped by the basic ecological factors of natural resources, population characteristics, material and social technology, and the economic order which satisfies peoples' sustenance needs. To this ecological perspective two further assumptions are added: (1) collective social activities are generally aimed at the attainment of goals that reflect the values and interests of the participants, so that social impact assessment must reflect both the ecological conditions prevailing in a community and the values, interests, and goals of the community members; and (2) a community can be viewed as a problem-solving social system, in which (a) challenges such as new environmental or technological conditions initially disrupt existing social processes and patterns of social ordering, which (b) creates temporary problem conditions and activities, which in turn (c) generate collective responses to cope with these problems, which finally (d) act back (as either positive or negative feedback) on the initial disruptive conditions. The inputs to a general social impact model are (a) such disruptive innovations or alterations as growing resource scarcities (e.g., oil or water depletion), governmental policy decisions (e.g., emphasis on solar energy, limiting economic growth), or technological development projects (e.g., nuclear energy centers, water reservoirs); and (b) values and interests of the people in the affected area. Whatever the precise nature of the outside disruption, it can be expected to have direct and relatively immediate impacts on the basic ecological factors of the local population and economy. (MCW)

  11. Energetic endpoints provide early indicators of life history effects in a freshwater gastropod exposed to the fungicide, pyraclostrobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidder, Bridgette N.; Reátegui-Zirena, Evelyn G.; Olson, Adric D.; Salice, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Organismal energetics provide important insights into the effects of environmental toxicants. We aimed to determine the effects of pyraclostrobin on Lymnaea stagnalis by examining energy allocation patterns and life history traits. Juvenile snails exposed to pyraclostrobin decreased feeding rate and increased apparent avoidance behaviors at environmentally relevant concentrations. In adults, we found that sublethal concentrations of pyraclostrobin did not affect reproductive output, however, there were significant effects on developmental endpoints with longer time to hatch and decreased hatching success in pyraclostrobin-exposed egg masses. Further, there were apparent differences in developmental effects depending on whether mothers were also exposed to pyraclostrobin suggesting this chemical can exert intergenerational effects. Pyraclostrobin also affected protein and carbohydrate content of eggs in mothers that were exposed to pyraclostrobin. Significant effects on macronutrient content of eggs occurred at lower concentrations than effects on gross endpoints such as hatching success and time to hatch suggesting potential value for these endpoints as early indicators of ecologically relevant stress. These results provide important insight into the effects of a common fungicide on important endpoints for organismal energetics and life history. - Highlights: • We exposed a freshwater snail to relevant concentrations of pyraclostrobin. • We monitored energetic and life history endpoints. • Pyraclostrobin affected feeding, hatching success and egg macronutrient content. • Energetic-based endpoints may provide valuable insight to toxic effects. - The fungicide pyraclostrobin at environmentally relevant concentrations effects a range of life history and energetic endpoints in the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis.

  12. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large. PMID:25475094

  13. Do life- or school-satisfaction and self-esteem indicators explain the oral hygiene habits of schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, S; Honkala, E; Al-Sahli, N

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain how frequently toothbrushing and flossing are practiced among schoolchildren in Kuwait and whether life- and school-satisfaction and self-esteem indicators are associated with oral hygiene habits. A sample of 2312 schoolchildren between 11 and 13 years old filled out a structured questionnaire anonymously in school classrooms during 2002 and 2003. For this study, nationally representative samples of children were drawn from all six governorates of Kuwait. Only government schools were included. The questionnaire of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study was used in this study after it was modified to suit Kuwait. A chi-squared test and logistic regression model were used for analyzing the data. Over half of the pupils reported brushing their teeth more than once a day; girls reported brushing more frequently than boys did. One-fifth of the pupils did not brush their teeth even on a daily basis. The life- and school-satisfaction and self-esteem indicators were associated with more-than-once-a-day toothbrushing frequency. The strongest predictors for recommended brushing were: feeling very happy (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.38-2.77), feeling that other pupils always accept him/her (1.5; 1.16-2.02), never/sometimes feeling lonely and feeling that it is very easy to make friends (1.4; 1.06-1.94). The summary variables of life-satisfaction, school-satisfaction and self-esteem seemed to be strongly associated with brushing. Dental floss was never used by 45% of the children, weekly by 18% and daily by 17%; 20% did not even know what dental floss was. Among intermediate schoolchildren in Kuwait, oral hygiene practices were far behind the international recommendations. Special emphasis should be placed on children who have personal problems with their life, school and self-esteem.

  14. Isolation of Bacillus subtilis as indicator in the disinfection of residual water by means of gamma radiation; Aislamiento de Bacillus subtilis como indicador en la desinfeccion de aguas residuales mediante radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata J, M.; Colin C, A. [Facultad de Quimica, UAEM, Paseo Colon esq. Tollocan s/n, Toluca, 50000 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lopez V, H.; Brena V, M.; Carrasco A, H.; Pavon R, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In the attempt to get more alternatives of disinfection of residual water, the Bacillus subtilis was isolated by means of gamma radiation as a bio indicator of disinfection since it turned out to be resistant to the 5 KGy dose, comparing this one with other usual microorganisms as biondicators like E. coli and S typhimurium which turn out more sensitive to such dose. (Author)

  15. Stability of the Associations between Early Life Risk Indicators and Adolescent Overweight over the Evolving Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Petersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight...... at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966) and 5414 children born in 1985-1986 (NFBC1986). In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors...

  16. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga-Santos, M.H.; de Koe, T.; Verkley, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste

  17. Efficiency of the life cycle of the gasification of residues in the sawmill 'El Brujo'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesme Jaén, René; Rodriguez Ortiz, Leandro Alexei; Oliva Ruiz, Luis Oscar; Peralta Campos, Leonel Grave de; Iglesias Vaillant, Yuniel

    2017-01-01

    Poor gas, the result of biomass gasification with air, can be used in internal combustion engines to generate electricity, however it is necessary to evaluate the net energy production, as well as environmental impacts and in this sense the life cycle analysis is a tool that allows quantifying the potentialities of any technology. In this work, taking as a reference 1682 hours of operation, a life cycle inventory of the waste gasification plant for the generation of electricity at the 'El Brujo' sawmill is carried out. As a result of the work, a ratio between the produced renewable energy and the fossil energy consumed of 4,18 was obtained, showing that the fuel used is renewable and energy efficiency of the life cycle of 11,07 %, with a positive balance of 18 tons of CO2 ceased to emit into the atmosphere. (author)

  18. Investigation of responsiveness indices of generic and specific measures of health related quality of life in patients with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Figen; Doğu, Beril; Sahin, Fusun; Sirzai, Hulya; Kuran, Banu

    2014-01-01

    To compare responsiveness Short Form-36 (SF-36), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and QUALEFFO-41 scales in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis. A number of 70 osteoporosis patients who were in their menopause period at least for three years were enrolled in our study. The patients completed Short Form-36 (SF-36), Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and QUALEFFO-41 scales during pretreatment period and one year after the termination of the treatment. Reponsiveness was compared between questionnaires using standardized responsiveness mean (SRM), the effect size (ES), and Guyatt's method. All scales revealed statistically significant improvement after the treatment. Upon this finding, calculations related with responsiveness indices for SF-36 (Physical Health and Mental Health), NHP (Total point), and QUALEFFO-41 (Total point) demonstrated highly responsive. ES=1.67 and 1.55, SRM=1.55 and 1.85, Guyatt value=2.20 and 1.91 for SF-36 Physical Health and Mental Health. ES=1.35, SRM=1.35, Guyatt value=1.72 for NHP. QUALEFFO-41's ES=2.56, SRM=4.32 and Guyatt value=2.31. Osteoporosis specific scale as QUALEFFO-41, gives more specific information about the quality of life of osteoporotic patients. If patients with osteoporosis will be compared with other diseases regarding quality of life, then SF-36, one scale was used to evaluate general quality life of such patients, should be preferred against NHP.

  19. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  20. The dynamics of patients' life quality indices under the conditions of two-stage knee joint replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpinyak S.P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available  The aim: to analyze the changes in the life quality indices of the patients with deep periprosthetic joint infection of the knee under the two-stage surgical treatment. Material and Methods. 57 patients who underwent two-stage revision-ary treatment in Research Institute of Traumatology, Orthopedics and Neurosurgery were interviewed with life quality questionnaire Short Form Medical Outcomes Study (SF 36 v.1. Interview results were compared with standardized population indices of SF-36 scales for males and females. Results. In all groups regardless of sex there was a general tendency for an increase in physical and psychological health component up to mean population values after the first stage of surgery and further growth after the second stage. Rehabilitation potential of psychomotor health was higher in women than in men. The ability to handle stress was lower in direct ratio with the patients' age. Conclusion. Two-stage reendoprosthetic treatment with articulating antimicrobial spacer implantation having high grade of fixation is an effective treatment method for deep periprosthetic infection which increases physical health and improves social functioning of patients.

  1. Recovery of resources for advanced life support space applications: effect of retention time on biodegradation of two crop residues in a fed-batch, continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Alazraki, M. P.; Cook, K.; Garland, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor retention time is a key process variable that will influence costs that are relevant to long distance space travel or long duration space habitation. However. little is known about the effects of this parameter on the microbiological treatment options that are being proposed for Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems. Two bioreactor studies were designed to examine this variable. In the first one, six retention times ranging from 1.3 to 21.3 days--were run in duplicate, 81 working-volume continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) that were fed ALS wheat residues. Ash-free dry weight loss, carbon mineralization, soluble TOC reduction, changes in fiber content (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin), bacterial numbers, and mineral recoveries were monitored. At short retention times--1.33 days--biodegradation was poor (total: 16-20%, cellulose - 12%, hemicellulose - 28%) but soluble TOC was decreased by 75-80% and recovery of major crop inorganic nutrients was adequate, except for phosphorus. A high proportion of the total bacteria (ca. 83%) was actively respiring. At the longest retention time tested, 21.3 days, biodegradation was good (total: 55-60%, cellulose ca. 70%, hemicellulose - ca. 55%) and soluble TOC was decreased by 80%. Recovery of major nutrients, except phosphorus, remained adequate. A very low proportion of total bacteria was actively respiring (ca. 16%). The second bioreactor study used potato residue to determine if even shorter retention times could be used (range 0.25-2.0 days). Although overall biodegradation deteriorated, the degradation of soluble TOC continued to be ca. 75%. We conclude that if the goal of ALS bioprocessing is maximal degradation of crop residues, including cellulose, then retention times of 10 days or longer will be needed. If the goal is to provide inorganic nutrients with the smallest volume/weight bioreactor possible, then a retention time of 1 day (or less) is sufficient.

  2. A general factor of personality in a sample of inmates: Associations with indicators of life-history strategy and covitality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study looked for a General Factor of Personality (GFP in a sample of male convicts (N=226; mean age 32 years. The GFP was extracted from seven broad personality traits: FFM factors, Amoralism (the negative pole of the lexical Honesty-Humility factor and Disintegration (operationalization of Schizotypy. Three first-order factors were extracted, labeled Dysfunctionality, Antisociality and Openness, and GFP was found through the hierarchical factor analysis. The nature of the GFP was explored through analysis of its relations with markers of fast Life-History strategy and covitality. The results demonstrated that the GFP is associated with unrestricted sexual behavior, medical problems, mental problems, early involvement in criminal activity and stability of criminal behavior. The evidence shows that the GFP is a meaningful construct on the highest level of personality structure. It may represent a personality indicator of fitness-related characteristics and could be useful in research of personality in an evolutionary context.

  3. Bacillus cereus as indicator in the sterilization of residual water with high energy electrons; Bacillus cereus como indicador en la desinfeccion de aguas residuales con electrones de alta energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia Z, E

    2000-07-01

    One of the main causes of water pollution is the presence of microorganisms that provoke infections, moreover of chemical substances. The processes of residual water treatment finally require of the disinfection for its use or final disposition. The radiation technology for the residual water treatment by mean of electron beams is an innovator process because as well as decomposing the chemical substance or to degrade them, also it provokes a disinfection by which this is proposed as alternative for disinfection of residual water, with the purpose in reusing the water treated in the agriculture, recreation and industry among others secondary activities, solving environmental or health problems. The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of Bacillus cereus as biological indicator in the disinfection by radiation, using High Energy Electrons. To fulfil with this objective, the work was developed in three stages, the first one consisted in the acquisition, propagation and conservation of the Bacillus cereus stumps, considering Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as pathogenic germs present in residual water. Moreover, the inocule standardization and the conditions of the Electron accelerator Type Pelletron. In the second stage it was performed the irradiation of aqueous samples of the microorganisms simulating biological pollution and the application to problem samples of a treatment plant sited in the Lerma River zone of mixed residual water. And in the third stage was performed a regression analysis to the reported survival for each kind of microorganisms. The results obtained show that with the use of Electron beams was reduced 6 logarithmic units de E. coli at 129 Gy, for S. typhimurium it was reduced 8 logarithmic units at 383 Gy and the B. cereus at 511 Gy was reduced 6.8 logarithmic units. Of the problem samples irradiated at 500 Gy, the concentration of the total account diminished from 8.70 x 10{sup 7} UFC/ml to 550 UFC/ml, the presence of B

  4. Ameliorating effects of industrial sugar residue on the Jales gold mine spoil (NE Portugal) using Holcus lanatus and Phaseolus vulgaris as indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, P.M.; Teiga, P.M.; Santos, M.H.; Koe, T. de; Verkleij, J.A.C.

    2003-01-01

    A residue of the sugar industry can be used in revegetation programs on metal contaminated sites. - Phytostabilisation of bare heavily contaminated substrate, such as abandoned mine sites, is considered a very appropriate technology in order to diminish erosion and dispersion of contaminants into the surroundings. In this short-term pot study, application of industrial sugar residue (ISR), a waste product of the sugar industry, proved to ameliorate spoils conditions for plant performance by elevating pH and immobilising several metals. Although arsenate concentrations were positively correlated to spoil pH and spoil treatment with ISR mobilised As, growth of both Phaseolus vulgaris and Holcus lanatus improved significantly after applications of 3.75 g ISR kg -1 dry spoil. Nutrient uptake from the substrate, with the exception of potassium, was elevated by ISR. As a remediation technique ISR application could be effective although in As-contaminated sites application might be restricted to areas where leaching to (ground) water does not form a risk

  5. Development and validation of a stability-indicating gas chromatographic method for quality control of residual solvents in blonanserin: a novel atypical antipsychotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ming; Liu, Jin; Lu, Dan; Yang, Yong-Jian

    2012-09-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic agent for the treatment of schizophrenia. Ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and toluene are utilized in the synthesis route of this bulk drug. A new validated gas chromatographic (GC) method for the simultaneous determination of residual solvents in blonanserin is described in this paper. Blonanserin was dissolved in N, N-dimethylformamide to make a sample solution that was directly injected into a DB-624 column. A postrun oven temperature at 240°C for approximately 2 h after the analysis cycle was performed to wash out blonanserin residue in the GC column. Quantitation was performed by external standard analyses and the validation was carried out according to International Conference on Harmonization validation guidelines Q2A and Q2B. The method was shown to be specific (no interference in the blank solution), linear (correlation coefficients ≥0.99998, n = 10), accurate (average recoveries between 94.1 and 101.7%), precise (intra-day and inter-day precision ≤2.6%), sensitive (limit of detection ≤0.2 ng, and limit of quantitation ≤0.7 ng), robust (small variations of carrier gas flow, initial oven temperature, temperature ramping rate, injector and detector temperatures did not significantly affect the system suitability test parameters and peak areas) and stable (reference standard and sample solutions were stable over 48 h). This extensively validated method is ready to be used for the quality control of blonanserin.

  6. Isotopic measurements (C,N,O) of detonation soot produced from labeled and unlabeled Composition B-3 indicate source of solid carbon residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, David; Manner, Virginia; Amato, Ronald; Dattelbaum, Dana; Gusavsen, Richard; Huber, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    Detonation of HE is an exothermic process whereby metastable complex molecules are converted to simple stable molecules such as H2 O, N2, CO, CO2, and solid carbon. The solid carbon contains various allotropes such as detonation nanodiamonds, graphite, and amorphous carbon. It is well known that certain HE formulations such as Composition B (60% RDX, 40% TNT) produce greater amounts of solid carbon than other more oxygen-balanced formulations. To develop a greater understanding of how formulation and environment influence solid carbon formation, we synthesized TNT and RDX with 13 C and 15 N at levels slightly above natural abundance levels. Synthesized RDX and TNT were mixed at a ratio of 60:40 to form Composition B and solid carbon residues were collected from detonations of isotopically-labeled as well as un-labelled Composition B. The raw HE and detonation residues were analyzed isotopically for C, N, O isotopic compositions. We will discuss differences between treatments groups as a function of formulation and environment. LA-UR - 17-21266.

  7. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  8. ESTIMATION OF LONG-TERM INVESTMENT PROJECTS WITH ENERGY-EFFICIENT SOLUTIONS BASED ON LIFE CYCLE COSTS INDICATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Viktor Ivanovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The starting stage of the tender procedures in Russia with the participation of foreign suppliers dictates the feasibility of the developments for economical methods directed to comparison of technical solutions on the construction field. The article describes the example of practical Life Cycle Cost (LCC evaluations under respect of Present Value (PV determination. These create a possibility for investor to estimate long-term projects (indicated as 25 years as commercially profitable, taking into account inflation rate, interest rate, real discount rate (indicated as 5 %. For economic analysis air-blower station of WWTP was selected as a significant energy consumer. Technical variants for the comparison of blower types are: 1 - multistage without control, 2 - multistage with VFD control, 3 - single stage double vane control. The result of LCC estimation shows the last variant as most attractive or cost-effective for investments with economy of 17,2 % (variant 1 and 21,0 % (variant 2 under adopted duty conditions and evaluations of capital costs (Cic + Cin with annual expenditure related (Ce+Co+Cm. The adopted duty conditions include daily and seasonal fluctuations of air flow. This was the reason for the adopted energy consumption as, kW∙h: 2158 (variant 1,1743...2201 (variant 2, 1058...1951 (variant 3. The article refers to Europump guide tables in order to simplify sophisticated factors search (Cp /Cn, df, which can be useful for economical analyses in Russia. Example of evaluations connected with energy-efficient solutions is given, but this reference involves the use of materials for the cases with resource savings, such as all types of fuel. In conclusion follows the assent to use LCC indicator jointly with the method of determining discounted cash flows, that will satisfy the investor’s need for interest source due to technical and economical comparisons.

  9. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass and U.S. northeast forest residuals gasification for electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Philip; Gardner, Kevin H; Jambeck, Jenna R

    2013-04-02

    With the goal to move society toward less reliance on fossil fuels and the mitigation of climate change, there is increasing interest and investment in the bioenergy sector. However, current bioenergy growth patterns may, in the long term, only be met through an expansion of global arable land at the expense of natural ecosystems and in competition with the food sector. Increasing thermal energy recovery from solid waste reduces dependence on fossil- and biobased energy production while enhancing landfill diversion. Using inventory data from pilot processes, this work assesses the cradle-to-gate environmental burdens of plasma gasification as a route capable of transforming construction and demolition (C&D) derived biomass (CDDB) and forest residues into electricity. Results indicate that the environmental burdens associated with CDDB and forest residue gasification may be similar to conventional electricity generation. Land occupation is lowest when CDDB is used. Environmental impacts are to a large extent due to coal cogasified, coke used as gasifier bed material, and fuel oil cocombusted in the steam boiler. However, uncertainties associated with preliminary system designs may be large, particularly the heat loss associated with pilot scale data resulting in overall low efficiencies of energy conversion to electricity; a sensitivity analysis assesses these uncertainties in further detail.

  10. Waterpipe effects on pulmonary function and cardiovascular indices: a comparison to cigarette smoking in real life situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layoun, Nelly; Saleh, Nadine; Barbour, Bernadette; Awada, Sanaa; Rachidi, Samar; Al-Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Waked, Mirna; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-08-01

    Smoking is known to have physiological effects on biological systems. The purpose of this study is to evaluate acute and chronic effects on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular indices of waterpipe (WP) smoking in real life circumstances. Three groups were included in the study: non-smokers (N = 42), WP smokers (N = 42) and cigarette smokers (N = 48). A questionnaire was completed for each participant, in addition to pulmonary function [forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), 6 s (FEV6), percentage of FEV1/FEV6], and cardiovascular [diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR)] measures, taken before and after smoking. Mean values of FEV1, FEV6, FEV1/FEV6, DBP and SBP in WP and cigarette smokers were very close. However, WP smoking significantly increased HR compared to cigarette smokers (p = 0.007); duration of smoking, age at first WP and quantity of smoking affected pulmonary function and cardiovascular values. In the subgroup of WP smokers, DBP was acutely increased by a larger WP size (p = 0.011), while the FEV6 was acutely increased by a smaller WP size (p = 0.045). WP smoking affected the cardiovascular system more than cigarette smoking, while it had similar effects on pulmonary function.

  11. Comparative assessment of three different indices of multimorbidity for studies on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois Marie-France

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measures of multimorbidity are often applied to source data, populations or outcomes outside the scope of their original developmental work. As the development of a multimorbidity measure is influenced by the population and outcome used, these influences should be taken into account when selecting a multimorbidity index. The aim of this study was to compare the strength of the association of health-related quality of life (HRQOL with three multimorbidity indices: the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS, the Charlson index (Charlson and the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI. The first two indices were not developed in light of HRQOL. Methods We used data on chronic diseases and on the SF-36 questionnaire assessing HRQOL of 238 adult primary care patients who participated in a previous study. We extracted all the diagnoses for every patient from chart review to score the CIRS, the FCI and the Charlson. Data for potential confounders (age, sex, self-perceived economic status and self-perceived social support were also collected. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients (r of the SF-36 scores with the three measures of multimorbidity, as well as the coefficient of determination, R2, while controlling for confounders. Results The r values for the CIRS (range: -0.55 to -0.18 were always higher than those for the FCI (-0.47 to -0.10 and Charlson (-0.31 to -0.04 indices. The CIRS explained the highest percent of variation in all scores of the SF-36, except for the Mental Component Summary Score where the variation was not significant. Variations explained by the FCI were significant in all scores of SF-36 measuring physical health and in two scales evaluating mental health. Variations explained by the Charlson were significant in only three scores measuring physical health. Conclusion The CIRS is a better choice as a measure of multimorbidity than the FCI and the Charlson when HRQOL is the outcome of interest. However

  12. Analysis of changes in hardness of a metal surface layer in areas of high stress and methods of determining residual life of parts for mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonarev, I. E.; Ivanov, S. L.

    2016-02-01

    The methodological bases for determining the energy resource of mechanical transmissions details for mining machines are considered. Based on the analysis of the accumulation of damage in metal gears, a method of estimating residual life of coarse-toothed wheels by periodically measuring the hardness of the surface layer of the teeth is justified. The regularities in change of hardness of coarse-tooth gear, conditioned by a change in metal strength properties that take into account the micro- and macromechanisms of plastic and elastic deformation, distortion of the metal crystal lattice with formation and movement of vacancies and dislocations. Experimental setup was built and the results of laboratory experiments are given related to the process of destruction of non-standard samples under different loads. Comparison of dimensions and hardness values of the sample allows concluding that a larger deformation corresponds to a greater increase in hardness, their limit value for the material being in the fracture zone. It is established that the detected changes in the local hardness occurs in areas of increased stresses above the limit of proportionality and the work of fracture forces attributed to dislocations density adjacent to the fracture plane expressed in terms of hardness increment is constant.

  13. Is regular drinking in later life an indicator of good health? Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Clare; Mendonça, Marina; Pikhart, Hynek; Frisher, Martin; de Oliveira, Cesar; Shelton, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Older people who drink have been shown to have better health than those who do not. This might suggest that moderate drinking is beneficial for health, or, as considered here, that older people modify their drinking as their health deteriorates. The relationship between how often older adults drink and their health is considered for two heath states: self-rated health (SRH) and depressive symptoms. Data were analysed from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a prospective cohort study of older adults, using multilevel ordered logit analysis. The analysis involved 4741 participants present at wave 0, (1998/1999 and 2001), wave 4 (2008/2009) and wave 5 (2010/2011). The outcome measure was frequency of drinking in last year recorded at all three time points. Older adults with fair/poor SRH at the onset of the study drank less frequently compared with adults with good SRH (phealth statuses, though respondents with both continual fair/poor SRH and declining SRH experienced a sharper reduction in the frequency of their drinking over time compared with older adults who remained in good SRH or whose health improved. The findings were similar for depression, though the association between depressive symptoms and drinking frequency at the baseline was not significant after adjusting for confounding variables. The frequency of older adults' drinking responds to changes in health status and drinking frequency in later life may be an indicator, rather than a cause, of health status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Stability of the Associations between Early Life Risk Indicators and Adolescent Overweight over the Evolving Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graversen, Lise; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Petersen, Liselotte; Sovio, Ulla; Kaakinen, Marika; Sandbæk, Annelli; Laitinen, Jaana; Taanila, Anja; Pouta, Anneli

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre- and perinatal factors and preschool body size may help identify children developing overweight, but these factors might have changed during the development of the obesity epidemic. Objective We aimed to assess the associations between early life risk indicators and overweight at the age of 9 and 15 years at different stages of the obesity epidemic. Methods We used two population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohorts including 4111 children born in 1966 (NFBC1966) and 5414 children born in 1985–1986 (NFBC1986). In both cohorts, we used the same a priori defined prenatal factors, maternal body mass index (BMI), birth weight, infant weight (age 5 months and 1 year), and preschool BMI (age 2–5 years). We used internal references in early childhood to define percentiles of body size (90) and generalized linear models to study the association with overweight, according to the International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) definitions, at the ages of 9 and 15 years. Results The prevalence of overweight at the age of 15 was 9% for children born in 1966 and 16% for children born in 1986. However, medians of infant weight and preschool BMI changed little between the cohorts, and we found similar associations between maternal BMI, infant weight, preschool BMI, and later overweight in the two cohorts. At 5 years, children above the 90th percentile had approximately a 12 times higher risk of being overweight at the age of 15 years compared to children below the 50th percentile in both cohorts. Conclusions The associations between early body size and adolescent overweight showed remarkable stability, despite the increase in prevalence of overweight over the 20 years between the cohorts. Using consequently defined internal percentiles may be a valuable tool in clinical practice. PMID:24748033

  15. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  16. Energy price indices and discount factors for life-cycle cost analysis 1997. Annual supplement to NIST handbook 135 and NBS special publication 709. (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S.R.

