WorldWideScience

Sample records for residual isostatic anomalies

  1. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lies are isolated so as to construct the isostatic residual maps. Very accurate geophysical studies have ... Finite element concept; isostatic anomaly; Gorda Plate; Sierra Nevada. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Earth Planet. Sci.), 110 .... The continuous line is obtained by regression analysis. The broken line shows the. FEA regional ...

  2. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual ...

  3. Finite element concept to derive isostatic residual maps-Application ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new space-domain operator based on the shape function concept of finite element analysis has been developed to derive the residual maps of the Gorda Plate of western United States. The technique does not require explicit assumptions on isostatic models. Besides delineating the Gorda Plate boundary, the residual ...

  4. Residual generator for cardiovascular anomalies detection

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of using observer-based approaches for cardiovascular anomalies detection and isolation. We consider a lumped parameter model of the cardiovascular system that can be written in a form of nonlinear state-space representation. We show that residuals that are sensitive to variations in some cardiovascular parameters and to abnormal opening and closure of the valves, can be generated. Since the whole state is not easily available for measurement, we propose to associate the residual generator to a robust extended kalman filter. Numerical results performed on synthetic data are provided.

  5. Lithospheric thickness jumps at the S-Atlantic continental margins from satellite gravity data and modelled isostatic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Meysam; Schmeling, Harro; Haas, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Isostatic equilibrium is a good approximation for passive continental margins. In these regions, geoid anomalies are proportional to the local dipole moment of density-depth distributions, which can be used to constrain the amount of oceanic to continental lithospheric thickening (lithospheric jumps). We consider a five- or three-layer 1D model for the oceanic and continental lithosphere, respectively, composed of water, a sediment layer (both for the oceanic case), the crust, the mantle lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The mantle lithosphere is defined by a mantle density, which is a function of temperature and composition, due to melt depletion. In addition, a depth-dependent sediment density associated with compaction and ocean floor variation is adopted. We analyzed satellite derived geoid data and, after filtering, extracted typical averaged profiles across the Western and Eastern passive margins of the South Atlantic. They show geoid jumps of 8.1 m and 7.0 m for the Argentinian and African sides, respectively. Together with topography data and an averaged crustal density at the conjugate margins these jumps are interpreted as isostatic geoid anomalies and yield best-fitting crustal and lithospheric thicknesses. In a grid search approach five parameters are systematically varied, namely the thicknesses of the sediment layer, the oceanic and continental crusts and the oceanic and the continental mantle lithosphere. The set of successful models reveals a clear asymmetry between the South Africa and Argentine lithospheres by 15 km. Preferred models predict a sediment layer at the Argentine margin of 3-6 km and at the South Africa margin of 1-2.5 km. Moreover, we derived a linear relationship between, oceanic lithosphere, sediment thickness and lithospheric jumps at the South Atlantic margins. It suggests that the continental lithospheres on the western and eastern South Atlantic are thicker by 45-70 and 60-80 km than the oceanic lithospheres, respectively.

  6. Separation of Regional-Residual Anomaly Using Least Square ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separation of Regional-Residual Anomaly Using Least Square Polynomial Fitting Method. ... The data were obtained by digitizing the maps of the above areas, picking the Total magnetic values along the profile line, processed and analyzed. The result of the residual separation revealed that the area is underlain by a ...

  7. A Qualitative Interpretation of Residual Magnetic Anomaly using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research aims at analyzing and interpreting residual magnetic anomalies for the determination of subsurface geology of the area under study. We employed the use of ground magnetic survey method for the subsurface delineation of a location within Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, an area of 6600 Π2 with ...

  8. Venus - Ishtar gravity anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Mottinger, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    The gravity anomaly associated with Ishtar Terra on Venus is characterized, comparing line-of-sight acceleration profiles derived by differentiating Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler residual profiles with an Airy-compensated topographic model. The results are presented in graphs and maps, confirming the preliminary findings of Phillips et al. (1979). The isostatic compensation depth is found to be 150 + or - 30 km.

  9. 2.5-min Isostatic Gravity Grid for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2.5-min isostatic gravity data set was produced by regridding the 4-km residual isostatic gravity grid of the U.S. The isostatic residual gravity grid was...

  10. Penentuan Anomali Gayaberat Regional dan Residual Menggunakan Filter Gaussian Daerah Mamuju Sulawesi Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhika Junara Karunianto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gravity method is a geophysical method that has been frequently used in prospecting mineral resources. The parameter of searched object is based on variations of gravity acceleration measurements on the surface due to variations in sub-surface geological changes. Research area is located in Mamuju Area of West Sulawesi Province where tectonically a complex geological region, which is at a meeting of three large plates, the Pacific plate, the Indo-Australian plate and the Eurasian plate and the smaller Philippine plate. In addition, Mamuju is an area with a high radioactivity dose rate that has potency to radioactive minerals resources. The purpose of the research is to obtain gravity anomalies by using qualitative separation and interpretation of regional and residual gravity anomalies. Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA value of the research area obtained from the measurements was 46.0 – 115.7 mGal. Based on the CBA map, the separation process of regional gravity anomalies and residual using Gaussian filtering technique conducted. This filtering technique works based on spectral analysis of gravity amplitude changes in spatial where the result is a cutoff wave number of 1.1736 x 10-3/meter and a wavelength of 5373.45 m. The regional and residual gravity anomalies range from 51.8 to 102 mGal and -10.4 to 14.8 mGal respectively. The depth of influence of each anomaly is calculated based on their spectral wavelengths, resulting 970.97 m and 100.21 m for regional and residual anomalies respectively. There are five zones based on the residual anomaly map, which are zones A, B, C, D and E. The heaviest positive gravity anomaly is found in zone A and B, which is predicted to be influenced by Adang lava with relative north – south distribution.

  11. Residual entropy and waterlike anomalies in the repulsive one dimensional lattice gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando Barbosa V. da [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Brasília, Campus São Sebastião, São Sebastião-DF (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando Albuquerque, E-mail: fao@fis.unb.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília-DF (Brazil); Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A., E-mail: aureliobarbosa@gmail.com [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência de Materiais, Faculdade UnB Planaltina, Universidade de Brasília, Planaltina-DF (Brazil)

    2015-04-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of the one dimensional lattice gas with repulsive interaction are investigated using transfer matrix technique and Monte Carlo simulations. This simple model is shown to exhibit waterlike anomalies in density, thermal expansion coefficient, and self-diffusion. An unified description for the thermodynamic anomalies in this model is achieved based on the ground state residual entropy which appears in the model due to mixing entropy in a ground state phase transition.

  12. Comparative analysis of Vening-Meinesz Moritz isostatic models ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    global gravity model and the DTM2006.0 global topographic/bathymetric model are used to generate the isostatic gravity anomalies. The comparison of numerical results reveals that the optimal isostatic inverse scheme should take into consideration both the variable depth and density of compensation. This is achieved by ...

  13. Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  14. Determining the COB location along the Iberian margin and Galicia Bank from gravity anomaly inversion, residual depth anomaly and subsidence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and crustal type are of critical importance in evaluating rifted continental margin formation and evolution. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type also have important implications for the understanding of the geodynamics of continental breakup and in the evaluation of petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration at rifted continental margins. Mapping the distribution of thinned continental crust and lithosphere, its distal extent and the start of unequivocal oceanic crust and hence determining the OCT structure and COB location at rifted continental margins is therefore a generic global problem. In order to assist in the determination of the OCT structure and COB location, we present methodologies using gravity anomaly inversion, residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis and subsidence analysis, which we apply to the west Iberian rifted continental margin. The west Iberian margin has one of the most complete data sets available for deep magma-poor rifted margins, so there is abundant data to which the results can be calibrated. Gravity anomaly inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning; subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning; and RDAs have been used to investigate the OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries at rifted continental margins. These quantitative analytical techniques have been applied to the west Iberian rifted continental margin along profiles IAM9, Lusigal 12 (with the TGS-extension) and ISE-01. Our predictions of OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type (i.e. the volume of magmatic addition, whether the margin is `normal' magmatic, magma-starved or magma-rich) have been tested and validated using ODP wells (Legs 103, 149 and 173), which provide

  15. The Indian Ocean gravity low - Evidence for an isostatically uncompensated depression in the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihnen, S. M.; Whitcomb, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    The broad gravity low in the equatorial Indian Ocean south of Sri Lanka is the largest and most striking feature in the gravitational field of the earth. The most negative long-wavelength free-air gravity anomalies are found there and the sea surface (geoid) lies more than 100 meters below the best fitting ellipsoid. A model of the lithosphere and upper mantle is proposed which accurately predicts the observed free-air gravity and geoid elevation. This model is consistent with bathymetry and sediment thickness data and suggests that the crust south of India currently floats as much as 600 meters lower than would be expected if the region were isostatically compensated. This residual depression of the crust is apparently confirmed by observations of ocean depth. An uncompensated depression is consistent with the presence of a mechanical wake left in the upper mantle behind India as it traveled toward Asia.

  16. Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...

  17. Model parameter estimations from residual gravity anomalies due to simple-shaped sources using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Göktürkler, Gökhan; Turan, Seçil

    2016-06-01

    An efficient approach to estimate model parameters from residual gravity data based on differential evolution (DE), a stochastic vector-based metaheuristic algorithm, has been presented. We have showed the applicability and effectiveness of this algorithm on both synthetic and field anomalies. According to our knowledge, this is a first attempt of applying DE for the parameter estimations of residual gravity anomalies due to isolated causative sources embedded in the subsurface. The model parameters dealt with here are the amplitude coefficient (A), the depth and exact origin of causative source (zo and xo, respectively) and the shape factors (q and ƞ). The error energy maps generated for some parameter pairs have successfully revealed the nature of the parameter estimation problem under consideration. Noise-free and noisy synthetic single gravity anomalies have been evaluated with success via DE/best/1/bin, which is a widely used strategy in DE. Additionally some complicated gravity anomalies caused by multiple source bodies have been considered, and the results obtained have showed the efficiency of the algorithm. Then using the strategy applied in synthetic examples some field anomalies observed for various mineral explorations such as a chromite deposit (Camaguey district, Cuba), a manganese deposit (Nagpur, India) and a base metal sulphide deposit (Quebec, Canada) have been considered to estimate the model parameters of the ore bodies. Applications have exhibited that the obtained results such as the depths and shapes of the ore bodies are quite consistent with those published in the literature. Uncertainty in the solutions obtained from DE algorithm has been also investigated by Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) sampling algorithm based on simulated annealing without cooling schedule. Based on the resulting histogram reconstructions of both synthetic and field data examples the algorithm has provided reliable parameter estimations being within the sampling limits of

  18. The isostatic state of Mead crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.; Konopliv, A. S.; Rappaport, N. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Grimm, R. E.; Ford, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution Magellan Doppler tracking data over Mead crater, using both line-of-sight and spherical harmonic methods, and have found a negative gravity anomaly of about 4-5 mgal (at spacecraft altitude, 182 km). This is consistent with no isostatic compensation of the present topography; the uncertainty in the analysis allows perhaps as much as 30% compensation at shallow dpeths (approximately 25 km). This is similar to observations of large craters on Earth, which are not generally compensated, but contrasts with at least some lunar basins which are inferred to have large Moho uplifts and corresponding positive Bouguer anomalies. An uncompensated load of this size requires a lithosphere with an effective elastic lithosphere thickness greater than 30 km. In order for the crust-mantle boundary not to have participated in the deformation associated with the collapse of the transient cavity during the creation of the crater, the yield strength near the top of the mantle must have been significantly higher on Earth and Venus than on the Moon at the time of basin formation. This might be due to increased strength against frictional sliding at the higher confining pressures within the larger planets. Alternatively, the thinner crusts of Earth and Venus compared to that of the Moon may result in higher creep strength of the upper mantle at shallower depths.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of crustal correction and its error propagation to upper mantle residual gravity and density anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the crustal structure heterogeneity and uncertainty in its determination on stripped gravity field. The analysis is based on interpretation of residual upper mantle gravity anomalies which are calculated by subtracting (stripping) the gravitational effect of the crust...... a relatively small range of expected density variations in the lithospheric mantle, knowledge on the uncertainties associated with incomplete knowledge of density structure of the crust is of utmost importance for further progress in such studies......) uncertainties in the velocity-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions...... from velocity to density and by introducing variations into the crustal structure which corresponds to the uncertainty of its resolution by high-quality and low-quality seismic models. We examine the propagation of these uncertainties into determinations of lithospheric mantle density. The residual...

  20. Tectonics and Non-isostatic Topography of the Mariana Trench and Adjacent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyu, L.; Lin, J.; Zhou, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-types of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry, sediment thickness, gravity anomaly, and crustal magnetic age were analyzed to investigate tectonic processes of the Mariana Trench and the surrounding plates. We calculated non-Airy-isostatic topography by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, thermal subsidence, and Airy local isostatically-compensated topography. The Mariana Trench was found to be associated with a clearly defined zone of negative non-isostatic topography, which was caused by flexural bending of the subducting Pacific plate and with the maximum depth anomaly and flexural bending near the Challenger Deep. In contrast, the Caroline Ridge and Caroline Islands Chain have much more subdued non-isostatic topography, indicating their higher topography is largely compensated by thicker crust. Along the Mariana Trough, the northern and central segments appear to be associated with relatively low magma supply as indicated by the relatively low topography and thin crust. In contrast, the southern Mariana Trough is associated with relatively high magma supply as indicated by the relatively high and smoother topography, an axial high spreading center, and relatively thick crust. The southern end of the Mariana Trough was also found to be associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomaly, which might be caused by the complex tectonic deformation of the overriding Mariana and Philippine Sea plates and their interaction with the subducting Pacific plate. Analysis further revealed that the southern Mariana Arc, located between the Mariana Trench and Mariana Trough, is associated with positive non-isostatic topographic anomalies, which may be explained by the late stage magmatic loading on the older and thus stronger lithospheric plate of the Mariana volcanic arc.

  1. What compensates the topography of southern Norway? Insights from thermo-isostatic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, Marianne L.; Pascal, Christophe; Maupin, Valerie

    2012-10-01

    The origin of the high topography of the Norwegian Mountains is currently much debated. Several geophysical studies show that the uppermost mantle below southern Norway has anomalously low velocities as compared to other parts of the Baltic Shield. This study aims to shed lights on the structure of the lithospheric mantle below southern Norway by adapting and further refining a method based on isostatic and thermal equilibrium to compute temperature, temperature-related density and synthetic S-wave velocity in stable continental domains. The one-dimensional steady-state heat equation is used with topographic, Moho depth, crustal density and surface heat flow data. A condition of local isostasy is assumed and geoid undulations are used to constrain the range of possible lithosphere models. Results derived from this method suggest a thickening of the thermal lithosphere below southern Norway from west to east. The western part is found to have higher temperatures, lower densities and lower synthetic S-wave velocities than the eastern part, compatible with results from a recent P-wave travel time residual study. Comparison of the synthetic shear-velocity profiles beneath southwestern Norway with velocity profiles inverted from Rayleigh wave dispersion data suggests that the higher temperatures associated with a thinner lithosphere can explain parts of the seismic low-velocity anomaly. The inferred lithospheric structure is sensitive to uncertainties in the crustal input model, but the main features remain undisturbed by changes in the input data. The results show that the lithosphere of southwestern Norway can be in local isostatic equilibrium, if it is thinner and warmer than the lithosphere of eastern Norway. The present-day high topography may therefore be partially sustained by lower densities in the mantle lithosphere.

  2. Isostatic pressing of metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytermann, R.; Auguin, B.; Defresne, A.; Gilles, P.

    1975-01-01

    The process of powders compaction is of great technical importance for the attainment of sintered bodies of high density and strength, or of bodies with controlled porosity. For this purpose, different carbonyl nickel and carbonyl iron powders were isostatically compacted at pressures from 50 to 1300 MN/m 2 (0.5-13kbars). The density of compacts was determined by stereology (quantitative microscopic analysis) and weighing. The two methods were found to be in very good agreement and permit to correlate the density of the compact with the applied pressure, while differentiating the stages of compaction (particle rearrangement, local and homogeneous plastic flow) and showing off the influence of material properties (particle size distribution, particle sphape, ability of the particles to deform, yield stress required for deformation, etc...) The way from one stage to the other was corroborated by scanning electron microscope observation and X-rays diffraction. Electrical resistance and tensile strength measurements were also carried out and permitted to correlate these parameters and the applied pressure [fr

  3. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  4. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  5. High-resolution residual geoid and gravity anomaly data of the northern Indian Ocean - An input to geological understanding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Rajesh, S.; Majumdar, T.J.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Krishna, K.S.; Rajawat, A

    ') geoid anomaly map of the northern Indian Ocean generated from the altimeter data obtained from Geodetic Missions of GEOSAT and ERS-1 along with ERS-2, TOPEX/POSIDEON and JASON satellites is presented. The geoid map of the Indian Ocean is dominated by a...

  6. Magnetic anomalies of offshore Krishna–Godavari basin, eastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    flexure caused by regional isostatic compensation by Krishna (2003). The magnetic anomalies of the ridge are attributed to the volcanic construct above the Moho level, which can create a depression in the Moho causing the gravity low. Thus the inter- pretation of gravity and magnetic anomalies in the offshore K–G basin ...

  7. Comparison of various isostatic marine gravity disturbances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    static model, a constant compensation density is assumed, while a depth of compensation is variable. (Airy 1855; Heiskanen and Vening Meinesz 1958). Whereas the AH model can reproduce relatively realistically, the isostasy especially under signifi- cant orogens (where the isostatic mass balance is mainly controlled by ...

  8. Optical anomalies and residual stresses in basal-plane-faceted ribbons of Stepanov-grown sapphire crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, A. V.; Krymov, V. M.; Punin, Yu. O.

    2007-03-01

    The effects of an anomalous biaxiality and a residual-stress field in basal-plane-faceted single-crystal sapphire ribbons were studied by an optical polarization method using a conoscopic light beam. Formulas that relate the difference between the principal stresses to the angle of optical-axis divergence are obtained. It is shown that the central regions of the ribbons undergo compressive stresses whereas their edges undergo tensile stresses. As compared to block-free ribbons, the stresses in block-containing ribbons increase more intensely with distance from the seed.

  9. Uncertainty in Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, G. A.; Lecavalier, B.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    It is well known that the interpretation of geodetic data in Greenland to constrain recent ice mass changes requires knowledge of isostatic land motion associated with past changes in the ice sheet. In this talk we will consider a variety of factors that limit how well the signal due to past mass...... changes (commonly referred to as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)) can be defined. Predictions based on a new model of Greenland GIA will be shown. Using these predictions as a reference, we will consider the influence of plausible variations in some key aspects of both the Earth and ice load components...... of the GIA model on predictions of land motion and gravity changes. The sensitivity of model output to plausible variations in both depth-dependent and lateral viscosity structure will be considered. With respect to the ice model, we will compare the relative contributions of loading during key periods...

  10. Isostatic gravity map of the Monterey 30 x 60 minute quadrangle and adjacent areas, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Stiles, S.R.; Jachens, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    The digital dataset consists of one file (monterey_100k.iso) containing 2,385 gravity stations. The file, monterey_100k.iso, contains the principal facts of the gravity stations, with one point coded per line. The format of the data is described below. Each gravity station has a station name, location (latitude and longitude, NAD27 projection), elevation, and an observed gravity reading. The data are on the IGSN71 datum and the reference ellipsoid is the Geodetic Reference System 1967 (GRS67). The free-air gravity anomalies were calculated using standard formulas (Telford and others, 1976). The Bouguer, curvature, and terrain corrections were applied to the free-air anomaly at each station to determine the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies at a reduction density of 2.67 g/cc. An isostatic correction was then applied to remove the long-wavelength effect of deep crustal and/or upper mantle masses that isostatically support regional topography.

  11. Hot isostatic pressing of nickel aluminide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.N.; Flinn, J.E.

    1988-02-01

    Powder processing of boron-microalloyed Ni 3 Al alloys followed by consolidation using hot isostatic pressing has been investiged. The influences of time, temperature, and pressure on HIP consolidation have been evaluated and the results are presented in the form of a consolidation map. Microstructural evolution during HIPping and subsequent heat treatment has been characterized and related to the mechanical properties. It has been found that processing parameters must be carefully controlled to suppress sulfur segregation to prior particle boundaries while promoting boron segregation to grain boundaries. Alloying with chromium has been found to promote densification and improve high temperature properties. 12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Sputtering target made by hot isostatic compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Hecht, R.J.; Fenton, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a method of making a cooled sputtering target assembly, material to be sputtered is in powder form which is isostatically hot-pressed in a toroidal metallic container under conditions which promote compaction and bonding of the powder particles to form a dense material. Parts of the container are then removed from the target material except for a remnant around the outer surface of the target material. A cooling jacket is then fabricated and attached around the remnant of the container. The targets specified are made from MCrAlY type alloys where M is Fe, Co or Ni. (U.K.)

  13. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  14. Joint inversion of shear wave travel time residuals and geoid and depth anomalies for long-wavelength variations in upper mantle temperature and composition along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Anne F.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements were carried out for SS-S differential travel time residuals for nearly 500 paths crossing the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, assuming that the residuals are dominated by contributions from the upper mantle near the surface bounce point of the reflected phase SS. Results indicate that the SS-S travel time residuals decrease linearly with square root of age, to an age of 80-100 Ma, in general agreement with the plate cooling model. A joint inversion was formulated of travel time residuals and geoid and bathymetric anomalies for lateral variation in the upper mantle temperature and composition. The preferred inversion solutions were found to have variations in upper mantle temperature along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge of about 100 K. It was calculated that, for a constant bulk composition, such a temperature variation would produce about a 7-km variation in crustal thickness, larger than is generally observed.

  15. The kinetics of dolomite reaction rim growth under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpa, V.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. G.; Abart, R.; Dresen, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    During burial and exhumation, rocks are simultaneously exposed to metamorphic reactions and tectonic stresses. Therefore, the reaction rate of newly formed minerals may depend on chemical and mechanical driving forces. Here, we investigate the reaction kinetics of dolomite (CaMg[CO3]2) rim growth by solid-state reactions experiments on oriented calcite (CaCO3) and magnesite (MgCO3) single crystals under isostatic and non-isostatic pressure conditions. Cylindrical samples of 3-5 mm length and 7 mm diameter were drilled and polished perpendicular to the rhombohedral cleavage planes of natural clear crystals. The tests were performed using a Paterson-type deformation apparatus at P = 400 MPa confining pressure, temperatures, T, between 750 and 850°C, and reaction durations, t, of 2 - 146 h to calculate the kinetic parameters of dolomite rim growth under isostatic stress conditions. For non-isostatic reaction experiments we applied in addition differential stresses, σ, up to 40 MPa perpendicular to the contact interface at T = 750°C for 4 - 171 h duration, initiating minor inelastic deformation of calcite. The thickness of the resulting dolomite reaction rims increases linearly with the square root of time, indicating a diffusion-controlled reaction. The rims consist of two different textural domains. Granular dolomite grains (≈ 2 -5 μm grain size) form next to calcite and elongated palisade-shaped grains (1-6 μm diameter) grow perpendicular to the magnesite interface. Texture measurements with the electron backscatter diffraction technique indicate that the orientations of dolomite grains are mainly influenced by the orientation of the calcite educt crystal, in particular in the granular rim. To some extent, the texture of dolomite palisades is also influenced by the orientation of magnesite. The thickness of the two individual layers increases with temperature. At 400 MPa isostatic pressure, T = 750°C and t = 29 hours, a 5 μm thick granular dolomite layer

  16. ISOSTATICALLY DISTURBED TERRAIN OF NORTHWESTERN ANDES MOUNTAINS FROM SPECTRALLY CORRELATED FREE-AIR AND GRAVITY TERRAIN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently revised models on global tectonics describe the convergence of the North Andes, Nazca, Caribbean and South American Plates and their seismicity, volcanism, active faulting and extreme
    topography. The current plate boundaries of the area are mainly interpreted from volcanic and seismic datasets with variable confidence levels. New insights on the isostatic state and plate boundaries of
    the northwestern Andes Mountains can be obtained from the spectral analysis of recently available gravity and topography data.
    Isostatically disturbed terrain produces free-air anomalies that are highly correlated with the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain gravity effects (TGE and free air gravity anomalies (FAGA of the
    Andes mountains spectral correlation data confirms that these mountains are isostatically disturbed. Strong negative terrain-correlated FAGA along western South America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles are consistent with anomalously deepened mantle displaced by subducting oceanic plates.

    Inversion of the compensated terrain gravity effects (CTGE reveals plate subduction systems with alternating shallower and steeper subduction angles. The gravity modeling highlights crustal
    deformation from plate collision and subduction and other constraints on the tectonism of the plate boundary zones for the region.

  17. Industrial production of insulators using isostatic compaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drugoveiko, O.P.; Ermolaeva, L.V.; Koren' , M.G.; Kreimer, B.D.; Panichev, G.I.; Ponomarev, A.P.; Rutkovskii, V.N.

    1985-07-01

    The process of shaping ceramic products from powders using isostatic compaction method is finding increasing industrial application. The production of electrical-engineering porcelain using isostatic compaction method is, according to the authors, a promising direction since this method permits one to obtain large and complex shaped products having uniform density distribution. The authors introduce an automatic isostatic compaction line at the ''Proletarii'' Factory for the production of the IOS-110-20000UKhL, T1 type insulators having the described dimensions. According to the technological process developed at the ''Elektrokeramika'' Production Complex, insulators were manufactured on the isostatic compaction line from the G-33 mass. Presspowder having a moisture content of 0.3-0.6% and a particle size of 90-160 micrometers was obtained in a spray dryer using disk spraying. The authors studied saturability by moisture of the powder obtained.

  18. Low Risk Anomalies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Paul; Wagner, Christian; Zechner, Josef

    This paper shows that stocks' CAPM alphas are negatively related to CAPM betas if investors demand compensation for negative skewness. Thus, high (low) beta stocks appear to underperform (outperform). This apparent anomaly merely reflects compensation for residual coskewness ignored by the CAPM...

  19. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065.

  20. Hot isostatic press waste option study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.E.; Taylor, D.D.

    1998-02-01

    A Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all high-level radioactive waste now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant be treated so that it is ready to move out of Idaho for disposal by the target date of 2035. This study investigates the immobilization of all Idaho Chemical Processing Plant calcine, including calcined sodium bearing waste, via the process known as hot isostatic press, which produces compact solid waste forms by means of high temperature and pressure (1,050 C and 20,000 psi), as the treatment method for complying with the settlement agreement. The final waste product would be contained in stainless-steel canisters, the same type used at the Savannah River Site for vitrified waste, and stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until a national geological repository becomes available for its disposal. The waste processing period is from 2013 through 2032, and disposal at the High Level Waste repository will probably begin sometime after 2065

  1. Extensional Fault Evolution and its Flexural Isostatic Response During Iberia-Newfoundland Rifted Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, J.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.; Roberts, A.

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of magma-poor rifted margins, upper lithosphere thinning and stretching is achieved by extensional faulting, however, there is still debate and uncertainty how faults evolve during rifting leading to breakup. Seismic data provides an image of the present-day structural and stratigraphic configuration and thus initial fault geometry is unknown. To understand the geometric evolution of extensional faults at rifted margins it is extremely important to also consider the flexural response of the lithosphere produced by fault displacement resulting in footwall uplift and hangingwall subsidence. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting controls the structural development of rifted margins. To achieve our aim, we use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) which incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. Inputs for RIFTER are derived from seismic reflection interpretation and outputs of RIFTER are the prediction of the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. Using RIFTER we model the simultaneous tectonic development of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins along the ISE01-SCREECH1 and TGS/LG12-SCREECH2 seismic lines. We quantitatively test and calibrate the model against observed target data restored to breakup time. Two quantitative methods are used to obtain this target data: (i) gravity anomaly inversion which predicts Moho depth and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling to give water and Moho depths at breakup time. We show that extensional faulting occurs on steep ( 60°) normal faults in both proximal and distal parts of rifted margins. Extensional faults together with their flexural isostatic response produce not only sub-horizontal exhumed footwall surfaces (i.e. the rolling hinge model) and highly rotated (60

  2. Gravity anomalies, compensation mechanisms, and the geodynamics of western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Pioneer Venus line-of-sight orbital accelerations were utilized to calculate the geoid and vertical gravity anomalies for western Ishtar Terra on various planes of altitude z sub 0. The apparent depth of isostatic compensation at z sub 0 = 1400 km is 180 + or - 20 km based on the usual method of minimum variance in the isostatic anomaly. An attempt is made here to explain this observation, as well as the regional elevation, peripheral mountain belts, and inferred age of western Ishtar Terra, in terms of one or three broad geodynamic models.