    1996-07-01

    This report is the FY 1997 edition of energy price indices and discount factors for performing life-cycle cost analyses of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects in federal facilities. It supports the federal life-cycle costing methodology by updating the energy price projections and discount factors that are described, explained, and illustrated in NIST Handbook 135 (HB 135, Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (PB96-172317)). It supports private-sector life-cycle cost analysis by updating the energy price indices that are described, explained, and illustrated in NBS Special Publication 709 (SP 709 (PB87-180253)). It also supports the Energy Conservation Mandatory Performance Standards for New Federal Residential Building (10 CFR 435) by providing a table of factors for updating appliance label values.

  17. The effects of composting on the nutritional composition of fibrous bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues and its impact on the growth of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.; Lowry, Brett A.; Brown, Paul B.; Beyl, Caula A.; Nyochemberg, Leopold

    2009-04-01

    Utilization of bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) plant waste residues as a nutritional source by Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) has proven problematic as a result of high concentrations of fibrous compounds in the plant waste residues. Nutritional improvement of plant waste residues by composting with the oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus), and the effects on growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia fed such residues were evaluated. Five Nile tilapia (mean weight = 70.9 ± 3.1 g) were stocked in triplicate aquaria and fed one of two experimental diets, cowpea (CP) and composted cowpea (CCP), twice daily for a period of 8 weeks. Composting of cowpea residue resulted in reduced concentrations of nitrogen-free extract, hemi-cellulose and trypsin inhibitor activity, though trypsin inhibitor activity remained high. Composting did not reduce crude fiber, lignin, or cellulose concentrations in the diet. No significant differences ( P tilapia fed CP and CCP. These results suggest that P. ostreatus is not a suitable candidate for culture in conjunction with the culture of Nile tilapia. Additional work is needed to determine what, if any, benefit can be obtained from incorporating composted residue as feed for Nile tilapia.

  18. Sample-scale zircon geochemical and geochronological heterogeneities as indicators of residual liquid infiltration events in the incrementally assembled Caleu Pluton, Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, P. G.; Parada, M. A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Ma, C.; Li, J.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper Cretaceous metaluminous Caleu Pluton is emplaced at a depth equivalent of 2kbar and consists of four lithological zones: the Gabbro-Dioritic Zone (GDZ), the Quartz-Monzodioritic Zone (QMDZ), the Granodioritic Zone (GZ) and the Monzogranitic Zone (MGZ). The zones would have been fed from a deeper magma reservoir emplaced at a 4 kbar. U238/Pb206 LA-ICP-MS geochronology of zircon grains of the four lithological zones (82 analyzed spots, 4 samples) indicates a maximum zircon crystallization range of ca. 106-91 Ma for the pluton as a whole. The U-Pb zircon age distribution of the four samples shows three inflection points at about 101, 99 and 96 Ma, separating four zircon crystallization events with the following weighted average ages and 2σ confidence intervals: 103.×1.6 Ma (n=4), 100.3×0.68 Ma (n=14), 97.49×0.49 Ma (n=25) and 94.66×0.44 Ma (n=30). The GDZ sample records the first three events, the GZ and QMDZ samples record the last three events while the MGZ only have zircons formed during the last two events. It is interesting to note that the youngest event of zircon formation coincide with the Ar/Ar cooling ages (95-93 Ma) previously obtained in hornblende, biotite and plagioclase of the four lithological zones, as a consequence of a rapid pluton exhumation. Temperatures of zircon crystallization (Ti-in-Zrn) obtained in each sample are variable and roughly lower than the zircon saturation temperatures. Most of the Ti-in-Zrn temperatures indicate late-stage crystallization conditions, consistent with the calculated melt composition from which zircons would have crystallized and the observed coexistence of zircons with quartz-orthoclase symplectites, hornblende and interstitial anhedral biotite. There are variable and overlapped total incompatible element concentrations in zircons of the four lithological zones regardless its age and Ti-in-Zrn temperatures, indicating that the melts from which zircon crystallized at different moments, were equivalent

  19. Spatial variation in density and size structure indicate habitat selection throughout life stages of two Southwestern Atlantic snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, Alexandre; Hackradt, Carlos Werner; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani

    2016-02-01

    The early life history of Lutjanus alexandrei and Lutjanus jocu in Southwestern Atlantic is still largely unknown. Habitat use of different life stages (i.e. size categories and densities) of the Brazilian snapper (L. alexandrei) and dog snapper (L. jocu) was examined in a tropical portion of NE coast of Brazil. Visual surveys were conducted in different shallow habitats (mangroves and reefs). Both snapper species showed higher densities in early life stages in mangrove habitat, with a clear increase in fish size from mangrove to adjacent reefs. Post-settler individuals were exclusively found in mangroves for both species. Juveniles of L. alexandrei were also registered only in mangroves, while sub-adult individuals were associated with both mangrove and reef habitats. Mature individuals of L. alexandrei were only observed in reef habitats. Juvenile and sub-adult individuals of the dog snapper were both associated with mangrove and reef habitats, with high densities registered in mangroves. Mature individuals of L. jocu were not registered in the study area. This pattern suggests preference for mangrove habitat in early life stages for both species. Ontogenetic movement between habitats was also recorded. This pattern denotes habitat selection across different life cycle of both species. Such information highlights the importance of directing management and conservation efforts to these habitats to secure the continuity of contribution to adult populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lund

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. METHODS: Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83% completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. RESULTS: A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 16.1% (parents' divorce for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. CONCLUSIONS: Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for

  1. Negative life events in childhood as risk indicators of labour market participation in young adulthood: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Winding, Trine Nøhr; Biering, Karin; Labriola, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Most previous studies on reliance on social benefits have focused on health, sickness absence, work environment and socioeconomic status in adulthood. Extending the focus to include early life circumstances may improve our understanding of processes leading to educational and occupational marginalisation and exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate if multiple negative life events in childhood determined future labour market participation, and to identify important negative life events for labour market participation in young adulthood. Of a cohort of 3,681 born in 1989 in the county of Ringkjoebing, Denmark, 3,058 (83%) completed a questionnaire in 2004. They were followed in a register on social benefits for 12 months in 2010-2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between negative life events in childhood and future labour market participation, taking into account effects of socio-economic position, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health. A total of 17.1% (19.9% males, 14.4% females) received social benefits for at least 4 weeks during follow-up. Labour market participation decreased with number of negative life events, especially for females: Females who had experienced their parents' divorce, had been abused, or had witnessed a violent event, showed decreased labour market participation, when adjusting for SES, school performance, educational plans, vocational expectations and general health at baseline. Attributable fractions ranged from 2.4% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 16.1% (parents' divorce) for women. For men, risk estimates were lower and insignificant in the most adjusted models. Attributable fractions ranged from 1.0% (parents' alcohol/drug abuse) to 4.9% for witnessing a violent event. Information on childhood conditions may increase the understanding of determinants of labour market participation for young adults. Knowledge of negative life events in childhood

  2. Environmental proxies of antigen exposure explain variation in immune investment better than indices of pace of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrocks, N.P.C.; Hegemann, A.; Ostrowski, S.; Ndithia, H.; Shobrak, M.; Williams, J.B.; Matson, K.D.; Tieleman, B.I.

    2015-01-01

    Investment in immune defences is predicted to covary with a variety of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant axes, with pace of life and environmental antigen exposure being two examples. These axes may themselves covary directly or inversely, and such relationships can lead to conflicting

  3. Use of Education as Social Indicator in the Assessment of Sustainability throughout the Life Cycle of a Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Marco A.; Cruzado, Marcos Garcia

    2012-01-01

    The authors seek to establish the need for better education to develop procedures useful to evaluate the sustainability of a building. The analysis emphasises the need for education in the social dimension of sustainability assessment in the context of the life cycle of a building and how such education of building agents could increase…

  4. Son, you’re smoking on Facebook! College students’ disclosures on social networking sites as indicators of real-life risk behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Bekkers, Jeroen; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2014-01-01

    Health risk behavior in student populations is an issue of major concern, and students’ risk levels are difficult to determine. In this study, we explore the extent to which information disclosed publicly on Facebook provides reliable indications of five real-life health behaviors. Questionnaire

  5. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  6. Gut microbioma population: an indicator really sensible to any change in age, diet, metabolic syndrome, and life-style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalisa, Noce; Alessio, Tarantino; Claudette, Tsague Djoutsop; Erald, Vasili; Antonino, De Lorenzo; Nicola, Di Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition.

  7. Gut Microbioma Population: An Indicator Really Sensible to Any Change in Age, Diet, Metabolic Syndrome, and Life-Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noce Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a pandemic threat in the latest 30 years. The trend of the prevalence of overweight and obesity has got an overall increase in every part of the world, regardless of ethnicity, life-style and social ties. High food intake, genetic, and sedentary have been related to obesity; it has been also hypothesized that gut microbiota could have an impact on the complex mechanism underlying the weight gain. This review aims to illustrate the actual literature about gut microbiota and its relation with obesity and to analyze the possible implications of factors such as diet and life-style onto the composition of gut microbiota, that can lead to overweight/obesity condition.

  8. Diurnal lamotrigine plasma level fluctuations: clinical significance and indication of shorter half-life with chronic administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dahl, M.; Tommerup, E.

    2008-01-01

    of complaints indicating toxicity requires determination of drug levels when the symptoms are present. Our findings indicate that the t(1/2) of LTG with chronic treatment is shorter than generally assumed, and suggest that a slow-release formulation could be helpful in achieving full seizure control in patients...

  9. The determination of the level of quality of life as integral indicator of efficiency of complex treatment of pregnant women with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuday V.M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the timely diagnostics and treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome in women of reproductive age deteriorates their quality of life and could become the cause of several pregnancy complications. Objective — to determine the level of quality of life as integral indicator of efficiency of complex treatment of pregnant women with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients and methods. Pregnant women were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 50 women whose treatment included: diet; Mucofalk — 4 times a day for 20 days; probiotics (Probis—Femina — 1 capsule 2 times a day for 14–18 days; correction of psychological state on the recommendations of the perinatal psychologist interview results; and in the presence of severe contamination of the vagina - use of modern disinfectant on the basis of hyaluronic acid of Ginoteca. The second group included 50 women with physiological pregnancy who did not receive the aforementioned treatment. Results. In the modern medicine is being taken seriously personalized approach to the treatment of the patient, therefore assessment of quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome, as an integral indicator is one of the main criteria of treatment effectiveness. Personification approach to the treatment of functional bowel diseases, based on the data of the levels of specific biomarkers indicating the state targeted for irritable bowel syndrome organ systems, psychological States, allows you to choose an effective therapy to prevent polypharmacy, to significantly improve the quality of life on average 16.7±2.3 points. Conclusions. The use of microbial interference therapy with the inclusion of modern probiotics Probes—Femina can significantly reduce contamination of the intestine and the vagina, reduce the clinical manifestations of irritable bowel syndrome, which is confirmed by the improvement of quality of life. Improving the quality of life achieved as a result of selecting

  10. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocious Male Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA); James, Brenda B. (Cascade Aquatics, Ellensburg, WA)

    2005-05-01

    interpret why supplementation is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Topics of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocious male salmon monitoring (abundance); (4) performance of growth modulation in reducing precocious males during spawning; (5) incidence of predation by residualized chinook salmon; and (6) benefits of salmon carcasses to juvenile salmonids. This report is organized into six chapters to represent these topics of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2004 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003; 2004). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  11. On the residual stress modeling of shot-peened AISI 4340 steel: finite element and response surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Ali; Dehestani, Pouya; Poruraminaie, Iman

    2018-02-01

    Shot peening is a well-known process in applying the residual stress on the surface of industrial parts. The induced residual stress improves fatigue life. In this study, the effects of shot peening parameters such as shot diameter, shot speed, friction coefficient, and the number of impacts on the applied residual stress will be evaluated. To assess these parameters effect, firstly the shot peening process has been simulated by finite element method. Then, effects of the process parameters on the residual stress have been evaluated by response surface method as a statistical approach. Finally, a strong model is presented to predict the maximum residual stress induced by shot peening process in AISI 4340 steel. Also, the optimum parameters for the maximum residual stress are achieved. The results indicate that effect of shot diameter on the induced residual stress is increased by increasing the shot speed. Also, enhancing the friction coefficient magnitude always cannot lead to increase in the residual stress.

  12. Crescimento de espécies bioindicadoras do residual do herbicida (imazethapyr+imazapic, semeadas em rotação com arroz Clearfield® Growth of residual herbicide (imazethapyr+imazapic bio-indicators sown in rotation with Clearfield® rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, determinou-se o efeito residual do herbicida Only® (imazethapyr+imazapic sobre plantas de milho, pepino, rabanete e tomate, semeadas em solo no qual o herbicida foi aplicado há 1.100 dias. O estudo foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com o delineamento experimental de casualização por bloco, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Os tratamentos avaliados foram o residual do herbicida Only® aplicado sob as plantas de arroz CL na safra 2006/2007, nas doses de 0, 100, 150 e 200 g ha-1 do produto comercial, acrescido de 0,5% do adjuvante Dash®. Foram semeadas sob as parcelas 15 sementes de cada espécie bioindicadora (milho, pepino, rabanete e tomate, sendo estas desbastadas para 10 plantas após a germinação. Após 60 dias da data da semeadura, foram avaliadas a altura de plantas, a massa seca da parte aérea e a massa seca das raízes, sendo esta última não realizada nas plantas de milho e de pepino. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise da variância (pThis work aimed to determine the residual effect of the herbicide Only® (imazethapyr+imazapic on corn, cucumber, radish and tomato grown in soil where the herbicide was applied 1.100 days earlier. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a randomized block design, with four replicates per treatment. The treatments were the residual herbicide applied under Only® rice CL plants in the 2006/2007 crop season at doses of 0, 100, 150, and 200 g ha-1 of the commercial product, plus 0.5% of adjuvant Dash®. Fifteen seeds of each bio-indicator (corn, cucumber, radish and tomato were sown in the plots and thinned to 10 plants after emergence. After 60 days of sowing, the variables plant height, aboveground dry biomass and root dry biomass were measured, except the latter for the corn plants. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (p < 0.05 and tested by polynomial regression models. It was concluded that there was a residual activity of the herbicide Only

  13. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  14. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  15. Quality of life data as prognostic indicators of survival in cancer patients: an overview of the literature from 1982 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life and survival are two important outcome measures in cancer research and practice. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between quality of life data and survival time in cancer patients. Methods A review was undertaken of all the full publications in the English language biomedical journals between 1982 and 2008. The search was limited to cancer, and included the combination of keywords 'quality of life', 'patient reported-outcomes' 'prognostic', 'predictor', 'predictive' and 'survival' that appeared in the titles of the publications. In addition, each study was examined to ensure that it used multivariate analysis. Purely psychological studies were excluded. A manual search was also performed to include additional papers of potential interest. Results A total of 451 citations were identified in this rapid and systematic review of the literature. Of these, 104 citations on the relationship between quality of life and survival were found to be relevant and were further examined. The findings are summarized under different headings: heterogeneous samples of cancer patients, lung cancer, breast cancer, gastro-oesophageal cancers, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, melanoma and other cancers. With few exceptions, the findings showed that quality of life data or some aspects of quality of life measures were significant independent predictors of survival duration. Global quality of life, functioning domains and symptom scores - such as appetite loss, fatigue and pain - were the most important indicators, individually or in combination, for predicting survival times in cancer patients after adjusting for one or more demographic and known clinical prognostic factors. Conclusion This review provides evidence for a positive relationship between quality of life data or some quality of life measures and the survival duration of cancer patients. Pre-treatment (baseline quality of life

  16. Correlation of health-related quality of life with other disease severity indices in Indian chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher DJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Seema Aziyakath Shavro1, Punitha Ezhilarasu1, Jebamani Augustine1, Joel J Bechtel2, Devasahayam J Christopher31College of Nursing, Christian Medical College, Vellore, South India; 2Pulmonologist and Critical Care Physician, Grand Junction, CO, 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Christian Medical College, Vellore, South IndiaBackground: Improvement in quality of life (QOL has become a focus for the management of incurable chronic diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study investigates factors influencing the QOL of patients with COPD in India.Methods: Seventy-three consecutive COPD patients visiting an outpatient pulmonary clinic underwent health-related QOL (HRQOL assessment using the World Health Organization’s QOL abbreviated questionnaire and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ. Symptom severity and grade of dyspnea were estimated by the Chronic Lung Disease Severity Index (CLD and Medical Research Council assessments, and patient demographic data were collected. Spirometry and 6-minute walk tests were performed to assess lung function and functional status.Results: Patients with COPD showed significantly reduced HRQOL when measured by the World Health Organization’s QOL abbreviated questionnaire and the SGRQ. CLD estimate for severity of lung disease (P < 0.001, Medical Research Council assessment for dyspnea (P < 0.01, and duration of illness (P < 0.05 showed close correlation with HRQOL. Worsening forced expiratory volume in 1 second and 6-minute walk test results closely correlated with poorer HRQOL (P < 0.01. No association between QOL and age, quantum of smoking, education, comorbid illnesses, or occupational exposure was found.Conclusion: This study showed that Indian patients with COPD had reduced HRQOL. Longer disease duration, patient perception of disease severity, and worsening dyspnea impacted negatively on HRQOL.Keywords: quality of life, COPD, disease severity, India, questionnaire

  17. The effects of resistance exercise and oral nutritional supplementation during hemodialysis on indicators of nutritional status and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alemañy, Geovana; Valdez-Ortiz, Rafael; Olvera-Soto, Guadalupe; Gomez-Guerrero, Irma; Aguire-Esquivel, Guillermo; Cantu-Quintanilla, Guillermo; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Miranda-Alatriste, Paola; Espinosa-Cuevas, Angeles

    2016-10-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Studies have assessed the positive effect of oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) or resistance exercise (RE) on nutritional status (NS) markers in patients undergoing HD. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ONS and RE on NS and the quality of life (QOL) of 36 patients undergoing HD. In a randomized clinical trial, patients were divided into the following two groups: a control group (ONS) that received a can of ONS during their HD sessions and an intervention group (ONS + RE) that received a can of ONS and underwent a 40-min session of RE during their HD sessions. Both interventions lasted 12 weeks. The patients' anthropometric, biochemical, dietetic and bioelectrical impedance measurements as well as their QOL, evaluated using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form, were recorded. At baseline, 55.5% of patients presented with PEW according to International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism criteria (20 patients). We found statistically significant changes from baseline in both groups, such as increases in body weight, body mass index, midarm circumference, midarm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, fat mass percentage, handgrip strength, phase angle and serum albumin. A decrease in the prevalence of PEW was observed in both groups at the end of the intervention. A delta comparison between groups showed no statistically significant differences in the anthropometric and biochemical parameters. No significant improvement was observed in QOL and body composition measured by bioimpedance vector analysis. Dietary energy and protein intake increased significantly during the study period for all patients. Oral nutritional supplementation during HD improves NS. The addition of RE during HD does not seem to augment the acute anabolic effects of intradialytic ONS on NS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA

  18. Variances in family carers' quality of life based on selected relationship and caregiving indicators: A quantitative secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Rahel; Hediger, Hannele; Imhof, Lorenz; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2017-06-01

    To determine subgroups of family carers based on family relational and caregiving variables and to explore group differences in relation to selected carer outcomes. Family caregiving in later life holds a myriad of positive and negative outcomes for family members' well-being. However, factors that constitute family carers' experience and explain variances are less well understood. A secondary data analysis using cross-sectional data from a controlled randomised trial with community-dwelling people 80 years or older and their families. A total of 277 paired data sets of older persons and their family carers were included into the analysis. Data were collected via mailed questionnaires and a geriatric nursing assessment. A two-step cluster analysis was performed to determine subgroups. To discern group differences, appropriate tests for differences with Bonferroni correction were used. Two family carer groups were identified. The low-intensity caregiver group (57% of carers) reported high relationship quality and self-perceived ease of caregiving. In contrast, the high-intensity caregiver group (43% of carers) experienced significantly lower relationship quality, felt less prepared and appraised caregiving as more difficult, time intensive and burdensome. The latter cared for older, frailer and more dependent octogenarians and had significantly lower levels of quality of life and self-perceived health compared to the low-intensity caregiver group. A combination of family relational and caregiving variables differentiates those at risk for adverse outcomes. Family carers of frailer older people tend to experience higher strain, lower relationship quality and ability to work together as a family. Nurses should explicitly assess family carer needs, in particular when older persons are frail. Family carer support interventions should address caregiving preparedness, demand and burden, as well as concerns situated in the relationship. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Results of a Quality of Work Life Index in Spain. A Comparison of Survey Results and Aggregate Social Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, Vicente; Lopez-Tamayo, Jordi; Surinach, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The European Union launched the Lisbon Strategy in 2000 with the aim of establishing itself as the world's most powerful economy. The importance of job quality has returned to the top of the European employment and social policy agenda. As targets are set, significant progress has been made in the creation of indicators. In this study, we compute…

  20. Use of life cycle assessment as decision-support tool for water reuse and handling of residues at a Danish industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kim; Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    . Heavy metals originate from the dirt in the workwear that is washed in the laundry. It is further concluded that the studied water treatment technologies satisfy both the need of clean water for recycling and simultaneously help controlling a safe disposal of pollutants by concentration of the residues....... The results of the study also confirm the potential of LCA as a decision-support tool for assisting water recycling initiatives and for residue handling management. The handling of residues has been identified as a stage of the water recycling strategy that bears important environmental impacts. This holistic...... perspective provided by LCA can be used as input for the definition of environmental management strategies at an industrial laundry, and the prioritization of investments to the environmental profile of laundry processes. In this case-study, the results of the LCA are made operational by, for example...

  1. Rinite alérgica: indicadores de qualidade de vida Allergic rhinitis: indicators of quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Cristina Camelo-Nunes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta revisão foi apresentar evidências da relação entre rinite alérgica e redução da qualidade de vida. As fontes de dados foram artigos originais, revisões e consensos indexados nos bancos de dados Medline e LILACS entre 1997 e 2008. As palavras de busca foram "rinite alérgica", "qualidade de vida" e "distúrbios do sono". Os pacientes com rinite alérgica frequentemente têm redução na qualidade de vida causada pelos sintomas clássicos da doença (espirros, prurido, coriza e obstrução. Além disso, a fisiopatologia da rinite alérgica, com frequência, interrompe o sono, ocasionando fadiga, irritabilidade, déficits de memória, sonolência diurna e depressão. A carga total da doença recai não apenas no funcionamento social e físico prejudicados, mas também no impacto financeiro, que se torna maior quando se consideram as evidências de que a rinite alérgica é um possível fator casual de comorbidades, tais como a asma e a sinusite. A obstrução nasal, o mais proeminente dos sintomas, está associada a eventos respiratórios relacionados aos distúrbios do sono, uma condição que tem profundo efeito sobre a saúde mental, o aprendizado, o comportamento e a atenção. Finalmente, a rinite alérgica - doença crônica que afeta crianças, adolescentes e adultos - frequentemente é subdiagnosticada ou inadequadamente tratada. O impacto deletério dos distúrbios do sono associados à rinite alérgica sobre a habilidade para realizar as atividades de vida diária dos pacientes é um importante componente da morbidade da doença. Com um diagnóstico acurado, existem vários tratamentos disponíveis que podem reduzir a carga associada à rinite alérgica.The objective of this review was to present evidence of the relationship between allergic rhinitis and impairment of quality of life. The data sources were original articles, reviews and consensus statements entered into the Medline and LILACS databases between

  2. Spring Chinook Salmon Interactions Indices and Residual/Precocial Monitoring in the Upper Yakima Basin; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation Report 5 of 7, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.; James, Brenda B. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-05-01

    is working or not working (Busack et al. 1997). Monitoring ecological interactions will be accomplished using interactions indices. Interactions indices will be used to index the availability of prey and competition for food and space. The tasks described below represent various subject areas of juvenile spring chinook salmon monitoring but are treated together because they can be accomplished using similar methods and are therefore more cost efficient than if treated separately. Three areas of investigation we pursued in this work were: (1) strong interactor monitoring (competition index and prey index), (2) carrying capacity monitoring (microhabitat monitoring); (3) residual and precocial salmon monitoring (abundance). This report is organized into three chapters to represent these three areas of investigation. Data were collected during the summer and fall, 2003 in index sections of the upper Yakima Basin (Figure 1). Previous results on the topics in this report were reported in James et al. (1999), and Pearsons et al. (2003). Hatchery-reared spring chinook salmon were first released during the spring of 1999. The monitoring plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project calls for the continued monitoring of the variables covered in this report. All findings in this report should be considered preliminary and subject to further revision as more data and analytical results become available.

  3. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  4. Anthropometric indices and life style practices of the indigenous Orang Asli adults in Lembah Belum, Grik of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Hayati Mohd; Ching, Ting Siew; Ibrahim, Roshita; Lola, Safiih

    2007-01-01

    A nutritional status survey of Orang Asli (Aboriginal) adults in Lembah Belum, Grik, has been conducted involving a total of 138 subjects. Jahai (58.7%) was the main ethnic group as compared to that of Temiar (41.3%). Based on the Body Mass Index (BMI) characteristics, the majority (63.2%) of the respondents were normal, 26.7% underweight and 10.1% were either overweight or obese. However, by using two different indices of waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, 1.6% and 10.8% of the total respondents revealed abdominal obesity, respectively. Measurement of mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC) indicated that about 40% showed nutritional insufficiency whereas 0.8% showed over-nutrition. Body fat classification revealed that 53.4% of the respondents were thin, 45.8% at normal level and only 0.8% were obese. Student's t-test revealed a significant difference in anthropometric indices of body weight, height, MUAMC, triceps, sub-scapular, supra-iliac and body fat according to gender. Meanwhile, analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences in body weight, waist circumference, WHR and body fat according to different age categories. It was also found that those who smoked had lower BMI compared with non-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher BMI and WHR among the respondents. Pearson's correlation test between anthropometric measurements and socio-economic and demographic factors showed that ethnic group was the strongest variable.

  5. Comparing the life cycle costs of using harvest residue as feedstock for small- and large-scale bioenergy systems (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, Julian; Wolf, Derek P.; Caspersen, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In part II of our two-part study, we estimate the nominal electricity generation and GHG (greenhouse gas) mitigation costs of using harvest residue from a hardwood forest in Ontario, Canada to fuel (1) a small-scale (250 kW e ) combined heat and power wood chip gasification unit and (2) a large-scale (211 MW e ) coal-fired generating station retrofitted to combust wood pellets. Under favorable operational and regulatory conditions, generation costs are similar: 14.1 and 14.9 cents per kWh (c/kWh) for the small- and large-scale facilities, respectively. However, GHG mitigation costs are considerably higher for the large-scale system: $159/tonne of CO 2 eq., compared to $111 for the small-scale counterpart. Generation costs increase substantially under existing conditions, reaching: (1) 25.5 c/kWh for the small-scale system, due to a regulation mandating the continual presence of an operating engineer; and (2) 22.5 c/kWh for the large-scale system due to insufficient biomass supply, which reduces plant capacity factor from 34% to 8%. Limited inflation adjustment (50%) of feed-in tariff rates boosts these costs by 7% to 11%. Results indicate that policy generalizations based on scale require careful consideration of the range of operational/regulatory conditions in the jurisdiction of interest. Further, if GHG mitigation is prioritized, small-scale systems may be more cost-effective. - Highlights: • Generation costs for two forest bioenergy systems of different scales are estimated. • Nominal electricity costs are 14.1–28.3 cents/kWh for the small-scale plant. • Nominal electricity costs are 14.9–24.2 cents/kWh for the large-scale plant. • GHG mitigation costs from displacing coal and LPG are $111-$281/tonne of CO 2 eq. • High sensitivity to cap. factor (large-scale) and labor requirements (small-scale)

  6. Goal Oriented Activity Towards Life Skill Training: Preliminary Indications of a Task-intensive Approach to Manage Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumen Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To devise a viable programme of intervention for older people with Cerebral Palsy (CP. Methods: Using focus group interviews, a ‘top down’ model of intervention was devised among older children and adolescents with CP. Ten participants volunteered and a custom tailored approach was employed, in keeping with the participants’ goals. Results: The outcomes are described qualitatively. Conclusions: There are preliminary indications that the programme is versatile and feasible. Further trials must be conducted before conclusive comments can be made.

  7. Application of urban indicators, methodology (CDU) to measure the life quality occupation process of the soil in Medellin, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal Baleta, Esperanza; Francisconi, Jorge Guillerme; Marquez Cardenas, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to establish urban indicators that can support a diagnosis through the application of CDU (scheme of urban inequalities) in the city of Medellin, Colombia, which has a population of about 1,850 inhabitants. Six (6) different quarters, representing all three (3) different social and economic levels, have been chosen in order to analyze and detect three (3) processes of legal and illegal ground occupation, their predominant use and their compatibility in urban accumulation with their associated production of habitation the first process is characterized by an illegal ground occupation with production of non legal habitation and invasion. The second process, the legal ground occupation with housing developed by the formal market, is associated to the private and official sectors. The third and last process, which occurred during the 80's, is characterized by illegal ground occupation and habitation production in steep areas of the city

  8. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty.Methods/design: The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol...... indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees...... with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body...

  9. Efeito da cobertura do solo com resíduos de aveia preta nas etapas do ciclo de vida do capim-marmelada Alexandergrass life-cycle is affected by black oat residues on the soil surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Theisen

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, em 1996/97, com o objetivo de caracterizar as etapas do ciclo de vida de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea, desenvolvendo-se sob solo com níveis de 0 a 10,5 t/ha de resíduos de aveia preta (Avena strigosa. Maior concentração de sementes de papuã foi observada nas camadas superficiais do solo. A cobertura vegetal influenciou a emergência de papuã, constatando-se 4,5 e 0,08% de germinação do banco de sementes para níveis de resíduos 0 e 10,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Verificou-se elevada mortalidade de plântulas em qualquer nível de cobertura sobre o solo. O aumento da cobertura do solo diminuiu o número de plantas adultas, aumentando a matéria seca por indivíduo, mas, mantendo a biomassa por área. Estes resultados indicam que as etapas do ciclo de vida de Brachiaria plantaginea são afetadas pela presença de resíduos vegetais na superfície do solo, sendo a germinação de sementes e emergência de plântulas as fases mais sensível aos tratamentos testados.One experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, during 1996/97, to characterize the life-cycle of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea when developed under several levels (0 to 10,5 t/ha of black oat (Avena strigosa residues on the soil surface. Weed seeds were more frequent at the upper layers of the soil profile. The crop residues affected alexandergrass seedling emergence, with 4,5 and 0,08% seed germination from the seedbank, for residue levels of 0 and 10,5 t/ha, respectively. High seedling mortality was observed at all crop residue levels. Increasing the levels of residues reduced the density of adult plants and increased plant dry weight, but maintained biomass per area. The results demonstrate that the phases of alexandergrass life-cycle are affected by the level of crop residues on the soil surface, and that

  10. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  11. THE RELATIONSHIP OF MEDICAL AND SOCIAL PREDICTORS OF DISADAPTATION AND INDICATORS OF THE QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG FORMER ATHLETES DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Victorovna Fedotova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Negative aspects of post-professional adaptation and indicators of quality of life among former athletes with various level of physical activity are analysed in the work. We conducted a survey of 456 former athletes of high qualification categories of cyclic and acyclic sports. A special author’s questionnaire to study the basic medical and social factors of disadaptive disorders among former athletes was used. According to the results of the survey we formed two groups depending on the level of physical activity. Quality of life was studied using a questionnaire MOS SF-36. There were significant correlations between predictors of medical and social disadaptation and the level of quality of life, depending on the mode of the physical activity among former athletes. Timely evaluation of the social dimension of disadaptation and level of quality of life allows you to create a system of medico-social monitoring and to provide a successful adaptation to the completion of the sports career. The necessity of maintaining a high level of athletes’ physical activity at an early post-sport period with a gradual decrease in stress after the cessation of intensive training and competitive activity is established.

  12. the comparative analysis of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among the patients after different types of eye mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the comparative evaluation of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among groups of patients with different types of eye mechanical trauma for studying of the possibility of the authentic qualitative and quantitative analysis.Methods: 120 patients (101 men and 19 women with a mechanical injury of an eye are included in research. the mean age was 42.3±17.4 years, from 18 to 74 years. Patients are divided according to the type of trauma: with a contusion — 67 patients (group A, with penetrating wounds — 53 patients (group B.Results: the study shows the expediency of early (at the stage of hospitalization determination by the patient his own condition, in order to trace dynamics in indicators of quality of life, timely reacting to them, making changes in treatment tactics in the post- traumatic period.Conclusion: Profound attention from experts for definition of strategy of recovering is demanded by a pain syndrome and a psy- chological stress of patients. the individual approach provides competent application of questionnaires, as tools of the assessment of quality of life.

  13. the comparative analysis of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among the patients after different types of eye mechanical injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kochergin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the comparative evaluation of indicators of quality of life and eyesight capacity among groups of patients with different types of eye mechanical trauma for studying of the possibility of the authentic qualitative and quantitative analysis.Methods: 120 patients (101 men and 19 women with a mechanical injury of an eye are included in research. the mean age was 42.3±17.4 years, from 18 to 74 years. Patients are divided according to the type of trauma: with a contusion — 67 patients (group A, with penetrating wounds — 53 patients (group B.Results: the study shows the expediency of early (at the stage of hospitalization determination by the patient his own condition, in order to trace dynamics in indicators of quality of life, timely reacting to them, making changes in treatment tactics in the post- traumatic period.Conclusion: Profound attention from experts for definition of strategy of recovering is demanded by a pain syndrome and a psy- chological stress of patients. the individual approach provides competent application of questionnaires, as tools of the assessment of quality of life.

  14. Insulin Pumps in Type 1 Diabetes with Mental Disorders: Real-Life Clinical Data Indicate Discrepancies to Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Nicole; Bächle, Christina; Becker, Marianne; Berger, Gabriele; Galler, Angela; Haberland, Holger; Meusers, Michael; Mirza, Joaquina; Plener, Paul L; von Sengbusch, Simone; Thienelt, Michaela; Holl, Reinhard W

    2016-01-01

    The latest American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinologists consensus statement published in 2014 does not recommend continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with mental health problems. This study investigated the use and discontinuation of CSII in daily routine care of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with or without comorbid mental disorders. Insulin-treated T1D patients (n = 48,700) between 5 and 30 years of age (median [interquartile range], 15.6 [12.0-17.7] years) from the German/Austrian diabetes patient follow-up registry (DPV) were studied. A comorbid diagnosis and/or specific treatment of mental disorder was documented in 3,158 (6.5%) patients: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), n = 1,352; depression, n = 692; eating disorders, n = 395; needle phobia, n = 319; anxiety/obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), n = 231; and psychosis and/or neuroleptic medication, n = 169. Multivariable logistic regression with age, sex, diabetes duration, and migration background as independent variables was used to compare groups. After adjustment for confounders, use of CSII was more common in patients with depression (41.5%), anxiety/OCD (41.4%), or needle phobia (75.8%) compared with patients without mental disorders (34.6%) (each P eating disorders (33.9%) used it with a similar frequency. Compared with patients without mental disorders (5.1%), the rate of CSII discontinuation was higher in patients with ADHD (9.7%), depression (8.2%), or eating disorders (10.0%) (P disorders and indicate clear differences from the latest recommendations.

  15. Comparison of the toxicity using body residues of DDE and select PCB congeners to the midge, Chironomus riparius, in partial-life cycle tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, H; Fisher, S W; Kim, K; Landrum, P F

    2004-01-01

    Due to the long time course required to achieve steady state with highly lipophilic contaminants such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), data derived from short-term toxicity tests may lead to an erroneous interpretation of hazard. In addition, PCBs bioaccumulated over time can cause sublethal impairments in organisms at concentrations much lower than required for mortality. Here, the body residues of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-p-chlorophenyl ethane (DDE) and select PCB congeners associated with a spectrum of chronic effects in the midge, Chironomus riparius, were evaluated. The route of exposure was ingestion of the PCB-contaminated alga, Chlorella vulgarus, and trout chow loaded with the selected test compound. Two separate exposures of midges were performed. In the first experiment, midges were exposed from the second instar to the pupal stage. In the second exposure, midges were exposed from the second instar to the adult stage. A variety of sublethal endpoints was monitored, including developmental time within a stadium, body weight, and fecundity for the female adult. The dose was assessed as the whole body residue concentration of the contaminant. Overall, the midge concentration increased with increasing exposure concentration in algae and trout chow. Body weight at the end of each stadium was the assessment parameter that was least significantly affected among the test endpoints monitored. In contrast, a significant increase in development time was the endpoint that was most frequently observed in response to contaminant exposure. Reduction in fecundity was found only for DDE-exposed midges. These data, in which chronic endpoints are related to body residues, suggest that body residues will be useful in defining sublethal hazards of DDE and some PCB congeners.

  16. Integration of European habitat monitoring based on plant life form composition as an indicator of environmental change and change in biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch-Petersen, Margit; Brandt, Jesper; Olsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

      During the last 25 years a number of European countries have developed general landscape monitoring systems. In the agricultural landscapes of Denmark the Small Biotope Monitoring Program (SBMP), which focuses on the dynamics of small biotopes and their relation to changes in agricultural...... led to the re-introduction of Raunkiaer's plant life form concept. This approach enables the indication of changes in biodiversity based on alterations in general habitat composition and quality. Although the objectives of the SBMP and the BioHab projects have been somewhat different...

  17. Effects of live music therapy sessions on quality of life indicators, medications administered and hospital length of stay for patients undergoing elective surgical procedures for brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy; Rumana, Christopher S; Nguyen, Judy; Jarred, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The physiological and psychological stress that brain tumor patients undergo during the entire surgical experience can considerably affect several aspects of their hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of live music therapy on quality of life indicators, amount of medications administered and length of stay for persons receiving elective surgical procedures of the brain. Subjects (N = 27) were patients admitted for some type of surgical procedure of the brain. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the control group receiving no music intervention (n = 13) or the experimental group receiving pre and postoperative live music therapy sessions (n = 14). Anxiety, mood, pain, perception of hospitalization or procedure, relaxation, and stress were measured using a self-report Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for each of the variables. The documented administration of postoperative pain medications; the frequency, dosage, type, and how it was given was also compared between groups. Experimental subjects live and interactive music therapy sessions, including a pre-operative session and continuing with daily sessions until the patient was discharged home. Control subjects received routine hospital care without any music therapy intervention. Differences in experimental pretest and posttest scores were analyzed using a Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Rank test. Results indicated statistically significant differences for 4 of the 6 quality of life measures: anxiety (p = .03), perception of hospitalization (p = .03), relaxation (p = .001), and stress (p = .001). No statistically significant differences were found for mood (p > .05) or pain (p > .05) levels. Administration amounts of nausea and pain medications were compared with a Two-Way ANOVA with One Repeated Measure resulting in no significant differences between groups and medications, F(1, 51) = 0.03; p > .05. Results indicate no significant differences between groups for length of stay (t = .97

  18. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaque, Abdur; Nahar, Lutfun; Akter Khanam, Masuma; Kim Streatfield, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database) were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories), health state (eight domains), quality of life (eight items) and disability level (12 items). Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level) documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in advance rather than

  19. Socio-demographic differentials of adult health indicators in Matlab, Bangladesh: self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Razzaque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mortality has been declining in Bangladesh since the mid- twentieth century, while fertility has been declining since the late 1970s, and the country is now passing through the third stage of demographic transition. This type of demographic transition has produced a huge youthful population with a growing number of older people. For assessing health among older people, this study examines self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level in persons aged 50 and over. Data and methods: This is a collaborative study between the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health and the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and Their Health in developing countries which collected data from eight countries. Two sources of data from the Matlab study area were used: health indicator data collected as a part of the study, together with the ongoing Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS data. For the survey, a total of 4,000 randomly selected people aged 50 and over (HDSS database were interviewed. The four health indicators derived from these data are self-rated health (five categories, health state (eight domains, quality of life (eight items and disability level (12 items. Self-rated health was coded as dummy while scores were calculated for the rest of the three health indicators using WHO-tested instruments. Results: After controlling for all the variables in the regression model, all four indicators of health (self-rated health, health state, quality of life and disability level documented that health was better for males than females, and health deteriorates with increasing age. Those people who were in current partnerships had generally better health than those who were single, and better health was associated with higher levels of education and asset score. Conclusions: To improve the health of the population it is important to know health conditions in

  20. The effect of empowerment on the self-efficacy, quality of life and clinical and laboratory indicators of patients treated with hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moattari Marzieh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis patients face numerous physical and psychological stresses that result in reduced health. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of an empowerment program on self-efficacy, quality of life, clinical indicators of blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain, and laboratory results in these patients. Methods This randomized, controlled trial was conducted at Boo Ali Sina Dialysis Center, Shiraz, Iran. A total of 48 hemodialysis patients participated in this study. After acquisition of informed consent, eligible patients were randomly divided into two groups, control and experimental. Pre-test data were obtained by using a demographic data form and two questionnaires for self-efficacy and quality of life. Blood pressure and interdialytic weight gain were measured. We extracted laboratory data from patients’ charts. A six-week empowerment intervention that included four individual and two group counselling sessions was performed for the experimental group. Six weeks after intervention, post-test data were obtained from both groups in the same manner as the pre-test. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using SPSS v11.5. Results There were no statistically significant differences in demographic variables between the groups. Pre-test mean scores for self-efficacy, quality of life, blood pressure, interdialytic weight gain and laboratory results did not differ between the groups. There was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of pre-to post-intervention changes in overall self-efficacy scores, stress reduction, and decision making, in addition to overall quality of life and all dimensions included within quality of life based on this questionnaire. Additionally, the pre- to post-intervention changes in systolic/diastolic blood pressures, interdialytic weight gain, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels significantly differed between the groups. Conclusion Our study demonstrates

  1. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  2. Fate of Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Formation of Ester- and Ether-Linked Bound Residues in an Oxic Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjie; Wang, Jiajia; Jiang, Bingqi; Yang, Xue; Nastold, Peter; Kolvenbach, Boris; Wang, Lianhong; Ma, Yini; Corvini, Philippe François-Xavier; Ji, Rong

    2015-11-03

    Bound-residue formation is a major dissipation process of most organic xenobiotics in soil. However, both the formation and nature of bound residues of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in soil are unclear. Using a 14C-tracer, we studied the fate of TBBPA in an oxic soil during 143 days of incubation. TBBPA dissipated with a half-life of 14.7 days; at the end of incubation, 19.6% mineralized and 66.5% formed bound residues. Eight extractable metabolites were detected, including TBBPA methyl ethers, single-ring bromophenols, and their methyl ethers. Bound residues (mostly bound to humin) rapidly formed during the first 35 days. The amount of those humin-bound residues then quickly decreased, whereas total bound residues decreased slowly. By contrast, residues bound to humic acids and fulvic acids increased continuously until a plateau was reached. Ester- and ether-linked residues accounted for 9.6-27.0% of total bound residues during the incubation, with ester linkages being predominant. Residues bound via ester linkages consisted of TBBPA, TBBPA monomethyl ether, and an unknown polar compound. Our results indicated that bound-residue formation is the major pathway of TBBPA dissipation in oxic soil and provide first insights into the chemical structure of the reversibly ester-linked bound residues of TBBPA and its metabolites.

  3. The gender gap in accrued pension rights - an indicator of women's accumulated disadvantage over the course of working life. The Hordaland Health Study (HUSK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Hensing, Gunnel; Øverland, Simon; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Sivertsen, Børge; Vahtera, Jussi; Tell, Grethe S; Haukenes, Inger

    2017-07-01

    Economic gender equality is one of the goals of the Nordic Welfare states. Despite this, there is a considerable gender gap in pensionable income in the European Union, and an unmet need for measures that absorb more of the complexity associated with accumulated (dis)advantages across gender and population groups. The aims of the present study were to examine the gender difference in association between average earned pension points and 1) education and 2) current occupational prestige, and to discuss pension points as a possible indicator of accumulated disadvantages. We linked a community-based survey, the Hordaland Health study (HUSK), to the national register of insurance benefits (FD-trygd). This made it possible to trace gendered patterns of economic (dis)advantages associated with educational level, career development and gainful work over the life course for 17,275 individuals. We found profound differences in earned accrued pension rights between men and women across socioeconomic strata, and a significant interaction between pension rights and gender in the association with education and occupational prestige. Our findings indicate that men, as a group, may have lower educational attainment and occupational prestige than women, and still earn more pension points throughout their career. These differences place women at risk for future economic strain and deprivation over and above their similarly educated and positioned male counterparts. We suggest that accrued pension rights may be a relevant measure of accumulated (dis)advantages over the course of working life, and a useful indicator when gender equality is measured and discussed.

  4. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  5. Cradle-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment of Wood Fuel Pellet Manufacturing from Hardwood Flooring Residues in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Reed; Richard Bergman; Jae-Woo Kim; Adam Tayler; David Harper; David Jones; Chris Knowles; Maureen E. Puettmann

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present cradle-to-gate life-cycle inventory (LCI) data for wood fuel pellets manufactured in the Southeast United States. We surveyed commercial pellet manufacturers in 2010, collecting annual production data for 2009. Weighted-average inputs to, and emissions from, the pelletization process were determined. The pellet making unit process was...

  6. Using the unmet obstetric needs indicator to map inequities in life-saving obstetric interventions at the local health care system in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Dubourg, Dominique; Makokha, Anselimo

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundDeveloping countries with high maternal mortality need to invest in indicators that not only provide information about how many women are dying, but also where, and what can be done to prevent these deaths. The unmet Obstetric Needs (UONs) concept provides this information. This concept...... the magnitude of UONs and their geographical distribution.Results566 women in 2008 and 724 in 2009 underwent MOI. Of these, 185 (32.7%) in 2008 and 204 (28.1%) in 2009 were for Absolute Maternal Indications (AMI). The most common MOI was caesarean section (90%), commonly indicated by Cephalopelvic Disproportion...... (CPD)¿narrow pelvis (27.6% in 2008; 26.1% in 2009). Based on a reference rate of 1.4%, the overall MOI for AMI rate was 1.25% in 2008 and 1.3% in 2009. In absolute terms, 22 (11%) women in 2008 and 12 (6%) in 2009, who required a life saving intervention failed to get it. Deficits in terms of unmet...

  7. Health-related quality of life and mental health indicators in adolescents with HIV compared to a community sample in the Southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sim Yin; Bradley-Klug, Kathy; Chenneville, Tiffany

    2017-02-01

    Although many studies have investigated the impact of HIV on cognitive, physical, academic, and psychosocial functioning, little is known about the self-perception of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), subjective well-being (SWB), social-emotional well-being, and psychopathology risks of adolescents with HIV. This study aimed to address gaps in the literature by exploring the psychosocial outcomes of adolescents with HIV from a strength-based assessment approach, as opposed to a traditional deficit-based approach. Specifically, we explored the relationship between HRQOL, SWB, social-emotional strengths, and psychopathology symptoms to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the physical and psychological well-being of adolescents with HIV (n = 42) compared to a community-based sample (n = 42) in the Southeastern US. Participants completed self-report measures, and data were analyzed for significant correlations, group differences between adolescents with HIV and a community-based sample, and social-emotional predictors of physical functioning and SWB. For adolescents with HIV, several HRQOL indicators were positively correlated with life satisfaction and social-emotional strengths indicators and negatively correlated with negative affect and psychopathology symptoms. Additionally, there was a significant main effect of parents' marital status on participants' perceptions of their social functioning and psychopathology symptoms. When differences in parents' marital status were controlled for, the overall mean ratings of participants' HRQOL, SWB, social-emotional strengths, and psychopathology risks did not significantly differ between groups. Furthermore, parents' marital status and self-rated empathy skills significantly predicted physical functioning of adolescents with HIV, but no significant or meaningful variables were found to predict their SWB. These findings highlight the need for further research on the use of a comprehensive assessment

  8. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-10-31

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples.