  3. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of W–2Ti and W–1TiC processed by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, A.; Savoini, B.; Tejado, E.; Monge, M.A.; Pastor, J.Y.; Pareja, R.

    2014-01-01

    W–2Ti and W–1TiC alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The composition and microstructural characteristics of these alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of the consolidated alloys was characterized by microhardness measurements and three point bending tests. The mechanical characteristics of the W–2Ti alloy appear to be related to solution hardening. In W–1TiC, the residual porosity should be responsible for the poor behavior observed in comparison with W–2Ti

  4. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of W–2Ti and W–1TiC processed by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain); Tejado, E. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S. I. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas (C.S.I.C), Av. Gregorio del Amo, 8, E2840 Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, E.T.S. I. de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, E28911 Leganés (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    W–2Ti and W–1TiC alloys were produced by mechanical alloying and consolidation by hot isostatic pressing. The composition and microstructural characteristics of these alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersion spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical behavior of the consolidated alloys was characterized by microhardness measurements and three point bending tests. The mechanical characteristics of the W–2Ti alloy appear to be related to solution hardening. In W–1TiC, the residual porosity should be responsible for the poor behavior observed in comparison with W–2Ti.

  5. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  6. Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) vitrification of radwaste concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemer, D.D.; Scheetz, B.; Gougar, M.L.D.

    1995-01-01

    Properly formulated and properly ''canned'' radwaste concretes can be readily hot-isostatically-pressed (HIPed) into materials that exhibit performance equivalent to typical radwaste-type glasses. The HIPing conditions (temperature/pressure) required to turn a concrete waste form into a ''vitrified'' waste form are quite mild and therefore consistent with both safety and high productivity. This paper describes the process and its products with reference to its potential application to Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) reprocessing wastes

  7. Comparative analysis of Vening-Meinesz Moritz isostatic models using the constant and variable crust-mantle density contrast - a case study of Zealandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Tenzer, Robert

    2013-04-01

    We compare three different numerical schemes of treating the Moho density contrast in gravimetric inverse problems for finding the Moho depths. The results are validated using the global crustal model CRUST2.0, which is determined based purely on seismic data. Firstly, the gravimetric recovery of the Moho depths is realized by solving Moritz's generalization of the Vening-Meinesz inverse problem of isostasy while the constant Moho density contrast is adopted. The Pratt-Hayford isostatic model is then facilitated to estimate the variable Moho density contrast. This variable Moho density contrast is subsequently used to determine the Moho depths. Finally, the combined least-squares approach is applied to estimate jointly the Moho depths and density contract based on a priori error model. The EGM2008 global gravity model and the DTM2006.0 global topographic/bathymetric model are used to generate the isostatic gravity anomalies. The comparison of numerical results reveals that the optimal isostatic inverse scheme should take into consideration both the variable depth and density of compensation. This is achieved by applying the combined least-squares approach for a simultaneous estimation of both Moho parameters. We demonstrate that the result obtained using this method has the best agreement with the CRUST2.0 Moho depths. The numerical experiments are conducted at the regional study area of New Zealand's continental shelf.

  8. Impact of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment on North America Plate Specific Terrestrial Reference Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Thomas; Melbourne, Tim; Murray, Mark; Floyd, Mike; Szeliga, Walter; King, Robert; Phillips, David; Puskas, Christine

    2017-04-01

    We examine the impact of incorporating glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models in determining the Euler poles for plate specific terrestrial reference frames. We will specifically examine the impact of GIA models on the realization of a North America Reference frame. We use a combination of the velocity fields determined by the Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility which analyzes GPS data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and other geodetic quality GPS sites in North America, and from the ITRF2014 re-analysis. Initial analysis of the GAGE velocity field shows reduced root-mean-square (RMS) scatter of velocity estimate residuals when the North America Euler pole is estimated including the ICE-6G GIA mode. The reduction in the north-south direction is from 0.69 mm/yr to 0.52 mm/yr, in the east-west direction from 0.34 mm/yr to 0.30 mm/yr and in height from 0.93 mm/yr to 0.72 mm/yr. The reduction in the height RMS is not surprising since the contemporary geodetic height velocity estimates are used in the developing the ICE-6G model. Contemporary horizontal motions are not used the GIA model development, and the reduction in horizontal RMS provides a partial validation of the model. There is no reduction in the horizontal velocity residual when the ICE-5G model is used. Although removing the ICE-6G model before fitting an Euler pole for the North American plate reduces the RMS of the residuals, the pattern of residuals is still systematic suggesting possibly that a spherically symmetric viscosity model might not be adequate for accurate modeling of the horizontal motions associated with GIA in North America. This presentation in focus on the prospects and impacts of incorporating GIA models in plate-specific Euler poles with emphasis on North America.

  9. Open flow hot isostatic pressing assisted synthesis of highly porous materials and catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadati, Mohammad Hossein

    Open-flow hot isostatic pressing (OFHIP) technique is applied for synthesizing molecular sieves and highly porous catalytic materials. First, the isostatic pressure is applied to the starting material/catalyst precursor, and then heat is applied. Under this condition, as the organic components gradually decompose and leave the material, the voids left behind are immediately filled/replaced by the gas (pressure medium) in flow. This substitution warrants the preservation as well as the uniformity of the voids/pores. The result is a very porous material with very uniform pore size distribution. Another advantage is the production of the catalyst directly from the precursor, in the absence of solvent (neat), rendering the process simpler and less costly than previous processes. The entire process takes place under flow of the gas that is used as medium to develop the isostatic pressure. Consequently, the entire process, as well as the final product produced, is devoid of any undesirable residues. This endeavor also introduces a viable technique for mass-producing porous materials/catalysts. The resulting materials are termed "amorphous sulfide sieves" to reflect their unique properties that include high surface area, narrow pore size distribution and high activity. The catalysts are potentially licensable to all petroleum and petroleum chemical companies for a wide variety of environmental and product improvement purposes. The results obtained on unpromoted samples synthesized at 300°C indicate that as the synthesis pressure is increased, both surface area and catalytic activity of the materials produced increase. The increase in activity k value from 3 to 6 x 10-7 mol/g.s corresponds to increase in pressure from 100 to 800 psi, respectively. The N2 gas used as pressure medium results in highly porous materials but low activity. H 2 seems to be the ideal gas for both pressure medium and reducing agent. Co-promoted catalysts synthesized at 1400 psi and 300°C show

  10. Dyonic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henningson, Mans; Johansson, Erik P.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of coupling a dyonic p-brane in d=2p+4 space-time dimensions to a prescribed (p+2)-form field strength. This is particularly subtle when p is odd. For the case p=1, we explicitly construct a coupling functional, which is a sum of two terms: one which is linear in the prescribed field strength, and one which describes the coupling of the brane to its self-field and takes the form of a Wess-Zumino term depending only on the embedding of the brane world-volume into space-time. We then show that this functional is well-defined only modulo a certain anomaly, related to the Euler class of the normal bundle of the brane world-volume

  11. A study of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens Emil; Sandberg Sørensen, Louise; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna; Spada, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is the viscoelastic response of the Earth caused by changes in ice loads during glaciations and deglaciations. Knowledge of the GIA signal is particularly important in cryospheric applications of satellite gravimetry and altimetry, where the origin of the observed changes must be separated into past and present response. Modeling the present-day GIA signal must include knowledge of both the ice loading history and the Earth's rheology. Neither of these models are well constrained in Greenland, and hence the GIA estimates here are uncertain. In this paper we implement a loading history of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from the ice sheet model SICOPOLIS, and we study the present-day gravity changes and vertical crustal motion derived from using this ice history. The results are compared with those derived from the widely used ICE-5G ice history. For calculation of present day GIA signal, we assume the Earth's rheology to be a simplified version of the VM2 Earth model. The calculated GIA signal in Greenland, derived from the two ice loading histories are compared with geodetic measurements of vertical crustal motion from GPS time series and with repeated gravity measurements in Greenland. The free code SELEN is used for calculating the effects of the Earth model and different ice loading histories. This study is performed within the Working Group 4 of the ESF COST Action ES0701 "Improved constraints on models of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment".

  12. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Y.; Monge, M.A.; Castro, V. de; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R.

    2009-01-01

    Positron annihilation experiments were performed on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER prepared by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The results revealed the presence of small voids in these materials in the as-HIPed conditions. Their evolution under isochronal annealing experiments was investigated. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibited a characteristic signature attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated voids at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature showed three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K void coarsening had effect. Above 1323 K some voids annealed out, but others, associated to oxide particles and small precipitates, survived to annealing at 1523 K. Transmission electron microscopy observations were also performed to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K.

  13. An apparatus for studying scintillator properties at high isostatic pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaume, R. M. [College of Optics and Photonics (CREOL) and NanoScience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Lam, S.; Gascon, M.; Feigelson, R. S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Setyawan, W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Curtarolo, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    We describe the design and operation of a unique hydraulic press for the study of scintillator materials under isostatic pressure. This press, capable of developing a pressure of a gigapascal, consists of a large sample chamber pressurized by a two-stage hydraulic amplifier. The optical detection of the scintillation light emitted by the sample is performed, through a large aperture optical port, by a photodetector located outside the pressure vessel. In addition to providing essential pressure-dependent studies on the emission characteristics of radioluminescent materials, this apparatus is being developed to elucidate the mechanisms behind the recently observed dependency of light-yield nonproportionality on electronic band structure. The variation of the light output of a Tl:CsI crystal under 511-keV gamma excitation and hydrostatic pressure is given as an example.

  14. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)], E-mail: yanicet@fis.ucm.es; Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Castro, V. de [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2009-04-30

    Positron annihilation experiments were performed on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) and non-ODS EUROFER prepared by mechanical alloying and hot isostatic pressing. The results revealed the presence of small voids in these materials in the as-HIPed conditions. Their evolution under isochronal annealing experiments was investigated. The coincidence Doppler broadening spectra of ODS EUROFER exhibited a characteristic signature attributed to positron annihilation in Ar-decorated voids at the oxide particle/matrix interfaces. The variation of the positron annihilation parameters with the annealing temperature showed three stages: up to 623 K, between 823 and 1323 K, and above 1323 K. In the temperature range 823-1323 K void coarsening had effect. Above 1323 K some voids annealed out, but others, associated to oxide particles and small precipitates, survived to annealing at 1523 K. Transmission electron microscopy observations were also performed to verify the characteristics of the surviving defects after annealing at 1523 K.

  15. Ductile Fracture Behaviour of Hot Isostatically Pressed Inconel 690 Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Brayshaw, W. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2018-01-01

    Herein we assess the differences in Charpy impact behavior between Hot Isostatically Pressed and forged Inconel 690 alloy over the temperature range of 300 °C to - 196 °C. The impact toughness of forged 690 exhibited a relatively small temperature dependence, with a maximum difference of ca. 40 J measured between 300 °C and - 196 °C, whereas the HIP'd alloy exhibited a difference of approximately double that of the forged alloy over the same temperature range. We have conducted Charpy impact testing, tensile testing, and metallographic analyses on the as-received materials as well as fractography of the failed Charpy specimens in order to understand the mechanisms that cause the observed differences in material fracture properties. The work supports a recent series of studies which assess differences in fundamental fracture behavior between Hot Isostatically Pressed and forged austenitic stainless steel materials of equivalent grades, and the results obtained in this study are compared to those of the previous stainless steel investigations to paint a more general picture of the comparisons between HIP vs forged material fracture behavior. Inconel 690 was selected in this study since previous studies were unable to completely omit the effects of strain-induced martensitic transformation at the tip of the Chary V-notch from the fracture mechanism; Inconel 690 is unable to undergo strain-induced martensitic transformation due to the alloy's high nickel content, thereby providing a sister study with the omission of any martensitic transformation effects on ductile fracture behavior.

  16. Modeling 3-D density distribution in the upper mantle beneath the Yellowstone from inversion of geoid anomaly data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Chaves, C. M.; Ussami, N.

    2011-12-01

    We developed a simple three-dimensional scheme to invert geoid anomalies, aiming to map density variations in the lower crust and the upper mantle. Using a flat-Earth approximation, the model space is represented by a finite set of rectangular prisms. The linear inversion algorithm is based on Tikhonov regularization and the convergence of the solution is controlled by the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Our linear inversion algorithm does not require an initial density model, allowing it to be used where geological constraints on density are not available. To analyze the quality of the model density obtained by the inversion algorithm, we used the resolution and the covariance matrices. In order to study the thermal and the composition state beneath the Yellowstone and to test our algorithm inversion, geoid anomalies were inverted and modeled. Yellowstone exhibits a high geoid anomaly (~13 m), with a topographic swell of about 500 km wide. Residual geoid anomalies were obtained using the EGM2008 [Pavlis et al., 2008] geopotential model expanded up to degree 2160 after removing the long-wavelength component (degree 10). Lower crust and mantle-related geoid anomalies with -80 m amplitude were obtained after removing crustal effects (topographic masses, sediments and crustal thickness variations). The center of the negative geoid anomaly coincides geographically with the low velocity body (Yuan and Dueker [2005] and Waite et al. [2006]) in the upper mantle and with a depression of 12 km of the 410 km discontinuity detected by Fee and Dueker [2004]. Our results show that the lower crust and the upper mantle of the Yellowstone have a predominantly negative density contrast (-10 to -75 kg/m3) relative to the surrounding mantle. The mass deficiency mapped beneath the Yellowstone suggests the mantle to be hotter (-200 to -300 °C) and buoyant to isostatically sustain the high topography of this province (> 3000 m above sea level). The density model shows that the negative

  17. Microstructure and thermal conductivity of Mo-TiC cermets processed by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Flem, Marion; Allemand, Alexandre; Urvoy, Stephane; Cedat, Denis; Rey, Colette

    2008-01-01

    In the scope of refractory material development for structural applications in the core of future nuclear reactors (gas fast reactors working between 500 o C and at least 800 o C in nominal conditions and up to 1650 o C in accidental scenarios), five Mo-TiC cermets, and single-phase TiC and Mo, were processed by hot isostatic pressing. Starting TiC volume contents were 0%, 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, 50%, 75% and 100%. First, high dense specimens were characterized in terms of microstructure, composition and phase volume fractions. Cermets exhibited two phases in agreement with phase diagram previsions (Mo-TiC 1-2at.% and TiC-Mo 10-15at.% ), and a residual non-reacted TiC-rich phase (TiC-Mo 1at.% ). Second, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity were measured up to 1000 o C which allowed to evaluate the thermal conductivity of each cermet: this lays between TiC conductivity (12-18 W/m K) and Mo conductivity (95-125 W/m K), thermal properties continuously decreasing with starting TiC content. An analytical approach based on the volume fraction and properties of each constituent allowed to highlight the existence of thermal resistance at the interphases at low temperature

  18. Topological Origin of the Network Dilation Anomaly in Ion-Exchanged Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengyi; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Mauro, John C.; Sant, Gaurav; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2017-11-01

    Ion exchange is commonly used to strengthen oxide glasses. However, the resulting stuffed glasses usually do not reach the molar volume of as-melted glasses of similar composition—a phenomenon known as the network dilation anomaly. This behavior seriously limits the potential for the chemical strengthening of glasses and its origin remains one of the mysteries of glass science. Here, based on molecular dynamics simulations of sodium silicate glasses coupled with topological constraint theory, we show that the topology of the atomic network controls the extent of ion-exchange-induced dilation. We demonstrate that isostatic glasses do not show any network dilation anomaly. This is found to arise from the combined absence of floppy modes of deformation and internal eigenstress in isostatic atomic networks.

  19. Interpretation of free-air gravity anomaly data for determining the crustal structure across the continental margins and aseismic ridges: Some examples from Indian continental margins and deep-sea basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    diagnostic anomaly pattern, and is independent of the location of the boundary with respect to the shelf edge. Robinowitz and Labrecque (1977) computed isostatic gravity anomalies across Argentine and southern African continental margins. The profiles... anomalies over the shelf edge were explained in several ways. For example, Worzel and Shurbet (1955) suggested that that basement ridge and crustal thinning account for gravity high near the shelf edge. High density belts in the basement have been...

  20. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  1. MANU. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Small scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to become familiar with the isostatic compression technique and to manufacture specimens to study various aspects of the manufacturing process. These included for example the effect of moisture, maximum compressive pressure, vibration, vacuum, specimen size, coating, multiple compressions and duration of load cycle on the density and other properties of bentonite specimens. Also the amount of volumetric contraction was of interest in this study together with the used mould technology. This work summarizes the tests done with isostatic compression technique during 2008. Tests were mainly carried out with MX-80 bentonite, which is a commercial product and currently the reference bentonite in the repository reference plan. Tests were made from June to November 2008 both in Finland and in Sweden. VTT made four test series in Finland. MABU Consulting Ab made two test series in Sweden. Also Posiva Oy carried out one preliminary series before this study in Finland. The test results show that there is a clear relationship between density and moisture content at all pressure levels. The calculated degree of saturation of more moist samples remained at the level of 95 -to 98 % of full saturation. It should be possible to manufacture buffer blocks with high accuracy (density, water content, degree of saturation), if similar preliminary tests are done. Tests did not support the assumption that vacuum (partial or full) in the specimen during compression increases the final density. Tests showed that pre-vibrated specimens had a slightly higher density but the difference was insignificant. Coarse raw bentonite produced the highest dry density of all sodium bentonites used. The highest dry density values were received with Minelco's Ca-bentonite, but the average water content was not extremely accurate. The following recommendations were derived from the results of this project: additional tests should be carried out to determine the relationship

  2. Spatial variations in isostatic compensation mechanisms of the Ninetyeast Ridge and their tectonic significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.; Krishna, K.S.

    The Ninetyeast Ridge (NER), one of the longest linear volcanic features on the Earth, offers an excellent opportunity of understanding the isostatic response to the interactions of mantle plume with the migrating mid-ocean ridge. Bathymetry, geoid...

  3. Geophysical studies of aseismic ridges in northern Indian Ocean-crustal structure and isostatic models

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, K.M.

    The present work consists of a detailed geophysical study of the structure and isostatic compensation mechanisms of three major aseismic ridges; The Comorin Ridge, The 85°E Ridge and Ninety east Ridge of the northeastern Indian Ocean. Various...

  4. Effect of hot isostatic pressing on reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.; Moore, T. J.; Millard, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Specimens of nearly theoretical density have been obtained through the isostatic hot pressing of reaction-bonded silicon nitride under 138 MPa of pressure for two hours at 1850, 1950, and 2050 C. An amorphous phase that is introduced by the hot isostatic pressing partly accounts for the fact that while room temperature flexural strength more than doubles, the 1200 C flexural strength increases significantly only after pressing at 2050 C.

  5. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  6. Hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti produced by hot isostatic pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herø, H; Wie, H; Jørgensen, R B; Ruyter, I E

    1994-03-01

    Plasma spraying is a technique currently used in the production of HA-coated titanium implants. These coatings have been shown to be porous; they dissolve and have a weak bond to the substrate. The long-term interface strength has been questioned in particular. The aim of the present work was to produce HA coatings without the shortcomings of those produced by plasma spraying. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 850 degrees C and 1000 bar with no holding time was applied for this purpose. Initially, the HA powder was mixed with water and air sprayed on the Ti substrate. The Ti specimens were then cold-pressed, enclosed by a protective Pt foil, and encapsulated in an evacuated glass ampulla. Subsequent to HIP, the glass and the Pt foil were removed. These coatings were denser than those produced by plasma spraying. The bonding was measured to be > 62 MPa, which is considered to be satisfactory. The structure of the coating was checked by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy, and was found to correspond to that of HA. Some cracks were observed in the coating running predominantly vertical to the surface. Whether these are acceptable has to be verified by in vivo experiments.

  7. Summary of Calcine Disposal Development Using Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wahlquist, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCartin, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, has demonstrated the effectiveness of the hot isostatic press (HIP) process for treatment of hazardous high-level waste known as calcine that is stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at Idaho National Laboratory. HIP trials performed with simulated calcines at Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex and an Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization facility from 2007 to 2010 produced a dense, monolithic waste form with increased chemical durability and effective (storage) volume reductions of ~10 to ~70% compared to granular calcine forms. In December 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy signed an amended Record of Decision selecting HIP technology as the treatment method for the 4,400 m3 of granular zirconia and alumina calcine stored at INTEC. Testing showed that HIP treatment reduces the risks associated with radioactive and hazardous constituent release, post-production handling, and long-term (repository) storage of calcines and would result in estimated storage cost savings in the billions of dollars. Battelle Energy Alliance has the ability to complete pilot-scale HIP processing of INTEC calcine, which is the next necessary step in implementing HIP processing as a calcine treatment method.

  8. Treatment of zircaloy cladding hulls by isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegman, R.; Burstroem, M.

    1984-12-01

    A method for the treatment of Zircaloy fuel hulls is proposed. It involves hot isostatic pressing (HIP) for making large, completely densified metallic bodies of the waste. The hulls are packed into a bellows-shaped container of steel. On packing the fuel hulls give a filling factor of only 14%, which is too low for non-deformable compaction in a normal container, but by using a belloped container, a non-deformable compaction can be obtained without any pretreatment of the hulls. Fully dense and mechanically strong blocks of Zircaloy can be fabricated by holding them at temperatures of around 1000 degrees C for three hours. It is also feasible to incorporate the other metallic parts of the fuel bundle, such as top and bottom tie plates and spacers, in the pressing. The HIP-densified hulls provide an effective means of self-containment of radioactive waste due to the excellent corrosion resistance of Zircaloy. A waste loading factor of close to 100% can be realized. Futher, a volume reduction factor of 7 and a surface reduction factor of aout 250 for a 1-ton canister can be achieved. Equilibrium calculations have shown that tritium present in the hulls can quantitatively be contained in the HIPed block. A study has been made of a possible process for industrilscale use. (Author)

  9. Determination of the isostatic compensation mechanism of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Adamawa dome in Central Cameroon represents a post-Cretaceous uplifted region, paralled to a Precambrian Foumban Shear Zone, and characterised by Tertiary-Recent volcanic centres of the Cameroon Volcanic Line, and a long negative Bouguer anomaly similar in shape and amplitude to those of other African ...

  10. Learning about Poland Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... these symptoms occur on one side of the body (unilateral). Also, it is important to note that Poland anomaly does not typically affect intelligence. Top of page What causes Poland anomaly? The ...

  11. Vascular Anomalies in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Lisa S; Kulungowski, Ann M

    2015-08-01

    A standardized classification system allows improvements in diagnostic accuracy. Multidisciplinary vascular anomaly centers combine medical, surgical, radiologic, and pathologic expertise. This collaborative approach tailors treatment and management of vascular anomalies for affected individuals.

  12. Magnetic hyperfine anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettgenbach, S.

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with the measurement and interpretation of magnetic hyperfine anomalies in electronic and muonic atoms, i.e. effects of the distribution of nuclear magnetization on the magnetic dipole hyperfine interaction. After a summary of the relevant theory and a review of experimental techniques, hyperfine anomaly results are discussed in terms of various nuclear models. The use of the anomaly for yielding information about the origin of magnetic hyperfine interactions is outlined. Experimental and theoretical hyperfine anomalies are tabulated. (Auth.)

  13. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Park, A Young

    2010-01-01

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  14. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  15. Anomalies of nuclear criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E.D.

    1979-06-01

    During the development of nuclear energy, a number of apparent anomalies have become evident in nuclear criticality. Some of these have appeared in the open literature and some have not. Yet, a naive extrapolation or application of existing data, without knowledge of the anomalies, could lead to potentially serious consequences. This report discusses several of these anomalies.

  16. First wall and shield components manufacturing by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Anders; Tegman, R.

    1994-01-01

    At a meeting in Garching in June 1994 Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) was presented as a possible route to manufacture ITER first wall and shield components. The main advantages of the HIP concept include excellent and uniform mechanical properties of the produced materials and joints, high reliability and robustness of the HIP process, double containment of coolant, good flexibility concerning general design as well as size and location for inner cooling tubes, low cost and short delivery times, and a good near net shape capability for components in size up to 15 tons. To assess the applicability of HIP for the manufacturing of ITER first wall and shield components, it was agreed * to choose possible production parameters based in the present know-how, * to produce a compound mock-up in one shot from available solid steel/powder copper/steel tubes to demonstrate the joinability of the materials, * to examine the produced mock-up/materials by multi array ultrasonic testing, limited mechanical testing, metallography, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and * to compile data on Type 316L steels produced by HIP. Preliminary results and the mock-up were presented at a meeting in Garching in mid July 1994. This study clearly shows the excellent joinability of a copper alloy (Cu-0.5%Zr) and stainless steels (Type 304, 316 L) by HIP at temperatures close to the melting temperature of copper, with only limited influence on the microstructures, which makes it possible to HIP the first wall and shield structure in one step. Excellent mechanical properties of the compound are obtained with the copper alloy and not the joint being the weakest part. 7 refs, 21 figs, 1 tab

  17. The alignment and isostatic mount bonding technique of the aerospace Cassegrain telescope primary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei Cheng; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Chang, Yu-Ting; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Huang, Ting-Ming

    2012-10-01

    In order to meet both optical performance and structural stiffness requirements of the aerospace Cassegrain telescope, iso-static mount is used as the interface between the primary mirror and the main plate. This article describes the alignment and iso-static mount bonding technique of the primary mirror by assistance of CMM. The design and assembly of mechanical ground support equipment (MGSE) which reduces the deformation of primary mirror by the gravity effect is also presented. The primary mirror adjusting MGSE consists of X-Y linear translation stages, rotation stage and kinematic constrain platform which provides the function of decenter, orientation, tilt and height adjustment of the posture sequentially. After CMM measurement, the radius of curvature, conic constant, decenter and tilt, etc. will be calculated. According to these results, the posture of the mirror will be adjusted to reduce the tilt by the designed MGSE within 0.02 degrees and the distance deviation from the best fitted profile of mirror to main plate shall be less than 0.01 mm. After that, EC 2216 adhesive is used to bond mirror and iso-static mount. During iso-static mount bonding process, CMM is selected to monitor the relative position deviation of the iso-static mount until the adhesive completely cured. After that, the wave front sensors and strain gauges are used to monitor the strain variation while the iso-static mount mounted in the main plate with the screws by the torque wrench. This step is to prevent deformation of the mirror caused from force of the iso-static mount during the mounting process. In the end, the interferometer is used for the optical performance test with +1G and -1G to check the alignment and bonding technique is well or not.

  18. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with Paleo Sea Level Records using Bayesian Framework and Burgers Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, L.; Metivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.

    2015-12-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment models most often assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a given ice history model. Here we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo with Markov Chains formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and for the volume of the various ice-sheets using as starting ice models two distinct previously published ice histories. Burgers as well as Maxwell rheologies are considered.The fitted data consist of 5720 paleo sea level records from the last 35kyrs, with a world-wide distribution. Our ambition is to present not only the best fitting model, but also the range of possible solutions (within the explored space of parameters) with their respective probability of explaining the data, and thus reveal the trade-off effects and range of uncertainty affecting the parameters. Our a posteriori probality maps exhibit in all cases two distinct peaks: both are characterized by an upper mantle viscosity around 5.1020Pa.s but one of the peaks features a lower mantle viscosity around 3.1021Pa.s while the other indicates lower mantle viscosity of more than 1.1022Pa.s. The global maximum depends upon the starting ice history and the chosen rheology: the first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favored when using ANU-based ice history or Burgers rheology, and is our preferred solution as it is also consistent with long-term geodynamics and gravity gradients anomalies over Laurentide. P2 is associated with larger volumes for the Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheets and as a consequence of total ice volume balance, smaller volumes for the Antactic ice-sheet. This last point interfers with the estimate of present-day ice-melting in Antarctica from GRACE data. Finally, we find that P2 with Burgers rheology favors the existence of a tectosphere, i.e. a viscous sublithospheric layer.

  19. Inverting Glacial Isostatic Adjustment signal using Bayesian framework and two linearly relaxing rheologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, L.; Métivier, L.; Greff-Lefftz, M.; Fleitout, L.; Rouby, H.

    2017-05-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) models commonly assume a mantle with a viscoelastic Maxwell rheology and a fixed ice history model. Here, we use a Bayesian Monte Carlo approach with a Markov chain formalism to invert the global GIA signal simultaneously for the mechanical properties of the mantle and the volumes of the ice sheets, using as starting ice models two previously published ice histories. Two stress relaxing rheologies are considered: Burgers and Maxwell linear viscoelasticities. A total of 5720 global palaeo sea level records are used, covering the last 35 kyr. Our goal is not only to seek the model best fitting this data set, but also to determine and display the range of possible solutions with their respective probability of explaining the data. In all cases, our a posteriori probability maps exhibit the classic character of solutions for GIA-determined mantle viscosity with two distinct peaks. What is new in our treatment is the presence of the bi-viscous Burgers rheology and the fact that we invert rheology jointly with ice history, in combination with the greatly expanded palaeo sea level records. The solutions tend to be characterized by an upper-mantle viscosity of around 5 × 1020 Pa s with one preferred lower-mantle viscosities at 3 × 1021 Pa s and the other more than 2 × 1022 Pa s, a rather classical pairing. Best-fitting models depend upon the starting ice history and the stress relaxing law. A first peak (P1) has the highest probability only in the case with a Maxwell rheology and ice history based on ICE-5G, while the second peak (P2) is favoured for ANU-based ice history or Burgers stress relaxation. The latter solution also may satisfy lower-mantle viscosity inferences from long-term geodynamics and gravity gradient anomalies over Laurentia. P2 is also consistent with large Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice-sheet volumes at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and smaller LGM Antarctic ice volume than in either ICE-5G or ANU. Exploration of

  20. Void formation in ODS EUROFER produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Y.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Leguey, T.; Pareja, R. [Madrid Univ. Carlos-3, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Castro, V. de [Oxford Univ., Dept. of Materials (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An obstacle in the development of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels for structural applications in fusion reactors is the toughness lack of the material produced by powder metallurgy and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). In particular, ODS EUROFER steel with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles appears to exhibit poor impact properties. To asses the capabilities of this material, it is necessary elucidate if its failure is an inherent characteristic of the production process that can not be mitigated by normalizing and tempering treatments. In order to investigate this particular point, the evolution of the structural defects retained in the ODS material during isochronal annealing has been probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The present study has been performed on bail milled EUROFER powders consolidated by HIP, containing 0.25 wt % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and without Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For comparison, un-milled EUROFER powder consolidated under identical conditions, and as-received EUROFER97 plate produced by Boehler AG have been also investigated. Samples from these four materials were isochronally annealed for 90 min up to 1323 K. Materials produced from milled powders had a longer positron lifetime than the one produced from un-milled powder or the EUROFER plate. In the material containing Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, i.e. in ODS EUROFER, annealing above 723 K produced a continuous increase in the mean positron lifetime <{tau}> up to reach a maximum value of 208 ps after annealing at 1223 K. A similar annealing behavior was observed for Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-free milled EUROFER (milled EUROFER), but the <{tau}> value steeply changed from {approx}160 ps at 823 K to {approx}200 ps after annealing at 1023 K. Subsequent anneals above this temperature produced meaningless changes in <{tau}>. The <{tau}> increase in milled EUROFER was accompanied by the intensity increase of a lifetime component of {approx}360 ps that is characteristic

  1. Congenital optic nerve anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Begué, N; Saint-Gerons, M

    2016-12-01

    To update the current knowledge about congenital optic disc anomalies. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the major biomedical databases. Patients with these anomalies usually have poor vision in infancy. Refractive errors are common, and serous retinal detachment may develop in some of these anomalies. It is critically important to clinically differentiate between these congenital optic disc anomalies, as central nervous system malformations are common in some, whereas others may be associated with systemic anomalies. Congenital optic disc anomalies are a heterogeneous group of pathologies with characteristic fundus appearance and systemic associations. We should always try to make a correct diagnosis, in order to ask for specific tests, as well as to provide an adequate follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Anomaly-free models for flavour anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Tunney, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)^' gauge boson Z^' . We assume universal and rational U(1)^' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)^' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)^' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)^' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z^' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the direct DM scattering constraint. We also consider models in which anomalies are cancelled via extra vector-like leptons, showing how the prospective LHC Z^' constraint may be weakened because the Z^' → μ ^+ μ ^- branching ratio is suppressed relative to other decay modes.

  3. Sparticle spectrum and constraints in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huitu, K.; Laamanen, J.; Pandita, P.N.

    2002-01-01

    We study in detail the particle spectrum in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. We investigate the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models, gaugino assisted supersymmetry breaking models, as well as models with additional residual nondecoupling D-term contributions due to an extra U(1) gauge symmetry at a high energy scale. We derive sum rules for the sparticle masses in these models which can help in differentiating between them. We also obtain the sparticle spectrum numerically, and compare and contrast the results so obtained for the different types of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

  4. Defect structures in MgB2 wires introduced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, X Z; Serquis, A; Zhu, Y T; Civale, L; Hammon, D L; Peterson, D E; Mueller, F M; Nesterenko, V F; Gu, Y

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures of MgB 2 wires prepared by the powder-in-tube technique and subsequent hot isostatic pressing were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A large amount of crystalline defects including small-angle twisting, tilting and bending boundaries, in which high densities of dislocations reside, was found forming sub-grains within MgB 2 grains. It is believed that these defects resulted from particle deformation during the hot isostatic pressing process and are effective flux pinning centres that contribute to the high critical current densities of the wires at high temperatures and at high fields

  5. Effect of hot isostatic pressing on the properties of sintered alpha silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.; Moore, T. J.; Millard, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two lots of alpha silicon carbide were isostatically hot-pressed under 138 MPa for 2 h in Ar at temperatures up to 2200 C. Nearly theoretically dense specimens resulted. Hot isostatic pressing increased both room-temperature strength and 1200 C strength, and resulted in improved reliability. One lot of material which was pressed at 2200 C showed increases of about 20 percent in room-temperature strength and about 50 percent in 1200 C flexural strength; the Weibull modulus improved about 100 percent.

  6. Porosity regrowth during heat treatment of hot isostatically pressed additively manufactured titanium components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammas-Williams, S.; Withers, P.J.; Todd, I.; Prangnell, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography has been used to track the behaviour of individual pores found in selective electron beam melted additive manufactured titanium. Porosity was found to shrink below the detection limit of X-ray microtomography (< 5 μm) upon hot isostatic pressing. Spherical argon containing gas pores, which have a high internal gas pressure following hot isostatic pressing, have been found to progressively reappear and grow in proportion to their original as-built size during high temperature (β-anneal) treatments, whereas larger irregular low pressure pores did not reappear. The implications of these observations in terms of additive manufacturing are discussed.

  7. Absolute sea levels and isostatic changes of the eastern North Sea to central Baltic region during the last 900 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Morten; Aagaard, Troels; Binderup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    that ice-cap growth can be faster than ice-cap melting. By comparison with 29 long-term tide gauge measurements of the region we show that the isostatic implications of the sea-level curve are in nearly perfect agreement with Peltier's global isostatic VM2 model (applied by IPCC and PSMSL) and yield a 3...

  8. Residual deposits (residual soil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Residual soil deposits is accumulation of new formate ore minerals on the earth surface, arise as a result of chemical decomposition of rocks. As is well known, at the hyper genes zone under the influence of different factors (water, carbonic acid, organic acids, oxygen, microorganism activity) passes chemical weathering of rocks. Residual soil deposits forming depends from complex of geologic and climatic factors and also from composition and physical and chemical properties of initial rocks

  9. Dental Anomalies: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jahanimoghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anomalies are usual congenital malformation that can happen either as isolated findings or as a part of a syndrome. Developmental anomalies influencing the morphology exists in both deciduous and permanent dentition and shows different forms such as gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens evaginatus (DE, enamel pearls, taurodontism or peg-shaped laterals. All These anomalies have clinical significance concerning aesthetics, malocclusion and more necessary preparing of the development of dental decays and oral diseases. Through a search in PubMed, Google, Scopus and Medline, a total of eighty original research papers during 1928-2016 were found with the keywords such as dental anomaly, syndrome, tooth and hypodontia. One hundred review titles were identified, eighty reviews were retrieved that were finally included as being relevant and of sufficient quality. In this review, dental anomalies including gemination, fusion, concrescence, dilaceration, dens invaginatus, DE, taurodontism, enamel pearls, fluorosis, peg-shaped laterals, dentinal dysplasia, regional odontodysplasia and hypodontia are discussed. Diagnosing dental abnormality needs a thorough evaluation of the patient, involving a medical, dental, familial and clinical history. Clinical examination and radiographic evaluation and in some of the cases, specific laboratory tests are also needed. Developmental dental anomalies require careful examination and treatment planning. Where one anomaly is present, clinicians should suspect that other anomalies may also be present. Moreover, careful clinical and radiographical examination is required. Furthermore, more complex cases need multidisciplinary planning and treatment.

  10. Modification of low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Rosa, D. dos

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the gamma radiation (of a 60 Co source), over low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends of low density polyethylene / polypropylene were studied. The structures modifications were attended by infrared spectrometry (IV), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), strain-strain measurement, density measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM). (author)

  11. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A s (m), the download factor and B s (y -1 ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity

  12. An empirical model of glacio-isostatic movements and shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-08-01

    Shore-level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two co-operative vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and global eustatic sea level rise. The course of the glacio-isostatic uplift has been made discernible according to an investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon. This information made it possible to start an iteration process that has given mathematical expression for factors involved both within the isostatic movements and the eustatic rise. There are two components involved in glacio-isostatic uplift. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly and is thus called the slow component. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing the slow component. There are two main factors involved in the function used for calculation; A{sub s} (m), the download factor and B{sub s} (y{sup -1} ), which is an inertia factor. A strong linear correlation between the inertia factor Bs and lithosphere thickness has been found in the model. There was also a fast component involved in the crustal changes at the end of Late Weichselian and early Holocene. This component gave rise to fast subsidence followed by fast uplift during the final part of the deglaciation. Crustal subsidence is assumed to be due to reloading of the crust in the central parts of Fennoscandia during the Younger Dryas stadial. Normal distribution functions are used for calculating this component. Glacio-isostatic uplift and thus a regressive shore-level displacement was extremely rapid around 10,300 years BP. This fast regression was contemporaneous and occurred in a similar way at the West Coasts of Norway and Sweden as well as in the Baltic. The 'drainage' of the Baltic Ice Lake has been interpreted in the model as due to this fast regression. The slow component is most probably due to viscous flow in the asthenosphere and the fast component is assumed to be due to its elasticity.

  13. Anomalies on orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cohen, Andrew G.; Georgi, Howard

    2001-03-16

    We discuss the form of the chiral anomaly on an S1/Z2 orbifold with chiral boundary conditions. We find that the 4-divergence of the higher-dimensional current evaluated at a given point in the extra dimension is proportional to the probability of finding the chiral zero mode there. Nevertheless the anomaly, appropriately defined as the five dimensional divergence of the current, lives entirely on the orbifold fixed planes and is independent of the shape of the zero mode. Therefore long distance four dimensional anomaly cancellation ensures the consistency of the higher dimensional orbifold theory.

  14. Theoretically Optimal Distributed Anomaly Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel general framework for distributed anomaly detection with theoretical performance guarantees is proposed. Our algorithmic approach combines existing anomaly...

  15. Spatial and Temporal Antarctic Ice Sheet Mass Trends, Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment, and Surface Processes from a Joint Inversion of Satellite Altimeter, Gravity, and GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Espanol, Alba; Zammit-Mangion, Andrew; Clarke, Peter J.; Flament, Thomas; Helm, Veit; King, Matt A.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Petrie, Elizabeth; Remy, Frederique; Schon, Nana; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present spatiotemporal mass balance trends for the Antarctic Ice Sheet from a statistical inversion of satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and elastic-corrected GPS data for the period 2003-2013. Our method simultaneously determines annual trends in ice dynamics, surface mass balance anomalies, and a time-invariant solution for glacio-isostatic adjustment while remaining largely independent of forward models. We establish that over the period 2003-2013, Antarctica has been losing mass at a rateof -84 +/- 22 Gt per yr, with a sustained negative mean trend of dynamic imbalance of -111 +/- 13 Gt per yr. West Antarctica is the largest contributor with -112 +/- 10 Gt per yr, mainly triggered by high thinning rates of glaciers draining into the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The Antarctic Peninsula has experienced a dramatic increase in mass loss in the last decade, with a mean rate of -28 +/- 7 Gt per yr and significantly higher values for the most recent years following the destabilization of the Southern Antarctic Peninsula around 2010. The total mass loss is partly compensated by a significant mass gain of 56 +/- 18 Gt per yr in East Antarctica due to a positive trend of surface mass balance anomalies.

  16. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-precision analyses of Ti are reported for samples from a variety of meteorite classes. The expanded data base for Allende inclusions still shows Ti isotope anomalies in every inclusion. All the coarse-grained inclusions give quite similar patterns, but fine-grained inclusions show more variable, and sometimes larger, anomalies. One inclusion, 3675A, was analyzed because others identified it as a possible 'FUN' inclusion due to its mass-fractionated Mg. This designation is supported by the significantly more complex Ti isotopic pattern for 3675A compared to all our other Allende inclusions. Available data fail to suggest that any particular Allende mineral phase, including a chromite-carbon fraction from an acid residue, is especially rich in anomalous Ti. We also find anomalous Ti in a bulk sample of a C1 chondrite and in matrix separates from C2 chondrites. The excesses of 50 Ti are smaller than for Allende inclusions, and subtle differences in Ti isotopic patterns tentatively suggest that parent materials for C1-C2 matrix and Allende inclusions are not directly related. Analyses of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites did not yield clear evidence for anomalous Ti, but some 'larger than usual' deficits at 50/46 give encouragement for future work in this direction. (author)

  17. Anomaly Detection in Sequences

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...

  18. Skyrmions and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1987-02-01

    The author summarizes the works presented at the meeting on skyrmions and anomalies. He divides the principal issues of this workshop into five categories: QCD effective lagrangians, chiral bags and the Cheshire cat principle, strangeness problem, phenomenology, mathematical structure

  19. Congenital laryngeal anomalies,

    OpenAIRE

    Rutter, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: It is essential for clinicians to understand issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to be cognizant of the fact that infants with congenital laryngeal anomalies are at particular risk for an unstable airway. Objectives: To familiarize clinicians with issues relevant to the airway management of infants and to present a succinct description of the diagnosis and management of an array of congenital laryngeal anomalies. Methods: Revision article, in which the ma...

  20. Fivebrane gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie

    2000-01-01

    Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore (FHMM) have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We apply the FHMM mechanism in the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten

  1. The Holographic Weyl anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Henningson, M; Henningson, Mans; Skenderis, Kostas

    1998-01-01

    We calculate the Weyl anomaly for conformal field theories that can be described via the adS/CFT correspondence. This entails regularizing the gravitational part of the corresponding supergravity action in a manner consistent with general covariance. Up to a constant, the anomaly only depends on the dimension d of the manifold on which the conformal field theory is defined. We present concrete expressions for the anomaly in the physically relevant cases d = 2, 4 and 6. In d = 2 we find for the central charge c = 3 l/ 2 G_N in agreement with considerations based on the asymptotic symmetry algebra of adS_3. In d = 4 the anomaly agrees precisely with that of the corresponding N = 4 superconformal SU(N) gauge theory. The result in d = 6 provides new information for the (0, 2) theory, since its Weyl anomaly has not been computed previously. The anomaly in this case grows as N^3, where N is the number of coincident M5 branes, and it vanishes for a Ricci-flat background.

  2. Gas hydrate dissociation off Svalbard induced by isostatic rebound rather than global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann, Klaus; Riedel, M; Hong, W L; Patton, H; Hubbard, A; Pape, T; Hsu, C W; Schmidt, C; Johnson, J E; Torres, M E; Andreassen, K; Berndt, C; Bohrmann, G

    2018-01-08

    Methane seepage from the upper continental slopes of Western Svalbard has previously been attributed to gas hydrate dissociation induced by anthropogenic warming of ambient bottom waters. Here we show that sediment cores drilled off Prins Karls Foreland contain freshwater from dissociating hydrates. However, our modeling indicates that the observed pore water freshening began around 8 ka BP when the rate of isostatic uplift outpaced eustatic sea-level rise. The resultant local shallowing and lowering of hydrostatic pressure forced gas hydrate dissociation and dissolved chloride depletions consistent with our geochemical analysis. Hence, we propose that hydrate dissociation was triggered by postglacial isostatic rebound rather than anthropogenic warming. Furthermore, we show that methane fluxes from dissociating hydrates were considerably smaller than present methane seepage rates implying that gas hydrates were not a major source of methane to the oceans, but rather acted as a dynamic seal, regulating methane release from deep geological reservoirs.

  3. Utilizing Visual Effects Software for Efficient and Flexible Isostatic Adjustment Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldgaard, A.; Nielsen, L.; Iaffaldano, G.

    2017-12-01

    The isostatic adjustment signal generated by transient ice sheet loading is an important indicator of past ice sheet extent and the rheological constitution of the interior of the Earth. Finite element modelling has proved to be a very useful tool in these studies. We present a simple numerical model for 3D visco elastic Earth deformation and a new approach to the design of such models utilizing visual effects software designed for the film and game industry. The software package Houdini offers an assortment of optimized tools and libraries which greatly facilitate the creation of efficient numerical algorithms. In particular, we make use of Houdini's procedural work flow, the SIMD programming language VEX, Houdini's sparse matrix creation and inversion libraries, an inbuilt tetrahedralizer for grid creation, and the user interface, which facilitates effortless manipulation of 3D geometry. We mitigate many of the time consuming steps associated with the authoring of efficient algorithms from scratch while still keeping the flexibility that may be lost with the use of commercial dedicated finite element programs. We test the efficiency of the algorithm by comparing simulation times with off-the-shelf solutions from the Abaqus software package. The algorithm is tailored for the study of local isostatic adjustment patterns, in close vicinity to present ice sheet margins. In particular, we wish to examine possible causes for the considerable spatial differences in the uplift magnitude which are apparent from field observations in these areas. Such features, with spatial scales of tens of kilometres, are not resolvable with current global isostatic adjustment models, and may require the inclusion of local topographic features. We use the presented algorithm to study a near field area where field observations are abundant, namely, Disko Bay in West Greenland with the intention of constraining Earth parameters and ice thickness. In addition, we assess how local

  4. Effects of hot isostatic pressure on titanium nitride films deposited by physical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonari M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Films of titanium nitride deposited by physical vapor deposition on 304 L stainless steel substrates were hot isostatic pressed (HIP under 150 MPa at 550 °C. To study the effects of this treatment on the microstructure of those films, X-ray diffraction analyses, Rutherford Backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were performed. Surface hardness, and roughness were also evaluated to characterize the TiN properties. The hot isostatic pressure leads to an increase of hardness for depths up to 0.1 mum and a crystallographic texture change from (111 to (200. The original TiN golden color turned to red after the treatment. An increase of the grain size has been observed for hot isostatic pressed samples, but the stoichiometry of the TiN film was determined to be 1:1 by RBS. The microstructure observed by atomic force microscopy indicated that the TiN film surface is smoother after the HIP treatment.

  5. Consolidation of W–Ta composites: Hot isostatic pressing and spark and pulse plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M., E-mail: marta.dias@itn.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Guerreiro, F. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, J.B. [LNEG, Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Estrada do Paço do Lumiar, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Galatanu, A. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105 bis Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Ilfov (Romania); Rosiński, M. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A. [Departamento de Física, Univerdidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avd. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Alves, E. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Carvalho, P.A. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Consolidation of W–Ta composites using three techniques: HIP, SPS and PPS. • Comparison of consolidation methods in terms of W–Ta interdiffusion and densification. • Microstructure analysis in terms of oxides formation. - Abstract: Composites consisting of tantalum fiber/powder dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix have been consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering as well as by hot isostatic pressing. The microstructural observations revealed that the tungsten–tantalum fiber composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering presented a continuous layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at the W/Ta interfaces, while the samples consolidated by spark plasma sintering evidenced a Ta + Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} eutectic mixture due to the higher temperature of this consolidation process. Similar results have been obtained for the tungsten–tantalum powder composites. A (W, Ta) solid solution was detected around the prior nanostructured W particles in tungsten–tantalum powder composites consolidated by spark and pulse plasma sintering. Higher densifications were obtained for composites consolidated by hot isostatic pressing and pulse plasma sintering.

  6. Holocene isostatic uplift of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula, modelled from raised beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, P. T.; Hodgson, D. A.; Watcham, E. P.; Bentley, M. J.; Roberts, S. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new isobases constraining the Holocene isostatic uplift of the South Shetland Islands, northern Antarctic Peninsula, based on evidence from raised shorelines. Holocene shorelines were described and surveyed at fifteen sites to determine the spatial variability of relative sea level (RSL) change across the South Shetland Islands, and provide new spatial RSL change corrections for the region. Results show that the highest shoreline is a transgressive feature, correlated by geomorphological evidence on most exposed coastlines of the archipelago. Its surveyed height was corrected for local variability in wave energy by subtracting the measured altitude of the present day shoreline. These corrected surveyed heights of the highest raised beach were modelled using quadratic polynomial trend surface analysis to constrain differing rates of regional isostatic uplift. We present two isobase models of isostatic uplift since formation of the highest Holocene raised beach circa 7360-7000 years ago. These models suggests a maximum uplift of ca 20 m was centred on an area north of Greenwich Island, with isobases implying an elongate zone of uplift orientated east-southeast to west-northwest along the spine of the island chain. This corresponds well with previously published geomorphologically based estimates of palaeo ice-extent and the deglaciation history of the South Shetland Islands and gives new context to the palaeo ice-extent and glacial history of the region.

  7. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment with ICE-6G{_}C (VM5a) and Laterally Heterogeneous Mantle Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tanghua; Wu, Patrick; Steffen, Holger

    2017-04-01

    perturbations inferred from the seismic tomography model (Bunge & Grand 2000) logarithmically. The preliminary results of these and other background viscosity profiles will be presented. References: Bunge, H.-P. & Grand, S. P. (2000). Mesozoic plate-motion history below the northeast Pacific Ocean from seismic images of the subducted Farallon slab. Nature, 405(6784):337-340. Peltier, W., Argus, D., and Drummond, R. (2015). Space geodesy constrains ice age terminal deglaciation: The global ICE-6GC (VM5a) model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 120(1): 450-487. Wu, P. (2004). Using commercial finite element packages for the study of earth deformations, sea levels and the state of stress. Geophysical Journal International, 158(2): 401-408. Wu, P., Wang, H.S. & Steffen, H. (2012). The role of thermal effect on mantle seismic anomalies under Laurentia and Fennoscandia from observations of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment. Geophysical Journal International, 192(1):7-17.

  8. Bolivian Bouguer Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Bouguer anomaly grid for the country of Bolivia.Number of columns is 550 and number of rows is 900. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  9. Anomaly Busters II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The anomaly busters had struck on the first day of the Kyoto meeting with Yoji Totsuka of Tokyo speaking on baryon number nonjjonservation and 'related topics'. The unstable proton is a vital test of grand unified pictures pulling together the electroweak and quark/gluon forces in a single field theory

  10. The reactor antineutrino anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haser, Julia; Buck, Christian; Lindner, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Major discoveries were made in the past few years in the field of neutrino flavour oscillation. Nuclear reactors produce a clean and intense flux of electron antineutrinos and are thus an essential neutrino source for the determination of oscillation parameters. Most currently the reactor antineutrino experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO have accomplished to measure θ{sub 13}, the smallest of the three-flavour mixing angles. In the course of these experiments two anomalies emerged: (1) the reanalysis of the reactor predictions revealed a deficit in experimentally observed antineutrino flux, known as the ''reactor antineutrino anomaly''. (2) The high precision of the latest generation of neutrino experiments resolved a spectral shape distortion relative to the expected energy spectra. Both puzzles are yet to be solved and triggered new experimental as well as theoretical studies, with the search for light sterile neutrinos as most popular explanation for the flux anomaly. This talk outlines the two reactor antineutrino anomalies. Discussing possible explanations for their occurrence, recent and upcoming efforts to solve the reactor puzzles are highlighted.

  11. Echocardiography in Ebstein's anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J. Gussenhoven (Wilhelmina Johanna)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis the value of echocardiography is evaluated for the diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly of the tricuspid valve. This congenital heart defect, first described in 1866 by Wilhelm Ebstein, is characterized by an apical displacement of the septal and inferior tricuspid valve

  12. Dealing with Ebstein's anomaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, L.M.; Kapusta, L.

    2014-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a complex congenital disorder of the tricuspid valve. Presentation in neonatal life and (early) childhood is common. Disease severity and clinical features vary widely and require a patient-tailored treatment. In this review, we describe the natural history of children and

  13. Assessing Asset Pricing Anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A. de Groot (Wilma)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOne of the most important challenges in the field of asset pricing is to understand anomalies: empirical patterns in asset returns that cannot be explained by standard asset pricing models. Currently, there is no consensus in the academic literature on the underlying causes of

  14. Algebra of anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talon, M.

    1987-01-01

    The algebraic set up for anomalies, a la Stora, is reviewed. Then a brief account is provided of the work of M. Dubois Violette, M. Talon, C. Viallet, in which the general algebraic solution to the consistency conditions is described. 34 references

  15. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  16. Ferret Workflow Anomaly Detection System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Timothy J; Bryant, Stephany

    2005-01-01

    The Ferret workflow anomaly detection system project 2003-2004 has provided validation and anomaly detection in accredited workflows in secure knowledge management systems through the use of continuous, automated audits...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigation Home Page Search Home Health Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Peters anomaly Peters anomaly Printable PDF Open All Close All ...

  18. Isostatic Implications of Different Seismic and Gravity Derived Moho Depths for Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraccioli, F.; Pappa, F.; Ebbing, J.

    2017-12-01

    Several studies with different methods have been performed to investigate the lithospheric structure of Antarctica, in particular the Moho as the crust-mantle boundary. Yet, seismological surveys are regionally limited or suffer from sparse station coverage due to the remoteness and size of the continent. On the other hand, gravity studies are inherently ambiguous and therefore not able to determine both the geometry and the density contrast of the Moho. Existing Moho depth models for Antarctica show large discrepancies, even among different seismological methods, but all the more between seismological and gravity models. As a first step towards a possible reconcilement, we perform non-linear gravity inversions with simultaneous consideration of seismological data. Depending on the seismological input data, different depths and density contrasts yield the best fit. The results, however, are not in line with the pure seismological models. Subsequently, we compute simple Airy-isostatic Moho depth models and evaluate these together with multiple Moho models from previous studies in terms of their gravitational signal, applying different values for the density contrast. The models' responses are checked against observational data: vertical gravity at 50 km altitude from the spherical harmonics expansion model GOCO05s, and the gravity gradient tensor at 225 km altitude from the GOCE gravity gradient grids. While the gravity responses from the seismological models show strong disagreements with the data, the Airy-isostatic models fit better. Yet, differences of up to 10 km in depth exist between the isostatic and the gravity-inverted Moho models. From these differences in vertical gravity, in the gravity gradients and in Moho depth, we identify regions where a simple density contrast is not sufficient to explain the observed gravitational field. We conclude that lateral and vertical density variations must be considered, which might originate from high-density lower

  19. Penile Anomalies in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the impact and outcomes of both treatment and underlying condition of penile anomalies in adolescent males. Major congenital anomalies (such as exstrophy/epispadias are discussed, including the psychological outcomes, common problems (such as corporal asymmetry, chordee, and scarring in this group, and surgical assessment for potential surgical candidates. The emergence of new surgical techniques continues to improve outcomes and potentially raises patient expectations. The importance of balanced discussion in conditions such as micropenis, including multidisciplinary support for patients, is important in order to achieve appropriate treatment decisions. Topical treatments may be of value, but in extreme cases, phalloplasty is a valuable option for patients to consider. In buried penis, the importance of careful assessment and, for the majority, a delay in surgery until puberty has completed is emphasised. In hypospadias patients, the variety of surgical procedures has complicated assessment of outcomes. It appears that true surgical success may be difficult to measure as many men who have had earlier operations are not reassessed in either puberty or adult life. There is also a brief discussion of acquired penile anomalies, including causation and treatment of lymphoedema, penile fracture/trauma, and priapism.

  20. Lithologic boundaries from gravity and magnetic anomalies over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... nature of causative source using Euler depth solutions and radially averaged power spectrum (RAPS). Residual anomaly maps of gravity and ... the lateral boundaries and nature of the source. It seems that the source is of ..... Goldfarb R J and Richards J P,. The Economic Geology Publishing Company, pp.

  1. Lithologic boundaries from gravity and magnetic anomalies over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramod Kumar Yadav

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... along 13 parallel lines at 50 m spacing. The data was acquired at ~25 m spacing. The surveys were taken for determination of lithological boundaries, depths and nature of causative source using Euler depth solutions and radially averaged power spectrum (RAPS). Residual anomaly maps of gravity and ...

  2. Suboptimal correction of low anorectal anomalies: a possible cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Constipation is a common problem among patients following the repair of low anorectal anomalies. We present our experience in managing constipation in a group of these patients with reoperation to correct residual anterior anal misplacement. Patients and methods The study included pediatric patients ...