  9. Effect of Thyme and Rosemary on The Quality Characteristics, Shelf-life, and Residual Nitrite Content of Sausages During Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Keun; Choi, Jung Seok; Lee, Seung Jae

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thyme and rosemary on the quality characteristics of sausages during cold storage were investigated. Sausages were prepared with thyme and rosemary powder (1 and 2%) and stored for 6 weeks at 10℃. The pH was significantly decreased in sausages by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that observed in the control before and after storage. At 4 weeks of storage, the residual nitrite content was decreased by thyme and rosemary compared to the control. Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were increased during storage, whereas redness (a*) and whiteness (W) were decreased before and after storage by addition of thyme and rosemary. The amount of TPC and lactic acid bacteria was lower at the end of storage in sausage containing thyme and rosemary. The 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity of sausages was increased by addition of thyme and rosemary compared to that in the control before and after storage. In particular, T2 (0.2% thyme addition) showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity during storage. In a sensory evaluation, flavor and overall acceptability were lower in sausages containing thyme and rosemary than in the control. However, at the end of storage (6 wk), aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were not significantly different among the sausage samples. PMID:27857542

  10. Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: An ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Alberto; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto; Lavagnolo, Maria Cristina; Barausse, Alberto; Rieple, Antonia; Laurent, Alexis; Cossu, Raffaello

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, the number of decentralized farm biogas plants has increased significantly in the EU. This development leads not only to an increasing amount of biogas produced, but also to a higher amount of digestate obtained. One of the most attractive options to manage the digestate is to apply it as biofertiliser to the soil, because this gives the opportunity of recovering the nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, and of attenuating the loss of organic matter suffered by soils under agricultural exploitation. Studies have claimed that digestates can present a residual biodegradability, and contain complex organic elements, salts or pathogenic bacteria that can damage terrestrial organisms. However few ecotoxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of digestate application on soil. In this study, the use of digestate as biofertiliser in agriculture was assessed by a battery of ecotoxicological tests considering the potential pollutants present in the digestate as a whole by using the "matrix-based" approach (also known as "whole effluent toxicity" for eluates or wastewater effluents). The direct and indirect tests included plant bioassays with Lepidium sativum, earthworm bioassays with Eisenia fetida, aquatic organisms (Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna) and luminescent bacteria bioassays (Vibrio fischeri). Direct tests occurred to be more sensitive than indirect tests. The earthworm bioassays did not show serious negative effects for concentrations up to 15% (dry weight/dry weight percent, w/w dm) and the plant bioassays showed no negative effect, but rather a positive one for concentrations lower than 20% (w/w dm), which encourages the use of digestate as a biofertiliser in agriculture provided that proper concentrations are used. The indirect tests, on the eluate, with the using aquatic organisms and luminescent bacteria showed an LC50 value of 13.61% volume/volume percent, v/v) for D. magna and no toxicity for

  11. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinero, Kennan Kellaris; Keller, Keith; Feil, William S.; Feil, Helene; Trong, Stephan; Di Bartolo, Genevieve; Lapidus, Alla

    2008-11-17

    Initial interest in Dechloromonas aromatica strain RCB arose from its ability to anaerobically degrade benzene. It is also able to reduce perchlorate and oxidize chlorobenzoate, toluene, and xylene, creating interest in using this organism for bioremediation. Little physiological data has been published for this microbe. It is considered to be a free-living organism. The a priori prediction that the D. aromatica genome would contain previously characterized 'central' enzymes involved in anaerobic aromatic degradation proved to be false, suggesting the presence of novel anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways in this species. These missing pathways include the benzyl succinyl synthase (bssABC) genes (responsible for formate addition to toluene) and the central benzoylCoA pathway for monoaromatics. In depth analyses using existing TIGRfam, COG, and InterPro models, and the creation of de novo HMM models, indicate a highly complex lifestyle with a large number of environmental sensors and signaling pathways, including a relatively large number of GGDEF domain signal receptors and multiple quorum sensors. A number of proteins indicate interactions with an as yet unknown host, as indicated by the presence of predicted cell host remodeling enzymes, effector enzymes, hemolysin-like proteins, adhesins, NO reductase, and both type III and type VI secretory complexes. Evidence of biofilm formation including a proposed exopolysaccharide complex with the somewhat rare exosortase (epsH), is also present. Annotation described in this paper also reveals evidence for several metabolic pathways that have yet to be observed experimentally, including a sulphur oxidation (soxFCDYZAXB) gene cluster, Calvin cycle enzymes, and nitrogen fixation (including RubisCo, ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase, and nif gene families, respectively). Analysis of the D. aromatica genome indicates there is much to be learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial

  12. Metabolic analysis of the soil microbe Dechloromonas aromatica str. RCB: indications of a surprisingly complex life-style and cryptic anaerobic pathways for aromatic degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feil Helene

    2009-08-01

    learned regarding the metabolic capabilities, and life-style, for this microbial species. Examples of recent gene duplication events in signaling as well as dioxygenase clusters are present, indicating selective gene family expansion as a relatively recent event in D. aromatica's evolutionary history. Gene families that constitute metabolic cycles presumed to create D. aromatica's environmental 'foot-print' indicate a high level of diversification between its predicted capabilities and those of its close relatives, A. aromaticum str EbN1 and Azoarcus BH72.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Residual Stress in Wide Butt Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of residual stress in steel members can significantly compromise the stiffness and fatigue life of steel structural components. This influence becomes more serious for the wide butt welds in the construction of large-sized steel members due to the different residual stress distribution from the normal size butt welds. This paper experimentally studied the residual stress in the wide butt welds through an 8-experiment test program. High residual stress was produced during the wide butt welding and this stress was observed to be even higher than the yield strength of the steel. Moreover, this residual stress in the steel plate was firstly compressive and then transferred into tensile stress with the increase in the distance away from the butt weld line. The magnitude of the residual stress increased with the increase in the width of the welding seams. This paper also developed a finite element model by SYSWELD to simulate the residual stress produced by the wide butt welding. The accuracy of the FE simulation was checked by the reported test results. In order to reduce the residual stress, the ultrasonic peening method was adopted. The analysis results indicated that ultrasonic peening method effectively reduced the residual stress caused by the wide butt welding during the construction.

  14. Heart Disease Is Associated With Anthropometric Indices and Change in Body Size Perception Over the Life Course: The Golestan Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vaani P; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Islami, Farhad; Pourshams, Akram; Poutschi, Hossein; Khademi, Hooman; Naeimi, Mohammad; Malekshah, Akbar Fazel-Tabar; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Kamangar, Farin; Etemadi, Arash; Pharoah, Paul D; Abnet, Christian C; Brennan, Paul; Dawsey, Sanford M; Fuster, Valentin; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease and obesity are now becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the relationship between prevalent heart disease (HD) and current anthropometric indices and body size perception over time from adolescence to adulthood in Iran. We present a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective study of adults in Golestan Province, Iran. Demographics, cardiac history, and current anthropometric indices-body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio-were recorded. Body size perception for ages 15 years, 30 years, and at the time of interview was assessed via pictograms. Associations of these factors and temporal change in perceived body size with HD were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Complete data were available for 50,044 participants; 6.1% of which reported having HD. Higher body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio were associated with HD (p < 0.001). Men had a U-shaped relationship between HD and body size perception at younger ages. For change in body size perception, men and women demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with prevalent HD from adolescence to early adulthood, but a J-shaped pattern from early to late adulthood. HD was associated with anthropometric indices and change in body size perception over time for men and women in Iran. Due to the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- and middle-income countries, interventions focused on decreasing the cumulative burden of risk factors throughout the life course may be an important component of cardiovascular risk reduction. Copyright © 2015 World Heart Federation (Geneva). All rights reserved.

  15. Life cycle assessment. Specific indicators for Italy in impact evaluation; Life cycle assessment: sviluppo di indicatori specific per l'Italia per la fase di valutazione d'impatto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoni, P. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia; Scimia, E. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    After a brief recall and a short description of the LCA (life cycle assessment) methodology, the work is focused on the impact assessment step, discussing the state of the art and a critical identification of environmental indicators, of normalization and weighting principles for the different environmental categories specific for Italy. The application methodology to a case study concerning the production of butter by the Consorzio Granterre of Modena (Italy) is also described. [Italian] Il lavoro analizza la fase centrale della metodologia denominata valutazione d'impatto, resentando una rassegna dello stato dell'arte e un'individuazione critica dei possibili indicatori ambientali, di criteri di normalizzazione e di attribuzione di pesi ai diversi temi ambientali specific per l'Italia. Viene descritta l'applicazione ad un caso concreto relativo alla produzione del burro nel consorzio Granterre di Modena.

  16. Effects of a standard provision versus an autonomy supportive exercise referral programme on physical activity, quality of life and well-being indicators: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK has recommended that the effectiveness of ongoing exercise referral schemes to promote physical activity should be examined in research trials. Recent empirical evidence in health care and physical activity promotion contexts provides a foundation for testing the feasibility and impact of a Self Determination Theory-based (SDT) exercise referral consultation. Methods An exploratory cluster randomised controlled trial comparing standard provision exercise referral with an exercise referral intervention grounded in Self Determination Theory. Individuals (N = 347) referred to an exercise referral scheme were recruited into the trial from 13 centres. Outcomes and processes of change measured at baseline, 3 and 6-months: Minutes of self-reported moderate or vigorous physical activity (PA) per week (primary outcome), health status, positive and negative indicators of emotional well-being, anxiety, depression, quality of life (QOL), vitality, and perceptions of autonomy support from the advisor, need satisfaction (3 and 6 months only), intentions to be active, and motivational regulations for exercise. Blood pressure and weight were assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Perceptions of the autonomy support provided by the health and fitness advisor (HFA) did not differ by arm. Between group changes over the 6-months revealed significant differences for reported anxiety only. Within arm contrasts revealed significant improvements in anxiety and most of the Dartmouth CO-OP domains in the SDT arm at 6 months, which were not seen in the standard exercise referral group. A process model depicting hypothesized relationships between advisor autonomy support, need satisfaction and more autonomous motivation, enhanced well being and PA engagement at follow up was supported. Conclusions Significant gains in physical activity and improvements in quality of life and well-being outcomes emerged

  17. Global warming impact assessment of a crop residue gasification project—A dynamic LCA perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic LCA is proposed considering time-varying factors. • Dynamic LCA is used to highlight GHG emission hotspots of gasification projects. • Indicators are proposed to reflect GHG emission performance. • Dynamic LCA alters the static LCA results. • Crop residue gasification project has high GHG abatement potential. - Abstract: Bioenergy from crop residues is one of the prevailing sustainable energy sources owing to the abundant reserves worldwide. Amongst a wide variety of energy conversion technologies, crop residue gasification has been regarded as promising owing to its higher energy efficiency than that of direct combustion. However, prior to large-scale application of crop residue gasification, the lifetime environmental performance should be investigated to shed light on sustainable strategies. As traditional static life cycle assessment (LCA) does not include temporal information for dynamic processes, we proposed a dynamic life cycle assessment approach, which improves the static LCA approach by considering time-varying factors, e.g., greenhouse gas characterization factors and energy intensity. As the gasification project can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) discharge compared with traditional direct fuel combustion, trade-offs between the benefits of global warming mitigation and the impact on global warming of crop residue gasification should be considered. Therefore, indicators of net global warming mitigation benefit and global warming impact mitigation period are put forward to justify the feasibility of the crop residue gasification project. The proposed dynamic LCA and indicators were then applied to estimate the life cycle global warming impact of a crop residue gasification system in China. Results show that the crop residue gasification project has high net global warming mitigation benefit and a short global warming impact mitigation period, indicating its prominent potential in alleviating global warming impact. During

  18. Residual deficits in quality of life one year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Results of a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, Silke; Raguse, Marieclaire; Voigt, Christian; Petersen, Cordula; Kruell, Andreas [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hamburg (Germany); Muenscher, Adrian [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Groebe, Alexander [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Bergelt, Corinna [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Medical Psychology, Hamburg (Germany); Singer, Susanne [University Medical Center Mainz, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), Mainz (Germany)

    2015-03-08

    Patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) undergo life-changing treatments that can seriously affect quality of life (QoL). This prospective study examined the key QoL domains during the first year after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and identified predictors of these changes in order to improve patient outcomes. A consecutive series of patients with LAHNC completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core module (QLQ-C30) and the HNC-specific QLQ-HN35 before (t0) and at the end (t1) of definitive or adjuvant IMRT, then at 6-8 weeks (t2), 6 months (t3), and 1 year (t4) after IMRT. Patients (n = 111) completing questionnaires at all five time points were included (baseline response rate: 99 %; dropout rate between t0 and t4: 5 %). QoL deteriorated in all domains during IMRT and improved slowly during the first year thereafter. Many domains recovered to baseline values after 1 year but problems with smelling and tasting, dry mouth, and sticky saliva remained issues at this time. Increases in problems with sticky saliva were greater after 1 year in patients with definitive versus adjuvant IMRT (F = 3.5, P = 0.05). QoL in patients with LAHNC receiving IMRT takes approximately 1 year to return to baseline; some domains remain compromised after 1 year. Although IMRT aims to maintain function and QoL, patients experience long-term dry mouth and sticky saliva, particularly following definitive IMRT. Patients should be counseled at the start of therapy to reduce disappointment with the pace of recovery. (orig.) [German] Die Therapie von Patienten mit lokal fortgeschrittenen Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (LFKHT) geht mit einschneidenden Veraenderungen einher und beeinflusst die Lebensqualitaet (LQ) erheblich. Diese prospektive Studie untersucht die LQ waehrend des ersten Jahres nach intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IMRT) und hat Praediktoren dieser Veraenderungen herausgearbeitet, um

  19. Residual life evaluation of thermal power plants (RET) project. Part 2. Phase II of Ret project; Setsubi shindan gijutsu jissho shiken. 2. Phase II (keikaku oyobi chukan hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K.; Murao, S.; Tomita, A.; Saito, K. [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-15

    Studies are made to systematize damage assessment steps for the management of remaining life for long-used power generation facilities, and a demonstration test is conducted. In the demonstration test, a unit, out of the units constituting a supercritical pressure plant, with its service time exceeding 10,000 hours is selected and the welding heat affected zone of the thick parent metal section of its superheater outlet pipe is examined. The test is conducted by means of hardness measurement, structure comparison method, electrical resistance measurement, parameter A method, crystal grain deformation method, void area rate method, ultrasonic method, and analytical method, and the results are examined. The damage assessment system in this report is defined as a system in which the degree of damage of equipment may be evaluated in a simplified way by use of non-destructive techniques, to be constituted of a damage mode selecting system for each part involved, primary damage evaluation system, and a damage evaluation technological database. In the structure inspection method demonstration test conducted for a real casting machine, specimens collected from high temperature/stress zones and low temperature/stress zones are subjected to an iso-stress test and creep discontinuance test for the collection of creep-related data. 1 ref., 22 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Adaption of cardio-respiratory balance during day-rest compared to deep sleep--an indicator for quality of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonin, Dietrich; Grote, Vincent; Buri, Caroline; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Moser, Max; Wolf, Ursula; Laederach, Kurt

    2014-11-30

    Heart rate and breathing rate fluctuations represent interacting physiological oscillations. These interactions are commonly studied using respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) or analyzing cardiorespiratory synchronization. Earlier work has focused on a third type of relationship, the temporal ratio of respiration rate and heart rate (HRR). Each method seems to reveal a specific aspect of cardiorespiratory interaction and may be suitable for assessing states of arousal and relaxation of the organism. We used HRR in a study with 87 healthy subjects to determine the ability to relax during 5 day-resting periods in comparison to deep sleep relaxation. The degree to which a person during waking state could relax was compared to somatic complaints, health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our results show, that HRR is barely connected to balance (LF/HF) in HRV, but significantly correlates to the perception of general health and mental well-being as well as to depression. If relaxation, as expressed in HRR, during day-resting is near to deep sleep relaxation, the subjects felt healthier, indicated better mental well-being and less depressive moods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Length Normalized Indices for Fat Mass and Fat-Free Mass in Preterm and Term Infants during the First Six Months of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipsita Goswami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Postnatal tissue accretion in preterm infants differs from those in utero, affecting body composition (BC and lifelong morbidity. Length normalized BC data allows infants with different body lengths to be compared and followed longitudinally. This study aims to analyze BC of preterm and term infants during the first six months of life. Methods: The BC data, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, of 389 preterm and 132 term infants from four longitudinal studies were combined. Fat-mass/length2 (FMI and fat-free mass/length2 (FFMI for postmenstrual age were calculated after reaching full enteral feeding, at term and two further time points up to six months corrected age. Results: Median FMI (preterm increased from 0.4 kg/m2 at 30 weeks to 2.5, 4.3, and 4.8 kg/m2 compared to 1.7, 4.7, and 6 kg/m2 in term infants at 40, 52, and 64 weeks, respectively. Median FFMI (preterm increased from 8.5 kg/m2 (30 weeks to 11.4 kg/m2 (45 weeks and remained constant thereafter, whereas term FFMI remained constant at 11 kg/m2 throughout the tested time points. Conclusion: The study provides a large dataset of length normalized BC indices. Followed longitudinally, term and preterm infants differ considerably during early infancy in the pattern of change in FMI and FFMI for age.

  2. Beyond Abstinence: Changes in Indices of Quality of Life with Time in Recovery in a Nationally Representative Sample of U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Greene, M Claire; Bergman, Brandon G

    2018-04-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment and recovery research typically have focused narrowly on changes in alcohol/drug use (e.g., "percent days abstinent") with little attention on changes in functioning or well-being. Furthermore, little is known about whether and when such changes may occur, and for whom, as people progress in recovery. Greater knowledge would improve understanding of recovery milestones and points of vulnerability and growth. National, probability-based, cross-sectional sample of U.S. adults who screened positive to the question, "Did you used to have a problem with alcohol or drugs but no longer do?" (Response = 63.4% from 39,809; final weighted sample n = 2,002). Linear, spline, and quadratic regressions tested relationships between time in recovery and 5 measures of well-being: quality of life, happiness, self-esteem, recovery capital, and psychological distress, over 2 temporal horizons: the first 40 years and the first 5 years, after resolving an AOD problem and tested moderators (sex, race, primary substance) of effects. Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing regression was used to explore turning points. In general, in the 40-year horizon there were initially steep increases in indices of well-being (and steep drops in distress), during the first 6 years, followed by shallower increases. In the 5-year horizon, significant drops in self-esteem and happiness were observed initially during the first year followed by increases. Moderator analyses examining primary substance found that compared to alcohol and cannabis, those with opioid or other drugs (e.g., stimulants) had substantially lower recovery capital in the early years; mixed race/native Americans tended to exhibit poorer well-being compared to White people; and women consistently reported lower indices of well-being over time than men. Recovery from AOD problems is associated with dynamic monotonic improvements in indices of well-being with the exception of the first year

  3. Impacto do manejo de resíduos orgânicos durante a reforma de plantios de eucalipto sobre indicadores de qualidade do solo Impact of organic residue management on soil quality indicators during replanting of eucalypt stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Montandon Chaer

    2007-12-01

    microbiological and biochemical attributes proved more adequate than the chemical or physical indicators to detect soil quality changes due to management. The greatest disturbance caused by the removal or burning of organic material on the soil surface was evidenced by the higher qCO2 and lower qMIC in the upper soil layer (0 to 5 cm. The principal component analysis underlying the graphical representation demonstrated that soil under secondary forest, taken as reference for soil quality, was very distant from that under eucalyptus, demonstrating that the introduction of eucalyptus monoculture causes significant changes in soil quality. The soil quality of a eucalyptus stand left unharvested after the first normal seven years cycle (11 year-old stand was the closest to the area with native forest, followed by the soils under eucalyptus subjected to management systems that prioritized organic residue conservation during stand replanting. Contrarily, areas from which the organic material at the soil surface was removed or burned appeared very distant from the reference area. Our results show that the management system adopted during eucalyptus stand replanting influenced, in the medium term, the potential of soils to store and cycle nutrients via microbial biomass and associated biochemical activities. The fact that the 11 years old eucalyptus stand was closest to the reference area may suggest that the adoption of longer cycles for eucalyptus plantations, contrasting with the actual model of short rotation eucalyptus forests in Brazil (about seven years, is relevant to maintain soil sustainability for eucalyptus production in the long run, in spite of the lower mean annual productivity. In this case, the option for a higher productivity in the short and medium term, or for the sustainability of soil use, with the consequent maintenance of its quality for the future generations, should be reevaluated from the data presented here.

  4. Isolation of a bacteria of the Bacillus genus as indicator in the disinfection of residual waters by means of the ionizing radiation (e{sup -} , {gamma}); Aislamiento de una bacteria del genero Bacillus como indicador en la desinfeccion de aguas residuales mediante la radiacion ionizante (e{sup -} , {gamma})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata J, M

    2003-07-01

    The pollutants of the water can be chemical, physical and biological. Among those biological we find to the microorganisms: bacterias, virus and protozoa. These cause important infections in many countries, mainly of Latin America. With the advance of the technology and the quick demographic growth, the biological pollution of the water has already become an important topic since it would damage the public health and it causes that their disinfection has greater attention. In the treatment of residual waters three basic treatments exist the one primary, secondary and tertiary; in this last we find the disinfection, which can be taken to end by chemical and physical methods. For this work of investigation it was used the ionizing radiation, because it is an innovative technology that it eliminates microorganisms in residual waters. The investigation consisted on treating, samples of residual water after the biological treatment of the plant RECICLAGUA with ionizing radiation (electrons and gammas), for the case of electrons it was used the dose of 0.5 kGy and for gamma the dose, of 5 kGy, later the survivor bacteria was isolated to these doses in both cases and they were carried out the tests of identification. In accordance with the obtained results can say that it is about a B. subtilis. The isolated B.subtilis was presented as a pollutant of the flora of the residual water, having a greater survival to the dose of 0.5 and 5 kGy with electrons and gammas, respectively that other present polluting microorganisms in the samples of residual water. For it fits signalize that this microorganism shows characteristics as it easy isolation and identification, the presence with pathogen microorganisms and a greater survival when being irradiated, therefore it can use as indicator in the disinfection of residual waters through ionizing radiation (electrons and gammas). (Author)

  5. Marital Status, Career and Income as Indicators of Life Satisfaction Among Middle-aged Career Women in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Marziah Zakaria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Life satisfaction is a subjective construct that varies according to gender, education level, age, income, marital status, and other demographic factors. Life satisfaction is an important issue among middle-aged women. They face various responsibilities, roles and expectation at this age. The objective of this article is to identify the differences in life satisfaction among middle-aged Malay women from different educational level, marital status, career and income. This study applied a survey technique, which is a set of questionnaire which consisted of socio-demographic scale and life satisfaction scale (based on Life Satisfaction Index - Short Form by Barrette and Murk, 2006. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling have been used to obtain the responses. A total of 410 middle-aged career women in Hulu Langat, Selangor have participated in this study. The finding showed that life satisfactions among middle-aged women are different depending on their marital status, career and income. This was based on the result of ANOVA. Single women and widower who are working in private sector and of low-income level reported to have the lowest life satisfaction. This finding may provide input to the planning of programs to enhance the well-being and life satisfaction among middle aged career women.

  6. Feeding potential of summer grain crop residues for woolled sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    greater amounts than indicated in Table 2. Percentage utilization of residues. Using the values obtained from quadrat sampling of the residues before and after grazing, the percentage utilization of residue components could be estimated. The results are shown in Table 3. Table 3 Percentage utilization a of residues. Lupins.

  7. finite element model for predicting residual stresses in shielded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Diffractometer (XRD 6000). From the Finite Element Model Simulation, the transverse residual stress in the x ... Keywords: Residual stress, 3D FEM, Shielded manual metal arc welding, Low Carbon Steel (ASTM A36), X-Ray diffraction, degree of ..... I. ''Residual stress effects on fatigue life of welded structures using LEFM'',.

  8. Energy price indices and discount factors for life-cycle analysis, April 1998. Annual supplement to NIST handbook 135 and NBS special publication 709, April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, S.K.

    1998-04-01

    This report is the April 1998 edition of energy price indices and discount factors for performing life-cycle cost analyses of energy and water conservation and renewable energy projects in federal facilities. It will be effective from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. This publication supports the federal life-cycle costing methodology by updating the energy price projections and discount factors that are described, explained, and illustrated in NIST Handbook 135 (HB 135, Life-Cycle Costing Manual for the Federal Energy Management Program (PB96-172317)). It supports private-sector life-cycle cost analysis by updating the energy price indices that are described, explained, and illustrated in NBS Special Publication 709 (SP 709).

  9. Nuevos indicadores clínicos: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud New clinical indicators: Health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Consiglio

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha incrementado el interés por la obtención de nuevos indicadores clínicos a partir de la necesidad de evaluar mejor los desenlaces en salud. En este contexto ha surgido el estudio de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS, que evalúa un modelo multidimensional en el que el paciente constituye la fuente primaria de información. El objetivo último consiste en la evaluación global de las consecuencias que ocasionan las enfermedades y sus tratamientos en la vida cotidiana de los pacientes. Para ello se han desarrollado instrumentos de medición (cuestionarios, en general autoadministrados, genéricos o específicos. Estos cuestionarios deben cumplir con propiedades, denominadas psicométricas, entre las que se incluyen la fiabilidad, la validez y la sensibilidad al cambio; algunos autores incluyen también a la factibilidad. La CVRS favorece un mejor conocimiento de la historia natural de las enfermedades y del impacto global de las mismas en los enfermos, complementando a los indicadores clásicos de mortalidad y morbilidad; además facilita la comparación de estrategias de intervención terapéutica en el contexto de ensayos clínicos o de estudios epidemiológicos. Aún existen aspectos técnicos no resueltos, tales como la correlación entre las puntuaciones en términos absolutos y la clínica del paciente, su valor predictivo, y los cambios del contenido de sus instrumentos de medida de acuerdo con los cambios en la historia natural de las enfermedades en evaluación.In the last decades the need of better measurements of health outcomes has increased the interest for new clinical indicators. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL has emerged in this context as a multidimensional model approach where the patient is the exclusive source of information. The main objective of HRQoL measurement is to provide a global evaluation of the impact of diseases and the consequences of treatments over the daily

  10. Residual symptoms and specific functional impairments in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, Ludovic; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Vieta, Eduard; Bellivier, Frank; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to confirm the impact of residual symptoms on overall functioning in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder in real-life conditions and to explore the relationship between residual symptoms and specific areas of functional impairment. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study of euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. The Functioning Assessment Short Test was used to assess overall and specific domains of functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time). Various residual symptoms were assessed (residual mood symptoms, emotional dysregulation, sleep and sexual disorders, stigma, and perceived cognitive impairment). Logistic regression was used to determine the best model of association between functional domains and residual symptoms. Almost half of the 468 patients included (42%) had poor overall functioning. Residual depressive symptoms appeared to have an impact on overall functioning and in nearly all areas of functioning. In addition, specific residual symptoms had significantly more negative effects on some domains of functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (residual manic symptoms and occupational stigma on autonomy, emotional inhibition on occupational functioning, residual manic symptoms on financial issues, family stigma on interpersonal relationships, and sexual function and occupational stigma on leisure time). Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating overall functioning in clinical practice as well as functional domains. They also indicate that some residuals symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder should be targeted in personalized treatment plans, in order to improve functioning in the domains in which the patient is most impaired. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Use of digestate from a decentralized on-farm biogas plant as fertilizer in soils: An ecotoxicological study for future indicators in risk and life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivato, Alberto; Vanin, Stefano; Raga, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the number of decentralized farm biogas plants has increased significantly in the EU. This development leads not only to an increasing amount of biogas produced, but also to a higher amount of digestate obtained. One of the most attractive options to manage the digestate...... is to apply it as biofertiliser to the soil, because this gives the opportunity of recovering the nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus, and of attenuating the loss of organic matter suffered by soils under agricultural exploitation. Studies have claimed that digestates can present a residual...... biodegradability, and contain complex organic elements, salts or pathogenic bacteria that can damage terrestrial organisms. However few ecotoxicological studies have been performed to evaluate the ecological impact of digestate application on soil.In this study, the use of digestate as biofertiliser in agriculture...