  3. Hot Isostatic Press Manufacturing Process Development for Fabrication of RERTR Monolithic Fuel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crapps, Justin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katz, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aikin, Beverly [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vargas, Victor D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Montalvo, Joel D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dombrowski, David E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-06

    We use experimentation and finite element modeling to study a Hot Isostatic Press (HIP) manufacturing process for U-10Mo Monolithic Fuel Plates. Finite element simulations are used to identify the material properties affecting the process and improve the process geometry. Accounting for the high temperature material properties and plasticity is important to obtain qualitative agreement between model and experimental results. The model allows us to improve the process geometry and provide guidance on selection of material and finish conditions for the process strongbacks. We conclude that the HIP can must be fully filled to provide uniform normal stress across the bonding interface.

  4. Flux pinning in hot isostatically pressed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.J.; Sengupta, S.; Hettinger, J.D.; Shi, D.; Gray, K.E.; Nash, A.S.; Goretta, K.C.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic hysteresis data were taken from 4.2 to 35 K on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x samples that were hot isostatically pressed at 105 MPa in an inert atmosphere at 825 degree C. One set of samples was pressed for only 15 min while the other was pressed for 120 min. The samples pressed for 15 min contained a high density of dislocations and planar faults, while the samples pressed for 120 min contained fewer dislocations and faults, with most dislocations present within subgrain boundaries. The samples with the complex dislocation/planar fault structures exhibited substantially larger hysteresis loops, suggesting enhanced flux pinning

  5. Effect of Temperature on the Fracture Toughness of Hot Isostatically Pressed 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Brayshaw, W. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we have performed J- Resistance multi-specimen fracture toughness testing of hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) and forged 304L austenitic stainless steel, tested at elevated (300 °C) and cryogenic (- 140 °C) temperatures. The work highlights that although both materials fail in a pure ductile fashion, stainless steel manufactured by HIP displays a marked reduction in fracture toughness, defined using J 0.2BL, when compared to equivalently graded forged 304L, which is relatively constant across the tested temperature range.

  6. Towards Constraining Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Greenland Using ICESat and GPS Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Constraining glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) i.e. the Earth’s viscoelastic response to past ice changes, is an important task, because GIA is a significant correction in gravity-based ice sheet mass balance estimates. Here, we investigate how temporal variations in the observed and modeled...... crustal displacements due to the Earth’s response to ongoing ice mass changes can contribute to the process of constraining GIA. We use mass change grids of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) derived from NASA’s high resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data in three overlapping time...

  7. Optimal Decomposition and Recombination of Isostatic Geometric Constraint Systems for Designing Layered Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Troy; Sitharam, Meera; Wang, Menghan; Willoughby, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Optimal recursive decomposition (or DR-planning) is crucial for analyzing, designing, solving or finding realizations of geometric constraint sytems. While the optimal DR-planning problem is NP-hard even for general 2D bar-joint constraint systems, we describe an O(n^3) algorithm for a broad class of constraint systems that are isostatic or underconstrained. The algorithm achieves optimality by using the new notion of a canonical DR-plan that also meets various desirable, previously studied c...

  8. The Influence of Non-linear 3-D Mantle Rheology on Predictions of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Wal, W.; Barnhoorn, A.; Stocchi, P.; Drury, M. R.; Wu, P. P.; Vermeersen, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ice melting in Greenland and Antarctica can be estimated from GRACE satellite measurements. The largest source of error in these estimates is uncertainty in models for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). GIA models that are used to correct the GRACE data have several shortcomings, including (i) mantle viscosity is only varied with depth, and (ii) stress-dependence of viscosity is ignored. Here we attempt to improve on these two issues with the ultimate goal of providing more realistic GIA predictions in areas that are currently ice covered. The improved model is first tested against observations in Fennoscandia, where there is good coverage with GIA observations, before applying it to Greenland. Deformation laws for diffusion and dislocation creep in olivine are taken from a compilation of laboratory experiments. Temperature is obtained from two different sources: surface heatflow maps as input for the heat transfer equation, and seismic velocity anomalies converted to upper mantle temperatures. Grain size and olivine water content are kept as free parameters. Surface loading is provided by an ice loading history that is constructed from constraints on past ice margins and input from climatology. The finite element model includes self-gravitation but not compressibility and background stresses. It is found that the viscosity in Fennoscandia changes in time by two orders of magnitude for a wet rheology with large grain size. The wet rheology provides the best fit to historic sea level data. However, present-day uplift and gravity rates are too low for such a rheology. We apply a wet rheology on Greenland, and simulate a Little Ice Age (LIA) increase in thickness on top of the ICE-5G ice loading history. Preliminary results show a negative geoid rate of magnitude more than 0.5 mm/year due to the LIA increase in ice thickness in combination with the non-linear upper mantle rheology. More tests are necessary to determine the influence of mantle rheology on GIA model

  9. Gravity anomalies over the Central Indian Ridge between 3 S and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S have been analysed to understand the crustal structure and the ridge segmentation pattern. The mantle Bouguer anomalies (MBA) and the residual mantle Bouguer anomalies (RMBA) computed in the study area have shown significant variations along the ridge segments that are separated by transform.

  10. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    -awareness, and marginally so, disorders of cognition. CONCLUSION: These findings, in conjunction with those from other, methodologically similar studies, suggest that certain anomalies of subjective experience aggregate significantly in schizophrenia. These experiential anomalies appear to be relevant for early......OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...

  11. Fast and sensitive methods for on-line anomaly detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.; Hagen van der, T.H.J.J.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for anomaly detection based on comparison of signal values in time domain with predictions from an autoregressive model of the signal. As the calculation of the signal prediction value needs only a small number of operations, these methods are suitable for on-line applications. Three different methods for tests on anomalies are introduced and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Their performance is demonstrated on an artificially generated signal containing two different types of anomalies and on signals of an actual nuclear reactor under different operating conditions. Anomalies resulting a 10-20% change in standard deviation of the residual noise signal could be detected within 10 seconds with a negligibly low probability of false alarms

  12. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  13. Hyades CN anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.A.; Twarog, B.A.

    1983-05-01

    Recent uvby photometric work indicating possible CN variation among main-sequence stars in the Hyades is tested. Comparison of Reticon spectra of normal stars of similar temperature to five anomalous CN candidates in the Hyades demonstrates that there is no significant difference between the spectra of the program and comparison stars for four of the anomalous CN candidates in the wavelength region of CN 4216. The observed spectral discrepancy for the fifth program star appears to be the result of an incorrect temperature index as compared to previous observations of the same star. The source of the photometric anomaly remains unexplained.

  14. Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.

  15. Anomaly Monitoring Method for Key Components of Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a fault diagnosis method for key components of satellite, called Anomaly Monitoring Method (AMM, which is made up of state estimation based on Multivariate State Estimation Techniques (MSET and anomaly detection based on Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT. On the basis of analysis failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, we divided the failure of LIBs into internal failure, external failure, and thermal runaway and selected electrolyte resistance (Re and the charge transfer resistance (Rct as the key parameters of state estimation. Then, through the actual in-orbit telemetry data of the key parameters of LIBs, we obtained the actual residual value (RX and healthy residual value (RL of LIBs based on the state estimation of MSET, and then, through the residual values (RX and RL of LIBs, we detected the anomaly states based on the anomaly detection of SPRT. Lastly, we conducted an example of AMM for LIBs, and, according to the results of AMM, we validated the feasibility and effectiveness of AMM by comparing it with the results of threshold detective method (TDM.

  16. Pregnancy outcome and Ebstein's anomaly.

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, J E; Brown, J M; Radford, D J

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Ebstein's anomaly is an uncommon congenital cardiac abnormality that may be associated with cyanosis and arrhythmias. For those female patients with the anomaly who survive to adult life there is little information available about pregnancy, maternal complications, and fetal outcome. This study was designed to address this issue so that these patients can receive appropriate advice and management. METHODS AND RESULTS--Forty two pregnancies in 12 women with Ebstein's anomaly were s...

  17. Anomalies in Economics and Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher L. Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    The term “anomaly” played a crucial role in Thomas Kuhn’s characterization of scientific progress. For Kuhn, an anomaly is a puzzle which challenges an accepted paradigm. Puzzles only achieve anomalous status once an alternative paradigm becomes available which allows explanation of the puzzle. Anomalies were introduced into the finance literature by Michael Jensen but more as resolvable puzzles than Kuhnian anomalies. They entered economics via Richard Thaler who saw behavioural economics as...

  18. Congenital Anomalies among Live Births

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Rosa Vázquez Martínez; Cristobal Jorge Torres González; Alina Luisa Díaz Dueñas; Grisel Torres Vázquez; Dariel Diaz Díaz; Rafael de la Rosa López

    2014-01-01

    Background: congenital anomalies contribute significantly to mortality during early stages of life; they are the leading cause of infant death in developed countries.Objective: to determine the characteristics of congenital anomalies among live births. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in 2012. Thirty-seven women who had live-born neonates with congenital anomalies were studied. The variables analyzed were: parental age, skin color, order of birth, famil...

  19. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data....... Here we find evidence that the Planck CMB maps contain residual radiation in the loop areas, which can be linked to some of the large scale CMB anomalies: the point-parity asymmetry, the alignment of quadrupole and octupole and the dipolemodulation....

  20. [Developmental venous anomaly (DVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, A; Hagen, T; Ahlhelm, F; Viera, J; Reith, W; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G

    2007-10-01

    As congenital anatomic variants of venous drainage, developmental venous anomalies (DVA) represent up to 60% of all cerebral vascular malformations. The prior term "venous angioma" is a misnomer implicating an abnormal vascular structure with an increased bleeding risk. They are often found incidentally and are hardly ever symptomatic. Their morphologic characteristics are dilated vessels in the white matter, which converge on a greater collector vein, forming the typical caput medusae. They drain into the superficial or deep venous system. The frequent association with other, potentially bleeding-prone vascular malformations is clinically relevant, in particular cavernous angioma, which might require therapeutic action. Therefore, coincident vascular lesions need to be actively sought by appropriate additional imaging techniques.

  1. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  2. Superior austempered ductile iron (ADI) properties achieved by prior hot isostatic pressing (HIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGoy, J.L.; Widmer, R.; Zick, D.H. [Industrial Materials Technology Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Ductile iron obtained from different foundries and cast by dissimilar methods has been successfully hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) before austempering to achieve substantially higher ductilities, without significant detriment to other properties, than those reached by austempering along. HIP was attempted to solve different mechanical deficiencies in austempered ductile iron (ADI) such as the lack of ductility in higher strength grades, inconsistent mechanical properties, and service life limitations. A variety of HIP temperatures were analyzed from near the austenitizing region up to within 56 C (100 F) of the melting point of ductile iron. Microporosity was eliminated by HIP at all temperatures, and subsequent austempering revealed a uniform ADI microstructure. HIP proved successful with both unencapsulated castings and those enclosed within steel canisters. Additional benefits caused by HIP processing of ductile iron castings without the austempering treatment include a significant decrease in mechanical property data scatter, high hardness at reasonable ductility levels, and a substantially reduced scrap rate.

  3. Mechanical properties of molybdenum disilicide based materials consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryanarayanan, R.; Sastry, S.M.L.; Jerina, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidation parameters on the mechanical properties of molybdenum disilicide (MoSi 2 ) and MoSi 2 reinforced with ductile and brittle reinforcements was studied. MoSi 2 , MoSi 2 -20 vol.% coarse and fine niobium powder and MoSi 2 -20 vol.% silicon carbide whiskers consolidated by HIP at 1,200--1,400 C, 207 MPa, for 1 and 4 h were tested in compression for elevated temperature strength and creep resistance. Single-edge-notched specimens of the three materials were tested in a three-point bend configuration for fracture toughness. Mechanical properties were related with consolidation parameters and post-HIP microstructures

  4. Room temperature deformation mechanisms in ultrafine-grained materials processed by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.Q.; Dirras, G.F.; Benyoucef, M.; Bacroix, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine-grained (uf-g) and microcrystalline-grained (mc-g) irons have been fabricated by hot isostatic pressing of nanopowders. The mechanical properties have been characterized by compressive tests at room temperature and the resulting microstructures and textures have been determined by combining electron back scatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A transition of the deformation mode, from work hardening to work softening occurs for grain sizes below ∼1 μm, reflecting a transition of the deformation mode from homogeneous to localized deformation into shear bands (SBs). The homogeneous deformation is found to be lattice dislocation-based while the deformation within SBs involves lattice dislocations as well as boundary-related mechanisms, possibly grain boundary sliding accommodated by boundary opening

  5. Yb:Y2O3 transparent ceramics processed with hot isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ma, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Peng; Luo, Dewei; Yin, Danlei; Tang, Dingyuan; Kong, Ling Bing

    2017-09-01

    Highly transparent 5 at.% Yb:Y2O3 ceramics were fabricated by using a combination method of vacuum sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Co-precipitated Yb:Y2O3 powders, with 1 at.% ZrO2 as the sintering aid, were used as the starting material. The Yb:Y2O3 ceramics, vacuum sintered at 1700 °C for 2 h and HIPed at 1775 °C for 4 h, exhibited small grain size of 1.9 μm and highly dense microstructure. In-line optical transmittance of the ceramics reached 83.4% and 78.9% at 2000 and 600 nm, respectively. As the ceramic slab was pumped by a fiber-coupled laser diode at about 940 nm, a maximum output power of 0.77 W at 1076 nm was achieved, with a corresponding slope efficiency of 10.6%.

  6. Glacial isostatic adjustment using GNSS permanent stations and GIA modelling tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollo, Karin; Spada, Giorgio; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) affects the Earth's mantle in areas which were once ice covered and the process is still ongoing. In this contribution we focus on GIA processes in Fennoscandian and North American uplift regions. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. For Fennoscandia the BIFROST dataset (Lidberg, 2010) and North America the dataset from Sella, 2007 were used respectively. We perform GIA modelling with the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) and we vary ice model parameters in space in order to find ice model which suits best with uplift values obtained from GNSS time series analysis. In the GIA modelling, the ice models ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model denoted as ANU05 ((Fleming and Lambeck, 2004) and references therein) were used. As reference, the velocity field from GNSS permanent station time series was used for both target areas. Firstly the sensitivity to the harmonic degree was tested in order to reduce the computation time. In the test, nominal viscosity values and pre-defined lithosphere thicknesses models were used, varying maximum harmonic degree values. Main criteria for choosing the suitable harmonic degree was chi-square fit - if the error measure does not differ more than 10%, then one might use as well lower harmonic degree value. From this test, maximum harmonic degree of 72 was chosen to perform calculations, as the larger value did not significantly modify the results obtained, as well the computational time for observations was kept reasonable. Secondly the GIA computations were performed to find the model, which could fit with highest probability to the GNSS-based velocity field in the target areas. In order to find best fitting Earth viscosity parameters, different viscosity profiles for the Earth models were tested and their impact on horizontal and vertical velocity rates from GIA modelling was studied. For every

  7. Transformation of Cs-IONSIV® into a ceramic wasteform by hot isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzu-Yu; Maddrell, Ewan R.; Hyatt, Neil C.; Gandy, Amy S.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hriljac, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    A simple method to directly convert Cs-exchanged IONSIV® IE-911 into a ceramic wasteform by hot isostatic pressing (1100 °C/190 MPa/2 hr) is presented. Two major Cs-containing phases, Cs2TiNb6O18 and Cs2ZrSi6O15, and a series of mixed oxides form. The microstructure and phase assemblage of the samples as a function of Cs content were examined using XRD, XRF, SEM and TEM/EDX. The chemical aqueous durability of the materials was investigated using the MCC-1 and PCT-B standard test methods. For HIPed Cs-IONSIV® samples, the MCC-1 normalised release rates of Cs were low rates are indicative of a safe long-term immobilisation matrix for Cs formed directly from spent IONSIV®. It was also demonstrated that the phase formation can be altered by adding Ti metal due to a controlled redox environment.

  8. Processing and properties of calcium phosphates bioceramics by hot isostatic pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boilet Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stoichiometric β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP, hydroxyapatite (HA and biphasic calcium phosphate (TCP/HA 60/40 %wt, BCP40 powders were synthesized by chemical precipitation of aqueous solutions of diammonium phosphate and calcium nitrate. After a calcination treatment and a milling step, powders were shaped by slip-casting. The sintering temperature effect on the density and the average grain size was investigated. By natural sintering, densities between 98 and 99.8% were obtained. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP treatment was carried out after a pre-sintering of these materials. Transparent or translucent samples were obtained, indicating a relative density very close to the theoretical value (>99.9%. Mechanical properties (three-point bending strength, fracture toughness, Young's modulus and Vickers hardness were measured on hipped materials with similar grain size (∼0.7μm.

  9. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened W alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.

    2011-01-01

    A powder metallurgy technique has been developed to produce oxide strengthened W-Ti and W-V alloys using elemental powders and nanosized powders of La 2 O 3 or Y 2 O 3 as starting materials. The alloys consolidated by hot isostatic pressing resulted in high-density materials having an ultrafine-grained structure and microhardness values in the range 7-13 GPa. Atom force microscopy studies show a topographic relief in the Ti and V pools that appear in the consolidated alloys. This relief is attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of martensite plates. The preliminary transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that a dispersion of nanoparticles can be induced in these alloys produced via the present technique.

  10. Tensile and fracture characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–12Cr produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vanessa de, E-mail: vanessa.decastro@uc3m.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Garces-Usan, Jose Maria; Leguey, Teresa; Pareja, Ramiro [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The mechanical characteristics of a model oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–12 wt%Cr–0.4 wt%Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated by means of microhardness measurements, tensile tests up to fracture in the temperature range of 298–973 K, and fracture surface analyses. A non-ODS Fe–12 wt%Cr alloy was also studied to assess the real capacity of the oxide dispersion for strengthening the alloy. The materials were produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation and heat treatment at 1023 K. The strengthening effect of the oxide nanodispersion was effective at all temperatures studied, although the tensile strength converges towards the one obtained for the reference alloy at higher temperatures. Moreover, the ODS alloys failed prematurely at T < 673 K due to the presence of Y-rich inclusions, as seen in the fracture surface of these alloys.

  11. Tensile and fracture characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened Fe–12Cr produced by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Vanessa de; Garces-Usan, Jose Maria; Leguey, Teresa; Pareja, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of a model oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–12 wt%Cr–0.4 wt%Y 2 O 3 were investigated by means of microhardness measurements, tensile tests up to fracture in the temperature range of 298–973 K, and fracture surface analyses. A non-ODS Fe–12 wt%Cr alloy was also studied to assess the real capacity of the oxide dispersion for strengthening the alloy. The materials were produced by mechanical alloying followed by hot isostatic pressing consolidation and heat treatment at 1023 K. The strengthening effect of the oxide nanodispersion was effective at all temperatures studied, although the tensile strength converges towards the one obtained for the reference alloy at higher temperatures. Moreover, the ODS alloys failed prematurely at T < 673 K due to the presence of Y-rich inclusions, as seen in the fracture surface of these alloys

  12. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened W alloys produced by hot isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, J.; Savoini, B.; Monge, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Munoz, A., E-mail: angel.munoz@uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A powder metallurgy technique has been developed to produce oxide strengthened W-Ti and W-V alloys using elemental powders and nanosized powders of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as starting materials. The alloys consolidated by hot isostatic pressing resulted in high-density materials having an ultrafine-grained structure and microhardness values in the range 7-13 GPa. Atom force microscopy studies show a topographic relief in the Ti and V pools that appear in the consolidated alloys. This relief is attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of martensite plates. The preliminary transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that a dispersion of nanoparticles can be induced in these alloys produced via the present technique.

  13. An Ensemble Analysis of Antarctic Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecavalier, B.; Tarasov, L.

    2016-12-01

    Inferences of past ice sheet evolution that lack any uncertainty assessment (implicit or explicit), have little value. A developing technique for explicit uncertainty quantification of glacial systems is Bayesian calibration of models against large observational data-sets (Tarasov et al., 2012). The foundation for a Bayesian calibration of a 3D glacial systems model (GSM) for Antarctica has recently been completed (Briggs et al., 2013; 2014; Briggs and Tarasov, 2013). Bayesian calibration thoroughly samples model uncertainties against fits to observational data to generate a probability distribution for the Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation with explicit and well-defined confidence intervals. To have validity as a complete inference of past ice sheet evolution, Bayesian calibration requires a model that "brackets reality".Past work has shown the GSM to have likely inadequate range of grounding line migration in certain sectors as well as persistent ice thickness biases in topographically complex regions (Briggs et al., 2014). To advance towards full calibration, these deficiencies are being addressed through a number of model developments. The grounding line scheme has been revised (Pollard and DeConto, 2012), the horizontal resolution is increased to 20 km, and boundary conditions are updated. The basal drag representation now includes the sub-grid treatment of the thermo-mechanical impacts of high basal roughness. Parametric uncertainties in basal drag for regions that are presently marine have been re-evaluated. The impact of past changes in ocean temperature on sub ice shelf melt is explicitly incorporated in the current ocean forcing parametric scheme. Uncertainties in earth rheology are also probed to robustly quantify uncertainties affiliated with glacial isostatic adjustment. The ensemble analysis of the Antarctic glacial system provides dynamical bounds on past and present Antarctica glacial isostatic adjustment and sea level contributions. This research

  14. MIS 5e relative sea-level changes in the Mediterranean Sea: Contribution of isostatic disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocchi, Paolo; Vacchi, Matteo; Lorscheid, Thomas; de Boer, Bas; Simms, Alexander R.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.; Vermeersen, Bert L. A.; Pappalardo, Marta; Rovere, Alessio

    2018-04-01

    Sea-level indicators dated to the Last Interglacial, or Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e, have a twofold value. First, they can be used to constrain the melting of Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets in response to global warming scenarios. Second, they can be used to calculate the vertical crustal rates at active margins. For both applications, the contribution of glacio- and hydro-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to vertical displacement of sea-level indicators must be calculated. In this paper, we re-assess MIS 5e sea-level indicators at 11 Mediterranean sites that have been generally considered tectonically stable or affected by mild tectonics. These are found within a range of elevations of 2-10 m above modern mean sea level. Four sites are characterized by two separate sea-level stands, which suggest a two-step sea-level highstand during MIS 5e. Comparing field data with numerical modeling we show that (i) GIA is an important contributor to the spatial and temporal variability of the sea-level highstand during MIS 5e, (ii) the isostatic imbalance from the melting of the MIS 6 ice sheet can produce a >2.0 m sea-level highstand, and (iii) a two-step melting phase for the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets reduces the differences between observations and predictions. Our results show that assumptions of tectonic stability on the basis of the MIS 5e records carry intrinsically large uncertainties, stemming either from uncertainties in field data and GIA models. The latter are propagated to either Holocene or Pleistocene sea-level reconstructions if tectonic rates are considered linear through time.

  15. Processing of surrogate nuclear fuel pellets for better dimensional control with dry bag isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggan, Rita E., E-mail: Rita.hoggan@inl.gov; Zuck, Larry D., E-mail: Larry.zuck@inl.gov; Cannon, W. Roger, E-mail: cannon@rutgers.edu; Lessing, Paul A., E-mail: p.a.l.2@hotmail.com

    2016-12-15

    A study of improved methods of processing fuel pellets was undertaken using ceria and zirconia/yttria/alumina as surrogates. Through proper granulation, elimination of fines and vertical vibration (tapping) of the parts bag prior to dry bag isostatic pressing (DBIP), reproducibility of diameter profiles among multiple pellets of ceria was improved by almost an order of magnitude. Reproducibility of sintered pellets in these studies was sufficient to allow pellets to be introduced into the cladding with a gap between the pellet and cladding on the order of 50 μm to 100 μm but not a uniform gap with tolerance of ±12 μm as is currently required. Deviation from the mean diameter along the length of multiple pellets, and deviation from roundness, decreased after sintering. This is not generally observed with dry pressed pellets. Sintered shrinkage was uniform to ±0.05% and thus, as an alternative, pellets may be machined to tolerance before sintering, thus avoiding the waste associated with post-sinter grinding. - Highlights: • Three methods of granule preparation for two different powder sources were outlined and compared using tap density curves. • A dry bag isostatic press was used to fabricate pellets and longer rods. Thus longer pellets could be fabricated by this technique. • Vertical vibrations to pack granules decreased variation in dimensions from pellet to pellet by a factor of nine. • Sintering shrinkage varied by only 0.1% along the length of a rod. Thus green machining prior to sintering could result in tight tolerances.

  16. Axial anomaly at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Gupte, Neelima; Srinivasan, V.

    1985-01-01

    The Jackiw-Bardeen-Adler anomaly for QED 4 and QED 2 are calculated at finite temperature. It is found that the anomaly is independent of temperature. Ishikawa's method [1984, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 53 1615] for calculating the quantised Hall effect is extended to finite temperature. (author)

  17. Anomaly Structure of Regularized Supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    On-shell Pauli-Villars regularization of the one-loop divergences of supergravity theories is used to study the anomaly structure of supergravity and the cancellation of field theory anomalies under a U (1 ) gauge transformation and under the T -duality group of modular transformations in effective supergravity theories with three Kähler moduli Ti obtained from orbifold compactification of the weakly coupled heterotic string. This procedure requires constraints on the chiral matter representations of the gauge group that are consistent with known results from orbifold compactifications. Pauli-Villars (PV) regulator fields allow for the cancellation of all quadratic and logarithmic divergences, as well as most linear divergences. If all linear divergences were canceled, the theory would be anomaly free, with noninvariance of the action arising only from Pauli-Villars masses. However there are linear divergences associated with nonrenormalizable gravitino/gaugino interactions that cannot be canceled by PV fields. The resulting chiral anomaly forms a supermultiplet with the corresponding conformal anomaly, provided the ultraviolet cutoff has the appropriate field dependence, in which case total derivative terms, such as Gauss-Bonnet, do not drop out from the effective action. The anomalies can be partially canceled by the four-dimensional version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism, but additional counterterms, and/or a more elaborate set of Pauli-Villars fields and couplings, are needed to cancel the full anomaly, including D -term contributions to the conformal anomaly that are nonlinear in the parameters of the anomalous transformations.

  18. CRANIOVERTEBRAL JUNCTION ANOMALIES SEEN AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-03-03

    Mar 3, 2000 ... anomalies that give rise to symptoms in this area are basilar impression, occipitalisation of the atlas, odontoid process abnormalities and atlanto-axial dislocation. Neuromeningeal anomalies in this region include Arnold-. Chiari malformation, syringomyelia and basal arachnoiditis. The clinical presentation ...

  19. What is a Timing Anomaly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassez, Franck; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Olesen, Mads Chr.

    2012-01-01

    difficult. We examine previous definitions of timing anomalies, and identify examples where they do not align with common observations. We then provide a definition for consistently slower hardware traces that can be used to define timing anomalies and aligns with common observations....

  20. Residue processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieg, W.; Rank, V.

    1942-10-15

    In the first stage of coal hydrogenation, the liquid phase, light and heavy oils were produced; the latter containing the nonliquefied parts of the coal, the coal ash, and the catalyst substances. It was the problem of residue processing to extract from these so-called let-down oils that which could be used as pasting oils for the coal. The object was to obtain a maximum oil extraction and a complete removal of the solids, because of the latter were returned to the process they would needlessly burden the reaction space. Separation of solids in residue processing could be accomplished by filtration, centrifugation, extraction, distillation, or low-temperature carbonization (L.T.C.). Filtration or centrifugation was most suitable since a maximum oil yield could be expected from it, since only a small portion of the let-down oil contained in the filtration or centrifugation residue had to be thermally treated. The most satisfactory centrifuge at this time was the Laval, which delivered liquid centrifuge residue and centrifuge oil continuously. By comparison, the semi-continuous centrifuges delivered plastic residues which were difficult to handle. Various apparatus such as the spiral screw kiln and the ball kiln were used for low-temperature carbonization of centrifuge residues. Both were based on the idea of carbonization in thin layers. Efforts were also being made to produce electrode carbon and briquette binder as by-products of the liquid coal phase.

  1. Pendugaan Model Sumber Anomali Magnetik Bawah Permukaan Di Area Pertambangan Emas Rakyat Desa Paningkaban, Kecamatan Gumelar, Kabupaten Banyumas (Halaman 38 S.d. 42)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Sehah; Anom Raharjo, Sukmaji; Wibowo, Okky

    2014-01-01

    Telah dilakukan survei magnetik dan pendugaan model sebaran sumber anomali magnetik bawah permukaan di kawasan pertambangan emas rakyat Desa Paningkaban, Kecamatan Gumelar, Kabupaten Banyumas. Data awal yang diperoleh dalam survei magnetik adalah kuat medan magnetik total. Setelah dilakukan beberapa koreksi dan reduksi diperoleh data anomali magnetik residual. Berdasarkan hasil pemodelan terhadap data anomali magnetik residual menggunakan perangkat lunak Mag2DC for Window pada lintasan AB, di...