  12. Effects of a multifaceted treatment program for executive dysfunction after acquired brain injury on indications of executive functioning in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Boelen, Danielle H. E.; Lamberts, Kirsten F.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Fasotti, Luciano

    A multicenter randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate the effects of a treatment for dysexecutive problems after acquired brain injury (ABI) on daily life functioning. Seventy-five ABI patients were randomly allocated to either the experimental treatment, Multifaceted strategy

  13. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  14. Change of the level of adiponectin and metabolic indices in modification of life style of the patients suffering from abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Beresina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied nutritional habits, physical loads, anthropometric and metabolic perfromances, and revealed the changes required to increase the level of adiponectine under drug-free modalities of treatment of patients suffering from abdominal obesity. A 3-year randomized lifestyle intervention trial was performed in 153 patients with AO, age 30-53 yrs, 74 patients (group 1 performed individual hypocaloric diet balanced in fat intake, 79 patients (group 2 performed diet and individual aerobic exercise All patients received individual recommendations on changing their life style. Dynamics of anthropometric, metabolic parameters, physical capacity and adiponectin level were measured. Relation between low level of adiponectin and some metabolic disorders, and sedentary life were revealed. The rate of improving anthropometric parameters, physical capacity, and nutritionassociated with increasing adiponectin was established.

  15. Differences in the indicators of quality of life for older adults with hypertension living in urban and rural areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Tavares, Darlene Mara; Universidad Federal del Triángulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.; Oliveira Barreto, Geovanna; Universidad Federal del Triángulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.; Aparecida Dias, Flavia; Universidad Federal del Triángulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.; Sousa Pegorari, Maycon; Universidad Federal del Triángulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.; Fernandes Martins, Nayara Paula; Universidad Federal del Triángulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.; dos Santos Ferreira, Pollyana Cristina; Universidad Federal del Triángulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare socioeconomic, illnesses, and quality of life variables for older adults with arterial hypertension who are residents of urban and rural areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional study comprised of 1,302 older adults from the urban area and 463 from the rural area who reported suffering from arterial hypertension. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi square test, t-test, and multiple and logistic regression. Results. In urba...

  16. School Satisfaction among Adolescents: Testing Different Indicators for Its Measurement and Its Relationship with Overall Life Satisfaction and Subjective Well-Being in Romania and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ferran; Baltatescu, Sergiu; Bertran, Irma; Gonzalez, Monica; Hatos, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from two samples of adolescents aged 13-16 from Romania and Spain (N = 930 + 1,945 = 2,875). The original 7-item version of the Personal Well-Being Index (PWI) was used, together with an item on overall life satisfaction (OLS) and a set of six items related to satisfaction with school. A confirmatory factor analysis of…

  17. Global guidance on environmental life cycle impact assessment indicators: impacts of climate change, fine particulate matter formation, water consumption and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Antón, Assumpció; Boulay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    ) framework and to recommend a non-comprehensive list of environmental indicators and LCIA characterization factors for (1) climate change, (2) fine particulate matter impacts on human health, (3) water consumption impacts (both scarcity and human health) and 4) land use impacts on biodiversity. Methods...... and land use change in LCA hotspot analyses. Conclusions: The recommended environmental indicators may be used to support the UN Sustainable Development Goals in order to quantify and monitor progress towards sustainable production and consumption. These indicators will be periodically updated...

  18. Challenges in comparing the quality of life of older people between ethnic groups, and the implications for national well-being indicators: a secondary analysis of two cross-sectional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Robert L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current international interest in well-being indicators among governmental agencies means that many quality of life scales are potential components of such national indicator sets. Measuring well-being in minority groups is complex and challenging. Scales are available that have been validated in specific parts of the population, such as older people. However, validation among combinations of minority groups, such as older adults of ethnic minority backgrounds, is lacking. Findings We pooled data from two surveys of older adults in Great Britain: one conducted among White British people, and one among four ethnic minority groups. Quality of life was measured by the Older People's Quality of Life (OPQOL; Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation, Pleasure (CASP-19; and World Health Organization Quality of Life scale for older people (WHOQOL-OLD. We found differences, some significant, between groups in terms of self-reported importance of various aspects of quality of life. A regression model of each total quality of life scale revealed greater unexplained variability in the White British group than the others. Principal components analysis within each ethnic group's data showed considerable differences in the correlation structures. Conclusions There are differences between ethnic groups that are consistent across the three scales and are not explained by a battery of predictor variables. If scales such as these are used to compare quality of life between ethnic groups, or equivalently between geographical regions, the different results in each group are liable to bias any comparison which could lead to inequitable policy decisions.

  19. Can we predict which hospitalised patients are in their last year of life? A prospective cross-sectional study of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance as a screening tool in the acute hospital setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Anne; Laking, George; Frey, Rosemary; Robinson, Jackie; Gott, Merryn

    2014-09-01

    Screening to identify hospital inpatients with a short life expectancy may be a way to improve care towards the end of life. The Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance is a screening tool that has recently been advocated for use in the hospital setting. To assess the clinical utility of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance as a screening tool in an acute hospital setting. Mortality at 6 and 12 months and sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance at 1 year. Prospective cross-sectional study of 501 adult inpatients in a tertiary New Zealand teaching hospital screened utilising the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance. A total of 99 patients were identified as meeting at least one of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance triggers. In this group, 6-month mortality was 56.6% and 12-month mortality was 67.7% compared with 5.2% and 10%, respectively, for those not identified as meeting the criteria. The sensitivity and specificity of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance at 1 year were 62.6% and 91.9%, respectively, with a positive predictive value of 67.7% and a negative predictive value of 90.0%. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance in this study are comparable to, or better than, results of studies identifying patients with a limited life expectancy in particular disease states (e.g. heart failure and renal failure). Screening utilising the Gold Standards Framework Prognostic Indicator Guidance in the acute setting could be the first step towards implementing a more systematic way of addressing patient need--both current unrecognised and future anticipated--thereby improving outcomes for this population. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  1. Novel feature for catalytic protein residues reflecting interactions with other residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhou Li

    Full Text Available Owing to their potential for systematic analysis, complex networks have been widely used in proteomics. Representing a protein structure as a topology network provides novel insight into understanding protein folding mechanisms, stability and function. Here, we develop a new feature to reveal correlations between residues using a protein structure network. In an original attempt to quantify the effects of several key residues on catalytic residues, a power function was used to model interactions between residues. The results indicate that focusing on a few residues is a feasible approach to identifying catalytic residues. The spatial environment surrounding a catalytic residue was analyzed in a layered manner. We present evidence that correlation between residues is related to their distance apart most environmental parameters of the outer layer make a smaller contribution to prediction and ii catalytic residues tend to be located near key positions in enzyme folds. Feature analysis revealed satisfactory performance for our features, which were combined with several conventional features in a prediction model for catalytic residues using a comprehensive data set from the Catalytic Site Atlas. Values of 88.6 for sensitivity and 88.4 for specificity were obtained by 10-fold cross-validation. These results suggest that these features reveal the mutual dependence of residues and are promising for further study of structure-function relationship.

  2. Indicators: Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus, like nitrogen, is a critical nutrient required for all life. Phosphate (PO4), which plays major roles in the formation of DNA, cellular energy, and cell membranes (and plant cell walls). Too much phosphorus can create water quality problems.

  3. Quality of life: consideration about indicators and instruments of measure / Qualidade de vida: considerações sobre os indicadores e instrumentos de medida

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Everton Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The measuring instruments are developed for many different purposes and directions, being held by generic scales of health status and specific scales to a given situation. This study aimed to discuss the important issues that permeate the use of measuring instruments and provide a systematic way of indicators and measuring instruments used in QL and validated in Brazil. It was conducted a study of narrative review of available knowledge in the literature, consultation...

  4. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Fonseka, Chathuranga Lakmal; Gunasekara, Priyanka; Jayasinghe, Prasanjanie; Maduranga, Dasun

    2014-01-01

    Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students' quality of life (QoL) and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Fourth-year medical students (n=78) from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin) were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1) when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1) levels (pexam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74-1.4 mIU/L) was significantly lower (p=0.001) when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90-3.60). The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; pexam (43.15 (23.5-63.3) µg/L) was significantly lower (p≤0.001) when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9-94.9) µg/L). However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41). Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological, Social interaction and Environment). The higher the QoL scores, the better the grades were. It was also found that students who failed exhibited profound differences in the

  5. How does the quality of life and the underlying biochemical indicators correlate with the performance in academic examinations in a group of medical students of Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Hettiarachchi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individual variation of examination performance depends on many modifiable and non-modifiable factors, including pre-examination anxiety. Medical students’ quality of life (QoL and certain biochemical changes occurring while they are preparing for examinations has not been explored. Purpose: We hypothesize that these parameters would determine the examination performance among medical students. Methods: Fourth-year medical students (n=78 from the University of Ruhuna, Sri Lanka, were invited. Their pre- and post-exam status of QoL, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, and the level of biochemical marker levels (i.e., serum levels of thyroid profile including thyroglobulin, cortisol and ferritin were assessed. Differences between the scores of QoL and serum parameters were compared with their performance at the examination. Results: The mean QoL score was significantly lower at pre-exam (56.19±8.1 when compared with post-exam (61.7±7.1 levels (p<0.001. The median serum TSH level prior to the exam (0.9 mIU/L; interquartile range 0.74–1.4 mIU/L was significantly lower (p=0.001 when compared with the level after the exam (median of 2.7 mIU/L; IQR 1.90–3.60. The mean±SD fT4 level was significantly higher before the exam (19.48±0.4 pmol/L at study entry vs. 17.43±0.3 pmol/L after the exam; p<0.001. Median serum ferritin (SF level prior to the exam (43.15 (23.5–63.3 µg/L was significantly lower (p≤0.001 when compared with after-exam status (72.36 (49.9–94.9 µg/L. However, there was no difference in mean serum cortisol levels (16.51±0.7 at pre-exam and 15.88±0.7 at post-exam, respectively; p=0.41. Conclusions: Students had higher fT4 and low ferritin levels on pre-exam biochemical assessment. It was evident that students who perform better at the examination had significantly higher QoL scores at each domain tested through the questionnaire (Physical health, Psychological

  6. The relationship between four health-related quality of life indicators and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pranav K.; Gentry, William M.; Kibert, Jeffery L.; Lee, Erica Y.; Jordan, Whitney; Bottorff, Michael B.; Huang, I-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Limited evidence is available to explain the role of four components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) on breast and cervical cancer screening. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between four HRQoL aspects and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women. Methods Data were obtained from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The outcome variables were receiving mammogram Pap test test the role of four HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, mental HRQoL, and activity limitation) on the two screening variables, after adjusting for covariates. Statistical analysis accounted for the complex sampling design of the BRFSS and the a priori alpha error was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results Among respondents, approximately 74% and 78% of the women received mammography and Pap test, respectively. Three HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, and activity limitation) were significantly associated with mammography use (all p-valuesPap test (p-values≤0.05). All significant relationships demonstrated higher cancer screening rates among individuals with better HRQoL. Conclusions HRQoL is an important factor associated with use of mammography and Pap test. Future studies should explore the mechanisms associated with an individual's HRQoL and use HRQoL assessment as an avenue to influence adherence to use of mammography and Pap tests. PMID:25804316

  7. The relationship between four health-related quality-of-life indicators and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Pranav K; Gentry, William M; Kibert, Jeffery L; Lee, Erica Y; Jordan, Whitney; Bottorff, Michael B; Huang, I-Chan

    2015-09-01

    Limited evidence is available to explain the role of four components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) on breast and cervical cancer screening. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between four HRQoL aspects and use of mammography and Pap test screening in US women. Data were obtained from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The outcome variables were receiving mammogram Pap test test the role of four HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, mental HRQoL, and activity limitation) on the two screening variables, after adjusting for covariates. Statistical analysis accounted for the complex sampling design of the BRFSS, and the a priori alpha error was set at p ≤ 0.05. Among respondents, approximately 74 and 78 % of the women received mammography and Pap test, respectively. Three HRQoL aspects (general health status, physical HRQoL, and activity limitation) were significantly associated with mammography use (all p values Pap test (p values ≤ 0.05). All significant relationships demonstrated higher cancer screening rates among individuals with better HRQoL. HRQoL is an important factor associated with use of mammography and Pap test. Future studies should explore the mechanisms associated with an individual's HRQoL and use HRQoL assessment as an avenue to influence adherence to use of mammography and Pap tests.

  8. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  9. Prediction of machining induced residual stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Monangi; Reddy, Yarkareddy Gopi; Prakash Marimuthu, K.

    2017-07-01

    Whenever a component is machined, residual stresses are induced in it. These residual stresses induced in the component reduce its fatigue life, corrosion resistance and wear resistance. Thus it is important to predict and control the machining-induced residual stress. A lot of research is being carried out in this area in the past decade. This paper aims at prediction of residual stresses during machining of Ti-6Al-4V. A model was developed and under various combinations of cutting conditions such as, speed, feed and depth of cut, the behavior of residual stresses were simulated using Finite Element Model. The present work deals with the development of thermo-mechanical model to predict the machining induced residual stresses in Titanium alloy. The simulation results are compared with the published results. The results are in good agreement with the published results. Future work involves optimization or the cutting parameters that effect the machining induced residual stresses. The results obtained were validated with previous work.

  10. Self-assessment of well-being as an indicator of quality of life of former war prisoners - A Croatian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncar, Mladen; Plasć, Ivana Dijanić; Bunjevac, Tomislav; Henigsberg, Neven; Hrabac, Pero; Groznica, Ivana; Marcinko, Vesna; Jevtović, Sasa

    2011-01-01

    The impact of war on the population is vast, especially when it comes to those who were directly affected by war, among other things as concentration camp detainees. Because of the specific war experience of this population it is important to better understand the possible contribution of key socio-demographic variables, war traumatization and acute disturbances in mental health to their subjective assessment of their own well-being, which represents a psychological category and is based on a subjective assessment. The starting point is a theoretical precept according to which individual characteristics, together with war experience, can have repercussions on mental health, and eventually on the general well-being of an individual and their quality of life. The study comprised 184participants who had given their informed consent for participation and filled out complete questionnaires. The participants were a convenience sample of male persons who had survived war captivity in the Homeland War in the period from 1991 to 1995. The study was conducted as part of the physical examinations at the University Hospital "Fran Mihaljević" in Zagreb. The data was collected using several self-evaluation measuring instruments one of which served to collect socio-demographic data, two to collect data on the participants' mental health, one for the data on the participants' combat and war experiences and one to assess the participants' well-being. The data obtained suggest that only avoidance and arousal symptoms and psychosomatic difficulties are predictors of the well-being of persons who have experienced war captivity.

  11. Residual strength evaluation of concrete structural components ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to failure. It is of interest to characterize the material behaviour subjected to such loading and study the crack propagation, remaining life and residual strength resulting from such loading. The current approaches used to evaluate fatigue performance of concrete members are mainly empirical. Fatigue equations based on ...

  12. Empirical Productivity Indices and Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe empirical measurement of productivity change (or difference) by means of indices and indicators starts with the ex post profit/loss accounts of a production unit. Key concepts are profit, leading to indicators, and profitability, leading to indices. The main task for the productivity

  13. Dynamics of phoxim residues in green onion and soil as influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa Yuan; Shi, Zhao Yong; Tong, Rui Jian; Xu, Xiao Feng

    2011-01-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides in crops and soil pose a serious threat to public health and environment. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may make a contribution to organophosphate degradation in soil and consequently decrease chemical residues in crops. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of Glomus caledonium 90036 and Acaulospora mellea ZZ on the dynamics of phoxim residues in green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) and soil at different harvest dates after phoxim application. Results show that mycorrhizal colonization rates of inoculated plants were higher than 70%. Shoot and root fresh weights did not vary with harvest dates but increased significantly in AM treatments. Phoxim residues in plants and soil decreased gradually with harvest dates, and markedly reduced in AM treatments. Kinetic analysis indicated that phoxim degradation in soil followed a first-order kinetic model. AM inoculation accelerated the degradation process and reduced the half-life. G. caledonium 90036 generally produced more pronounced effects than A. mellea ZZ on both the plant growth and phoxim residues in plants and soil. Our results indicate a promising potential of AM fungi for the control of organophosphate residues in vegetables, as well as for the phytoremediation of organophosphorus pesticide-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of main medico-demographic health indices and analysis of life span of children in different generations born among rural population of contaminated areas of Kaluga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedeva, A.I.; Matveenko, E.G.; Omel'chenko, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the results of study, analysis and forecast of the demographic effects of the Chernobyl accident in the most contaminated areas in the Kaluga region. A uniform technique was used for the study. The rural settlements with 1-15 Cu/m 2 radioactive contamination density were examined. The rural population of the Borovsk area free from the radioactive contamination was used as a control area. The period of examination - from 1981 up to 1990. The following indices were studied: birth rate and child mortality, stillbirth, ratio of born sexes, survival of children. It was determined that irradiation of the population resulted from the Chernobyl accident at the given moment does not affect the demographic situation in the region

  15. Life Assessment and Life Extension of an Aircraft Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aghaie-Khafri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of heat treatment and shot peening on the fatigue life of an aluminum aircraft wheel was studied. The effect of residual stress and heat treatment on the fatigue of specimens was studied by means of fatigue testing, residual stress measurement, and fractography. Finite element simulation was used for life assessment and evaluation of the effect of surface treatments on the life extension of the aircraft wheel. The results obtained show that the operational life of the aircraft wheel extended by imposed compressive residual stress and aging treatment.

  16. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  17. Exceptional indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Razamat, Shlomo S.

    2012-05-01

    Recently a prescription to compute the superconformal index for all theories of class S was proposed. In this paper we discuss some of the physical information which can be extracted from this index. We derive a simple criterion for the given theory of class S to have a decoupled free component and for it to have enhanced flavor symmetry. Furthermore, we establish a criterion for the "good", the "bad", and the "ugly" trichotomy of the theories. After interpreting the prescription to compute the index with non-maximal flavor symmetry as a residue calculus we address the computation of the index of the bad theories. In particular we suggest explicit expressions for the superconformal index of higher rank theories with E n flavor symmetry, i.e. for the Hilbert series of the multi- instanton moduli space of E n .

  18. Residual stress field of ballised holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Man On; He, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Ballising, involving pushing a slightly over-sized ball made of hard material through a hole, is a kind of cold working process. Applying ballising process to fastener holes produces compressive residual stress on the edge of the holes, and therefore increases the fatigue life of the components or structures. Quantification of the residual stress field is critical to define and precede the ballising process. In this article, the ballised holes are modeled as cold-expanded holes. Elastic-perfectly plastic theory is employed to analyze the holes with cold expansion process. For theoretical simplification, an axially symmetrical thin plate with a cold expanded hole is assumed. The elasticplastic boundaries and residual stress distribution surrounding the cold expanded hole are derived. With the analysis, the residual stress field can be obtained together with actual cold expansion process in which only the diameters of hole before and after cold expansion need to be measured. As it is a non-destructive method, it provides a convenient way to estimate the elastic-plastic boundaries and residual stresses of cold worked holes. The approach is later extended to the case involving two cold-worked holes. A ballised hole is looked upon as a cold expanded hole and therefore is investigated by the approach. Specimens ballised with different interference levels are investigated. The effects of interference levels and specimen size on residual stresses are studied. The overall residual stresses of plates with two ballised holes are obtained by superposing the residual stresses induced on a single ballised hole. The effects of distance between the centers of the two holes with different interference levels on the residual stress field are revealed

  19. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training--IPET--intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike; Dalager, Tina; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-06-26

    Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950.

  20. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950. PMID:24964869

  1. Easy life of males? Indirect evidence that growth is easier than egg production in mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards (Varanus indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Frýdlová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In male-larger species of animals, males typically continue to grow after the age of female sexual maturation has been reached. Consequently, a switch of energy allocation occurs as the female investment from growth is shifted into egg production. We focus on the transitional period when both sexes heavily invest into anabolic processes; males invest in the development of body tissues while females predominantly invest in egg production. In captive mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards, we found that relative food intakes as well as quantitative estimates of anabolic processes (relative growth and egg production rates are fairly comparable between the sexes. In spite of this biochemical clinical values and body condition indices revealed sex differences suggesting costs of reproduction in females. These results clearly illustrate that growth and egg production still substantially differ in associated physiological costs. This may be attributed to qualitative requirements (nutrients, minerals, etc. of these processes. Our results correspond well with the higher susceptibility and mortality rates of females than males in many lizard species in captivity.

  2. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  3. [Effect of variation of lemon intake and walking in daily life on various indicators of muscle mass and blood biochemistry in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Kato, Yoji; Miyake, Yukiko; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsushi; Harada, Toshihide; Aoi, Satomi; Ikeda, Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the factors considered to change body composition and blood biochemistry indicators in menopausal middle-aged and elderly women. These changes result from exercise by walking as part of their daily activities and lemon consumption by women who live on the small islands of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan's largest citrus fruit (lemon)-producing region. Between September 2011 and March 2012, we recorded the daily lemon consumption and the number of steps taken by 101 middle-aged and elderly female lemon farmers. We also measured their body dimensions, body compositions, and blood pressure pulse wave velocity and conducted blood tests before and after the survey period. The results before and after the survey period were compared by the t-test and associations were determined on the basis of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Covariance structural analysis was carried out to determine causal associations. From the results of covariance structure analysis, lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item examined. The third item, i.e., "the factors related to arteriosclerosis," was affected indirectly via citric acid and fatigue, and anticoagulation was shown. The fourth item, i.e., "the factors related to maintenance of muscle mass," which is affected by menopausal years and the change in walking speed, was shown to be associated with the second item, i.e., "the factors related to lipid metabolism." Menopausal years affected the first, third and fourth items. Lemon intake did not have a direct impact on each item. Lemon has been shown to indirectly affect the third item through citric acid. Walking affected the second item, the level of total cholesterol, such as HDL cholesterol, through the fourth item. The importance of providing services that lead to sustained physical activity and a well-balanced metabolism between lipids and carbohydrates has been shown.

  4. Development of an NPP residual lifetime evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regano, M.; Ibanez, M.; Hevia, F.

    1993-01-01

    Various reasons have given rise to the need for residual life management of Spain's nuclear power plants which lead to the a project for the development of a residual lifetime evaluation system managed by UNESA and supported by the owner groups. This project is described. 1 fig

  5. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...

  6. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  7. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  8. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  9. Effects of shot peening on the residual stress of welded SS400 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Hyung; Cheong, Seong Kyun; Lee, Seung Ho

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue life of structures is usually determined by welding zone. The tensile residual stress, which is induced by welding, reduces the fatigue life and fatigue strength of welded structures. If we remove the tensile residual stress or induce the compressive residual stress, the fatigue life of welded structures will be improved. The change of hardness and compressive residual stress of welded zone after shot peening was investigated in this paper. The results show that the hardness was increased by shot peening. The residual stress was reduced by shot peening

  10. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  11. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. Geographical Indications

    OpenAIRE

    Anechitoae Constantin; Grigoru? Lavinia-Maria

    2011-01-01

    “The denomination of origin” may be the name of a region, a specific place or country used to describe an agricultural or food product. "The geographical indication" may be the name of a region, a specific place or a country, used to describe an agricultural or food product. The indication of provenance and the denomination of origin serve to identify the source and origin of goods or services.

  13. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  14. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  15. Aquatic ecotoxicological indicators in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennington, David W.; Payet, Jerome; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    , implicitly as well as explicitly, to species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). This draws on recent insights for chemical mixtures and identifies the implications of different model choices. In spite of the many options, assumptions, and areas for further research, it is concluded that a single effect factor...... available methods, without the need to describe the entire SSDs and without the need for additional data. For example, the octanol-water partitioning coefficient provides a sufficient estimation basis for about 50% of existing chemicals that have a narcosis mode of action. This is also relevant in LCA...... for more chemicals that are at low concentrations in the environment; concentrations below biological thresholds at which more specific modes of action would be of relevance....

  16. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  17. Operational indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents the operational indicators related to budget, travel costs and tickets, the evolution of the annual program for regulatory inspection, the scientific production, requested patents and the numbers related to the production of the services offered by the Institution

  18. Anthropometric indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, V. M.; Nwose, E. U.; Skinner, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current anthropometric indices used for diagnosis of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) in sub-Saharan Africa are those widely validated in the western world. We hereby aim to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tools in identifying risk factors for CMS. METHOD: The study...

  19. Models and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Kenneth C.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the definition, construction, and interpretation of social indicators. Shows how standard classes of formalisms used to construct models in contemporary sociology are derived from the general theory of models. Reviews recent model building and evaluation related to active life expectancy among the elderly, fertility rates, and indicators…

  20. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  1. Extractability and biological effects of residues of some herbicides in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Three sets of experimental observations with some relevance to the Co-ordinated Programme are described. In the first experiment, it was shown that the loss of radioactivity from 14 C-paraquat (both ring labelled and methyl labelled) from field samples was less in 1984/85 than in a previous experiment in 1983/84, possibly because the experimental period in 1984 was much drier. However, some evolution of a volatile 14 C compound, presumably 14 CO 2 , was observed, confirming that paraquat can be degraded in the soil. Over a 16-year period, residues of (non-radioactive) paraquat applied to the same plots annually indicated that the half-life of paraquat is of the order of 7 years. The second experiment included studies over two years with eleven herbicides using two indicator plant species. These studies suggest that in many cases the plant response predicted on the basis of the quantity of a herbicide that can be extracted with water may be too high. Water-extractable residues were not well correlated with solvent-extractable residues. In the third experiment, it was shown that no bound residues of 14 C-simazine developed over a 4-month period in field or laboratory studies in soil samples from plots which either had or had not a history of previous simazine application. (author)

  2. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  3. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  4. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... for environmental sustainable alternatives exists and electrodialysis could be such an alternative. The potential of electrodialysis for treating APC-residue is explored in this work by designing and testing a continuous-flow bench-scale reactor that can work with a high solids content feed solution. Experiments...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  5. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-12-16

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans ( n = 5862, 20-64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012-2013). Household food security status was categorized as "food-secure household", "food-insecure household without hunger", and "food-insecure household with hunger". Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both "food-insecure household" groups. Both "food-insecure household" groups, particularly the "food-insecure household with hunger" group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52-3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49-3.92) than did the "food-secure household" group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  6. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. PMID:27999277

  7. Measuring corruption indicators and indices

    OpenAIRE

    MALITO, Debora Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This Working Paper is a background paper delivered to frame the workshop ‘Global Governance by Indicators: Measuring corruption and corruption indicators’ convened by the Global Governance Programme of the European University Institute in Florence on 17 and 18 October 2013. Successively it was developed further in EUI RSCAS WP 2014/37 - http://hdl.handle.net/1814/30582 The development of more sophisticated corruption measures has been stimulated by consistent and compelling demands for mor...

  8. Digestive enzyme ratios are good indicators of hatchling yolk reserve and digestive gland maturation in early life stages of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L.: application of these new tools in ecology and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Georges; Martinez, A S; Le Pabic, C; Le Bihan, E; Robin, J P; Koueta, N

    2018-01-01

    In Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), the digestive gland matures during the first month post-hatching, while a shift from intracellular acid to extracellular alkaline digestion occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using enzymatic ratios for the description of digestive system maturation in early life stages of S. officinalis. Second, it is intended to apply these new tools as eco-physiological indicators for understanding the impact of cuttlefish eggs' life history from different spawning sites of the English Channel on digestive performance of juveniles. An experimental rearing was performed over 35 days after hatching (DAH) on juveniles from wild collected eggs in 2010 and 2011. Four digestive enzyme activities and their ratios [i.e., trypsin, cathepsin, acid (ACP), and alkaline (ALP) phosphatase, ALP/ACP, and trypsin/cathepsin] were studied along with histological features (e.g., internal yolk surface and digestive gland development). The two enzyme ratios were good indicators of digestive system maturation allowing the study of the digestive gland's development. They were highly correlated to juveniles' weight increase and histological features of the gland in early DAH. These ratios described more accurately the shift occurring between the intracellular acid and the extracellular alkaline modes of digestion in S. officinalis and were more specific than separated enzyme activities. Their application as eco-physiological tools revealed that enzyme ratios reflected yolk content and digestive gland development in new hatching juveniles. Finally, ALP/ACP ratio was shown to be a powerful tool to describe growth performance of S. officinalis which is useful for aquaculture optimization.

  9. Gold processing residue from Jacobina Basin: chemical and physical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Luiz Rogério Pinho de Andrade; Bernardez, Letícia Alonso; Barbosa, Luís Alberto Dantas

    2007-01-01

    p. 848-852 Gold processing residues or tailings are found in several areas in the Itapicuru River region (Bahia, Brazil), and previous studies indicated significant heavy metals content in the river sediments. The present work focused on an artisanal gold processing residue found in a site from this region. Samples were taken from the processing residue heaps and used to perform a physical and chemical characterization study using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, neutron...

  10. Residual Momentum and Reversal Strategies Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Huij (Joop); S.D. Lansdorp (Simon)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this note we revisit the 2011 and 2013 papers of Blitz, Huij, and Martens (BHM2011), and Blitz, Huij, Lansdorp, and Verbeek (BHLV2013) in which momentum and reversal strategies on residual returns are proposed. Our results indicate that the main findings of these studies, that

  11. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  12. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  13. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  14. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  15. Qualidade de vida na cidade de Palmas - TO: uma análise através de indicadores habitacionais e ambientais urbanos Life quality in Palmas - TO: an analisys through housing and urban environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faida Kran

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a qualidade de vida na cidade de Palmas, capital do Estado do Tocantins, através de uma análise da habitação e seu entorno, utilizando um grupo de dez indicadores que foram capazes de identificar, em Palmas, semelhantes condições de vulnerabilidade sócio-ambiental, vistas também em tantas outras cidades brasileiras, apesar dos discursos que legitimaram a sua criação e da mesma ter alcançado, até o presente, alguns bons indicadores sócio-ambientais.The present article discusses life quality in Palmas, the capital of Tocantins State, through an analysis of housing and its surroundings group of ten indicators, that were capable of identifying in Palmas similar conditions of socio-environmental vulnerability, also seen in many other Brazilian cities, in spite of the discourses that legitimized its creation and of the fact that the city indeed attained some good indicators up to the present moment.

  16. The structure and function of ribonuclease T1. XXI. Modification of histidine residues in ribonuclease T1 with iodoacetamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K

    1976-12-01

    1. When ribonuclease T1 [EC 3.1.4.8] (0.125% solution) was treated with a 760-fold molar excess of iodoacetamide at pH 8.0 and 37 degrees, about 90% of the original activity was lost in 24 hr. The half-life of the activity was about 8 hr. The binding ability for 3'-GMP was lost simultaneously. Changes were detected only in histidine and the amino-terminal alanine residues upon amino acid analyses of the inactivated protein and its chymotryptic peptides. The inactivation occurred almost in parallel with the loss of two histidine residues in the enzyme. The pH dependences of the rate of inactivation and that of loss of histidine residues were similar and indicated the implication of a histidine residue or residues with pKa 7.5 to 8 in this reaction. 3'-GMP and guanosine showed some protective effect against loss of activity and of histidine residues. The reactivity of histidine residues was also reduced by prior modification of glutamic acid-58 with iodoacetate, of lysine-41 with maleic or cis-aconitic anhydride or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonate or of arginine-77 with ninhydrin. 2. Analyses of the chymotryptic peptides from oxidized samples of the iodoacetamide-inactivated enzyme showed that histidine-92 and histidine-40 reacted with iodoacetamide most rapidly and at similar rates, whereas histidine-27 was least reactive. Alkylation of histidine-92 was markedly slowed down when the Glu58-carboxymethylated enzyme was treated with iodoacetamide. On the other hand, alkylation of histidine-40 was slowed down most in the presence of 3'-GMP. These results suggest that histidine-92 and histidine-40 are involved in the catalytic action, probably forming part of the catalytic site and part of the binding site, respectively, and that histidine-27 is partially buried in the enzyme molecule or interacts strongly with some other residue, thus becoming relatively unreactive.

  17. Fate of leptophos residues in milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mohammed, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The fate of leptophos residues in various milk products was studied using 14 C-phenyl labelled leptophos. Milk products were prepared from milk fortified with the radioactive insecticide by methods simulating those used in industry. The highest leptophos level was found in butter and the lowest in skim milk and whey. Analysis of the radioactive residues in all products showed the presence of leptophos alone. A trace of the oxon could be detected in whey. The results obtained in this investigation indicated that processing of milk did not affect the nature of leptophos to any appreciable extent. (author)

  18. Residual water treatment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, L.

    1990-01-01

    The treatment of residual water by means of gamma radiation for its use in agricultural irrigation is evaluated. Measurements of physical, chemical, biological and microbiological contamination indicators were performed. For that, samples from the treatment center of residual water of San Juan de Miraflores were irradiated up to a 52.5 kGy dose. The study concludes that gamma radiation is effective to remove parasites and bacteria, but not for removal of the organic and inorganic matter. (author). 15 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  19. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation and quality of life (QOL among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013. Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83 and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92 than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  20. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  1. Comparison of residual stress in martensitic alloys by nondestructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; Suresh, S.B.; Wells, D.

    2006-01-01

    Three martensitic materials, namely Alloys EP-823, HT-9 and 422 were subjected to tensile loading at ambient temperature. The cylindrical specimens tested at different levels of tensile loading were analyzed for characterization of residual stress resulting from plastic deformation corresponding to the applied loads between the yield strength and the ultimate tensile strength. The extent of residual stress developed at these applied stresses was analyzed by nondestructive positron annihilation spectroscopy, activation, and neutron diffraction techniques. The results indicate that the residual stresses characterized by all three techniques exhibited a consistent pattern showing a gradual enhancement in residual stress with increasing applied load

  2. Residue dissipation and processing factor for dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil during raisin preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha; Girame, Rushali; Utture, Sagar; Hingmire, Sandip; Oulkar, Dasharath

    2015-03-01

    A method was validated for the simultaneous analysis of the residues of dimethomorph, famoxadone and cymoxanil in grape and raisin matrix by ethyl acetate based extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the dissipation rate kinetics and processing factor (PF) for these pesticides during raisin making. Residue data during the drying process were best fitted to 1st+1st order rate kinetics with half-life ranging between 8-9 days for dimethomorph, 12-13 days for famoxadone and 9-10 days for cymoxanil at single dose (SD) and double dose (DD), respectively. PF values calculated were 1.03 and 1.14 for dimethomorph, 1.95 and 2.09 for famoxadone, and 1.99 and 1.35 for cymoxanil at SD and DD, respectively. PF value >1 indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making. The residues of detected pesticides in market samples of raisins were devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of bound residues in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    The characterization of unextractable (or 'bound') pesticide residues in plants can be difficult owing to the insoluble nature of the pesticide-plant complex. An unextractable residue can be defined as material derived from the applied pesticide which remains in the plant matrix after exhaustive organic solvent extraction. Experiments with a variety of pesticide classes in plants indicate that the level of unextractable residue varies with the plant species, the pesticide and the exposure time of the plant to the pesticide. Methods used in attempts to release 'bound' residues from solvent-extracted plant tissues include acid hydrolyses, enzymatic treatments and techniques of high-temperature distillation. These methods solubilize or release varying amounts of unextractable material; the amounts depend on the pesticide and on the extent to which the plant fibre is degraded. In experiments using radiolabelled dieldrin (1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 10-hexachloro-6, 7-epoxy-1, 4, 4a, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8a-octahydro-exo-1, 4-endo-5,6-dimethanonaphthalene), carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) and permethrin ([3-phenoxybenzyl(+-)-3-(2, 2-dichlorovinyl)-2, 2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylate]) in radishes, portions of the unextractable material solubilized by the above methods were identified as parent compound and/or closely related metabolites. The bioavailability and toxicological significance of unextractable pesticide residues need to be evaluated. (author)

  4. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  5. Rare Earth Element Phases in Bauxite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to provide mineralogical insight into the rare earth element (REE phases in bauxite residue to improve REE recovering technologies. Experimental work was performed by electron probe microanalysis with energy dispersive as well as wavelength dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. REEs are found as discrete mineral particles in bauxite residue. Their sizes range from <1 μm to about 40 μm. In bauxite residue, the most abundant REE bearing phases are light REE (LREE ferrotitanates that form a solid solution between the phases with major compositions (REE,Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3 and (Ca,Na(Ti,FeO3. These are secondary phases formed during the Bayer process by an in-situ transformation of the precursor bauxite LREE phases. Compared to natural systems, the indicated solid solution resembles loparite-perovskite series. LREE particles often have a calcium ferrotitanate shell surrounding them that probably hinders their solubility. Minor amount of LREE carbonate and phosphate minerals as well as manganese-associated LREE phases are also present in bauxite residue. Heavy REEs occur in the same form as in bauxites, namely as yttrium phosphates. These results show that the Bayer process has an impact on the initial REE mineralogy contained in bauxite. Bauxite residue as well as selected bauxites are potentially good sources of REEs.

  6. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... the virtues and limits of loss-sharing rules in generating optimal (second-best) incentives and allocations of risk. We find that loss sharing may be optimal in the presence of countervailing policy objectives, homogeneous risk avoiders, and subadditive risk, which potentially offers a valuable tool...

  7. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  8. Functional significance of the conserved residues for the 23-residue module among MTH1 and MutT family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Shimokawa, H; Sekiguchi, M; Nakabeppu, Y

    1999-12-31

    Human MTH1 and Escherichia coli MutT proteins hydrolyze 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-dGTP (8-oxo-dGTP) to monophosphate, thus avoiding the incorporation of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine into nascent DNA. Although only 30 amino acid residues (23%) are identical between MTH1 and MutT, there is a highly conserved region consisting of 23 residues (MTH1, Gly(36)-Gly(58)) with 14 identical residues. A chimeric protein MTH1-Ec, in which the 23-residue sequence of MTH1 was replaced with that of MutT, retains its capability to hydrolyze 8-oxo-dGTP, thereby indicating that the 23-residue sequences of MTH1 and MutT are functionally and structurally equivalent and constitute functional modules. By saturation mutagenesis of the module in MTH1, 14 of the 23 residues proved to be essential to exert 8-oxo-dGTPase activity. For the other 9 residues (40, 42, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 54, and 58), positive mutants were obtained, and Arg(50) can be replaced with hydrophobic residues (Val, Leu, or Ile), with a greater stability and higher specific activity of the enzyme. Indispensabilities of Val(39), Ile(45), and Leu(53) indicate that an amphipathic property of alpha-helix I consisting of 14 residues of the module (Thr(44)-Gly(58)) is essential to maintain the stable catalytic surface for 8-oxo-dGTPase.

  9. Coherence of brain electrical activity: a quality of life indicator in Alzheimer’s disease?Coerência da atividade elétrica cerebral: indicador da qualidade de vida na doença de Alzheimer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Corrêa Fonseca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationships between quality of life (QOL and clinical and electroencephalogram (EEG aspects in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Method Twenty-eight patients with mild or moderate AD, 31 with Parkinson’s disease (PD, and 27 normal controls (NC were submitted to: CERAD neuropsychological battery, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Rating Scales, Functional Activities Questionnaire, QOL scale for patients with AD, and quantitative EEG measures. Results AD and PD patients had similar QOL (31.0 ± 5.8; 31.7 ± 4.8, respectively, worse than that of NC (37.5 ± 6.3. AD patients had lower global interhemispheric theta coherence (0.49 ± 0.04; 0.52 ± 0.05; 0.52 ± 0.05; respectively than PD and NC. Multiple linear regression for QOL of AD patients revealed that global interhemispheric theta coherence, and Hamilton depression scores were significant factors (coefficients; 58.2 and -0.27, respectively; R2, 0.377. Conclusion Interhemispheric coherence correlates with QOL regardless of cognitive and functional variables and seems to be a neurophysiological indicator of QOL in AD patients.

  10. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  11. Pesticide residues in birds and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; Edwards, C.A.

    1973-01-01

    exposure to an organochlorine pesticide, the concentrations of residues in the different tissues are ordinarily directly correlated with each other. When the dosage is at lethal levels, or when stored residues are mobilised to lethal levels, the balanced relationship is disrupted. The concentrations of residues in the brain provide the most rigorous criteria for diagnosis of death due to these chemicals, and levels are generally similar across a wide range of species of birds and mammals. Residues in liver are closely correlated with recent dose, either from direct intake or from mobilisation from storage, and so reflect hazardous exposure. Residues in the whole carcass show the storage reserve, and so indicate the potential for adverse effects from lethal mobilisation or from the continuous slow mobilisation that occurs during the normal processes of metabolism and excretion. A synchronous, rapid, and widespread decline in weight and thickness of shells of eggs laid by many species of wild birds occurred in the late 1940's and has persisted. Birds of prey were primarily affected; exceptions apparently are the result of lesser exposure because of different food habits. Many species of fish-eating birds are also affected. Others, however, appear to be more resistant and to accumulate much higher residues before shell-thinning occurs. Seed-eating birds do not appear to have been generally affected; their exposure is ordinarily lower, but physiological factors also seem to be involved. A relationship between shell-thinning and population decline has been established for many species. In exceptional cases, such as the herring gull, persistent re-nesting and other population reactions have overcome adverse effects at the population level. The discovery of shell-thinning among natural populations, and the hypothesis that this thinning was related to the occurrence of organochlorine pesticides, stimulated experimental studies to determine wheth

  12. Marine Tar Residues: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Warnock, April M.; Hagen, Scott C.; Passeri, Davina L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in ...

  13. Persistence and performance of esfenvalerate residues on broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2002-01-01

    The efficacy of esfenvalerate (84 g litre-1 EC; Asana XL) at 7.0 g AI ha-1 on broccoli was tested against the flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae Goeze (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) and the imported cabbage worm, Pieris rapae L (Pieridae: Lepidoptera) under field conditions. Insect populations were monitored before and after treatment. Periodic sweep-net collections and examination of the leaves in treated and untreated broccoli plots revealed mean reductions of P cruciferae levels of nearly 98% 1 week post-application compared with untreated plots. The residual toxicity of esfenvalerate was also effective for 2 weeks in reducing population density of P rapae by 69% on broccoli leaves. The impact of esfenvalerate on feeding damage to broccoli leaves was established by counting the number of feeding holes made by P cruciferae on spring broccoli and P rapae on fall broccoli. As the leaf area ingested increased, a linear relationship was seen between the number of holes and number of insects. Results indicated that forage destruction by the two pests was significantly reduced by esfenvalerate application. Esfenvalerate was extracted from broccoli at 1 h and 1, 3, 7, 10, and 14 days post-application for residue analysis. Residues on spring broccoli were 12.2, 5.2 and 2.9 micrograms cm-2 on the leaves and 0.13, 0.05 and 0.02 microgram g-1 on the heads at 1 h, 1 and 3 days, respectively. Only trace levels (0.001 microgram g-1) were detected in/on the heads 14 days after spraying. On the basis of half-life (T1/2) values, persistence of esfenvalerate on spring broccoli leaves (T1/2 = 1 day) was shorter than on fall broccoli (T1/2 = 1.6 days). T1/2 values were 2.1 and 3.6 days on spring and fall broccoli heads, respectively. The implications of these residue levels on re-entry times into treated fields are discussed.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy prediction indexes and residue depletion of antibacterial drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Anadón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetics behaviour of the antibacterial in food producing animals, provides information on the rates of absorption and elimination, half-life in plasma and tissue, elimination pathways and metabolism. The dose and the dosing interval of the antimicrobial can be justified by considering the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD relationship, if established, as well as the severity of the disease, whereas the number of administrations should be in line with the nature of the disease. The target population for therapy should be well defined and possible to identify under field conditions. Based on in vitro susceptibility data, and target animal PK data, an analysis for the PK/PD relationship may be used to support dose regimen selection and interpretation criteria for a clinical breakpoint. Therefore, for all antibacterials with systemic activity, the MIC data collected should be compared with the concentration of the compound at the relevant biophase following administration at the assumed therapeutic dose as recorded in the pharmacokinetic studies. Currently, the most frequently used parameters to express the PK/PD relationship are Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/MIC, %T > MIC (fraction of time in which concentration exceeds MIC and AUC/MIC (area under the inhibitory concentration– time curve/MIC. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters provide the first indication of the potential for persistent residues and the tissues in which they may occur. The information on residue depletion in food-producing animals, provides the data on which MRL recommendations will be based. A critical factor in the antibacterial medication of all food-producing animals is the mandatory withdrawal period, defined as the time during which drug must not be administered prior to the slaughter of the animal for consumption. The withdrawal period is an integral part of the regulatory authorities’ approval process and is designed to ensure that no

  15. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and assessment of pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor for kresoxim methyl residues in grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabale, Rupali; Shabeer, T P Ahammed; Utture, Sagar C; Banerjee, Kaushik; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Adsule, Pandurang G; Deshmukh, Madhukar B

    2014-04-01

    A field dissipation study was conducted to evaluate the pre-harvest interval (PHI) and processing factor (PF) for kresoxim methyl (Ergon 44.3 SC) residues in grapes and during raisin making process at recommended dose (RD) and double the recommended dose (DRD). Kresoxim methyl residues dissipated following 1st-order kinetics with a half-life of 10 and 18 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The PHIs with respect to the European Union maximum residue limit (EU-MRL) of 1 mg kg(-1) for grapes were 13 and 30 days at RD and DRD, respectively. The degradation data during grape to raisin making process were best fitted to nonlinear 1st + 1st-order kinetics with a half-life ranging between 4 and 8 days for both shade drying and with raisin dryer at different doses. The PFs were 1.19 and 1.24 with shade drying and 1.09 and 1.10 with raisin dryer, respectively, which indicates concentration of the residues during raisin making process. The dietary exposure of kresoxim methyl on each sampling day was less than the respective maximum permissible intake both at RD and DRD. The residues of kresoxim methyl in market samples of grapes and raisins were well below the EU-MRL and were also devoid of any risk of acute toxicity related to dietary exposure.

  16. Landscape Evolution and the Reincarnation of the Residual CO2 Ice Cap of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, S.; Zuber, M.

    2006-12-01

    residual CO2 ice cap. We invoke unusual depositional episodes (which have a surface smoothing effect) after which the cap can begin accumulating mass and growing in thickness again. This continues until the surface roughness again exceeds a stable state and the process repeats itself. The thickness of the residual cap therefore oscillates on timescales of centuries. The total cap volume may also be affected by variations in residual cap extent. The cap is not 'stable' in the usual sense of the word, but instead is constantly being destroyed and recreated. Evidence suggests that these rejuvenating depositional events are linked to global dust storms. The 10m thick stratigraphic record thus provides a unique measure of interannual variability of the current climate, the expanding Swiss-cheese features do not indicate secular climate change, but instead are just part of the larger life-cycle of this ice deposit. We will report on this surface modeling which reproduces other morphologies within the residual cap and present a historical model based on combining our modeling with the feature sizes and ablation rates found within the present residual ice cap.

  17. Effect of hospice care on quality indicators of end-of-life care among patients with liver cancer: a national longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yee-Hsin; Chiang, Jui-Kun

    2015-08-19

    Quality of near end-of-life (EOL) care is typically evaluated using six accepted quality indicators (QIs). Research has yet to evaluate the quality of EOL care for liver cancer patients in Taiwan. We evaluated the effect of hospice care on the quality of EOL care for patients with advanced liver cancer. Using claims data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we analyzed the QIs of EOL care for patients who died between 2000 and 2011. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors for QIs of EOL care. A total of 3092 adult patients died of liver cancer during the study period. The patients were divided into those who received hospice care for a period longer than 1 month (long-H group), shorter than 1 month (short-H group), and not at all (non-H group). There was no significant difference in survival probability among the three groups (p = 0.212). Compared with the non-H group, the long- and short-H groups exhibited a significantly lower risk of being admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) (odds ratios [ORs] = 0.25 and 0.26, respectively, p hospice care were less likely to be admitted to ICUs or require CPR compared with those who received no hospice care. A longer duration of hospice care was associated with reduced risks of more than one ER visit and more than one hospital admission. We conclude that EOL cancer care in Taiwan might be improved by implementing policies encouraging early hospice referral programs.

  18. Filtrates & Residues: Olfactory Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John T.; Eddy, Roberta M.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that uses a unique acid-base indicator--the odor of raw onion--to indicate the end point of the titration of sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. Allows the student to detect the completion of the neutralization reaction by olfaction rather than sight. (JRH)

  19. Myocardial blood flow rate and capillary permeability for 99mTc-DTPA in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Evaluation of the single-injection, residue detection method with intracoronary indicator bolus injection and the use of a mobile gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Kelbaek, H; Efsen, F

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantitate myocardial perfusion and capillary permeability in the human heart by means of the single-injection, residue detection method using a mobile gamma camera. With this method, the intravascular mean transit time and the capillary extraction fraction (...

  20. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  1. Lichens as bio indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium

  2. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    and human during the next decades. Multiple indicators, radioactive tracers, inlet-outlet detection and residue detection were introduced in the 1950s and 1960s, and refined along with the development of indicator kinetics. From the 1970s, a wide clinical use in the study of heart, brain, lungs, liver...

  3. In The Wild Residual Data Research and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Glisson, William Bradley; Storer, Tim; Blyth, Andrew; Grispos, George; Campbell, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly dependent on technology, researchers in both industry and academia endeavor to understand how technology is used, the impact it has on everyday life, the artifact life-cycle and overall integrations of digital information. In doing so, researchers are increasingly gathering 'real-world' or 'in-the-wild' residual data, obtained from a variety of sources, without the explicit consent of the original owners. This data gathering raises significant concerns regard...

  4. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  5. Residual stress measurement of welding area by neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tamaki; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Oikawa, Hatsuhiko; Nose, Tetsuro; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Tomota, Yo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Moriai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Resistance spot welding technique is extensively applied to join the body steel sheets in the manufacturing process for the automobile industry. It is known that the fatigue crack initiates occasionally inside of the spot-welded zone in this material, which is a serious issue of the fatigue life. Although this phenomenon is supposed to be related to internal residual stress, the actual residual stress distribution inside of the spot-welded zone is not clear up to now. In this study, a neutron diffraction residual stress measurement technique with well-defined sub-mm 3 square gauge volume is applied in order to clarify the internal three dimensional residual stress distribution just below the spot-welded part of the steel sheets. (author)

  6. Characteristics and engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Y. S.; Sugiarti, K.; Soebowo, E.

    2018-02-01

    Residual soil knowledge of volcanic-sedimentary rock products provides important information on the soil bearing capacity and its engineering properties. The residual soil is the result of weathering commonly found in unsaturated conditions, having varied geotechnical characteristics at each level of weathering. This paper summarizes the results of the research from the basic engineering properties of residual soil of volcanic-sedimentary rocks from several different locations. The main engineering properties of residual soil such as specific gravity, porosity, grain size, clay content (X-Ray test) and soil shear strength are performed on volcanic rock deposits. The results show that the variation of the index and engineering properties and the microstructure properties of residual soil have the correlation between the depths of weathering levels. Pore volume and pore size distribution on weathered rock profiles can be used as an indication of weathering levels in the tropics.

  7. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  8. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  9. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  10. Ecological risk assessment of pesticide residues in coastal lagoons of Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Cattini, Chantal; Tolosa, Immaculada; Montenegro-Guillén, S; Lacayo, Martha; Cruz, Adela

    2002-10-01

    A detailed investigation on the contamination with chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphorous pesticides of the coastal lagoon system of Chinandega district, Nicaragua, allowed the identification of contaminant sources and lagoon areas currently more contaminated. The discharge of rivers into the lagoons is the main transport pathway of pesticide residues; whereas atmospheric depositions are likely to be the main pathway for the introduction of PCBs into the lagoons. Analysis of water samples indicates widespread contamination with soluble organophosphorous compounds, such as dichlorvos, up to 410 ng L(-1), diazinon, up to 150 ng L(-1), and chlorpyrifos, up to 83 ng L(-1). Analyses of suspended matter for low solubility organochlorine (OC) compounds revealed very high concentrations of toxaphene, up to 17,450 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw), total DDTs up to 478 ng g(-1), Aroclor 1254, up to 119 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations for other compounds. Lagoon sediments contain high concentrations also of toxaphene, from 7.9 to 6,900 ng g(-1) (dw), and DDTs, from 1.5 to 321 ng g(-1) (dw), and lower concentrations of chlorpyrifos, hexachlorocyclohexanes, chlordane and other residues. Concentrations of OCs in soft tissues of clams are statistically correlated with the concentrations of the same compounds in bottom sediments, indicating that sediments are a source of contaminants to biota. In some areas of the lagoon system, concentration of residues in sediments are far above recommended threshold guideline values for protection of aquatic life, and may cause acute and chronic toxic effects on more sensitive aquatic species. Despite the ban on the use of toxaphene and DDT, residues of these compounds are still entering the lagoons due to erosion of, and leaching from, agriculture soils in the region. Measures for protection of the lagoon ecosystem are discussed.