  2. Pendugaan Model Sumber Anomali Magnetik Bawah Permukaan di Area Pertambangan Emas Rakyat Desa Paningkaban, Kecamatan Gumelar, Kabupaten Banyumas (Halaman 38 s.d. 42)

    OpenAIRE

    -, Sehah; Anom Raharjo, Sukmaji; Wibowo, Okky

    2015-01-01

    Telah dilakukan survei magnetik dan pendugaan model sebaran sumber anomali magnetik bawah permukaan di kawasan pertambangan emas rakyat Desa Paningkaban, Kecamatan Gumelar, Kabupaten Banyumas. Data awal yang diperoleh dalam survei magnetik adalah kuat medan magnetik total. Setelah dilakukan beberapa koreksi dan reduksi diperoleh data anomali magnetik residual. Berdasarkan hasil pemodelan terhadap data anomali magnetik residual menggunakan perangkat lunak Mag2DC for Window pada lintasan AB, di...

  3. Limitations of Aneuploidy and Anomaly Detection in the Obese Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Zozzaro-Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and can have a profound effect on pregnancy risks. Obese patients tend to be older and are at increased risk for structural fetal anomalies and aneuploidy, making screening options critically important for these women. Failure rates for first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT screening increase with obesity, while the ability to detect soft-markers declines, limiting ultrasound-based screening options. Obesity also decreases the chances of completing the anatomy survey and increases the residual risk of undetected anomalies. Additionally, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT is less likely to provide an informative result in obese patients. Understanding the limitations and diagnostic accuracy of aneuploidy and anomaly screening in obese patients can help guide clinicians in counseling patients on the screening options.

  4. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scansen, Brian A

    2017-04-12

    Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  5. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  6. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-07-08

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  7. Quantum topology and global anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Baadhio, R A

    1996-01-01

    Anomalies are ubiquitous features in quantum field theories. They can ruin the consistency of such theories and put significant restrictions on their viability, especially in dimensions higher than four. Global gauge and gravitational anomalies are to date, one of the scant powerful and probing tools available to physicists in the pursuit of uniqueness.This monograph is one of the very few that specializes in the study of global anomalies in quantum field theories. A discussion of various issues associated to three dimensional physics - the Chern-Simons-Witten theories - widen the scope of thi

  8. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (2). Atmospheric radon anomaly observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, various geochemical precursors were observed in the aftershock area: chloride ion concentration, groundwater discharge rate, groundwater radon concentration and so on. Kobe Pharmaceutical University (KPU) is located about 25 km northeast from the epicenter and within the aftershock area. Atmospheric radon concentration had been continuously measured from 1984 at KPU, using a flow-type ionization chamber. The radon concentration data were analyzed using the smoothed residual values which represent the daily minimum of radon concentration with the exclusion of normalized seasonal variation. The radon concentration (smoothed residual values) demonstrated an upward trend about two months before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. The trend can be well fitted to a log-periodic model related to earthquake fault dynamics. As a result of model fitting, a critical point was calculated to be between 13 and 27 January 1995, which was in good agreement with the occurrence date of earthquake (17 January 1995). The mechanism of radon anomaly before earthquakes is not fully understood. However, it might be possible to detect atmospheric radon anomaly as a precursor before a large earthquake, if (1) the measurement is conducted near the earthquake fault, (2) the monitoring station is located on granite (radon-rich) areas, and (3) the measurement is conducted for more than several years before the earthquake to obtain background data. (author)

  9. Residual risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing the residual risk of transmission of HIV by blood transfusion. An epidemiological approach assumed that all HIV infections detected serologically in first-time donors were pre-existing or prevalent infections, and that all infections detected in repeat blood donors were new or incident infections. During 1986 - 1987,0,012%.

  10. Obstetric consequences of uterovaginal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, J.A.; Schlaff, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    This review discusses the diagnosis and classification of utero-vaginal anomalies as well as obstetric considerations in their management. Diagnosis is usually made by hysterosalpingography antepartum. Ultrasonography is also recommended. 40 references, 10 figures, 9 tables

  11. Dimensional reduction in anomaly mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-04-01

    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction in theories with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to ɛ arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d=4-2ɛ dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity.

  12. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Landsteiner, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficie...

  13. Sharing AIS Related Anomalies (SARA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    misconfiguration and intentional misuse. These unintended behaviours generate an abundance of anomalies that the security community has an interest in monitoring...to end-user needs and thus be adopted by them. This section is organised as follows : • Section 2.1 describes the strategy used to identify potential...intrinsic and behavioural . Anomalies tagged and reported by TimeCaster can be found in the patent claim (see [13]) and can be augmented. 2.3.7 exactEarth

  14. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  15. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Adalgeirsdottir, Gudfinna

    2017-01-01

    Monthly gravity field models from the GRACE satellite mission are widely used to determine ice mass changes of large ice sheets as well as smaller glaciers and ice caps. Here, we investigate in detail the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps as derived from GRACE data. The small size...... find that the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps derived from GRACE gravity field models are influenced by both the large gravity change signal resulting from ice mass loss in southeast Greenland and the mass redistribution within the Earth mantle due to glacial isostatic adjustment since...... the Little Ice Age (∼ 1890 AD). To minimize the signal that leaks towards Iceland from Greenland, we employ an independent mass change estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from satellite laser altimetry. We also estimate the effect of post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment, from knowledge...

  16. CFD Analysis of Cold Stage Centrifugal Pump for Cooling of Hot IsostaticPress with Validation Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hereford, Shane

    2017-01-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) has been a growing material treatment process for performance part manufacturingfor over 50 years. This process of using an inert gas at high temperature and pressure to densifymaterials leads to vastly improved material properties by removing pores and other micro- aws. Interest forHIP treatment has greatly increased in recent years due to the development of metal 3D printing technology.HIP treatment is very well suited for treating 3D printed and cast parts d...

  17. Evaluation of Hot Isostatic Pressing Parameters on the Optical and Ballistic Properties of Spinel for Transparent Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    pressing process that is driving the continued interest. Previous work also has identified that hot-pressing followed by hot isostatic pressing...HIPing) is the most promising method for processing transparent spinel4,5. Previous work compared hot-pressing and sintering; the HIP conditions...LITHCO, Bessemer , NC) by shaking with a TURBULA mixer (Glen Mills, Inc., Clifton, NJ) for 60 minutes in a high density polyethylene container. The

  18. Isostatic lines’ study to optimize steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their solicitations

    OpenAIRE

    Señís López, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Based on the first study completed with wind tunnel tests, the aim of this paper is to define a second methodology for the optimization of steel space grid envelope structures for tall buildings according to their isostatic lines according to their solicitations. It is by means of the comparison NatHaz online database and numerical simulation research of wind flow repercussion in buildings, through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF), that we can understand and analyse the grid ...

  19. State-of-the-art in studies of glacial isostatic adjustment for the British Isles: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Stockamp, Julia; Bishop, Paul; Li, Zhenhong; Petrie, Elizabeth J.; Hansom, Jim; Rennie, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the effects of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the British Isles is essential for the assessment of past and future sea-level trends. GIA has been extensively examined in the literature, employing different research methods and observational data types. Geological evidence from palaeo-shorelines and undisturbed sedimentary deposits has been used to reconstruct long-term relative sea-level change since the Last Glacial Maximum. This information derived from sea-level index ...

  20. Magnetic and magneto elastic properties of cobalt ferrite ceramic compacted through cold isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indla, Srinivas; Das, Dibakar, E-mail: ddse@uohyd.ernet.in [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Chelvane, Arout [Advanced Magnetic Group, Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbagh, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Nano crystalline CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder was prepared by combustion synthesis method. As synthesized powder was calcined at an appropriate condition to remove the impurities and to promote phase formation. Phase pure CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} powder was pressed into cylindrical rod at an applied pressure of 200 MPa using a cold isostatic pressing. Sintering of the green compact at 1350°c for 12 hrs resulted in sintered cylindrical rod with ~85% of the theoretical density. Single phase cubic spinel structure was observed in the powder x-ray diffraction pattern of the sintered pellet. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of the as sintered pellet revealed the microstructure to be composed of ferrite grains of average size ~4 µm. Saturation magnetization of 72 emu/g and coercivity of 355 Oe were observed for cobalt ferrite sample. The magnetostriction was measured on a circular disc (12 mm diameter and 12 mm length) with the strain gauge (350 Ω) mounted on the flat surface of the circular disc. Magnetostriciton of 180 ppm and strain derivative of 1 × 10{sup −9} m/A were observed for the sintered CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sample.

  1. Hot isostatic pressing of silicon nitride with boron nitride, boron carbide, and carbon additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieskowski, Diane M.; Sanders, William A.

    1989-01-01

    Si3N4 test bars containing additions of BN, B4C, and C, were hot isostatically pressed in Ta cladding at 1900 and 2050 C to 98.9 percent to 99.5 percent theoretical density. Room-temperature strength data on specimens containing 2 wt pct BN and 0.5 wt pct C were comparable to data obtained for Si3N4 sintered with Y2O3, Y2O3 and Al2O3, or ZrO2. The 1370 C strengths were less than those obtained for additions of Y2O3 or ZrO2 but greater than those obtained from a combination of Y2O3 and Al2O3. SEM fractography indicated that, as with other types of Si3N4, room-temperature strength was controlled by processing flaws. The decrease in strength at 1370 C was typical of Si3N4 having an amorphous grain-boundary phase. The primary advantage of nonoxide additions appears to be in facilitating specimen removal from the Ta cladding.

  2. Geologic and isostatic map of the Nenana Basin area, central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, G.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Stanley, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction The Nenana Basin area is a prospective petroleum province in central Alaska, and this geologic and isostatic gravity map is part of a petroleum resource assessment of the area. The geology was compiled from published sources (Chapman and others, 1971, 1975a, 1975b, 1982; Chapman and Yeend, 1981; Csejtey and others, 1986; Jones and others, 1983; Pewe and others, 1966; Reed, 1961; and Weber and others, 1992), as shown on the index map (map sheet). Map units are organized and presented according to the scheme of lithotectonic terranes proposed by Jones and others (1987) and Silberling and Jones (1984); we recognize, however, that this terrane scheme is controversial and likely to be revised in the future. In some cases, we combined certain terranes because we were unable to match the terrane boundaries given by Jones and others (1987) and Silberling and Jones (1984) with specific faults shown on existing geologic maps. Postaccretion cover deposits represent overlap assemblages that depositionally overlie accreted terranes. Plutonic igneous rocks shown on this map include several plutons that are clearly postaccretionary, based on isotopic ages and (or) field relations. It is possible that some of the plutons predate accretion, but this has not been demonstrated. According to Jones and others (1982), the terranes in the area of our map were assembled during late Mesozoic or earliest Cenozoic time. The gravity contours are derived from data used in earlier compilations (Barnes, 1961, 1977; Hackett, 1981; Valin and others, 1991; Frost and Stanley, 1991) that are supplemented by some National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data along the Alaska Pipeline level line (W.E. Strange, written commun., 1980). The earlier compilations were used for simple Bouguer maps, prepared primarily by non-digital methods, and are superseded by this map. The present map is the result of digital processing that includes the 1967 Geodetic Reference System, the IGSN-71

  3. Nd:YAG transparent ceramics fabricated by direct cold isostatic pressing and vacuum sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin; Li, Jiang; Zhou, Zhiwei; Liu, Binglong; Xie, Tengfei; Liu, Jing; Kou, Huamin; Shi, Yun; Pan, Yubai; Guo, Jingkun

    2015-12-01

    The sintering behavior of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) ceramics was investigated on the basis of densification trajectory, microstructure evolution and transmittance. Nd:YAG ceramics with in-line transmittance of 83.9% at 1064 nm and 82.5% at 400 nm were obtained by direct cold isostatic pressing (CIP) at 250 MPa and solid-state reactive sintering at 1790 °C for 30 h under vacuum. Compared with the porosity and the average pore diameter of the sample from uniaxial dry-pressing followed by CIP, those from direct CIP are much smaller. The samples pressed at 250 MPa were sintered from 1500 °C to 1750 °C for 0.5-20 h to study their sintering behavior. At the temperature higher than 1500 °C, pure YAG phase is formed, followed by the densification and grain growth process. The relative density and the grain size increase with the increase of sintering time and temperature, and the sintering behavior is more sensitive to temperature than holding time. The mechanism controlling densification and grain growth at sintering temperature of 1550 °C is grain boundary diffusion.

  4. Tensile Fracture Behavior of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Manufactured by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Brayshaw, W. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    Herein we investigate how the oxygen content in hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) 316L stainless steel affects the mechanical properties and tensile fracture behavior. This work follows on from previous studies, which aimed to understand the effect of oxygen content on the Charpy impact toughness of HIP'd steel. We expand on the work by performing room-temperature tensile testing on different heats of 316L stainless steel, which contain different levels of interstitial elements (carbon and nitrogen) as well as oxygen in the bulk material. Throughout the work we repeat the experiments on conventionally forged 316L steel as a reference material. The analysis of the work indicates that oxygen does not contribute to a measureable solution strengthening mechanism, as is the case with carbon and nitrogen in austenitic stainless steels (Werner in Mater Sci Eng A 101:93-98, 1988). Neither does oxygen, in the form of oxide inclusions, contribute to precipitation hardening due to the size and spacing of particles. However, the oxide particles do influence fracture behavior; fractography of the failed tension test specimens indicates that the average ductile dimple size is related to the oxygen content in the bulk material, the results of which support an on-going hypothesis relating oxygen content in HIP'd steels to their fracture mechanisms by providing additional sites for the initiation of ductile damage in the form of voids.

  5. Pressure slip casting and cold isostatic pressing of aluminum titanate green ceramics: A comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Papitha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum titanate (Al2TiO5 green bodies were prepared from mixture of titania and alumina powders with different particle sizes by conventional slip casting (CSC, pressure slip casting (PSC and cold isostatic pressing (CIP. Precursor-powder mixtures were evaluated with respect to the powder properties, flow behaviours and shaping parameters. Green densities were measured and correlated with the fractographs. A substantial increase in green densities up to 60 %TD (theoretical density of 4.02 g/cm3, calculated based on rule of mixtures is observed with the application of 2–3 MPa pressure with PSC. While particle size distribution and solid loading are the most influential parameters in the case of CSC, with PSC pressure also plays a key role in achieving the higher green densities. Being a dry process, high pressure of > 100 MPa for CIP is essential to achieve densities in the range of 60–65 %TD. Slip pressurization under PSC conditions facilitate the rearrangement of particles through rolling, twisting and interlocking unlike CIP processing where pressure is needed to overcome the inter-particle friction.

  6. Helium embrittlement of CTR materials simulated by ions implantation and hot isostatic pressing of metal powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Spitznagel, J.A.; Choyke, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    Helium embrittlement is currently considered a limitation on the lifetimes of CTR structures exposed to high energy neutrons. The phenomenon has been observed in fast fission reactor irradiated materials and has been studied in helium ion bombarded foil samples. In this study, helium ions were implanted in stainless steel and refractory metal alloy powder particles. The 150 keV ion energies used require particle size distributions with mean particle diameters of about 3 μm to get a suitably homogeneous initial distribution of helium atoms. The helium implanted powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing; the helium remained in solid solution. Subsequent thermomechanical processing permitted the preparation of tensile specimens with controlled helium bubble distributions. In general, grain boundary migration concentrated helium bubbles on the boundaries, while conditions favoring stationary boundaries allowed intragranular bubble nucleation on dislocations. It remains to be seen whether the distributions available through these processes are representative of those that will be generated in situ by (n,α) reactions in CTR neutron spectra. Specimens for bulk properties measurements prepared in this way are most suitable for study of helium embrittlement as an isolated effect. Many of the constraints encountered in other sample preparation methods are mitigated

  7. Densification of boron carbide at relatively low temperatures by hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The poor sinterability of B 4 C limits its widespread application because both high temperatures and high pressures are required for a complete densification. Moreover, B 4 C suffers from a low strength and fracture toughness, possesses, however, a high potential because of its extreme hardness. Reaction hot pressing of B 4 C-WC-TiC-Si-Co mixtures resulting in B 4 C-TiB 2 -W 2 B 5 composites of high density exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. The influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the microstructure and the mechanical properties is investigated in cooperation with participants of the COST 503 activities and related to the strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Difficulties during densification by HIP arise from the evaporation of adsorbed volatiles as well as from the strong swelling of the powder compact due to the sintering reaction. Several HIP cycle designs were tested in order to prevent the bloating of the capsule and to control internal stresses due to the misfit of the thermal expansion of the entire phases. In comparison to single phase B 4 C ceramics, bending strength was improved to 1030 MPa, K Ic to 5.2 MPa/m, while hardness was comparable with HV1=38 GPa. Wear test were performed and related to the toughening mechanisms. (orig.) With 56 refs., 9 tabs., 64 figs

  8. High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J. [and others

    1996-01-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

  9. Identification of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Eastern Canada Using S Transform Filtering of GPS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nithin V.; Tiampo, Kristy F.; Sahu, Sitanshu S.; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Mansinha, Lalu; Panda, Ganapati

    2012-08-01

    Over the years, a number of different models and techniques have been proposed to both quantify and explain the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process. There are serious challenges, however, to obtaining accurate results from measurements, due to noise in the data and the long periods of time necessary to identify the relatively small-magnitude signal in certain regions. The primary difficulty, in general, is that most of the geophysical signals that occur in addition to GIA are nonstationary in nature. These signals are also corrupted by random as well as correlated noise added during data acquisition. The nonstationary characteristic of the data makes it difficult for traditional frequency-domain denoising approaches to be effective. Time-frequency filters present a more robust and reliable alternative to deal with this problem. This paper proposes an extended S transform filtering approach to separate the various signals and isolate that associated with GIA. Continuous global positioning system (GPS) data from eastern Canada for the period from June 2001 to June 2006 are analyzed here, and the vertical velocities computed after filtering are consistent with the GIA models put forward by other researchers.

  10. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) Model Developments for P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.W. Sears; J. Xu

    2001-08-30

    Powder Metallurgy (P/M) Alloy 690N{sub 2}, the P/M derivative of Inconel 690 (IN 690), has been shown to have a higher elevated temperature yield strength and superior stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance than IN 690. The property improvements seen in P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} are due to interstitial nitrogen strengthening and precipitation hardening resulting from the formation of fine titanium/chromium--carbo-nitrides. The application of P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} has had limited use, because of the high costs involved in producing wrought products from powder. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) modeling to produce near net shapes should provide a more economical route for exploiting the benefits of Alloy 690N{sub 2}. The efforts involved in developing and verifying the P/M Alloy 690N{sub 2} HIP model are disclosed. Key to the deployment of HIP modeling is the development of the method to fabricate HIP powder containers via laser powder deposition.

  11. Age hardening in rapidly solidified and hot isostatically pressed beryllium-aluminum-silver alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.H.; McGeorge, A.C.; Jacobson, L.A.; Stanek, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Three different alloys of beryllium, aluminum and silver were processed to powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium atmosphere. Alloy compositions were, by weight, 50% Be, 47.5% Al, 2.5% Ag, 50% Be, 47% Al, 3% Ag, and 50% Be, 46% Al, 4% Ag. Due to the low solubility of both aluminum and silver in beryllium, the silver was concentrated in the aluminum phase, which appeared to separate from the beryllium in the liquid phase. A fine, continuous composite beryllium-aluminum microstructure was formed, which did not significantly change after hot isostatically pressing at 550 C for one hour at 30,000 psi argon pressure. Samples of HIP material were solution treated at 550 C for one hour, followed by a water quench. Aging temperatures were 150, 175, 200 and 225 C for times ranging from one half hour to 65 hours. Hardness measurements were made using a diamond pyramid indenter with a load of 1 kg. Results indicate that peak hardness was reached in 36--40 hours at 175 C and 12--16 hours at 200 C aging temperature, relatively independent of alloy composition

  12. Fundamental Aspects of Zeolite Waste Form Production by Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The direct conversion of iodine-bearing sorbents into a stable waste form is a research topic of interest to the US Department of Energy. The removal of volatile radioactive 129I from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility will be necessary in order to comply with the regulatory requirements that apply to facilities sited within the United States (Jubin et al., 2012a), and any iodine-containing media or solid sorbents generated by this process would contain 129I and would be destined for eventual geological disposal. While recovery of iodine from some sorbents is possible, a method to directly convert iodineloaded sorbents to a durable waste form with little or no additional waste materials being formed and a potentially reduced volume would be beneficial. To this end, recent studies have investigated the conversion of iodine-loaded silver mordenite (I-AgZ) directly to a waste form by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) (Bruffey and Jubin, 2015). Silver mordenite (AgZ), of the zeolite class of minerals, is under consideration for use in adsorbing iodine from nuclear reprocessing off-gas streams. Direct conversion of I-AgZ by HIPing may provide the following benefits: (1) a waste form of high density that is tolerant to high temperatures, (2) a waste form that is not significantly chemically hazardous, and (3) a robust conversion process that requires no pretreatment.

  13. A study on improving mechanical properties of porous HA tissue engineering scaffolds by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xiao Suguang; Lu Xiong; Wang Jianxin; Weng Jie

    2006-01-01

    Various interconnected porous hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramic scaffolds are universally used to induct the tissue growth for bone repair and replacement, and serve to support the adhesion, transfer, proliferation and differentiation of cells. Impregnation of polyurethane sponges with a ceramic slurry is adopted to produce highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds with a 3D interconnected structure. However, high porosity always accompanies a decrease in the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds. Therefore, it is significant to improve the strength of the HA ceramic scaffolds with highly interconnected porosity so that they are more suitable in clinical applications. In this work, highly porous HA ceramic scaffolds are first produced by the polymer impregnation approach, and subsequently further sintered by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The phase composition, macro- and micro-porous structure, sintering and mechanical properties of the porous HA scaffolds are investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nanoindentation analysis and compressive test. The experimental results show that the nanohardness and compressive strength of HIP-sintered porous HA ceramics are higher than those of commonly sintered HA scaffolds. The HIP technique can effectively improve the sintering property and densification of porous HA ceramic scaffolds, so inducing an increase in the compression strength

  14. Influence of cold isostatic pressing on the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trong Trung; Valdez-Nava, Zarel; Lebey, Thierry; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    In power electronics, there is the need to develop solutions to increase the power density of converters. Interleaved multicellular transformers allow interleaving many switching cells and, as a result, a possible increase in the power density. This converter is often composed of a magnetic core having the function of an intercell transformer (ICT) and, depending on the complexity of the designed architecture, its shape could be extremely complex. The switching frequencies (1-10 MHz) for the new wide band gap semiconductors (SiC, GaN) allow to interleave switching cell at higher frequencies than silicon-based semiconductors (materials, but their limit in frequency drive raises the need of higher frequency magnetic materials, such Ni-Zn ferrites. These materials can operate in medium and high power converters up to 10 MHz. We propose to use Ni0,30Zn0,57Cu0,15Fe2O4 ferrite and to compress it by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) into a a green ceramic block and to machine it to obtain the desired ICT of complex shape prior sintering. We compare the magnetic permeability spectra and hysteresis loops the CIP and uniaxially pressed ferrites. The effect of temperature and sintering time as well as high-pressure on properties will be presented in detail. The magnetic properties of the sintered cores are strongly dependent on the microstructure obtained.

  15. Effect of reduced cobalt contents on hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy U-700 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of reducing the cobalt content of prealloyed powders of UDIMET 700 (U-700) alloys to 12.7, 8.6, 4.3, and 0% was examined. The powders were hot isostatically pressed into billets, which were given heat treatments appropriate for turbine disks, namely partial solutioning at temperatures below the gamma prime solvus and four step aging treatments. Chemical analyses, metallographic examinations, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the materials. Minor effects on gamma prime content and on room temperature and 650 C tensile properties were observed. Creep rupture lives at 650 C reached a maximum at the 8.4% concentration, while at 760 C a maximum in life was reached at the 4.3% cobalt level. Minimum creep rates increased with decreasing cobalt content at both test temperatures. Extended exposures at 760 and 815 C resulted in decreased tensile strengths and rupture lives for all alloys. Evidence of sigma phase formation was also found.

  16. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  17. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  18. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  19. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung Kyu; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Young Ho; Kim, Ei Jeong; Chun, Yi Kyeong

    2002-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies are various and may be an isolated finding or may be found in conjunction with numerous associations, including genetic syndromes, Karyotype abnormals, central nervous system anomalies and other general musculoskeletal disorders. Early prenatal diagnosis of these focal musculoskeletal anomalies nor only affects prenatal care and postnatal outcome but also helps in approaching other numerous associated anomalies.

  20. Anomalie de developpement sexuel : Un cas de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mots clés : Pseudohermaphrodisme masculin, anomalie de développement sexuel XY, caryotype, sexe social. Anomaly of sexual development: a case of masculine pseudohermaphrodism or anomaly of development sexual XY. The anomalies of the sexual development must be detected to the birth where they constitute ...

  1. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  2. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  3. Signal anomaly detection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, V.M.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Gloeckler, O.

    1988-08-01

    As part of a comprehensive signal validation system, we have developed a signal anomaly detector, without specifically establishing the cause of the anomaly. A signal recorded from process instrumentation is said to have an anomaly, if during steady-state operation, the deviation in the level of the signal, its root-mean-square (RMS) value, or its statistical distribution changes by a preset value. This deviation could be an unacceptable increase or a decrease in the quantity being monitored. An anomaly in a signal may be characterized by wideband or single-frequency noise, bias error, pulse-type error, nonsymmetric behavior, or a change in the signal bandwidth. Various signatures can be easily computed from data samples and compared against specified threshold values. We want to point out that in real processes, pulses can appear with different time widths, and at different rates of change of the signal. Thus, in characterizing an anomaly as a pulse-type, the fastest pulse width is constrained by the signal sampling interval. For example, if a signal is sampled at 100 Hz, we will not be able to detect pulses occurring at kHz rates. Discussion with utility and Combustion Engineering personnel indicated that it is not practical to detect pulses having a narrow time width. 9 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Radiologic analysis of congenital limb anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hong Jun; Kim, Ok Hwa; Shinn, Kyung Sub; Kim, Nam Ae

    1994-01-01

    Congenital limb anomalies are manifested in various degree of severity and complexity bearing conclusion for description and nomenclature of each anomaly. We retrospectively analyzed the roentgenograms of congenital limb anomalies for the purpose of further understanding of the radiologic manifestations based on the embryonal defect and also to find the incidence of each anomaly. Total number of the patients was 89 with 137 anomalies. Recently the uniform system of classification for congenital anomalies of the upper limb was adopted by International Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand (IFSSH), which were categorized as 7 classifications. We used the IFSSH classification with some modification as 5 classifications; failure of formation of parts, failure of differentiation of parts, duplications, overgrowth and undergrowth. The patients with upper limb anomalies were 65 out of 89(73%), lower limb were 21(24%), and both upper and lower limb anomalies were 3(4%). Failure of formation was seen in 18%, failure of differentiation 39%, duplications 39%, overgrowth 8%, and undergrowth in 12%. Thirty-five patients had more than one anomaly, and 14 patients had intergroup anomalies. The upper limb anomalies were more common than lower limb. Among the anomalies, failure of differentiation and duplications were the most common types of congenital limb anomalies. Patients with failure of formation, failure of differentiation, and undergrowth had intergroup association of anomalies, but duplication and overgrowth tended to be isolated anomalies

  5. WFC3 IR subarray anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushouse, Howard

    2009-07-01

    Certain combinations of WFC3 IR subarray size and sample sequence yield images that show a sharp change in background level that exactly bi-sects each detector amplifier quadrant. The change in level has an amplitude of a few DN per pixel. The cause of this anomaly and its apparent correlation with subarray size and sample sequence is not understood. Given the 4 available subarray sizes and 11 available readout sample sequences, there are a total of 44 possible subarray mode readout combinations. To date, 14 of those combinations have been used on-orbit in either calibration and GO programs. Of those, 3 combinations show the anomaly. This program will obtain IR dark exposures in the remaining 30 readout combinations that have not yet been explored. This will add to our knowledge of which combinations show the anomaly and will therefore help us to understand its origin.