  11. Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanichiro Yoshida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.

  12. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  13. Lithic Residue Survival and Characterisation at Star Carr: a burial experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Croft

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern burial experiment was devised to test microscopic residue survival in acidic peat and slightly acidic clay soils at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr (North Yorkshire, UK, and at nearby control location. The experiment addresses concerns regarding the applicability of residue analysis in varied burial environments, and particularly in highly acidic archaeological conditions. Flint flakes (n= 78, including blank controls were used on twelve plant, animal, and mineral materials to create residues and then buried. The residues were examined 1 month and 11 months after burial. An unburied reference collection containing the same twelve residue types in a fresh state was compared to the buried residues to assess diagenesis. The residue types that survived across all burial conditions and time intervals were: softwood tissue, tree resin, bird feathers, squirrel hair, and red ochre. During microscopic analysis, it became clear that many residues lack diagnostic traits, and thus an assessment of the extent to which each residue can be identified was conducted. The degree to which residues were able to be identified was further investigated with a variable pressure scanning electron microscope (SEM. SEM images of the reference residues were compared to the reflected VLM micrographs of the same residues, which improved characterisation in some cases. Residues were grouped into three categories (diagnostic, distinctive, and non-distinctive within a visual characterisation guide. Our in situ microscopic analyses indicated that few residue types have diagnostic traits that allow them to be identified unambiguously, and thus further characterisation techniques are often required.

  14. Residue analysis and risk assessment of tebuconazole in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xiangwei; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiuguo; Xu, Jinli; Zheng, Xiao; Sui, Chengcheng

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a sensitive and reliable analytical method, based on a modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe procedure, was established for determination of tebuconazole in jujube. After extraction with acetonitrile, the samples were cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. At fortification levels of 0.01, 0.1 and 2.0 mg kg -1 , the average recoveries of tebuconazole in jujube were in the range 97.6-101.9%, with relative standard deviations of 1.5-3.5%. The dissipation and residual levels of tebuconazole in jujube under field conditions were investigated. Tebuconazole dissipated relatively slowly in jujube, with a half-life of 33.0 days. The terminal residue experiments of tebuconazole in jujube were conducted in four locations in China and the risk was evaluated using risk quotients (RQ). RQ values were found to be significantly lower than RQ = 1, indicating that the risk to human health of using the recommended doses of tebuconazole in jujube was not significant. This study could provide guidance for the safe and reasonable use of tebuconazole in jujube and serve as a reference for the establishment of limit of maximum residue in China. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  16. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  17. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Impact of physical and mental health on life satisfaction in old age: a population based observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; de Craen, Antonius J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-11-25

    It is widely assumed that poor health lowers life satisfaction when ageing. Yet, research suggests this relationship is not straightforward. This study investigated how older people evaluate their life when facing disease and disabilities. The Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospectively followed cohort of a cohort of a middle-sized city in the Netherlands, all aged 85 years, that was age-representative of the general population, was used. Those with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded (n = 501). Comorbidities, physical performance, cognitive function, functional status, residual lifespan, depressive symptoms and experienced loneliness were measured during home visits. Life satisfaction was self-reported with Cantril's ladder. All analyses were performed using regression analysis. Participants reported high life satisfaction (median 8 out of 10 points) despite having representative levels of disease and disability. Comorbidity, low cognitive function, and residual lifespan as markers of health were not associated with life satisfaction. Poor physical performance and low functional status were weakly but significantly associated with lower life satisfaction (p life satisfaction (both p life satisfaction, whereas poor mental health was strongly related to lower life satisfaction. This indicates that mental health has a greater impact on life satisfaction at old age than physical health, and that physical health is less relevant for a satisfactory old age.

  19. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  20. Residual stress analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques which are or could be employed to measure residual stresses are outlined. They include X-ray and neutron diffraction. Comments are made on the reliability and accuracy to be expected from particular techniques

  1. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  2. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  3. Persistence of thiacloprid and deltamethrin residues in tea grown at different locations of North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nitesh; Banerjee, Hemanta; Pal, Srikumar; Sharma, K K

    2018-07-01

    In order to examine the residues of thiacloprid (90 and 180 g a.i./ha) and deltamethrin (10 and 20 g a.i./ha) in fresh tea leaves, made tea and tea infusion, field experiments were conducted at three different locations viz. Kamalpur tea estate, Darjeeling; West Bengal, Teok tea Estate and AAU, Jorhat; Assam in India. Regardless of location and doses, residues of both the insecticides dissipated following first order kinetics. The half-life of Thiacloprid (4.93-5.38 days) was longer than that of deltamethrin (1.78-1.94 days). Processing of green tea leaves reduced the residue level of thiacloprid and deltamethrin in made tea. No residues of both these insecticides could be detected in tea infusion. With respect to the phenolic distribution in tea, a marked increase in total catechin monomers with thiacloprid and greater accumulation of EGCG and ECG (indices of phenol quality) with deltamethrin were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  5. Residual Stress in Wheels: Comparison of Neutron Diffraction and Ultrasonic Methods, with Trends in RCF

    OpenAIRE

    Molyneux-Berry, Paul; Bevan, Adam; Zhang, S. Y; Kabra, S

    2014-01-01

    The critical damage mechanism on many GB passenger train wheels is Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) cracking in the rim. Evidence from field observations suggests that RCF damage occurs much more quickly as the wheelsets near the end of their life. Wheel manufacturing processes induce a compressive hoop stress in the wheel rim; variations in residual stress through the life of a wheel may influence the observed RCF damage rates.\\ud This paper describes experiments to measure residual stresses in...

  6. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  7. Biphasic time course of brain water ADC observed during the first month of life in term neonates with severe perinatal asphyxia is indicative of poor outcome at 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichot, Christophe; Mejean, Nathalie; Gouyon, Jean Bernard; Brunotte, François; Walker, Paul Michael

    2011-02-01

    In severe perinatal asphyxia, the prognostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements is still open to question. We hypothesized that temporal and anatomical changes of brain ADC values occurring early after the hypoxic-ischemic insult could predict the outcome at 36 months. To demonstrate this, mean ADC values were calculated for 16 brain structures in 59 term neonates who underwent an MR examination during the first month of life. Neonates were divided into two groups according to their 36-month outcome: unfavorable (death/severe disability) or favorable outcome. ADC values were plotted against age at scan. In neonates with favorable outcomes (n=32), ADC values were constant over the study period. In babies with unfavorable outcomes (n=27), ADCs exhibited two different patterns. In infratentorial structures, ADCs were constant and normal. In supratentorial areas, ADCs followed a biphasic temporal evolution: ADC values were at their lowest at day 2, showed a rapid increase until Days 5-7, and were thereafter similar to those of neonates with favorable outcomes. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, during the first 3-5 days of life, all neonates with decreased ADC had an unfavorable outcome. These temporal and anatomical changes of ADC values imply that individual prognosis of asphyxiated neonates can only be predicted by measurement of ADC in supratentorial areas within the first 3-5 days of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of diverse soil microbial communities on crop residues decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrad, Fida; Bennegadi-Laurent, Nadia; Ailhas, Jérôme; Leblanc, Nathalie; Trinsoutrot-Gattin, Isabelle; Laval, Karine; Gattin, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Soils provide many basic ecosystem services for our society and most of these services are carried out by the soil communities, thus influencing soils quality. Soil organic matter (SOM) can be considered as one of the most important soil quality indices for it plays a determinant role in many physical, chemical and biological processes, such as soil structure and erosion resistance, cation exchange capacity, nutrient cycling and biological activity (Andrews et al., 2004). Since a long time, exogenous organic inputs are largely used for improving agricultural soils, affecting highly soil fertility and productivity. The use of organic amendments such as crop residues influences the soil microbial populations' diversity and abundance. In the meantime, soil microbial communities play a major role in the organic matter degradation, and the effect of different microbial communities on the decomposition of crop residues is not well documented. In this context, studying the impact of crop residues on soil microbial ecology and the processes controlling the fate of plant residues in different management practices is essential for understanding the long-term environmental and agronomic effects on soil and organic matters. Our purpose in the present work was to investigate the decomposition by two contrasting microbial communities of three crop residues, and compare the effect of different residues amendments on the abundance and function of each soil microbial communities. Among the main crops which produce large amounts of residues, we focused on three different plants: wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). The residues degradation in two soils of different management practices and the microbial activity were evaluated by: microbial abundance (microbial carbon, culturable bacteria, total DNA, qPCR), in combination with functional indicators (enzymatic assays and Biolog substrate utilization), kinetics of C and N

  9. Effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application on soil residues of chiral fungicide benalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Liu, Donghui; Liang, Yiran; Luo, Mai; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2017-05-01

    The effects of wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge on the dissipation behavior of the fungicide benalaxyl and its primary metabolite benalaxyl acid in soil were studied on an enantiomeric level during a 148-day exposure experiment. Chiral separation and analysis of the two pairs of enantiomers were achieved using HPLC-MS/MS with a chiralpak IC chiral column. Benalaxyl decreased with half-life of 16.1 days in soil under tap water irrigation with preferential residue of S-benalaxyl. Benalaxyl acid was formed with great preference of R-enantiomer before 21 days while enriched in S-enantiomer afterwards. The degradation of benalaxyl was restrained by both wastewater and treated wastewater irrigation, but the enantioselectivity in S-benalaxyl residue was enhanced. Benalaxyl acid was also formed with similar enantioselectivity as in tap water irrigation. Sewage sludge could accelerate benalaxyl degradation with shorter half-life. Surprisingly, the enantioselectivity with preference degradation of S-enantiomer in sewage sludge was opposite to that in soil. More benalaxyl acid was generated with EF values always lower than 0.5 and remained longer in sewage sludge than in soil. A sterilization experiment indicated that the conversion of benalaxyl to benalaxyl acid and the enantioselectivity were determined by the microorganisms in soil or sewage sludge. Farming practices like wastewater irrigation and sewage sludge application might not only influence the fate of pesticide, but also the enantioselectivity of chiral pesticide enantiomers and thus the risks of pesticide residues posed to the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Arginine residues are more effective than lysine residues in eliciting the cellular uptake of onconase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundlass, Nadia K; Raines, Ronald T

    2011-11-29

    Onconase is an amphibian member of the pancreatic ribonuclease family of enzymes that is in clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Onconase, which has an abundance of lysine residues, is internalized by cancer cells through endocytosis in a mechanism similar to that of cell-penetrating peptides. Here, we compare the effect of lysine versus arginine residues on the biochemical attributes necessary for Onconase to elicit its cytotoxic activity. In the variant R-Onconase, 10 of the 12 lysine residues in Onconase are replaced with arginine, leaving only the two active-site lysines intact. Cytometric assays quantifying internalization showed a 3-fold increase in the internalization of R-Onconase compared with Onconase. R-Onconase also showed greater affinity for heparin and a 2-fold increase in ribonucleolytic activity. Nonetheless, arginine substitution endowed only a slight increase in toxicity toward human cancer cells. Analysis of denaturation induced with guanidine-HCl showed that R-Onconase has less conformational stability than does the wild-type enzyme; moreover, R-Onconase is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation. These data indicate that arginine residues are more effective than lysine in eliciting cellular internalization but can compromise other aspects of protein structure and function.

  11. Residual animal fat and fish for biodiesel production. Potentials in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Otto; Weinbach, Jan-Erik [Western Norway Research Institute (WNRI), P. Box 163, 6851 Sogndal (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The potential for biodiesel production based on utilization of residual animal fat and fish in Norway is estimated. This is based on a study of the amounts of residual fat that is possible to recover from grease traps in Bergen. Additional data from Trondheim and Oslo facilitated up-scaling to estimating national potential for utilizing this residue stream for biodiesel production. This is supplemented with data on residues from slaughterhouses and poultry, as well as the fishing industry. The results indicate that Norway has the potential for producing large amounts of biodiesel from these residue sources. (author)

  12. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  13. Ionization of tyrosine residues in human serum albumin and in its complexes with bilirubin and laurate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1992-01-01

    Spectrophotometric titration of human serum albumin indicates that ionization of the 18 tyrosine residues takes place between pH 9 and 12.7. A Hill plot indicates that protons dissociate co-operatively from tyrosine residues, in pure albumin between pH 11.0 and 11.4 with a Hill coefficient 1.7, a...

  14. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  15. Allelopathic impact of HoCP 96-540 field residue on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  16. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Stolterfoht

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30 generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro. Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of NcCAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that NcCAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  17. Identification of Key Residues for Enzymatic Carboxylate Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolterfoht, Holly; Steinkellner, Georg; Schwendenwein, Daniel; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Gruber, Karl; Winkler, Margit

    2018-01-01

    Carboxylate reductases (CARs, E.C. 1.2.1.30) generate aldehydes from their corresponding carboxylic acid with high selectivity. Little is known about the structure of CARs and their catalytically important amino acid residues. The identification of key residues for carboxylate reduction provides a starting point to gain deeper understanding of enzymatic carboxylate reduction. A multiple sequence alignment of CARs with confirmed activity recently identified in our lab and from the literature revealed a fingerprint of conserved amino acids. We studied the function of conserved residues by multiple sequence alignments and mutational replacements of these residues. In this study, single-site alanine variants of Neurospora crassa CAR were investigated to determine the contribution of conserved residues to the function, expressability or stability of the enzyme. The effect of amino acid replacements was investigated by analyzing enzymatic activity of the variants in vivo and in vitro . Supported by molecular modeling, we interpreted that five of these residues are essential for catalytic activity, or substrate and co-substrate binding. We identified amino acid residues having significant impact on CAR activity. Replacement of His 237, Glu 433, Ser 595, Tyr 844, and Lys 848 by Ala abolish CAR activity, indicating their key role in acid reduction. These results may assist in the functional annotation of CAR coding genes in genomic databases. While some other conserved residues decreased activity or had no significant impact, four residues increased the specific activity of Nc CAR variants when replaced by alanine. Finally, we showed that Nc CAR wild-type and mutants efficiently reduce aliphatic acids.

  18. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  19. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  20. Recycling crop residues for use in recirculating hydroponic crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Sager, J. C.

    1996-01-01

    As part of bioregenerative life support feasibility testing by NASA, crop residues are being used to resupply elemental nutrients to recirculating hydroponic crop production systems. Methods for recovering nutrients from crop residues have evolved from water soaking (leaching) to rapid aerobic bioreactor processing. Leaching residues recovered the majority of elements but it also recovered significant amounts of soluble organics. The high organic content of leachates was detrimental to plant growth. Aerobic bioreactor processing reduced the organic content ten-fold, which reduced or eliminated phytotoxic effects. Wheat and potato production studies were successful using effluents from reactors having with 8- to 1-day retention times. Aerobic bioreactor effluents supplied at least half of the crops elemental mass needs in these studies. Descriptions of leachate and effluent mineral content, biomass productivity, microbial activity, and nutrient budgets for potato and wheat are presented.

  1. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  2. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  3. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  4. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  5. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  6. Tidal residual current and its role in the mean flow on the Changjiang Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuan, Jiliang; Yang, Zhaoqing; Huang, Daji; Wang, Taiping; Zhou, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Tidal residual current may play an important role in the mean flow in the Changjiang Bank region, in addition to other residual currents, such as the Taiwan Warm Current, the Yellow Sea Coastal Current, and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. In this paper, a detailed structure of the tidal residual current, in particular the meso-scale eddies, in the Changjiang Bank region is observed from model simulations, and its role in the mean flow is quantified using the well-validated Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model). The tidal residual current in the Changjiang Bank region consists of two components: an anticyclonic regional-scale tidal residual circulation around the edge of the Changjiang Bank and some cyclonic meso-scale tidal residual eddies across the Changjiang Bank. The meso-scale tidal residual eddies occur across the Changjiang Bank and contribute to the regional-scale tidal residual circulation offshore at the northwest boundary and at the northeast edge of the Changjiang Bank, southeastward along the 50 m isobath. Tidal rectification is the major mechanism causing the tidal residual current to flow along the isobaths. Both components of the tidal residual current have significant effects on the mean flow. A comparison between the tidal residual current and the mean flow indicates that the contribution of the tidal residual current to the mean flow is greater than 50%.

  7. Thermal Stability of Residual Stresses in Ti-6Al-4V components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanojevic, A; Angerer, P; Oberwinkler, B

    2016-01-01

    The need for light weight design while maintaining a high safety is essential for many components, especially in the aircraft industry. Therefore, it's important to consider every aspect to reduce weight, improve fatigue life and maintain safety of crucial components. Residual stresses are a major factor which can positively influence components and fulfil all three requirements. However, due to the inconstancy of the behaviour of residual stresses during the life time of a component, residual stresses are often neglected. If the behaviour of residual stresses could be described reliably over the entire life time of a component, residual stresses could be taken into account and components could be optimized even further. Mechanical and thermal loads are the main reason for relaxation of residual stresses. This work covers the thermal stability of residual stresses in Ti-6Al-4V components. Therefore, exposure tests at raised temperatures were performed on specimens with different surface conditions. Residual stresses were measured by x-ray diffraction before and after testing. Creep tests were also carried out to describe the creep behaviour and thereby the ability for residual stress relaxation. A correlation between the creep rate and amount of relaxed stress was found. The creep behaviour of the material was described by using a combination of the Norton Power law and the Arrhenius equation. The Zener-Wert-Avrami model was used to describe the residual stress relaxation. With these models a satisfying correlation between measured and calculated data was found. Hence, the relaxation of residual stresses due to thermal load was described reliably. (paper)

  8. Weld Residual Stress in Corner Boxing Joints

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuyoshi, Matsuoka; Tokuharu, Yoshii; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport; Ship Research Institute, Ministry of Transport

    1998-01-01

    Fatigue damage often occurs in corner boxing welded joints because of stress concentration and residual stress. The hot spot stress approach is applicable to stress concentration. However, the number of suitable methods for estimating residual stress in welded joints is limited. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the residual stress in corner boxing joints. The method of estimating residual stresses based on the inherent stress technique is presented. Residual stress measurements are per...

  9. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...... with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg...

  10. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  11. Machine Arithmetic in Residual Classes,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-03

    rsmainder/residue, as this ascape /-nsues from thp determination of system. It can be. zaalizpd ;n the presence of th- arithmetic urit, which wor~s in thz sys...modules Nj. Page 417. Proof. Proof ascaps /ensues directly from the theorem of Gauss. Actually/really, since according to condition (py, qj)-=-. then

  12. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  13. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  14. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  15. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...

  16. Short communication: Macrocyclic lactone residues in butter from Brazilian markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Fabio; Marsico, Eliane Teixeira; Conte-Júnior, Carlos Adam; de Almeida Furtado, Leonardo; Brasil, Taila Figueredo; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Macrocyclic lactones (ML) are commonly used in drug formulations for the treatment of parasites in cattle. In Brazil, except for drugs (or formulations) with long-term (half-life) effects, ML are registered for use in bovines. Indiscriminate use of ML may result in the presence of residues in milk and dairy products due to their lipophilic properties and thermal stability. This study applied a method of liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, recently developed and validated for the determination of residues of abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, and moxidectin in butter. The method was applied to 38 samples of commercial butter purchased in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between June and September 2013, analyzed in triplicate. Ivermectin was detected in 89.5% of the samples, with concentrations between 0.3 and 119.4 µg/kg; 76.3% of the samples contained doramectin (0.6 to 64.7 µg/kg) and 55.2% contained abamectin (0.7 to 4.5 µg/kg). Most butter samples (76.3%) contained residues of more than 1 ML; however, no residues of moxidectin were detected. The results showed a high incidence of the presence of avermectins in butter samples. Butter is not included in the Brazilian National Plan for Control of Residues and Contaminants in Animal Products. As ML residues concentrate in lipophilic compounds, butter and other fatty dairy products should be screened for the presence of ML residues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Some Characterization Results on Dynamic Cumulative Residual Tsallis Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Sati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generalized cumulative residual information measure based on Tsallis entropy and its dynamic version. We study the characterizations of the proposed information measure and define new classes of life distributions based on this measure. Some applications are provided in relation to weighted and equilibrium probability models. Finally the empirical cumulative Tsallis entropy is proposed to estimate the new information measure.

  18. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Myocardial blood flow rate and capillary permeability for 99mTc-DTPA in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Evaluation of the single-injection, residue detection method with intracoronary indicator bolus injection and the use of a mobile gamma camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Kelbaek, H; Efsen, F

    1994-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantitate myocardial perfusion and capillary permeability in the human heart by means of the single-injection, residue detection method using a mobile gamma camera. With this method, the intravascular mean transit time and the capillary extraction fraction (E...... capillary permeability area product (PS) were determined. Spontaneous 15 min variations (mean of two values) for the LAD and the CX territory, respectively, gave a mean fpl(LAD) of 74.2 (measurement 1) and 77.8 ml.(100 g.min)-1 (measurement 2) (SD of the difference 7.5 ml.(100 g.min)-1) and fpl(CX) of 82.......7 and 92.1 ml. (100 g.min)-1, respectively (SD of the difference 16.1 ml.(100 g.min)-1), and E(LAD) was 51.0 and 55.7%, respectively (SD of the difference 8.4%), and E(CX) was 52.9 and 50.4%, respectively (SD of the difference 5.9%). During atrial pacing, the rate-pressure product increased by 97...

  20. Measurement of residual stresses in alloy 600 pressurizer penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.F.; Molkenthin, J.P.; Prevey, P.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Alloy 600 penetrations in several pressurized water reactors have experienced primary water stress corrosion cracking near the partial penetration J-welds between the Alloy 600 and the cladding on the inside diameter of the components. The microstructure and tensile properties indicated that the Alloy 600 was susceptible to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) providing that a high tensile stress (applied + residual) was present. The residual stress distributions at the inside diameter surface and at different depths below the surface were measured in Alloy 600 nozzle and heater sleeve mockups. Surface residual stresses on the nozzle mockup ranged from -350 to +830 MPa. For the heater sleeve mockup, the surface residual stresses ranged from -330 to +525 MPa. In the areas of high tensile residual stress, for the most part, the residual stresses decreased with increasing depth below the surface. For the nozzle and heater sleeve mockups, the percent cold-world and yield strength as a function of depth were determined. (authors). 12 figs., 4 refs

  1. Nitrous oxide and N-leaching losses from agricultural soil: Influence of crop residue particle size, quality and placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Robertson, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    Incorporation of crop residues provides a source of readily available C and N, and previous works indicate that farming strategies where crop residues are used for soil fertility purposes may lead to increased emissions of N2O. Information on the importance of different residue management on the ...

  2. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  3. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  4. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  5. RECOVERY OF WHEAT RESIDUE NITROGEN 15 AND RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore 85 kg ha-1 N as labelled ammonium sulfate (9.764% atomic excess) was applied in a three-split application. Fertiliser N recovery by wheat in the first year was 33.1%. At harvest, 64.8% of fertiliser N was found in the 0 - 80 cm profile as residual fertiliser-derived N; 2.1% of the applied N could not be accounted for ...

  6. Inulin-125I-tyramine, an improved residualizing label for studies on sites of catabolism of circulating proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, J.L.; Baynes, J.W.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Residualizing labels for protein, such as dilactitol-125I-tyramine (125I-DLT) and cellobiitol-125I-tyramine, have been used to identify the tissue and cellular sites of catabolism of long-lived plasma proteins, such as albumin, immunoglobulins, and lipoproteins. The radioactive degradation products formed from labeled proteins are relatively large, hydrophilic, resistant to lysosomal hydrolases, and accumulate in lysosomes in the cells involved in degradation of the carrier protein. However, the gradual loss of the catabolites from cells (t1/2 approximately 2 days) has limited the usefulness of residualizing labels in studies on longer lived proteins. We describe here a higher molecular weight (Mr approximately 5000), more efficient residualizing glycoconjugate label, inulin-125I-tyramine (125I-InTn). Attachment of 125I-InTn had no effect on the plasma half-life or tissue sites of catabolism of asialofetuin, fetuin, or rat serum albumin in the rat. The half-life for hepatic retention of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled asialofetuin was 5 days, compared to 2.3 days for 125I-DLT-labeled asialofetuin. The whole body half-lives for radioactivity from 125I-InTn-, 125I-DLT-, and 125I-labeled rat serum albumin were 7.5, 4.3, and 2.2 days, respectively. The tissue distribution of degradation products from 125I-InTn-labeled proteins agreed with results of previous studies using 125I-DLT, except that a greater fraction of total degradation products was recovered in tissues. Kinetic analyses indicated that the average half-life for retention of 125I-InTn degradation products in tissues is approximately 5 days and suggested that in vivo there are both slow and rapid routes for release of degradation products from cells

  7. On machine surface to the unit event causing residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalama, R.M.; Mannanb, M.A.; Spowageca, A.