  6. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vander Wiel, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sandine, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagberg, Aric A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fisk, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  7. Multiple Visceral and Peritoneal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Prabhu S

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral and peritoneal anomalies are frequently encountered during cadaveric dissections and surgical procedures of abdomen. A thorough knowledge of the same is required for the success of diagnostic, surgical and radiological procedures of abdomen. We report multiple peritoneal and visceral anomalies noted during dissection classes for medical undergraduates. The anomalies were found in an adult male cadaver aged approximately 70 years. The right iliac fossa was empty due to the sub-hepatic position of caecum and appendix. The sigmoid colon formed an inverted “U” shaped loop above the sacral promontory in the median position. It entered the pelvis from the right side and descended along the lateral wall of the pelvis. The sigmoid mesocolon was attached obliquely to the posterior abdominal wall, just above the sacral promontory. Further there was a cysto-colic fold of peritoneum extending from the right colic flexure. We discuss the clinical significance of the variations.

  8. Expanded Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressed Iodine-Loaded Silver-Exchanged Mordenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, R. T. [ORNL; Bruffey, S. H. [ORNL; Patton, K. K. [ORNL

    2014-09-30

    Reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z) is being evaluated as a potential material to control the release of radioactive iodine that is released during the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel into the plant off-gas streams. The purpose of this study was to determine if hot pressing could directly convert this iodine loaded sorbent into a waste form suitable for long-term disposition. The minimal pretreatment required for production of pressed pellets makes hot pressing a technically and economically desirable process. Initial scoping studies utilized hot uniaxial pressing (HUPing) to prepare samples of non-iodine-loaded reduced silver exchanged mordenite (Ag0Z). The resulting samples were very fragile due to the low pressure (~ 28 MPa) used. It was recommended that hot isostatic pressing (HIPing), performed at higher temperatures and pressures, be investigated. HIPing was carried out in two phases, with a third and final phase currently underway. Phase I evaluated the effects of pressure and temperature conditions on the manufacture of a pressed sample. The base material was an engineered form of silver zeolite. Six samples of Ag0Z and two samples of I-Ag0Z were pressed. It was found that HIPing produced a pressed pellet of high density. Analysis of each pressed pellet by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrophotometry (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that under the conditions used for pressing, the majority of the material transforms into an amorphous structure. The only crystalline phase observed in the pressed Ag0Z material was SiO2. For the samples loaded with iodine (I-Ag0Z) iodine was present as AgI clusters at low temperatures, and transformed into AgIO4 at high temperatures. Surface mapping and EDS demonstrate segregation between silver iodide phases and silicon dioxide phases. Based on the results of the Phase I study, an expanded test matrix was developed to examine the effects of multiple source materials, compositional

  9. Effects of mantle rheologies on viscous heating induced by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, PingPing; Wu, Patrick; van der Wal, Wouter

    2018-04-01

    It has been argued that viscous dissipation from mantle flow in response to surface loading during glacial cycles can result in short-term heating and thus trigger transient volcanism or changes in mantle properties, which may in turn affect mantle dynamics. Furthermore, heating near the Earth's surface can also affect the stability of ice sheets. We have studied the magnitude and spatial-temporal distribution of viscous heating induced in the mantle by the realistic ice model ICE-6G and gravitationally consistent ocean loads. Three types of mantle rheologies, including linear, non-linear and composite rheologies are considered to see if non-linear creep can induce larger viscous heating than linear rheology. We used the Coupled-Laplace-Finite-Element model of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) to compute the strain, stress and shear heating during a glacial cycle. We also investigated the upper bound of temperature change and surface heat flux change due to viscous heating. We found that maximum viscous heating occurs near the end of deglaciation near the edge of the ice sheet with amplitude as high as 120 times larger than that of the chondritic radioactive heating. The maximum heat flux due to viscous heating can reach 30 mW m-2, but the area with large heat flux is small and the timescale of heating is short. As a result, the upper bound of temperature change due to viscous heating is small. Even if 30 glacial cycles are included, the largest temperature change can be of the order of 0.3 °C. Thus, viscous heating induced by GIA cannot induce volcanism and cannot significantly affect mantle material properties, mantle dynamics nor ice-sheet stability.

  10. Hot Isostatic Pressing of Engineered Forms of I-AgZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, Thomas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Parks, Mackenzie L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is being considered for direct conversion of 129I-bearing materials to a radiological waste form. The removal of volatile radioactive 129I from the off-gas of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility will be necessary to comply with regulatory requirements regarding reprocessing facilities sited within the United States, and any iodine-containing media or solid sorbents generated by offgas abatement will require disposal. Zeolite minerals such as silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) have been studied as potential iodine sorbents and will contain 129I as chemisorbed AgI. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted several recent studies on the HIP of both iodine-loaded AgZ (I-AgZ) and other iodine-bearing zeolite minerals. The goal of these research efforts is to achieve a stable, highly leach resistant material that is reduced in volume as compared to bulk iodine-loaded I-AgZ. Through the use of HIP, it may be possible to achieve this with the addition of little or no additional materials (waste formers). Other goals for the process include that the waste form will be tolerant to high temperatures and pressures, not chemically hazardous, and that the process will result in minimal secondary waste generation. This document describes the preparation of 27 samples that are distinct from previous efforts in that they are prepared exclusively with an engineered form of AgZ that is manufactured using a binder. Iodine was incorporated solely by chemisorption. This base material is expected to be more representative of an operational system than were samples prepared previously with pure minerals.

  11. Preliminary Study on Hot Isostatic Pressing Diffusion Bonding for CLAM Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunjing Li; Qunying Huang; Yican Wu

    2006-01-01

    China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel is being developed in ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) since three years ago. CLAM is selected as the major candidate structure materials for the FDS series design of fusion reactors and for China liquid metal LiPb Test Blanket Module (TBM) for ITER i.e. DFLL-TBM, which are being carried out in ASIPP. Since the hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonding technique is one of the main candidate bonding techniques for manufacturing of the first wall of a fusion reactor, research of the HIP technique on CLAM/CLAM is greatly needed. Preliminary HIP diffusion bonding experiments on CLAM steel have been performed. A few machining approaches such as dry-milling, turnery and grounding etc. were used to prepare the sample surfaces and then they were degreased with a mixture of alcohol, ether and acetone in an ultrasonic bath. The samples were joined by HIP diffusion bonding with the compression pressure of 150 MPa and the holding time of 2 ∼ 3 hours under different temperatures between 950 deg. and 1100 deg.. Different seal techniques of the capsules were studied as well. Then appropriate post heat treatment was done. Tests on mechanical properties of the joints such as tensile strength and impact toughness have been performed. The preliminary results show that the tensile properties are roughly the same as those of the base material. The absorbed energy of the joints at present is a little low and further research is needed to increase it. Microstructure of the joints was studied by optical microscope, SEM and TEM. Compositions of the defects on the joining line were analyzed by EDS. Through analysis of the results, optimized parameters for HIP are given. (author)

  12. Glacial isostatic adjustment as a key for understanding the neotectonics of northern Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J. [Leibniz Univ. Hannover (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Steffen, H. [Lantmaeteriet (IGR), Gaevle (Sweden); Plenefisch, T.; Boennemann, C. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Northern Germany is regarded as a typical low strain intraplate area, but historic sources report significant earthquakes during the last 500 years (Leydecker, 2009). The trigger mechanism for the seismic events is not well understood so far. In a pilot project we analysed the Mesozoic Osning Thrust, which is located at the southern margin of the Lower Saxony Basin. The Osning Thrust underwent a polyphase tectonic evolution in the Mesozoic, which ranged from extensional movements in the Jurassic to reverse faulting and thrusting during inversion in the Late Cretaceous. New outcrop data give evidence for Lateglacial tectonic activity along the Osning Thrust (Brandes et al., 2012). In the vicinity of the fault trace, several complex metre-scale faults and related fold structures are developed in Pleniglacial to Lateglacial alluvial-aeolian sediments of the Upper Senne. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of the fault-related growth strata (Roskosch et al., 2012) imply that the faults were active between 16-13 ka. Independent numerical simulations of the deglaciation seismicity related to the glacial isostatic adjustment also point to the probability of seismic events with a thrust mechanism in the study area between 15.5-12.3 ka. The association of soft-sediment deformation structures implies that the Pleniglacial to Late Glacial earthquake had a Richter magnitude of at least 5. In the autumn of 1612, an earthquake took place in this area that caused distinct damage (Leydecker, 2009). It is the first time in northern Germany, that repeated seismicity over a time span of c. 16 000 years can be directly related to a fault. The occurrence of seismicity in the Late Pleniglacial to Late Glacial together with the 17{sup th} century seismicity indicates ongoing crustal movements along the Osning Thrust and sheds new light on the seismic activity of northern Germany. (orig.)

  13. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment as a Source of Noise for the Interpretation of GRACE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahr, J.; Velicogna, I.; Paulson, A.

    2009-05-01

    Viscoelastic relaxation in the Earth's mantle caused by wide-spread deglaciation following the last glacial maximum (LGM), can appear as a secular trend in measurements of the Earth's time-variable gravity field. The presence of this trend can provide an opportunity to use gravity observations to constrain models of the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process. But it can also be a nuisance for people who are using the gravity observations to learn about other things. Gravity observations, whether from satellites or from ground-based gravimeters, can not distinguish between the gravitational effects of water/snow/ice variations on or near the surface, and those caused by density variations deep within the mantle. Unmodeled or mismodeled GIA signals can sometimes make it difficult to use gravity observations to learn about secular changes in water/snow/ice from such places as northern Canada, Scandinavia, Antarctica, and Greenland: places where there was considerable long-term deglaciation following the LGM. These issues have become particularly important since the 2002 launch of the GRACE gravity satellite mission. GIA signals in northern Canada and Scandinavia are clearly evident in the GRACE data. But the presence of GIA signals in these and other regions has sometimes caused problems for long-term hydrological and, especially, cryospheric studies with GRACE. GIA model errors, for example, are by far the largest source of uncertainty when using GRACE to estimate present-day thinning rates of the Antarctic ice sheet. This talk will discuss the contributions of the GIA signal to GRACE time-variable gravity measurements; partly as an opportunity to study the GIA process, but mostly as a source of uncertainty for other applications.

  14. Ice loading model for Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the Barents Sea constrained by GRACE gravity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Bart; Tarasov, Lev; van der Wal, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    The global ice budget is still under discussion because the observed 120-130 m eustatic sea level equivalent since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) can not be explained by the current knowledge of land-ice melt after the LGM. One possible location for the missing ice is the Barents Sea Region, which was completely covered with ice during the LGM. This is deduced from relative sea level observations on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and the North coast of Scandinavia. However, there are no observations in the middle of the Barents Sea that capture the post-glacial uplift. With increased precision and longer time series of monthly gravity observations of the GRACE satellite mission it is possible to constrain Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the center of the Barents Sea. This study investigates the extra constraint provided by GRACE data for modeling the past ice geometry in the Barents Sea. We use CSR release 5 data from February 2003 to July 2013. The GRACE data is corrected for the past 10 years of secular decline of glacier ice on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Frans Joseph Land. With numerical GIA models for a radially symmetric Earth, we model the expected gravity changes and compare these with the GRACE observations after smoothing with a 250 km Gaussian filter. The comparisons show that for the viscosity profile VM5a, ICE-5G has too strong a gravity signal compared to GRACE. The regional calibrated ice sheet model (GLAC) of Tarasov appears to fit the amplitude of the GRACE signal. However, the GRACE data are very sensitive to the ice-melt correction, especially for Novaya Zemlya. Furthermore, the ice mass should be more concentrated to the middle of the Barents Sea. Alternative viscosity models confirm these conclusions.

  15. Using coastal lagoons to better constrain the isostatic signal in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, M.; Rovere, A.; Melis, R. T.; Ghilardi, M.; Marriner, N.; Giaime, M.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal lagoons represent a very common feature of the microtidal Mediterranean coastlines. They are inland waterbodies, usually developing parallel to the coast, typically separated from the open sea by a sandy barrier. One or more restricted inlets ensure their continuous or intermittent connection to the open sea. The water depth is generally less than 1 m and seldom exceeds a few meters. They represent a very useful proxy for the reconstruction of Mediterranean Relative Sea Level (RSL). However, caution should be used in the definition of a correct indicative meaning that can be obtained only with a multiproxy analysis of both sedimentary features and faunal assemblages of the cores extracted in marshy to lagoonal environment. We report here the results of a wide coring campaign we carried out in in the last 2 years in a number of Mediterranean lagoons located close to important archaeological settlements in Corsica (France) Sardinia (Italy) and Mallorca Island (Spain). The multiproxy analysis of the cores allowed defining the depositional environments and their relationship (or non relationship) with the former mean sea level. These data were chronologically supported by a significant dataset of more than 100 new 14C dating performed on organic sediments, wood, plant remains and marine/lagoonal shells. We then produced alarge amount of new data to constrain the RSL evolution in the center of Western Mediterranean where the available geophysical models predict the largest glacio-hydro isostatic (GIA) influence at basin scale. However, such models where tested only on a limited dataset mainly composed of archaeological RSL indicators (i.e. last 2 ka BP). Our new record, expanding the last 10 ka BP, significantly improves the ability to define the general anatomy of Mediterranean Holocene RSL changes and to constrain the maximal GIA magnitude in the basin.

  16. Review on possible gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Xavier E

    2005-01-01

    This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)

  17. Sequential auctions and price anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In sequential auctions objects are sold one by one in separate auctions. These sequential auctions might be organized as sequential first-price, second-price, or English auctions. We will derive equilibrium bidding strategies for these auctions. Theoretical models suggest that prices in sequential auctions with private values or with randomly assigned heterogeneous objects should have no trend. However, empirical research contradicts this result and prices exhibit a declining or increasing trend, which is called declining and increasing price anomaly. We will present a review of these empirical results, as well as different theoretical explanations for these anomalies.

  18. arXiv Anomaly-Free Models for Flavour Anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Tunney, Patrick

    We explore the constraints imposed by the cancellation of triangle anomalies on models in which the flavour anomalies reported by LHCb and other experiments are due to an extra U(1)' gauge boson Z'. We assume universal and rational U(1)' charges for the first two generations of left-handed quarks and of right-handed up-type quarks but allow different charges for their third-generation counterparts. If the right-handed charges vanish, cancellation of the triangle anomalies requires all the quark U(1)' charges to vanish, if there are either no exotic fermions or there is only one Standard Model singlet dark matter (DM) fermion. There are non-trivial anomaly-free models with more than one such `dark' fermion, or with a single DM fermion if right-handed up-type quarks have non-zero U(1)' charges. In some of the latter models the U(1)' couplings of the first- and second-generation quarks all vanish, weakening the LHC Z' constraint, and in some other models the DM particle has purely axial couplings, weakening the ...

  19. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENTS - RESIDUAL RISK ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This source category previously subjected to a technology-based standard will be examined to determine if health or ecological risks are significant enough to warrant further regulation for Coke Ovens. These assesments utilize existing models and data bases to examine the multi-media and multi-pollutant impacts of air toxics emissions on human health and the environment. Details on the assessment process and methodologies can be found in EPA's Residual Risk Report to Congress issued in March of 1999 (see web site). To assess the health risks imposed by air toxics emissions from Coke Ovens to determine if control technology standards previously established are adequately protecting public health.

  20. The prevalence of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) is the network of population-based registers of congenital anomaly in Europe, with a common protocol and data quality review, covering 1.5 million annual births in 22 countries. EUROCAT recorded a total prevalence of major congenital anomalies...... anomalies overwhelmingly concern children surviving the early neonatal period, who have important medical, social or educational needs. The prevalence of chromosomal anomalies was 3.6 per 1,000 births, contributing 28% of stillbirths/fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation with congenital anomaly, and 48...

  1. Anomaly detection in diurnal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mata, F.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present methodological advances in anomaly detection tailored to discover abnormal traffic patterns under the presence of seasonal trends in data. In our setup we impose specific assumptions on the traffic type and nature; our study features VoIP call counts, for which several

  2. Descendants of the Chiral Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Jackiw, R.

    2000-01-01

    Chern-Simons terms are well-known descendants of chiral anomalies, when the latter are presented as total derivatives. Here I explain that also Chern-Simons terms, when defined on a 3-manifold, may be expressed as total derivatives.

  3. Neutrino anomaly and -nucleus interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The neutrino anomaly generally refers to the solar neutrino problem where the observed number of electron type neutrinos from the sun was found to be considerably smaller than the number predicted in standard model of particle interactions [1–2]. Similar depletion of muon type neutrinos is found in the flux of atmospheric ...

  4. Gaugino-assisted anomaly mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.

    2001-01-01

    I present a model of supersymmetry breaking mediated through a small extra dimension. Standard model matter multiplets and a supersymmetry-breaking (or 'hidden') sector are confined to opposite four-dimensional boundaries while gauge multiplets live in the bulk. The hidden sector does not contain a singlet and the dominant contribution to gaugino masses is via anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Scalar masses get contributions from both anomaly mediation and a tiny hard breaking of supersymmetry by operators on the hidden-sector boundary. These operators contribute to scalar masses at one loop and in most of parameter space, their contribution dominates. Thus it is easy to make all squared scalar masses positive. As no additional fields or symmetries are required below the Planck scale, this is among the simplest working models of anomaly mediation. The gaugino spectrum is left untouched and the phenomenology of the model is roughly similar to anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking with a universal scalar mass added. Finally, the main differences in the spectrum between this model and other approaches are identified. This talk is based on work [1] done in collaboration with David E. Kaplan

  5. Algebraic study of chiral anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... Abstract. The algebraic structure of chiral anomalies is made globally valid on non-trivial bundles ... Editor's Note: †Reproduced with kind permission from Springer Science+Business Media: Algebraic study of chiral anoma- ..... We shall see in the sequel several examples in which this ambiguity helps.

  6. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Jarosch, Alexander H.; Aðalgeirsdóttir, Guðfinna; Barletta, Valentina R.; Forsberg, René; Pálsson, Finnur; Björnsson, Helgi; Jóhannesson, Tómas

    2017-04-01

    Monthly gravity field models from the GRACE satellite mission are widely used to determine ice mass changes of large ice sheets as well as smaller glaciers and ice caps. Here, we investigate in detail the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps as derived from GRACE data. The small size of the Icelandic ice caps, their location close to other rapidly changing ice covered areas and the low viscosity of the mantle below Iceland make this especially challenging. The mass balance of the ice caps is well constrained by field mass balance measurements, making this area ideal for such investigations. We find that the ice mass changes of the Icelandic ice caps derived from GRACE gravity field models are influenced by both the large gravity change signal resulting from ice mass loss in southeast Greenland and the mass redistribution within the Earth mantle due to glacial isostatic adjustment since the Little Ice Age (∼1890 AD). To minimize the signal that leaks towards Iceland from Greenland, we employ an independent mass change estimate of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from satellite laser altimetry. We also estimate the effect of post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment, from knowledge of the ice history and GPS network constrained crustal deformation data. We find that both the leakage from Greenland and the post Little Ice Age glacial isostatic adjustment are important to take into account, in order to correctly determine Iceland ice mass changes from GRACE, and when applying these an average mass balance of the Icelandic ice caps of -11.4 ± 2.2 Gt yr-1 for the period 2003-2010 is found. This number corresponds well with available mass balance measurements.

  7. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  8. Characterization of hot isostatically pressed Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O as a function of consolidation variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goretta, K.C.; Miller, D.J.; Poeppel, R.B.; Nash, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that fully dense, bulk Bi 2 Sr 1.7 CaCu 2 O x superconductor pellets were made by hot isostatic pressing in an inert atmosphere. Electron microscopy revealed that rotation and bending of the platelike 2212 grains were responsible for much of the densification. Under processing conditions of 825 degrees C and 105 MPa, dense pellets were obtained in 15 min. Many dislocations, planar faults, and, perhaps, intergrowths of the Bi 2 Cr 2 CuO x phase were produced during pressing. The dislocations were largely present in subgrain boundaries when the pressing times were increased to 45-120 min

  9. Pore annihilation in a single-crystal nickel-base superalloy during hot isostatic pressing: Experiment and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epishin, Alexander; Fedelich, Bernard; Link, Thomas; Feldmann, Titus; Svetlov, Igor L.

    2013-01-01

    Pore annihilation during hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was investigated in the single-crystal nickel-base superalloy CMSX-4 experimentally by interrupted HIP tests at 1288 °C/103 MPa. The kinetics of pore annihilation was determined by density measurement and quantitative metallography. Transmission electron microscopy of a HIPed specimen showed that the pores shrink via dislocation movement on octahedral glide planes. Theoretically pore closure under HIP condition was modelled by the finite element method using crystal plasticity and large strain theories. The modelling gives a similar kinetics of pore annihilation as observed experimentally, however somewhat higher annihilation rate

  10. Development of Be/Glidcop joint obtained by hot isostatic pressing diffusion bonding for high in-service temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Antonin, F.; Bucci, P.; Burlet, H.; Le Marois, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Grenoble, 38 (France); Barberi, D.; Laille, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses some aspects of the beryllium-Glidcop joining by Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion Bonding. The quality of a joint is mainly dependent on the interface microstructure. Thus, as Be/copper direct bonding is not recommended, the choice of interlayers is a critical point. The joining process parameters, i.e. temperature, pressure and time, must take into account the in-service requirements, the mechanical and metallurgical properties of each material. The Be/Glidcop joining process developed at CEA/Grenoble is presented here. (author)

  11. Formation of stacked luminescent complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline molecules on hydroxyapatite coating by using cold isostatic pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuya, Takehiko; Otsuka, Yuichi; Tagaya, Motohiro; Motozuka, Satoshi; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Mutoh, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Cold isostatic pressing successfully formed a chelate complex of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8 Hq) molecules on plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating by solid-state reaction. The complex emits a fluorescence peak at approximately 500 nm by UV irradiation. The red shift of the fluorescence was newly observed in the cases of highly compressed complex due to π - π stacking of aromatic ring in the molecular structure of 8 Hq. The immersed complex coating in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) demonstrated amorphous apatite precipitation and kept its fluorescence property. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, Pippa

    2009-04-01

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the effects 3-D Earth structure upon GIA processes

  13. Use of GRACE determined secular gravity rates for glacial isostatic adjustment studies in North-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Wouter; Wu, Patrick; Sideris, Michael G.; Shum, C. K.

    2008-10-01

    Monthly geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients from the GRACE satellite mission are used to determine their usefulness and limitations for studying glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in North-America. Secular gravity rates are estimated by unweighted least-squares estimation using release 4 coefficients from August 2002 to August 2007 provided by the Center for Space Research (CSR), University of Texas. Smoothing is required to suppress short wavelength noise, in addition to filtering to diminish geographically correlated errors, as shown in previous studies. Optimal cut-off degrees and orders are determined for the destriping filter to maximize the signal to noise ratio. The halfwidth of the Gaussian filter is shown to significantly affect the sensitivity of the GRACE data (with respect to upper mantle viscosity and ice loading history). Therefore, the halfwidth should be selected based on the desired sensitivity. It is shown that increase in water storage in an area south west of Hudson Bay, from the summer of 2003 to the summer of 2006, contributes up to half of the maximum estimated gravity rate. Hydrology models differ in the predictions of the secular change in water storage, therefore even 4-year trend estimates are influenced by the uncertainty in water storage changes. Land ice melting in Greenland and Alaska has a non-negligible contribution, up to one-fourth of the maximum gravity rate. The estimated secular gravity rate shows two distinct peaks that can possibly be due to two domes in the former Pleistocene ice cover: west and south east of Hudson Bay. With a limited number of models, a better fit is obtained with models that use the ICE-3G model compared to the ICE-5G model. However, the uncertainty in interannual variations in hydrology models is too large to constrain the ice loading history with the current data span. For future work in which GRACE will be used to constrain ice loading history and the Earth's radial viscosity profile, it is

  14. Progress on Antarctic Glacial Isostatic Adjustment and GRACE constraints on ice loss (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, E. R.; James, T. S.; Wahr, J. M.; Schrama, E. J.; Simon, K. M.; Landerer, F. W.; Watkins, M. M.; Wiese, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    Preparations for the Intergovermental Panel on Climate Change: Assessment Report 5 (IPCC AR5) has placed pressure on various research groups to accelerate the pace of their work in order to meet the Report deadlines. While this stimulates both positive and negative bi-products, it helped to focus attention to irreconcilable mass balance determinations for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) using space and airborne data. A glaring ';sore-thumb' for determining AIS trends from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data is the large signal of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) that is poorly constrained and possibly of the same magnitude as the present-day mass change. The report published in Science (vol. 338, pp. 1183-89) by S13 [Shepherd et al. 2013] met this challenge head-on by investing heavily in improving the GIA models with new GPS data, and new chronological constraints on ice sheet evolution across the Antarctic continent. This new data has emerged only within the last five years, and it came at a fortuitous time for advancing the IPCC AR5 goals. In this presentation we speak to the improvements developed in a recent JGR Solid Earth publication (14 June 2013). We extend the analysis using all of the official 05 releases of the analysis centers, including the JPL-mascon fields. The total error budgets of GIA correction are poorly determined, in spite of the great model improvements witnessed in the past 5 years. S12 reported the uncertainty for space-based sea level sourcing during 1992-2011 to Antarctica at roughly 0.23 mm/yr. Although GRACE 2002-2013 estimates vary, the uncertainly is about half this value. Here we examine how much of that uncertainty is still caused by GIA models and discuss how new classes of GIA models, and the collection of yet new GPS and ice constraint data for Antarctica, will enhance the value of a GRACE Follow-On mission. However, there will be a limit to constraining GIA, and a limit, therefore, to GIA error due to

  15. Glacial isostatic adjustment and sea-level change. State of the art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Pippa (Durham Univ., Dept. of Geography, Durham (United Kingdom))

    2009-04-15

    This report outlines the physics of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA), how this affects sea-level, and the methods which are employed by researchers to study and understand these processes. The report describes the scientific background into the processes and methods presented in SKB TR-06-23 (INIS ref 38-021351). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for people who require a more in-depth understanding of GIA processes than is presented in the earlier report. The key components of the GIA system are described, and this is followed by a concise description of the processes that take place within and between these components during a glacial cycle. The report contains 4 chapters: Chapter 1, 'Introduction'; Chapter 2, 'GIA systems', describes the three main systems which are involved in the GIA process; the solid Earth, the hydrosphere and the cryosphere. The various parameters which govern the behaviour of these systems, and must be known in order to model GIA processes, are defined. Chapter 3, 'Governing equations', lays out the physics of GIA and derives the equations which must be solved to determine the redistribution of water over the surface of the Earth, and the solid Earth response. Secondary processes, such as ocean syphoning, are also described. The driving forces behind glacial cycles are briefly discussed. The methods used to solve these equations are laid out in chapter 4, 'State-of-the-art GIA models'. In this chapter, the different approaches used by different groups of researchers are discussed, as are the relative accuracy of the methods. Recent improvements to the theory are described, as are current shortcomings of the models. The various data sets used to calibrate and verify the accuracy of the modelling are also briefly described in this chapter. In the past few years advances in computational speed have enabled researchers to develop models which attempt to account for the

  16. Mesotron Decays and the Role of Anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Bardeen, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Puzzles associated with Yukawa's mesotron theory of nuclear interactions led to the discovery of "anomalies" in quantum field theory. I will discuss some of the remarkable consequences of these anomalies in the physics of elementary particles.

  17. Mesozoic anomalies in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Nair, R.R.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Krishna, K.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; D'Cruz, M.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Paul, J.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Sekhar, D.V.C.

    The analysis of 8200 line km of total magnetic intensity data in the Bay of Bengal, northeastern Indian Ocean, revealed the presence of approximately N30~'E-trending seafloor spreading type magnetic anomalies. These anomalies resemble the Mesozoic...

  18. Needs for reactivity anomaly monitoring in CRBRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, J.B.

    1975-01-01

    Two general classifications of reactivity anomalies are defined and explicit design criteria and operational philosophy for an anomaly monitoring system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented. (JWR)

  19. Bouguer gravity regional and residual separation application to geology and environment

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, K; Sharma, KK

    2012-01-01

    Resolving regional and residual components arising out of deeper and shallower sources in observed Bouguer gravity anomalies is an old problem. The technique covered here is an attempt to sort out the difficulties that performs better than existing methods.

  20. Geophysical Anomalies and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Finding anomalies is easy. Predicting earthquakes convincingly from such anomalies is far from easy. Why? Why have so many beautiful geophysical abnormalities not led to successful prediction strategies? What is earthquake prediction? By my definition it is convincing information that an earthquake of specified size is temporarily much more likely than usual in a specific region for a specified time interval. We know a lot about normal earthquake behavior, including locations where earthquake rates are higher than elsewhere, with estimable rates and size distributions. We know that earthquakes have power law size distributions over large areas, that they cluster in time and space, and that aftershocks follow with power-law dependence on time. These relationships justify prudent protective measures and scientific investigation. Earthquake prediction would justify exceptional temporary measures well beyond those normal prudent actions. Convincing earthquake prediction would result from methods that have demonstrated many successes with few false alarms. Predicting earthquakes convincingly is difficult for several profound reasons. First, earthquakes start in tiny volumes at inaccessible depth. The power law size dependence means that tiny unobservable ones are frequent almost everywhere and occasionally grow to larger size. Thus prediction of important earthquakes is not about nucleation, but about identifying the conditions for growth. Second, earthquakes are complex. They derive their energy from stress, which is perniciously hard to estimate or model because it is nearly singular at the margins of cracks and faults. Physical properties vary from place to place, so the preparatory processes certainly vary as well. Thus establishing the needed track record for validation is very difficult, especially for large events with immense interval times in any one location. Third, the anomalies are generally complex as well. Electromagnetic anomalies in particular require

  1. Limb body wall complex: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panduranga Chikkannaiah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present autopsy findings of a case of limb body wall complex (LBWC. The fetus had encephalocele, genitourinary agenesis, skeletal anomalies and body wall defects. The rare finding in our case is the occurrence of both cranial and urogenital anomalies. The presence of complex anomalies in this fetus, supports embryonal dysplasia theory of pathogenesis for LBWC.

  2. Fetal renal anomalies : diagnosis, management, and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-Elias, Henrica Antonia Maria

    2004-01-01

    In two to three percent of fetuses structural anomalies can be found with prenatal ultrasound investigation. Anomalies of the urinary tract account for 15 to 20% of these anomalies with a detection rate of approximately of 90%. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4 we present reference curves for size and growth

  3. Holographic entanglement entropy and gravitational anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Detournay, S.; Iqbal, N.; Perlmutter, E.

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy in two-dimensional conformal field theories with a gravitational anomaly. In theories with gravity duals, this anomaly is holographically represented by a gravitational Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. We show that the anomaly broadens the Ryu-Takayanagi minimal

  4. Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Patricia M; Lin, Jian; Behn, Mark D; Montési, Laurent G J

    2007-07-12

    Mid-ocean ridge morphology and crustal accretion are known to depend on the spreading rate of the ridge. Slow-spreading mid-ocean-ridge segments exhibit significant crustal thinning towards transform and non-transform offsets, which is thought to arise from a three-dimensional process of buoyant mantle upwelling and melt migration focused beneath the centres of ridge segments. In contrast, fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are characterized by smaller, segment-scale variations in crustal thickness, which reflect more uniform mantle upwelling beneath the ridge axis. Here we present a systematic study of the residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of 19 oceanic transform faults that reveals a strong correlation between gravity signature and spreading rate. Previous studies have shown that slow-slipping transform faults are marked by more positive gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments, but our analysis reveals that intermediate and fast-slipping transform faults exhibit more negative gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments. This finding indicates that there is a mass deficit at intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults, which could reflect increased rock porosity, serpentinization of mantle peridotite, and/or crustal thickening. The most negative anomalies correspond to topographic highs flanking the transform faults, rather than to transform troughs (where deformation is probably focused and porosity and alteration are expected to be greatest), indicating that crustal thickening could be an important contributor to the negative gravity anomalies observed. This finding in turn suggests that three-dimensional magma accretion may occur near intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults.

  5. Holomorphic anomaly and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Santiago; Mariño, Marcos

    2018-02-01

    We show that the all-orders WKB periods of one-dimensional quantum mechanical oscillators are governed by the refined holomorphic anomaly equations of topological string theory. We analyze in detail the double-well potential and the cubic and quartic oscillators, and we calculate the WKB expansion of their quantum free energies by using the direct integration of the anomaly equations. We reproduce in this way all known results about the quantum periods of these models, which we express in terms of modular forms on the WKB curve. As an application of our results, we study the large order behavior of the WKB expansion in the case of the double well, which displays the double factorial growth typical of string theory.

  6. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    after Subrahmanya 1998). AA and BB are the locations of ..... Chaubey A K, Srinivas K, Ashalatha B, Ramana Gopala and. Rao D V 2008 Isostatic response of the Laccadive Ridge from admittance analysis of gravity and bathymetry data;.

  7. Parity anomaly in four dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkov, M.; Vassilevich, D.

    2017-07-01

    In an analogy to the odd-dimensional case we define the parity anomaly as the part of the one-loop effective action for fermions associated with spectral asymmetry of the Dirac operator. This quantity is computed directly on four-dimensional manifolds with a boundary and related to the Chern-Simons current on the boundary. Despite a quite unusual Chern-Simons level obtained, the action is gauge invariant and passes all consistency checks.

  8. Anomaly mediation in superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theoretique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-08-15

    We study anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in type IIB string theory and use our results to test the supergravity formula for anomaly mediated gaugino masses. We compute 1-loop gaugino masses for models of D3-branes on orbifold singularities with 3-form fluxes by calculating the annulus correlator of 3-form flux and two gauginos in the zero momentum limit. Consistent with supergravity expectations we find both anomalous and running contributions to 1-loop gaugino masses. For background Neveu-Schwarz H-flux we find an exact match with the supergravity formula. For Ramond-Ramond flux there is an off-shell ambiguity that precludes a full matching. The anomaly mediated gaugino masses, while determined by the infrared spectrum, arise from an explicit sum over UV open string winding modes. We also calculate brane-to-brane tree-level gravity mediated gaugino masses and show that there are two contributions coming from the dilaton and from the twisted modes, which are suppressed by the full T{sup 6} volume and the untwisted T{sup 2} volume respectively. (orig.)

  9. An Assessment of the Ductile Fracture Behavior of Hot Isostatically Pressed and Forged 304L Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A. J.; Smith, R. J.; Sherry, A. H.

    2017-05-01

    Type 300 austenitic stainless steel manufactured by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) has recently been shown to exhibit subtly different fracture behavior from that of equivalent graded forged steel, whereby the oxygen remaining in the component after HIP manifests itself in the austenite matrix as nonmetallic oxide inclusions. These inclusions facilitate fracture by acting as nucleation sites for the initiation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids in the plastically deforming austenite matrix. Here, we perform analyses based on the Rice-Tracey (RT) void growth model, supported by instrumented Charpy and J-integral fracture toughness testing at ambient temperature, to characterize the degree of void growth ahead of both a V-notch and crack in 304L stainless steel. We show that the hot isostatically pressed (HIP'd) 304L steel exhibits a lower critical void growth at the onset of fracture than that observed in forged 304L steel, which ultimately results in HIP'd steel exhibiting lower fracture toughness at initiation and impact toughness. Although the reduction in toughness of HIP'd steel is not detrimental to its use, due to the steel's sufficiently high toughness, the study does indicate that HIP'd and forged 304L steel behave as subtly different materials at a microstructural level with respect to their fracture behavior.

  10. Toward Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer: Eliminating the Time Discontinuity at an Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Levine, Judah; Weiss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier-phase (CP) time transfer is limited by the problem of boundary discontinuity (BD). The discontinuity has two categories. One is "day boundary discontinuity," which has been studied extensively and can be solved by multiple methods [1-8]. The other category of discontinuity, called "anomaly boundary discontinuity (anomaly-BD)," comes from a GPS data anomaly. The anomaly can be a data gap (i.e., missing data), a GPS measurement error (i.e., bad data), or a cycle slip. Initial study of the anomaly-BD shows that we can fix the discontinuity if the anomaly lasts no more than 20 min, using the polynomial curve-fitting strategy to repair the anomaly [9]. However, sometimes, the data anomaly lasts longer than 20 min. Thus, a better curve-fitting strategy is in need. Besides, a cycle slip, as another type of data anomaly, can occur and lead to an anomaly-BD. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new strategy, i.e., the satellite-clock-aided curve fitting strategy with the function of cycle slip detection. Basically, this new strategy applies the satellite clock correction to the GPS data. After that, we do the polynomial curve fitting for the code and phase data, as before. Our study shows that the phase-data residual is only ~3 mm for all GPS satellites. The new strategy also detects and finds the number of cycle slips by searching the minimum curve-fitting residual. Extensive examples show that this new strategy enables us to repair up to a 40-min GPS data anomaly, regardless of whether the anomaly is due to a data gap, a cycle slip, or a combination of the two. We also find that interference of the GPS signal, known as "jamming", can possibly lead to a time-transfer error, and that this new strategy can compensate for jamming outages. Thus, the new strategy can eliminate the impact of jamming on time transfer. As a whole, we greatly improve the robustness of the GPS CP time transfer.

  11. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 1

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  12. Algorithms for Anomaly Detection - Lecture 2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The concept of statistical anomalies, or outliers, has fascinated experimentalists since the earliest attempts to interpret data. We want to know why some data points don’t seem to belong with the others: perhaps we want to eliminate spurious or unrepresentative data from our model. Or, the anomalies themselves may be what we are interested in: an outlier could represent the symptom of a disease, an attack on a computer network, a scientific discovery, or even an unfaithful partner. We start with some general considerations, such as the relationship between clustering and anomaly detection, the choice between supervised and unsupervised methods, and the difference between global and local anomalies. Then we will survey the most representative anomaly detection algorithms, highlighting what kind of data each approach is best suited to, and discussing their limitations. We will finish with a discussion of the difficulties of anomaly detection in high-dimensional data and some new directions for anomaly detec...

  13. Coronary anomalies: what the radiologist should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Ornellas Neves

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCoronary anomalies comprise a diverse group of malformations, some of them asymptomatic with a benign course, and the others related to symptoms as chest pain and sudden death. Such anomalies may be classified as follows: 1 anomalies of origination and course; 2 anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy; 3 anomalies of coronary termination. The origin and the proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries are the main prognostic factors, and interarterial course or a coronary artery is considered to be malignant due its association with increased risk of sudden death. Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the reference method for such an assessment as it detects not only anomalies in origination of these arteries, but also its course in relation to other mediastinal structures, which plays a relevant role in the definition of the therapeutic management. Finally, it is essential for radiologists to recognize and characterize such anomalies.

  14. Seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    seasonality of 65,764 nonchromosomal and 12,682 chromosomal congenital anomalies covering 3.3 million births. Analysis was performed by estimated month of conception. Analyses were performed for 86 congenital anomaly subgroups, including a combined subgroup of congenital anomalies previously associated......%), congenital hydronephrosis (July, 12%), urinary defects (July, 5%), and situs inversus (December, 36%), but not for nonchromosomal anomalies combined, chromosomal anomalies combined, or other anomalies analyzed. CONCLUSION: We have confirmed previously described seasonality for congenital cataract and hip......BACKGROUND: This study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relation...

  15. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    congenital anomaly, 13.9% had a chromosomal anomaly and 7.7% were multiple congenital anomalies. The combined foetal and infant mortality in the study area was 11.6 per 1,000 births. 19% (2.2 per 1,000) of these deaths were foetuses and infants with major congenital anomalies. Combined foetal and infant......INTRODUCTION: This study describes the prevalence of congenital anomalies and changes over time in birth outcome, mortality and chronic maternal diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was based on population data from the EUROCAT registry covering the Funen County, Denmark, 1995......-2008. The registry covers live births, foetal deaths with a gestational age (GA) of 20 weeks or more, and terminations of pregnancy due to congenital anomalies (TOPFA). RESULTS: The overall prevalence of congenital anomalies was 2.70% (95% confidence interval: 2.58-2.80). The majority of cases had an isolated...

  16. Coronary anomalies: what the radiologist should know*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; Monção, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies comprise a diverse group of malformations, some of them asymptomatic with a benign course, and the others related to symptoms as chest pain and sudden death. Such anomalies may be classified as follows: 1) anomalies of origination and course; 2) anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy; 3) anomalies of coronary termination. The origin and the proximal course of anomalous coronary arteries are the main prognostic factors, and interarterial course or a coronary artery is considered to be malignant due its association with increased risk of sudden death. Coronary computed tomography angiography has become the reference method for such an assessment as it detects not only anomalies in origination of these arteries, but also its course in relation to other mediastinal structures, which plays a relevant role in the definition of the therapeutic management. Finally, it is essential for radiologists to recognize and characterize such anomalies. PMID:26379322

  17. Congenital anomalies in Primorsky region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, P; Voronin, S; Golokhvast, K

    2015-01-01

    According to WHO hereditary diseases and congenital malformations contribute significantly to the health of population. Thus, the problems of epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of congenital abnormalities are of interest for many researchers [2]. In addition, the dynamic accounting for the incidence of congenital malformations and hereditary diseases allows the researchers to assess the ecological situation in the region [1]. The occurrence of congenital anomalies in the world varies; it depends heavily on how carefully the data is collected [4]. Multifactorial or polygenic diseases develop under the influence of environmental factors in the presence of defective genes. They can constitute up to 90% of all chronic pathology [2-5]. To determine the incidence of congenital anomalies under the influence of environmental factors. The study used the methodology of system evaluation of congenital anomalies incidence in Primorsky region, depending on bio-climatic and environmental conditions. The authors used health statistics for the period from 2000 to 2014, F.12 class for congenital abnormalities in adolescents and children that were compared in geographical and temporal aspects with environmental factors of 33 settlements in Primorsky region. The environment is represented by nature and climate (6 factor modules) and sanitation (7 factor modules) blocks of factors. When formalizing the information database of the environment a specially developed 10-point assessment scale was used. Statistical processing of the information was carried out using Pearson's chi-squared test and multiple regression method from SSPS application program package. The study found that over the 15-year period the level of congenital abnormalities in children increased by 27.5% and in adolescents - by 35.1%, and in 2014 it amounted to 1687.6 and 839.3 per 100 000 people, respectively. The predictive model shows a steady further growth of this pathology. The incidence

  18. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant

  19. Infective causes of congenital anomalies

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Aparecida Gomes Pinto

    1981-01-01

    Revisão sumária das causas infecciosas das anomalias congênitas englobando as malformações, que correspondem a estruturas anormais orgânicas ou tissulares decorrentes de erros primários de morfogenese embrionaria e deformações, que se instalam no período fetal da vida intrauterina, correspondentes a alterações de forma e estrutura de órgãos primitivamente bem constituidos.Review of the infective causes of Congenital Anomalies, including Malformations, which arise during the embryonic period a...

  20. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review.

  1. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of focal musculoskeletal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jung-Kyu; Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Choi, Jong-Sun

    2003-01-01

    Focal musculoskeletal anomalies vary, and can manifest as part of a syndrome or be accompanied by numerous other conditions such as genetic disorders, karyotype abnormalities, central nervous system anomalies and other skeletal anomalies, lsolated focal musculoskeletal anomaly does, however, also occur; its early prenatal diagnosis is important in deciding prenatal care, and also helps in counseling parents about the postnatal effects of numerous possible associated anomalies. We have encountered 50 cases involving focal musculoskeletal anomalies, including total limb dysplasia [radial ray abnormality (n=3), mesomelic dysplasia (n=1)]; anomalies of the hand [polydactyly (n=8), syndactyly (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), clinodactyly (n=6), clenched hand (n=5)]; anomalies of the foot [clubfoot (n=10), rockerbottom foot (n=5), sandal gap deformity (n=1), curly toe (n=2)]; amniotic band syndrome (n=3); and anomalies of the focal spine [block vertebra (n=1), hemivertebra (n=1)]. Among these 50 cases, five [polydactyly (n=1), syndactyly (n=2) and curly toe (n=2) were confirmed by postnatal physical evaluation, two (focal spine anomalies) were diagnosed after postnatal radiologic examination, and the remaining 43 were proven at autopsy. For each condition, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings, and include a brief review

  2. Extracting Small and Long-Wavelength Vertical Land Surface Movements from an InSAR Time Series: The Case of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockamp, J.; Li, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the effects of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in Scotland is essential for the assessment of past and future sea-level trends around the coast. Against the backdrop of climate change and the global rise of sea-levels, the question arises as to what are the modern rate and spatial distribution of GIA-related crustal uplift in Scotland. Differential SAR Interferometry (D-InSAR) is an established technique for analysing crustal motion and land surface deformation caused by co- and interseismic processes, volcanic activity, landslides or subsidence. When it comes to the detection of small, long-wavelength displacements, such as GIA-induced vertical land movement, the application of D-InSAR becomes challenging and a very high quality standard in terms of precision and accuracy is necessary to make it a competitive tool to established geodetic techniques, such as GNSS. This study investigates the applicability of a D-InSAR time series technique, the Small Baseline approach, in its ability to determine recent rates of vertical land movement in Scotland with a high accuracy and precision (in the mm/yr level) and on a broader spatial scale than conventional geodetic techniques that rely on spatial interpolation. A range of error signals (atmospheric water vapour, orbital ramps, temporal decorrelation, topographic artefacts etc.) require to be addressed before the extraction of any uplift signal is possible. This includes the advancement of error correction techniques for such artefacts within the time series inversion processing chain. To reduce orbit errors in the interferograms, an improved network correction technique, that incorporates phase loop triplets of interferograms into the observation equations, has been tested with good results. In addition, further methods are being explored for the separation of the desired deformation signal from residual orbital and atmospheric errors, such as Principal Component Analysis and Independent Component

  3. A study of dental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sook; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental anomalies in 600 normal persons (male:363, female:237) at age 14 to 39 years, through history taking, oral examination, and radiographic observations of subjects. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence of individual dental anomalies were as follows; Congenitally missing teeth 7%; supernumerary teeth 1.33%; ectopic eruption 8.50%; transposition 0.33%; rotation 23.67%; microdontia 11.16% (peg lateral is 5.33%; third molar 5.83%); prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 1.33%; crowding 49.83%; and spacing 15.17%. 2. Alterations in numbers of teeth : The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular lateral incisors, followed by mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. In numbers of congenitally missing teeth per person, 52.38% had one missing tooth and 30.95% had two missing teeth. In supernumerary teeth, there was higher rate in male than in female. Most supernumerary teeth were mesiodens of median area in maxilla and the eruption pattern of that teeth generally was unerupted state. 3. In transposition, exchange of position of teeth involved the canine and first premolar. 4. Congenital missing rate of permanent successors in prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was 69.23%. 5. Crowding and spacing had respectively higher rate in mandible and in maxilla.

  4. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  5. A study of dental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sook; Kim, Jae Duck

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of dental anomalies in 600 normal persons (male:363, female:237) at age 14 to 39 years, through history taking, oral examination, and radiographic observations of subjects. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The prevalence of individual dental anomalies were as follows; Congenitally missing teeth 7%; supernumerary teeth 1.33%; ectopic eruption 8.50%; transposition 0.33%; rotation 23.67%; microdontia 11.16% (peg lateral is 5.33%; third molar 5.83%); prolonged retention of deciduous teeth 1.33%; crowding 49.83%; and spacing 15.17%. 2. Alterations in numbers of teeth : The most frequently missing teeth were mandibular lateral incisors, followed by mandibular second premolars and maxillary second premolars. In numbers of congenitally missing teeth per person, 52.38% had one missing tooth and 30.95% had two missing teeth. In supernumerary teeth, there was higher rate in male than in female. Most supernumerary teeth were mesiodens of median area in maxilla and the eruption pattern of that teeth generally was unerupted state. 3. In transposition, exchange of position of teeth involved the canine and first premolar. 4. Congenital missing rate of permanent successors in prolonged retention of deciduous teeth was 69.23%. 5. Crowding and spacing had respectively higher rate in mandible and in maxilla.

  6. The effect of sediment loading in Fennoscandia and the Barents Sea during the last glacial cycle on glacial isostatic adjustment observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, W.; Ijpelaar, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    Models for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) routinely include the effects of meltwater redistribution and changes in topography and coastlines. Since the sediment transport related to the dynamics of ice sheets may be comparable to that of sea level rise in terms of surface pressure, the

  7. Circle compactification and 't Hooft anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanizaki, Yuya; Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Sakai, Norisuke

    2017-12-01

    Anomaly matching constrains low-energy physics of strongly-coupled field theories, but it is not useful at finite temperature due to contamination from high-energy states. The known exception is an 't Hooft anomaly involving one-form symmetries as in pure SU( N ) Yang-Mills theory at θ = π. Recent development about large- N volume independence, however, gives us a circumstantial evidence that 't Hooft anomalies can also remain under circle compactifications in some theories without one-form symmetries. We develop a systematic procedure for deriving an 't Hooft anomaly of the circle-compactified theory starting from the anomaly of the original uncompactified theory without one-form symmetries, where the twisted boundary condition for the compactified direction plays a pivotal role. As an application, we consider Z_N -twisted C{P}^{N-1} sigma model and massless Z_N -QCD, and compute their anomalies explicitly.

  8. Global anomalies in chiral lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, O.

    2000-07-01

    We study global anomalies in a new approach to chiral gauge theories on the lattice, which is based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation. In this approach, global anomalies make it impossible to define consistently a fermionic measure for the functional integral. We show that a global anomaly occurs in an SU(2) theory if the fundamental representation is used for the fermion fields. The generalization to higher representations is also discussed. In addition we establish a close relation between global anomalies and the spectral flow of the Dirac operator and employ it in a numerical computation to prove the existence of the global SU(2) anomaly in a different way. This method is inspired by an earlier work of Witten who first discovered this type of anomalies in continuum field theory. (orig.)

  9. Verification of the effect of surface preparation on Hot Isostatic Pressing diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyun; Li, Chunjing; Huang, Bo; Liu, Shaojun; Huang, Qunying

    2014-12-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) diffusion bonding with CLAM steel is the primary candidate fabrication technique for the first wall (FW) of DFLL-TBM. Surface state is one of the key factors for the joints quality. The effect of surface state prepared with grinder and miller on HIP diffusion bonding joints of CLAM steel was investigated. HIP diffusion bonding was performed at 140 MPa and 1373 K within 3 h. The mechanical properties of the joints were investigated with instrumented Charpy V-notch impact tests and the microstructures of the joints were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the milled samples with fine surface roughness were more suitable for CLAM steel HIP diffusion bonding.

  10. Isostatic equilibrium in spherical coordinates and implications for crustal thickness on the Moon, Mars, Enceladus, and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Douglas J.; Matsuyama, Isamu

    2017-08-01

    Isostatic equilibrium is commonly defined as the state achieved when there are no lateral gradients in hydrostatic pressure, and thus no lateral flow, at depth within the lower viscosity mantle that underlies a planetary body's outer crust. In a constant-gravity Cartesian framework, this definition is equivalent to the requirement that columns of equal width contain equal masses. Here we show, however, that this equivalence breaks down when the spherical geometry of the problem is taken into account. Imposing the "equal masses" requirement in a spherical geometry, as is commonly done in the literature, leads to significant lateral pressure gradients along internal equipotential surfaces and thus corresponds to a state of disequilibrium. Compared with the "equal pressures" model we present here, the equal masses model always overestimates the compensation depth—by ˜27% in the case of the lunar highlands and by nearly a factor of 2 in the case of Enceladus.

  11. Effects of Temperature and Pressure of Hot Isostatic Pressing on the Grain Structure of Powder Metallurgy Superalloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liming; He, Guoai; Liu, Feng; Li, Yunping; Jiang, Liang

    2018-02-24

    The microstructure with homogeneously distributed grains and less prior particle boundary (PPB) precipitates is always desired for powder metallurgy superalloys after hot isostatic pressing (HIPping). In this work, we studied the effects of HIPping parameters, temperature and pressure on the grain structure in PM superalloy FGH96, by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Time-of-flight secondary ion spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). It was found that temperature and pressure played different roles in controlling PPB precipitation and grain structure during HIPping, the tendency of grain coarsening under high temperature could be inhibited by increasing HIPping pressure which facilitates the recrystallization. In general, relatively high temperature and pressure of HIPping were preferred to obtain an as-HIPped superalloy FGH96 with diminished PPB precipitation and homogeneously refined grains.

  12. M3FT-17OR0301070211 - Preparation of Hot Isostatically Pressed AgZ Waste Form Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jordan, Jacob A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The production of radioactive iodine-bearing waste forms that exhibit long-term stability and are suitable for permanent geologic disposal has been the subject of substantial research interest. One potential method of iodine waste form production is hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Recent studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have investigated the conversion of iodine-loaded silver mordenite (I-AgZ) directly to a waste form by HIP. ORNL has performed HIP with a variety of sample compositions and pressing conditions. The base mineral has varied among AgZ (in pure and engineered forms), silver-exchanged faujasite, and silverexchanged zeolite A. Two iodine loading methods, occlusion and chemisorption, have been explored. Additionally, the effects of variations in temperature and pressure of the process have been examined, with temperature ranges of 525°C–1,100°C and pressure ranges of 100–300 MPa. All of these samples remain available to collaborators upon request. The sample preparation detailed in this document is an extension of that work. In addition to previously prepared samples, this report documents the preparation of additional samples to support stability testing. These samples include chemisorbed I-AgZ and pure AgI. Following sample preparation, each sample was processed by HIP by American Isostatic Presses Inc. and returned to ORNL for storage. ORNL will store the samples until they are requested by collaborators for durability testing. The sample set reported here will support waste form durability testing across the national laboratories and will provide insight into the effects of varied iodine content on iodine retention by the produced waste form and on potential improvements in waste form durability provided by the zeolite matrix.

  13. The "Parity" Anomaly On An Unorientable Manifold

    OpenAIRE

    Witten, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The "parity" anomaly -- more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry -- arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. This anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we give a full descript...

  14. Monitoring of congenital anomalies in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irisa Zilie; ViIIeruša, Anita; Gissler, Mika

    2014-09-01

    This study provides a description and analysis of characteristics of the monitoring system for congenital anomalies at birth and prevalence trends in Latvia using retrospective analysis of congenital anomalies at birth with cross-sectional data on prevalence (national data from Latvia, 2000-2010). There are three main monitoring systems on congenital anomalies among newborns and infants: the Medical Birth Register with data on live births with one or more congenital anomalies at birth, the Register on Congenital Anomalies with genetically approved cases for live births and the National Causes of Death Register with data on stillbirths. Methodological problems were analysed by calculating different prevalence rates. The main outcome measures are as follows: prevalence rate, live birth prevalence rate, major congenital anomalies live birth prevalence rate, and stillbirth rate. The live birth period prevalence was 319.7/10,000 live births, and the majoir congenital anomalies live birth prevalence was 211.4/10,000. The period total prevalence rate of births was.323.7/10,000 live births and stillbirths. The stillbirth rate due to congenital anomalies was 6.1/10,000 live and stillbirths. The live birth prevalence with congenital anomalies decreased slightly from the year 2000 tothe year 2010. The present system of congenital anomaly registration requires improvements for better completeness. Latvia should use the experience.of Nordic countries and introduce a mother's and children's identification number to the Medical Birth Register. It would be helpful to link the information from hospitals and perinatal centres together to validate the congenital anomaly diagnoses of newborns after their discharge from the maternity unit. The monitoring system should also include information on pregnancies with congenital anomalies which do not end in birth, especially terminations of pregnancy.

  15. Associated anomalies in cases with esophageal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Claude; Alembik, Yves; Dott, Beatrice; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2017-08-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is a common type of congenital anomaly. The etiology of esophageal atresia is unclear and its pathogenesis is controversial. Infants with esophageal atresia often have other non-EA associated congenital anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of these associated anomalies in a defined population. The associated anomalies in cases with EA were collected in all livebirths, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy during 29 years in 387,067 consecutive births in the area covered by our population-based registry of congenital malformations. Of the 116 cases with esophageal atresia, representing a prevalence of 2.99 per 10,000, 54 (46.6%) had associated anomalies. There were 9 (7.8%) cases with chromosomal abnormalities including 6 trisomies 18, and 20 (17.2%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions including 12 cases with VACTERL association and 2 cases with CHARGE syndrome. Twenty five (21.6%) of the cases had multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Anomalies in the cardiovascular, the digestive, the urogenital, the musculoskeletal, and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. The anomalies associated with esophageal atresia could be classified into a recognizable malformation syndrome or pattern in 29 out of 54 cases (53.7%). This study included special strengths: each affected child was examined by a geneticist, all elective terminations were ascertained, and the surveillance for anomalies was continued until 2 years of age. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was close to one in two cases, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of cases with EA. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with EA. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  17. On Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Baiguera, Stefano; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    We classify the trace anomaly for parity-invariant non-relativistic Schrödinger theories in 2+1 dimensions coupled to background Newton-Cartan gravity. The general anomaly structure looks very different from the one in the z=2 Lifshitz theories. The type A content of the anomaly is remarkably identical to that of the relativistic 3+1 dimensional case, suggesting the conjecture that an a-theorem should exist also in the Newton-Cartan context.