    2005-01-01

    Integrity and reduce overall costs. Within the framework of surface integrity investigations, special emphasis is given to the measurement of residual stresses because they contribute directly to premature failure of components. Since the highest residual stresses are to be found in surface layers, these deserve special attention when dealing with dynamically, heavily loaded machine parts such as gas turbine components used in aero engines. Of the many techniques available for the measurement of residual stresses, the most highly developed and widely used non-destructive method is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, it is not possible to use this technique for inspection of all the components, since it is time consuming, complicated as well as expensive. In this paper, a method is being proposed that augments the XRD method but at the same time capable of inspecting all the components. A non-destructive, visual inspection technique has been developed that can correlate the characteristic features on the surface to the unit event causing the residual stress and the type of residual stress generated on the machined surface. Pictures of the machined surfaces have been taken using a digital video microscope at a magnification of 500 and the surface feature correlated to the unit event causing the residual stress. Sharp and well defined long grooves indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a mechanical unit event while appearance of streaks and small areas of smeared material indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a thermal unit event. These trends have been confirmed by measuring the residual stresses using XRD. The proposed technique is an attempt at establishing a simple methodology that would be useful to industries manufacturing aerospace and other components that require good surface integrity. (Author)

  8. Measurement of residual stress in a friction welded joint by using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okido, Shinobu; Morii, Yukio; Hayashi, Makoto; Minakawa, Nobuaki

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism that produces residual stress near the boundary of two metals connected by friction welding was investigated by neutron diffraction. This investigation showed that the residual stress near the boundary of friction welding was compressive (about 300 MPa) at the surface and tensile (about 200 MPa) at the center of the welded specimen. These results indicate that the residual stress was produced by the heat history during cooling after the upsetting process. (author)

  9. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Agricultural workers are at risk of chronic toxicity. Hence, the evaluation of pesticide residues in their blood gives an indication about the extent of exposure and help in assessing adverse health effects. The aim of our study was to develop analytical method for ...

  10. Interaction of 18-residue peptides derived from amphipathic helical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigated the interaction of six 18-residue peptides derived from amphipathic helical segments of globular proteins with model membranes. The net charge of the peptides at neutral pH varies from –1 to +6. Circular dichroism spectra indicate that peptides with a high net positive charge tend to fold into a helical ...

  11. Nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from leaves of five local cassava varieties cultivated in south west Nigeria namely Ilaro, Oko-iyawo, Mafamipa, Odongbo, Idileru as feed for ruminants, was evaluated using chemical composition and in - vitro dry matter digestibility as indices. Chemical ...

  12. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  13. Heating oil, distillates and residuals outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    M.J. Ervin and Associates offers strategic planning support to the downstream petroleum industry in terms of price market monitoring, market analysis, media commentary and benchmarking of marketing operations. This presentation included graphs depicting supply and demand for heating oil distillates and residuals from the mid 1990s to 2004. It was noted that the long-term decline in residuals demand in the United States and Canada are due to environmental issues, the use of natural gas as an alternative, and the increasing complexity of refineries. Graphs depicting market impacts of refinery utilization and inventory trends showed that middle distillate production will increase at the expense of gasoline production. Middle distillates and gasoline markets will be more sensitive to supply disruptions, resulting in more frequent price spikes. Inventory trends indicate a greater reliance on product imports. The demand for heating fuel has stabilized due to the continued penetration of natural gas in eastern states and provinces. The demand for diesel fuel has growth 1.5 to 2 per cent while the demand for jet fuel has remained relatively flat and depends greatly on the growth of the gross national product (GNP). tabs., figs

  14. Residual stress in ceramics and ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oden, M.

    1992-01-01

    Residual stresses in Si 3 N 4 and SiC have been measured with X-ray diffraction after grinding and thermal shock. The produced surface stresses are compressive after both treatments. The stresses show a strong dependence on the quenching temperature up to a certain temperature when cracks relax the stresses. The influence of the amount of reinforcing phase on the residual stress state in a Al 2 O 3 /SiC whisker composite was investigated and correlated to a modified Eshelby model. The agreement is excellent. The composite was quenched in liquid He (4K) and the stress state measured after show no relaxation of stresses, indicating elastic behaviour. An in situ strain measurement as a function of temperature conducted on a Al 2 O 3 /SiC whisker composite and a SiC/TiB 2 particle composite show very good agreement with the Eshelby model for the Al 2 O 3 /SiC system but not agreement for the SiC/TiB 2 system. The reason is believed to be stress relaxation during sample preparation. (au) (53 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.)

  15. A retrospective analysis of real-life practice of off-label photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in 20 Italian dermatology departments. Part 1: inflammatory and aesthetic indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzavara-Pinton, Pier Giacomo; Rossi, Maria Teresa; Aronson, Erica; Sala, Raffaella

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations have demonstrated that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) may be a useful treatment in several inflammatory skin disorders and aesthetic indications. To assess the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of off-label MAL-PDT in daily clinical practice in 20 Italian hospital centers, a retrospective observational study of medical records of patients treated for off-label inflammatory and aesthetic indications was carried out. In all patients standard treatment options had been either ineffective, unacceptably toxic, or medically contraindicated. Clinical data regarding 221 patients affected by 22 different diseases were collected. The most common off-label indication was acne vulgaris, with >75% improvement in 72.8% of patients. Other disorders of the sebaceous gland, i.e. acne rosacea, hidradenitis suppurativa and sebaceous hyperplasia, were less responsive. Alopecia areata did not show any improvement. Granuloma annulare and necrobiosis lipoidica showed marked or moderate response in the majority of treated patients. The rate of patients with complete remission was lower for inflammatory skin disorders with hyperkeratosis, i.e. psoriasis (6/17) and porokeratosis (3/16). The efficacy for lichenoid dermatoses was dependent on the clinical variant (erosive and scleroatrophic were more responsive than hypertrophic). Only 1 of 6 patients with Zoon balanitis had a marked improvement. MAL-PDT of venous leg ulcers, photo-aging and hypertrophic scars led to a marked remission in 3/5, 3/6 and 5/8 patients, respectively. The treatment had to be interrupted because of strong pain and burning in 24 patients. Long term adverse events were not registered. Most patients with marked improvement had lasting remission with overall excellent cosmetic outcomes. The present findings demonstrate a high interest in off-label uses of MAL-PDT for inflammatory skin disorders. According to the observed clinical responses, safety, and

  16. The Assessment of Pesticides Residues in Some Organic Cultivated and Wild-Collected Medicinal Plants in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    FERDI BRAHUSHI; ENDRIT KULLAJ

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide residues in environment are found in soil, water and plants due to the extensive use of pesticides for agricultural purposes. The residues of pesticides in medicinal plants are of high concern as they are toxic for human life since these plants are used for medicinal purposes. The objective of current study was to estimate the presence of pesticide residues in some organic cultivated and wild-collected medicinal plants in Albania during the years 2010–2013. The determination of pest...

  17. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  19. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  20. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    . To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  1. Endrin in birds: Lethal residues and secondary poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; Reichel, W.L.; Hughes, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Endrin residues in brains that are diagnostic of death were determined for several species of birds. Residues of 0.8 ppm or more of endrin in brain meant death; 0.6 ppm or less meant survival; between was a zone of overlap. These criteria indicate that some wild birds of the U.S., particularly white pelicans in the Northwest and two bald eagles, have been killed by endrin. Signs of endrin poisoning in experimental birds are described. The important and highly toxic metabolite in rodents, 12-ketoendrin, was sought but not found.

  2. An Improved ASTER Index for Remote Sensing of Crop Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Doraiswamy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike traditional ground-based methodology, remote sensing allows for the rapid estimation of crop residue cover (fR. While the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI is ideal for fR estimation, a new index, the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI, utilizing ASTER bands 6 and 7, is proposed for future multispectral sensors and would be less costly to implement. SINDRI performed almost as well as CAI and better than other indices at five locations in the USA on multiple dates. A minimal upgrade from one broad band to two narrow bands would provide fR data for carbon cycle modeling and tillage verification.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of radioactive and fluorescent residualizing labels for identifying sites of plasma protein catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, J.L.; Baynes, J.W.; Thorpe, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    Inulin and lactose were each coupled to tyramine by reductive amination with NaBH 3 CN and the tyramine then labeled with 125 I. Dilactitol- 125 I-tyramine (DLT) and inulin- 125 I-tyramine (InTn) were coupled by reductive amination and cyanuric chloride, respectively, to asialofetuin (ASF), fetuin and rat serum albumin (RSA). Attachment of either label had no effect on the circulating half-lives of the proteins. Radioactivity from labeled ASF was recovered in rat liver (> 90%) by 1 h post-injection and remained in liver with half-lives of 2 and 6 days, respectively, for the DLT and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn labels. Whole body recoveries of radioactivity from DLT- and InTn-labeled RSA were 5 and 6.5 days, respectively, again indicating that the larger glycoconjugate label residualized more efficiently in cells following protein degradation. (Lactitol) 2 -N-CH 2 -CH 2 -NH-fluroescein (DLF) was also coupled to ASF by reductive amination and recovered quantitatively in liver at 1 h post-injection. Native ASF was an effective competitor for clearance of DLF-ASF from the circulation. Fluorescent degradation products were retained in liver with a half-life of 1.2 days. Residualizing fluorescent labels should be useful for identification and sorting of cells active in the degradation of plasma proteins

  4. Environmental indicators for evaluating properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Grosso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Property evaluation for tax purposes has traditionally relied on urban and building criteria, mostly resulting from concepts driven by the commercial attractiveness of the property under evaluation, its building and the site itself. Due to the world climate and ecological crisis, awareness has risen about the need for other indicators, which can evaluate the quality of a property, even referring to its potential environmental impact. Technical standards for the evaluation of buildings’ environmental sustainability, which have been developed since the first years of this century, both nationally and internationally, take into account the impact of the building and its relevance for the life-cycle of materials and elements, with reference to the three sectors of sustainability: environmental, economic and social. The social sector includes indicators referring to the user’s health and comfort, which also interact with the morphological and spatial characteristics of the building. However, there is a lack of methodological tools for the evaluation of said indicators and existing ones are mainly of a qualitative type. This paper suggests a methodological approach for the quantitative evaluation of sustainability indicators, relying on the accessibility of a site’s climate resources by the property, as a criterion to evaluate the potential for the reduction of negative environmental impact, as well as a criterion to improve users’ life quality.

  5. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  6. Optimization of machining and vibration parameters for residual stresses minimization in ultrasonic assisted turning of 4340 hardened steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varun; Pandey, Pulak M

    2016-08-01

    The residual stresses generated in the machined work piece have detrimental effect on fatigue life, corrosion resistance and tribological properties. However, the effect of cutting and vibration parameters on residual stresses in Ultrasonic Assisted Turning (UAT) has not been dealt with. The present paper highlights the effect of feed rate, depth of cut, cutting velocity and percentage intensity of ultrasonic power on residual stress generation. XRD analysis has been carried out to measure the residual stress while turning 4340 hardened steel using UAT. The experiments were performed based on response surface methodology to develop statistical model for residual stress. The outcome of ANOVA revealed that percentage intensity and feed rate significantly affect the residual stress generation. The significant interactions between process parameters have also been presented tin order to understand the thermo-mechanical mechanism responsible for residual stress generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental and economic evaluations of energy recovery from agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Sobek, A.A.

    1979-08-01

    Agricultural and forestry residues have been converted to energy for centuries. The technologies employed range from straightforward approaches such as combustion to produce heat to more involved approaches such as pyrolysis of the residues to produce medium-Btu synthetic gas, charcoal, and oil. Thus there is no one technology that can be characterized as the best or most promising for conversion of agricultural and forestry residues into energy. Therefore, to accurately assess the potential of agricultural and forestry residues as energy resources, an array of current conversion options should be addressed. Four conversion methods and five residues are examined in this report, which describes six model systems: hydrolysis of corn residues, pyrolysis of corn residues, combustion of cotton-ginning residues, pyrolysis of wheat residues, fermentation of molasses, and combustion of pulp and papermill wastes. Estimates of material and energy flows for those systems are given per 10/sup 12/ Btu of recovered energy. Regional effects are incorporated by addressing the regionalized production of the residues. A national scope cannot be provided for every residue considered because of the biological and physical constraints of crop production. Thus, regionalization of the model systems to the primary production region for the crop from which the residue is obtained has been undertaken. The associated environmental consequences of residue utilization are then assessed for the production region. In addition, the environmental impacts of operating the model systems ae examined. On the basis of estimates found in the literature, capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates are given for the model systems. The study indicates that the most serious environmental impacts arise from residue removal rather than from conversion.

  8. Letter to the editor regarding "Study design of 'Friends for Life': a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention program": response to Lima et al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kösters MP

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mia P Kösters,1 Mai JM Chinapaw,2 Marieke Zwaanswijk,3 Marcel F van der Wal,1 Hans M Koot4,51Department of Epidemiology and Health Promotion, Public Health Service of Amsterdam (GGD, Amsterdam, 2Department of Public and Occupational Health, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, 3NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, 4Department of Developmental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education, VU University, Amsterdam, 5EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsWe would like to respond to the paper "Childhood depression: a systematic review", recently published in Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by Lima et al.1 The aforementioned paper presents a systematic review of childhood depression and refers several times to our paper, "Study design of ‘FRIENDS for Life’: a process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention programme for childhood anxiety and depression", published in BMC Public Health by Kösters et al.2 Unfortunately we noted a number of erroneous statements about our paper. We will address these in order of appearance.View original paper by Lima and colleagues.

  9. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  10. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  11. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  12. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Michael; Gnaëpel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-11-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines.

  13. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  14. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. Glycogen is large molecules wherein Glucose residues. linked by α-(1- 4) glycosidic bonds into chains and chains. branch via α-(1- 6) linkage. Branching points are about every fourth residue – allows. glucose ...

  15. Assessing the environmental impact of geothermal residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peralta, G.L.; Kirk, D.W.; Graydon, J.W.; Seyfried, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    Scale, sludge and drilling mud from three geothermal fields (Bulalo, Philippines; Cerro Prieto, Mexico; and Dixie Valley, USA) containing As, Cu, Cr, Zn and Pb at levels above the earth's crustal abundance were studied for their environmental impact. Several techniques and procedures were used to assess the risk posed by the residues: whole rock analysis, X- ray diffraction, radioactivity counting, protocol leach tests, toxicity testing, accelerated weathering test and a preliminary acid mine dramage potential test. There was no evidence of toxicity or genotoxicity present in any of the samples tested. Leaching tests indicated that all of the wastes could be classified as non-hazardous. One sample showed a low-level radio activity but it was still within the occupational dose limit. Three samples tested positive for acidification potential while none of the regulated elements were found in the leachate after three months of weathering test

  16. Pesticide residues in fish from the Densu River Basin in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Densu River is a typical river flowing through agricultural areas in Southern Ghana. Six fish species from different locations in the river were sampled and analyzed for residues of pesticides and metabolites using GC with ECD/FID. The results of the study indicate that all the detected residues and metabolites in fish ...

  17. Indices of 1-forms, intersection indices, and Newton polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esterov, A I

    2006-01-01

    The intersection indices of a certain kind of analytic set (resultant cycles) are expressed in terms of the Newton polyhedra of the corresponding defining systems of functions, provided that the principal parts of the functions are in general position. Among special cases of resultant cycles are complete intersections and the loci of matrix rank drop. Among special cases of the intersection indices of such sets are the index of a singularity of a Poincare-Hopf vector field and its generalizations to the case of singular varieties, the index of a system of germs of 1-forms at an isolated singularity of a Gusein-Zade-Ebeling complete intersection, and the Suwa residue of a system of germs of sections of a vector bundle. One also obtains as a consequence the well-known Kushnirenko-Oka formula for the Milnor number of the germ of a map in terms of the Newton polyhedra of its components. A generalization of the well-known equality of the above-mentioned invariants of singularities to the dimensions of certain local rings is also presented.

  18. Residual orientation in injection micro-molded samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John; Edward, Graham H.; Knott, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    The orientation of polymer chains after injection molding is usually studied using techniques that measure the average orientation of molecular segments. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a technique for measuring the overall chain orientation and is very sensitive to molecular anisotropy. In this study, a blend of a commercial general-purpose polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene was injection micro-molded under a variety of molding conditions. SANS was then used to measure the residual orientation of the deuterated chains. As expected, the molecular orientation decreased with increasing mold temperature and increased with decreasing mold thickness. However, for these micro-moldings, the residual orientation decreased with increasing injection velocity. The measured orientation also appears to be Q-dependent indicating that the average residual orientation of short-chain segments may not necessarily reflect the overall chain conformation

  19. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  20. Study on distribution and optimization of residual stress inside plate-fin structure after braze welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Guoyan; Tu Shandong; Xuan Fuzhen; Wang Zhengdong

    2010-01-01

    The residual stress inside the plate-fin structure has been analyzed by the finite element method under different operation conditions. The calculated results show that a large scale of residual stress will occur in the plate-fin structure and the maximum value is found at the braze corner. The rapid cooling process and the pressured assembly technology have a significant effect on the distribution of the residual stress. The brazed material owns a better performance with a quicker cooling rate. However, the quicker cooling rate also leads to a tensile residual stress near the brazed seam, which is deleterious to the whole structure. The pressure assembly technology can change the residual stress from a tensile state to the compressed state which can improve the safety and extend the service life of the plate-fin structure effectively. (authors)

  1. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  2. Plant residues: short term effect on sulphate, borate, zinc and copper adsorption by an acid oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ana Cristi Basile

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the effects of plant residues on Cu, Zn, B and S adsorption by an acidic oxisol. The plant residues were: black oats (Avena strigosa, oil seed radish(Raphanus sativus, velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan collected at flowering stage. Plant residues increased Cu and Zn adsorptions and decreased B and S adsorptions. The results indicated that for short term effect plant residues decreased the availabilities of Cu and Zn through metal organic complex reactions and increased availabilities of S and B through competition with organic anions by the adsorption sites on soil.

  3. Residual and Past Entropy for Concomitants of Ordered Random Variables of Morgenstern Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mohie EL-Din

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system, which is observed at time t, the residual and past entropies measure the uncertainty about the remaining and the past life of the distribution, respectively. In this paper, we have presented the residual and past entropy of Morgenstern family based on the concomitants of the different types of generalized order statistics (gos and give the linear transformation of such model. Characterization results for these dynamic entropies for concomitants of ordered random variables have been considered.

  4. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  5. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  6. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  7. Residual effects of intranasal methamphetamine on sleep, mood, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G.; Gunderson, Erik W.; Marrone, Gina; Silver, Rae; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.

    2008-01-01

    Although intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased, there are no published data investigating the residual effects of the drug under controlled conditions. Thus, the current study examined the residual effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Non-treatment seeking methamphetamine abusers (n = 11) completed this two-week, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. The study consisted of 4 two-day blocks of sessions; each block was separated by at least 24 hrs. At approximately 1000 hrs, on the first day of each block, participants received one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, 50 mg/70 kg). Lights were turned out at 2300 hrs that evening and sleep measures were assessed. On the morning of the second day of each block, methamphetamine plasma levels, cardiovascular measures, mood, subjective reports of the previous evening's sleep, and psychomotor performance were assessed to determine residual drug effects. The larger methamphetamine doses (25 and 50 mg) markedly disrupted subjective measures of that night's sleep and some indices of next-day mood, but only the largest dose (50 mg) dose decreased objective measures of that night's sleep and increased next-day physiological measures. Methamphetamine did not produce any negative residual effects on early next-day performance. Future studies should assess methamphetamine-related residual effects following repeated doses administered over consecutive days. PMID:18078723

  8. Solvent selection for fatty acid residue analysis of archeologicial artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosentreter Jeffrey J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Residue analysis has rapidly become one of the most useful techniques for determining an artifact function and revealing insight into paleodiets. The success of analytical residue analysis often lies with the first preparatory step, where the residue is extracted from the object. Detection of a residue requires effective solvation of the material, and there is a large range of potential solvents. One purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of various solvents for the extraction of fatty acids from charcoal, a material that is ubiquitous, easily identified, remarkably stable in the archaeological record but, most importantly for this research, retains fats extremely well. This investigation examines the removal efficiency of model fatty acids from carbonized wood samples. The strong affinity of lipids to charcoal makes carbonized wood ideal for retaining them, but also makes their extraction extremely challenging and thus an ideal benchmark for solvent extraction characterization. Several solvents (benzene, chloroform, hexane, methanol and water are used to determine the quantitative extraction efficiency of tripalmitin. While benzene and chloroform perform best for some wood types, neither solvent is better for all carbonized wood. Correlations between the chemical properties of the solvents and the effectiveness of the extraction provide guidance for solvents. Findings indicate solvent characteristics including dipole moment, dielectric constant, hydrogen bonding, and molecular weight all play an important role in extraction of fat from a charcoal matrix. Results presented should provide guidelines to allow for more effective residue extration and more accurate lipid analysis.

  9. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  10. Organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Limoee, Mojtaba; Namdari, Farideh; Khamutian, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Chlorinated pesticides have been used in pest control for several decades in the world. These compounds are still applied in many regions, and their continuous usage has resulted in their bioaccumulation and residue in the food chain. These residues could transfer to food products and accumulate in fat tissues. Undoubtedly, the breast milk could be a significant biomarker for estimation of these residues in the human body. This study was conducted to review and compile the results of the studies undertaken in the world which surveyed the organochlorine pesticides residue in breast milk. A total of 710 national and international articles and texts related to the focused subject were extracted from the virtual databases using the following key words: Chlorinated pesticides, residue and breast milk. Thirty articles published between 1980 and 2013 were selected and reviewed. The majority of the reviewed articles indicated the presence of two or more organochlorine pesticides in the collected samples of breast milk. Based on the reviewed studies, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) had the highest level of concentration in the collected samples of breast milk. Moreover, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between mother's age, her multiparty and concentration of chlorinated pesticides in breast milk. The organochlorine pesticides are still applied in some developing countries including some regions of Iran. Thus, it seems essential to inform the community about the adverse effects of this class of pesticides; and most importantly the governments should also ban the use of such compounds.

  11. Monitoring glyphosate residues in transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Lenardón, Argelia; Sanchez, Daniel; Maitre, María I; Scotta, Roberto; Enrique, Susana

    2004-02-01

    The availability of Roundup Ready (RR) varieties of soybean has increased the use of glyphosate for weed control in Argentina. Glyphosate [(N-phosphonomethyl)glycine] is employed for the eradication of previous crop vegetation and for weed control during the soybean growing cycle. Its action is effective, and low environmental impact has been reported so far. No residues have been observed in soil or water, either of glyphosate or its metabolite, AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid). The objective of this work was to monitor glyphosate and AMPA residues in soybean plants and grains in field crops in Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Five sites were monitored in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Individual soybean plants were sampled from emergence to harvest, dried and ground. Analysis consisted in residue extraction with organic solvents and buffers, agitation, centrifugation, clean-up and HPLC with UV detection. In soybean leaves and stems, glyphosate residues ranged from 1.9 to 4.4 mg kg(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.8 mg kg(-1) in grains. Higher concentrations were detected when glyphosate was sprayed several times during the crop cycle, and when treatments approached the flowering stage. AMPA residues were also detected in leaves and in grains, indicating metabolism of the herbicide.

  12. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  13. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  14. Pesticides residue levels in selected fruits from some Ghanaian markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bempah, K.C.

    2009-02-01

    The amount of some pesticide residues in fruits was monitored at five (5) Accra Metropolis markets. Locally produced fruits (pawpaw and tomato) and imported apples were purchased from two supermarkets and three urban markets in Accra metropolis and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector for pesticide residues. A total of 220 samples of fruits were extracted and analyzed for pesticide residues, mainly organochlorines (γ-HCH, δ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, γ-chlordane, heptachlor epoxide, α-endosulfan, p,p'-DDE, endrin, β-endosulfan, o,p'-DDT, endrin aldehyde, p,p'- DDT, endrin ketone and methoxychlor). The data showed that most of the fruit samples analyzed contain residues of the monitored pesticides above the accepted maximum residue limit (MRL) as adopted by the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The results obtained showed that 38.6 % fruit samples showed results above the MRL, 48.7 % were below the MRL and 12.7 % contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides. Data analysis of health risk estimates indicated that, particularly γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE or p,p'-DDT do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in the three fruits (pawpaw, tomato and apple). However, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, endrin aldehyde, and endrin ketone levels exceeded the reference dose, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. Lastly, the public is aware of pesticide residues in fruits and advocates for the curtailing of pesticide use on horticulture produce or strong educational programmes for farmers on control and safer use of pesticides. (au)

  15. Residual replacement strategies for Krylov subspace iterative methods for the convergence of true residuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H.A. van der; Ye, Q.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, a strategy is proposed for alternative computations of the residual vectors in Krylov subspace methods, which improves the agreement of the computed residuals and the true residuals to the level of O(u)kAkkxk. Building on earlier ideas on residual replacement and on insights in

  16. Residual stress measurements of welded stainless steel 304 plate using the HANARO residual stress instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, M. K.; Lee, C. H.; Em, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    In order to nondestructively measure in-depth residual stress distribution of the metallic materials, it is unique method to use neutron diffraction. In this paper the principles of residual stress measurements by neutron diffraction is described. The residual stress distribution of welded strainless steeel 304 plate using te HANARO residual stress instrument is also described

  17. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... residues and ethylamine distillation residues. (a) Chemical substances and significant new use subject to...

  18. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    process. Residuals are ascribed to locations in the empty background, as well as to data points of the point pattern. We obtain variance formulae, and study standardised residuals. There is also an analogy between our spatial residuals and the usual residuals for (non-spatial) generalised linear models...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  19. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    weeks of decomposition, due to high rates of residue N net mineralization and subsequent leaching and denitrification losses of N. Lysimeter experiments showed that pea residues may reduce leaching losses of N, probably due to their effect on the mineralization-immobilizalion turnover of N...... and denitrification. Winter barley succeeding field pea recovered 13% of the incorporated pea residue N by early December; the recovery was found to be 15% at maturity in July. A spring-sown crop of barley recovered less than half the amount of pea residue N recovered by winter barley. The residue N-use efficiencies...

  20. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B.; Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M.

    2010-01-01

    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin 2 Ψ method. (author)