  18. Anomaly Detection from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiandong Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing imagery contains much more information in the spectral domain than does multispectral imagery. The consecutive and abundant spectral signals provide a great potential for classification and anomaly detection. In this study, two real hyperspectral data sets were used for anomaly detection. One data set was an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS data covering the post-attack World Trade Center (WTC and anomalies are fire spots. The other data set called SpecTIR contained fabric panels as anomalies compared to their background. Existing anomaly detection algorithms including the Reed–Xiaoli detector (RXD, the blocked adaptive computation efficient outlier nominator (BACON, the random selection based anomaly detector (RSAD, the weighted-RXD (W-RXD, and the probabilistic anomaly detector (PAD are reviewed here. The RXD generally sets strict assumptions to the background, which cannot be met in many scenarios, while BACON, RSAD, and W-RXD employ strategies to optimize the estimation of background information. The PAD firstly estimates both background information and anomaly information and then uses the information to conduct anomaly detection. Here, the BACON, RSAD, W-RXD, and PAD outperformed the RXD in terms of detection accuracy, and W-RXD and PAD required less time than BACON and RSAD.

  19. Tectonically Induced Anomalies Without Large Earthquake Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheming; Wang, Guangcai; Liu, Chenglong; Che, Yongtai

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we documented a case involving large-scale macroscopic anomalies in the Xichang area, southwestern Sichuan Province, China, from May to June of 2002, after which no major earthquake occurred. During our field survey in 2002, we found that the timing of the high-frequency occurrence of groundwater anomalies was in good agreement with those of animal anomalies. Spatially, the groundwater and animal anomalies were distributed along the Anninghe-Zemuhe fault zone. Furthermore, the groundwater level was elevated in the northwest part of the Zemuhe fault and depressed in the southeast part of the Zemuhe fault zone, with a border somewhere between Puge and Ningnan Counties. Combined with microscopic groundwater, geodetic and seismic activity data, we infer that the anomalies in the Xichang area were the result of increasing tectonic activity in the Sichuan-Yunnan block. In addition, groundwater data may be used as a good indicator of tectonic activity. This case tells us that there is no direct relationship between an earthquake and these anomalies. In most cases, the vast majority of the anomalies, including microscopic and macroscopic anomalies, are caused by tectonic activity. That is, these anomalies could occur under the effects of tectonic activity, but they do not necessarily relate to the occurrence of earthquakes.

  20. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  1. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE MOON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Pugacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The source of gravity anomalies of the Moon are large mascons with a high mass concentration at a depth of volcanic plains and lunar Maria. New data on the gravitational field of the Moon were obtained from two Grail spacecrafts. The article presents the data of physical and mechanical properties of the surface soil layer of the lunar Maria and gives an assessment of the chemical composition of the soil. There have been calculated heterogeneity parameters of the surface macro-relief of the lunar Maria: albedo, soil density, average grain diameter of the particles forming the surface layer and the volume fraction occupied by particles. It can be assumed that mascons include rich KREEP rocks with a high content of thorium and iron oxide. Formation of mascons is connected with intensive development of basaltic volcanism on the Moon in the early periods of its existence.

  2. Tau anomaly and vectorlike families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, K.S.; Pati, J.C.; Zhang, X.

    1992-01-01

    The implications of a recently indicated increase in τ lifetime are discussed. It is stressed that the available experimental constraints (from δρ,ε 3 , and N ν , etc.) are satisfied most naturally if the indicated τ anomaly is attributed to the mixing of the τ family with a heavy vectorlike family Q L, R ' with masses ∼200 GeV to 2 TeV, which is a doublet of SU(2) R and singlet of SU(2) L , rather than with a heavy fourth family with standard chiral couplings. L↔R symmetry would imply that Q L, R ' is accompanied by the parity-conjugate family Q L, R which is a doublet of SU(2) L and singlet of SU(2) R . Two such vectorlike families, together with an increase in τ τ , are, in fact, crucial predictions of a recently proposed supersymmetric composite model that possesses many attractive features, in particular, explanations of the origin of diverse scales and family replication. In the context of such a model, it is noted that 3 an increase in τ τ due to mixing involving vectorlike families will necessarily imply a correlated decrease in neutrino counting N ν from the CERN e + e- collider LEP from 3. Such a decrease in N ν would be absent, however, if the τ anomaly is attributed to a mixing involving a standard fourth family with chiral couplings. Because of the seesaw nature of the mass matrix of the three chiral and two vectorlike families, that arises naturally in the model, departures from universality in the first two families as well as in bar bb and τ + τ - channels (linked to down flavors) are strongly suppressed, in accord with observations

  3. Structural behaviour of monolithic fuel plates during hot isostatic pressing and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaltun, Hakan; Medvedev, Pavel G.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents thermo-mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates and their structural behavior during fabrication and thermal annealing performed by commercial FE solver COMSOL Multiphysics. The detailed 3D non-linear FEM analysis of the monolithic fuel plates has been useful not only for benchmarking the new model, but also for obtaining an in-depth understanding of fuel-cladding stress/strain characteristics. In particular, the 3D FEM analysis has revealed existence of stress gradients at the fuel/cladding interface region which could lead to structural failure. Large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansions between the U-10Mo foil and AL6061-TO cladding is the main reason for these gradients. During the thermal transient, thermo-mechanical behavior of the plate is driven by the significant mismatch between thermal expansion and basic mechanical properties of the foil and the cladding materials. By using elasto-thermo-perfectly plastic material models, it was shown that cladding material exceeds its yield limit; and therefore, deforms plastically; while the fuel foil remains below its elastic limit. In addition, it was observed that fabrication-induced residual stresses play major role in overall performance of monolithic fuel plates. The simulation results show existence of the critical temperature at which the normal and shear components of stresses change from compressive to tensile on both cladding and fuel. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical analysis of dispersion fuel mini-plates was presented. In order to properly identify three dimensional stress states over the dispersion particles and cladding material, micro-structure based finite element simulation was performed. It was shown that residual stresses in dispersion fuels cannot be neglected and should be included in proceeding simulations. (author)

  4. Hawking radiation of black rings from anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; He Wei

    2008-01-01

    We derive Hawking radiation of five-dimensional black rings from gauge and gravitational anomalies using the method proposed by Robinson and Wilczek. We find, as in the black hole case, that the problem could reduce to a (1+1)-dimensional field theory and the anomalies result in correct Hawking temperature for neutral, dipole and charged black rings

  5. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to hav...

  6. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  7. Socio-occupational status and congenital anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, María M Morales-Suárez; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Llopis-González, Agustin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association between socio-occupational status and the frequency of major congenital anomalies in offspring.......The aim of this study is to investigate the association between socio-occupational status and the frequency of major congenital anomalies in offspring....

  8. Improved prenatal detection of chromosomal anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev-Friis, Christina; Hjort-Pedersen, Karina; Henriques, Carsten U

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal screening for karyotype anomalies takes place in most European countries. In Denmark, the screening method was changed in 2005. The aim of this study was to study the trends in prevalence and prenatal detection rates of chromosome anomalies and Down syndrome (DS) over a 22-year period....

  9. Interpretation of Aeromagnetic Anomalies over Abeokuta, Southwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    of the bodies producing the magnetic anomaly. ∑. 1. Where. L = length of the cross—section of the anomaly n = harmonic number of the partial wave. N = number of data point real path partial amplitude imaginary path of FFT. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Table 1 summarizes depths values of various anomalous sources.

  10. Remarks on global anomalies in RCFT orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF Theory Group, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands) and Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 123, Madrid 28006 (Spain) and IMAPP, Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: t58@nikhef.nl

    2006-01-26

    We check the list of supersymmetric standard model orientifold spectra of Dijkstra, Huiszoon and Schellekens for the presence of global anomalies, using probe branes. Absence of global anomalies is found to impose strong constraints, but in nearly all cases they are automatically satisfied by the solutions to the tadpole cancellation conditions.

  11. Sea surface temperature anomalies in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    temperature anomalies for the above regions respectively. An analysis has shown that most of the short duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies with periods less than 4 months) are driven by the surface heat fluxes. The medium duration anomalies (i.e., anomalies...

  12. Intracranial developmental venous anomaly: is it asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, A Bolívar; de Asís Bravo Rodríguez, F; Bravo Rey, I; Romero, E Roldán

    2018-03-16

    Intracranial developmental venous anomalies are the most common vascular malformation. In the immense majority of cases, these anomalies are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally, and they are considered benign. Very exceptionally, however, they can cause neurological symptoms. In this article, we present three cases of patients with developmental venous anomalies that presented with different symptoms owing to complications derived from altered venous drainage. These anomalies were located in the left insula, right temporal lobe, and cerebellum. The exceptionality of the cases presented as well as of the images associated, which show the mechanism through which the symptoms developed, lies in the low incidence of symptomatic developmental venous anomalies reported in the literature. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. An impactor origin for lunar magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Mark A; Weiss, Benjamin P; Stewart, Sarah T

    2012-03-09

    The Moon possesses strong magnetic anomalies that are enigmatic given the weak magnetism of lunar rocks. We show that the most prominent grouping of anomalies can be explained by highly magnetic extralunar materials from the projectile that formed the largest and oldest impact crater on the Moon: the South Pole-Aitken basin. The distribution of projectile materials from a model oblique impact coincides with the distribution of magnetic anomalies surrounding this basin, and the magnetic properties of these materials can account for the intensity of the observed anomalies if they were magnetized in a core dynamo field. Distal ejecta from this event can explain the origin of isolated magnetic anomalies far from this basin.

  14. KIDNEY ANOMALIES: HORSE SHOE KIDNEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Horse Shoe Kidney was first recognized during an autopsy by De Carpi in 1521. This anomaly consists of two distinct renal masses lying vertically on either side of the midline and connected at their respective lower poles by a parenchymatous or fibrous isthmus that crosses the mid pl ane of the body. This isthmus lies at the level of 4th lumbar vertebra just beneath the origin of inferior mesenteric artery in about 40% of cases. Fusion of upper poles instead of the lower poles results in a n inverted horse Shoe Kidney which constitute 5 - 10% of ail Horse - Shoe kidneys , (i.e. in 95% of HSK , fusion is at lower poles. HSK is found more commonly in males by a 2 : 1 margin. AIM OF STUDY : An attempt has been made to know the various anomalies . The study has been taken up with the fond hope of helping the clinician , sonologist , and surgeons during their routine work. To apply this knowledge to the incoming post graduates in their research works. EMBRIOLOGICAL BASIS & KDNEY : The abnormality originates between 4th and 6th weeks of gestation , after the ureteral bud has entered the renal blastema. Boyden (1931 postulated that at the 14mm stage (4.5 weeks the developing metanephric masses lie close to one another , any disturbance in their relationship may result in joining at their inferior poles. A slight alteration in the position of the umbilical or common iliac artery could change the orientation of migrating kidneys thus leading to contact and fusion. In 1941 Dees (Nation 1945 , Bell 1946 , Gleen 1959 , Campbell 1970 described horse - shoe kidney di sease occurrence in 0.25% of the population or about 1 in 400. OBSERVATION : In the present study 176 specimens of kidneys were studied out of which 40 were fetal specimens and the rest were adult specimens consisting of both cadaveric and sonograms. The ad ult specimens from cadavers were 76 and 60 from sonograms. MATERIAL & METHODS : Abdomen is opened ; superficial viscera and

  15. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  16. A remanent and induced magnetization model of Magsat vector anomalies over the west African craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, P. B.; Haggerty, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    Scalar and vector Magsat anomalies over the west African craton are analyzed by forward and inverse models. A forward model of the Man shield is based on Liberia. Induced magnetization contrasts due to sporadic iron-formations and to regional metamorphic rocks, and a contrast in remanent magnetization within the lower crust are included. This combination reproduces the location, magnitude and adopted local zero level of anomalies in the initial Magsat maps. An inverse model of the Reguibat shield estimates the magnetization contrast of its lithosphere, and when magnetism is restricted to shallower than 75 km both shields can be represented by a susceptibility contrast of +0.02. A residual anomaly between the shields involves a relative deficiency of induced magnetization along with other causes.

  17. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  18. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog.

  19. Anomalies, Unitarity and Quantum Irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, D

    1999-01-01

    The trace anomaly in external gravity is the sum of three terms at criticality: the square of the Weyl tensor, the Euler density and Box R, with coefficients, properly normalized, called c, a and a', the latter being ambiguously defined by an additive constant. Unitarity and positivity properties of the induced actions allow us to show that the total RG flows of a and a' are equal and therefore the a'-ambiguity can be consistently removed through the identification a'=a. The picture that emerges clarifies several long-standing issues. The interplay between unitarity and renormalization implies that the flux of the renormalization group is irreversible. A monotonically decreasing a-function interpolating between the appropriate values is naturally provided by a'. The total a-flow is expressed non-perturbatively as the invariant (i.e. scheme-independent) area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. We test this prediction to the fourth loop order in perturbation theory, in QCD with Nf ~< ...

  20. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  1. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  2. MR imaging of paediatric uterovaginal anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, I.M.; Babyn, P.; Oliver, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Transabdominal ultrasound (US) has not proved completely reliable in Muellerian duct anomalies. One study has shown it useful in obstructed uterovaginal anomalies. We are unaware of a study that has used endovaginal ultrasound in children to investigate uterovaginal anomalies. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now gaining wide acceptance in imaging congenital abnormalities of the genital tract. Objective. To identify the problems and potential pitfalls of using MRI to evaluate the female genital tract in paediatric patients. Materials and methods. A retrospective review of the MRI scans of 19 patients, aged 3 months to 19 years (mean 14 years), with uterovaginal anomalies. Results. The uterovaginal anomalies were categorised into three groups: (1) congenital absence of the Muellerian ducts, or the Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (n = 7), (2) disorders of vertical fusion (n = 2) and (3) disorders of lateral fusion (n = 10). Conclusions. MRI is a reliable method for evaluating paediatric uterovaginal anomalies, but should be analysed in conjunction with other imaging modalities (US and genitography). Previous surgery makes interpretation more difficult and, if possible, MRI should be carried out prior to any surgery. An accurate MRI examination can be extremely helpful prior to surgery and it is important for the radiologist to have knowledge of how these complex anomalies are managed and what pitfalls to avoid. (orig.)

  3. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  4. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  5. Kullback-Leibler distance-based enhanced detection of incipient anomalies

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2016-09-09

    Accurate and effective anomaly detection and diagnosis of modern engineering systems by monitoring processes ensure reliability and safety of a product while maintaining desired quality. In this paper, an innovative method based on Kullback-Leibler divergence for detecting incipient anomalies in highly correlated multivariate data is presented. We use a partial least square (PLS) method as a modeling framework and a symmetrized Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD) as an anomaly indicator, where it is used to quantify the dissimilarity between current PLS-based residual and reference probability distributions obtained using fault-free data. Furthermore, this paper reports the development of two monitoring charts based on the KLD. The first approach is a KLD-Shewhart chart, where the Shewhart monitoring chart with a three sigma rule is used to monitor the KLD of the response variables residuals from the PLS model. The second approach integrates the KLD statistic into the exponentially weighted moving average monitoring chart. The performance of the PLS-based KLD anomaly-detection methods is illustrated and compared to that of conventional PLS-based anomaly detection methods. Using synthetic data and simulated distillation column data, we demonstrate the greater sensitivity and effectiveness of the developed method over the conventional PLS-based methods, especially when data are highly correlated and small anomalies are of interest. Results indicate that the proposed chart is a very promising KLD-based method because KLD-based charts are, in practice, designed to detect small shifts in process parameters. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Analysis of renal anomalies in VACTERL association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Bridget K; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W; Solomon, Benjamin D

    2014-10-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least three component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p = 0.22, p = 0.284, respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal ultrasound shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. New isostatic mounting concept for a space born Three Mirror Anastigmat (TMA) on the Meteosat Third Generation Infrared Sounder Instrument (MTG-IRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudling, Maximilian; Klammer, Jesko; Lousberg, Gregory; Schumacher, Jean-Marc; Körner, Christian

    2016-07-01

    A novel isostatic mounting concept for a space born TMA of the Meteosat Third Generation Infrared Sounder is presented. The telescope is based on a light-weight all-aluminium design. The mounting concept accommodates the telescope onto a Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CRFP) structure. This design copes with the high CTE mismatch without introducing high stresses into the telescope structure. Furthermore a Line of Sight stability of a few microrads under geostationary orbit conditions is provided. The design operates with full performance at a temperature 20K below the temperature of the CFRP structure and 20K below the integration temperature. The mounting will sustain launch loads of 47g. This paper will provide the design of the Back Telescope Assembly (BTA) isostatic mounting and will summarise the consolidated technical baseline reached following a successful Preliminary Design Review (PDR).

  8. Simple recipe for holographic Weyl anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugini, F. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Diaz, D.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andres Bello,Autopista Concepción-Talcahuano 7100, Talcahuano (Chile)

    2017-04-20

    We propose a recipe — arguably the simplest — to compute the holographic type-B Weyl anomaly for general higher-derivative gravity in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. In 5 and 7 dimensions we identify a suitable basis of curvature invariants that allows to read off easily, without any further computation, the Weyl anomaly coefficients of the dual CFT. We tabulate the contributions from quadratic, cubic and quartic purely algebraic curvature invariants and also from terms involving derivatives of the curvature. We provide few examples, where the anomaly coefficients have been obtained by other means, to illustrate the effectiveness of our prescription.

  9. Praenatalt diagnosticeret hydronefrose og andre urologiske anomalier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Jørgensen, Troels Munch; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

    By renal ultrasound examination, urological anomalies may be demonstrated in 1-2% of fetuses and in about 0.5% of newborns. Boys have about twice the frequency of girls. Surgical treatment is indicated in about one fourth of these urological anomalies. If all pregnant women in Denmark were to have...... fetal ultrasound examination of the kidneys and the urinary tract, about 70 children would be born each year with a prenatally diagnosed urological anomaly for which surgical procedure is or will be indicated. This paper provides Danish guidelines for prenatal diagnosis, follow-up and intervention...

  10. Hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation with flavor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We study models with contributions of similar size to the soft masses from anomaly-and gravity mediation, thereby curing the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. A possible origin of this hybrid setup in a 5-dimensional brane world is briefly discussed. The absence of excessive flavor violation is explained by alignment. The gravitino can be heavy enough so that the gravitino problem of supersymmetric theories with leptogenesis is avoided. The model has a characteristic signature: It predicts the distinctive gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation and, at the same time, O(1) slepton mass splittings.

  11. Potential relationships between seismo-deformation and seismo-conductivity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Wang, Chung-Ho; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Yeh, Ta-Kang; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Lin, Tzu-Wei

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between seismo-deformation and seismo-conductivity anomalies during two M6 earthquakes that occurred on March 27th and June 2nd, 2013 in Taiwan. The Hilbert-Huang Transform is applied on surface displacement data to remove the effects of noise, semi-annual and annual cycles, and the long-term plate movements. The residual displacements have similar orientations when earthquake-related stress accumulates in the crust. Once the accumulated stress approaches the threshold for fault rupture, the orientations of the residual displacements generally become random, except in a small region near the epicenter. Interestingly, high-conductivity anomalies, which can be detected from the 3-component magnetic data via the magnetic transfer function, exist in places very close to this small region near the epicenter. Spatial and temporal correlations between the high-conductivity anomalies and the small region of seismo-deformation anomalies suggest that electric charges may migrate and become trapped in the region during seismogenic processes due to differential stress accumulation. These electric charges form a high-conductivity material that affects the Parkinson vector of the geomagnetic field.

  12. Using EVT for Geological Anomaly Design and Its Application in Identifying Anomalies in Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feilong Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A geological anomaly is the basis of mineral deposit prediction. Through the study of the knowledge and characteristics of geological anomalies, the category of extreme value theory (EVT to which a geological anomaly belongs can be determined. Associating the principle of the EVT and ensuring the methods of the shape parameter and scale parameter for the generalized Pareto distribution (GPD, the methods to select the threshold of the GPD can be studied. This paper designs a new algorithm called the EVT model of geological anomaly. These study data on Cu and Au originate from 26 exploration lines of the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area in Hubei, China. The proposed EVT model of the geological anomaly is applied to identify anomalies in the Jiguanzui Cu-Au mining area. The results show that the model can effectively identify the geological anomaly region of Cu and Au. The anomaly region of Cu and Au is consistent with the range of ore bodies of actual engineering exploration. Therefore, the EVT model of the geological anomaly can effectively identify anomalies, and it has a high indicating function with respect to ore prospecting.

  13. Investigation of the High-Cycle Fatigue Life of Selective Laser Melted and Hot Isostatically Pressed Ti-6Al-4v

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    EOS Electro Optical Systems GmbH HCF high-cycle fatigue HFW horizontal field width HIP hot isostatically pressed GE General Electric ISS ...International Space Station LS laser sintering NAMII National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute NASA National Aeronautics and Space...headlines in September 2014 when the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ) delivered a 3D-printer to the International Space Station

  14. Fabrication of Y-TZP For Dental Crowns Applications by Combining Slip Casting and Cold Isostatic Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, C.C.; Andanastuti Muchtar; Che Husna Azhari; Masfueh Razali; Mohamed Aboras

    2016-01-01

    Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) is a popular material for dental restoration because of its outstanding mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and slip casting are among several consolidation methods for Y-TZP. These methods produce Y-TZP with high mechanical properties. This study aims to enhance the mechanical properties of Y-TZP by combining slip casting and CIP. Y-TZP samples were fabricated using CIP, slip casting, and their combination. Subsequently, the green bodies of the samples were sintered at 1600 degree Celcius. Their mechanical properties (density and hardness) were tested and their microstructures were scrutinized under a scanning electron microscope. Compared with the other two methods, the combined method significantly improved the mechanical properties of Y-TZP. In addition, the combined method also produced a compact and homogeneous microstructure. Therefore, the combination of slip casting and CIP is recommended in the production of Y-TZP with high mechanical properties for dental crown applications. (author)

  15. Re-assessing the influence of glacial-isostatic adjustment on Antarctic ice-mass balance estimated from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, H.; Sasgen, I.; Klemann, V.; Ivins, E. R.; Martinec, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Satellite gravimetry observations of the contemporary ice-mass balance in Antarctica are strongly influenced by mass movements in the Earth interior induced by ice-load variations during the last glacial cycle, i.e. the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA). Newly available GPS observations collected within the POLENET project (www.polenet.org) represent a valuable constraint on GIA models predicting surface deformation and gravity-field change in Antarctica. Here, we re-assess the influence of GIA on Antarctic ice-mass balance estimated from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). For this, we apply a viscoelastic Earth model, accounting for the rheological differences between East and West Antarctica, to three independent glacial histories ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004), IJ05 (Ivins & James, 2005) and HUY (Huybrechts, 2002). We predict the associated Antarctic GIA signal. With a stochastic approach, the glacial histories are regionally modified to satisfy GPS, GRACE as well as the combination of both observation types. We assess the influence of constraining GIA with GPS/GRACE on the reduction of the error budget of Antarctic ice-mass balances from GRACE.

  16. Effects of hot isostatic pressing temperature on casting shrinkage densification and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ti6Al4V alloy castings were produced by the investment casting process, and the hot isostatic pressing (HIP was used to remove shrinkage from castings. The processing pressure and holding time for HIP were 150 MPa and 20 min, respectively. Four different HIP temperatures were tested, including 750 ºC, 850 ºC, 920 ºC and 950 ºC. To evaluate the effects of temperature on densification and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy treated by HIP, non-destructive testing and metallographic observation was performed. The experimental results show that the shrinkage was completely closed at 920 ºC and 950 ºC. The densification of Ti6Al4V alloy increased as the HIP temperature increased below 920 ºC. The lamellae were more uniform, the thickness of lamellae was obviously broadened and the structure was coarsen. Besides, the Norton creep equation was used to simulate the effect of different temperatures on the densification of Ti6Al4V alloy during HIP. The simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental results. It was also found that 920 ºC is a suitable temperature for HIP for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  17. Cold Isostatic-Pressured Silver Nanowire Electrodes for Flexible Organic Solar Cells via Room-Temperature Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Inchan; Um, Han-Don; Lee, Sojeong; Lee, Kangmin; Park, Jeonghwan; Shin, Hyeonoh; Kwon, Tae-Hyuk; Kang, Seok Ju; Seo, Kwanyong

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) are considered to be an essential structural component of flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs). Silver nanowire (AgNW) electrodes are widely used as TCEs owing to their excellent electrical and optical properties. The fabrication of AgNW electrodes has faced challenges in terms of forming large uniform interconnected networks so that high conductivity and reproducibility can be achieved. In this study, a simple method for creating an intimate contact between AgNWs that uses cold isostatic pressing (CIP) is demonstrated. This method increases the conductivity of the AgNW electrodes, which enables the fabrication of high-efficiency inverted FOSCs that have a power conversion efficiency of 8.75% on flexible polyethylene terephthalate with no short circuiting occurring as the CIP process minimizes the surface roughness of the AgNW electrode. This allows to achieve 100% manufacturing yield of FOSCs. Furthermore, these highly efficient FOSCs are proven to only be 2.4% less efficient even for an extreme bending radius of R ≈ 1.5 mm, compared with initial efficiency. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states as source of specific heat capacity anomalies in magnetic frustrated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.

    2018-04-01

    Anomalies of the specific heat capacity are investigated in the framework of the exactly solvable antiferromagnetic spin- 1 / 2 Ising model in the external magnetic field on the geometrically frustrated tetrahedron recursive lattice. It is shown that the Schottky-type anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity is related to the existence of unique highly macroscopically degenerated single-point ground states which are formed on the borders between neighboring plateau-like ground states. It is also shown that the very existence of these single-point ground states with large residual entropies predicts the appearance of another anomaly in the behavior of the specific heat capacity for low temperatures, namely, the field-induced double-peak structure, which exists, and should be observed experimentally, along with the Schottky-type anomaly in various frustrated magnetic system.

  19. Improved Principal Component Analysis for Anomaly Detection: Application to an Emergency Department

    KAUST Repository

    Harrou, Fouzi

    2015-07-03

    Monitoring of production systems, such as those in hospitals, is primordial for ensuring the best management and maintenance desired product quality. Detection of emergent abnormalities allows preemptive actions that can prevent more serious consequences. Principal component analysis (PCA)-based anomaly-detection approach has been used successfully for monitoring systems with highly correlated variables. However, conventional PCA-based detection indices, such as the Hotelling’s T2T2 and the Q statistics, are ill suited to detect small abnormalities because they use only information from the most recent observations. Other multivariate statistical metrics, such as the multivariate cumulative sum (MCUSUM) control scheme, are more suitable for detection small anomalies. In this paper, a generic anomaly detection scheme based on PCA is proposed to monitor demands to an emergency department. In such a framework, the MCUSUM control chart is applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the PCA model. The proposed PCA-based MCUSUM anomaly detection strategy is successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the pediatric emergency department in the Lille Regional Hospital Centre, France. The detection results evidence that the proposed method is more effective than the conventional PCA-based anomaly-detection methods.

  20. Deconstruction and reconstruction of an anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Strobel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 2 (2012), s. 678-689 ISSN 0899-8256 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : anomalies * false consensus * information processing Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2012

  1. Quantum anomalies in nodal line semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    Topological semimetals are a new class of condensed matter systems with nontrivial electronic structure topology. Their unusual observable properties may often be understood in terms of quantum anomalies. In particular, Weyl and Dirac semimetals, which have point band-touching nodes, are characterized by the chiral anomaly, which leads to the Fermi arc surface states, anomalous Hall effect, negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, and planar Hall effect. In this paper, we explore analogous phenomena in nodal line semimetals. We demonstrate that such semimetals realize a three-dimensional analog of the parity anomaly, which is a known property of two-dimensional Dirac semimetals arising, for example, on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We relate one of the characteristic properties of nodal line semimetals, namely, the drumhead surface states, to this anomaly, and derive the field theory, which encodes the corresponding anomalous response.

  2. Mexico Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for Mexico, North-Central America and the Western Caribbean Sea is NOT the input data set used in the development of the MEXICO97 model....

  3. SEG US Bouguer Gravity Anomaly Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SEG gravity data are the product of the ad hoc Gravity Anomaly Map (GAM) Committee, sponsored by the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) and the U.S....

  4. Comparison of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms have been applied to Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) data to serve the purpose of developing a...

  5. Major congenital anomalies in a Danish region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Hansen, Anne Vinkel; Birkelund, Anne Sofie

    2014-01-01

    : diabetes, epilepsy, mental disorder, thyroid disease, asthma, or inflammatory bowel disease. Medication for these conditions accounted for 46% of maternal drug use. CONCLUSION: Maternal morbidity and use of potentially teratogenic medication have increased among congenital anomaly cases. Foetal and infant...

  6. Ionospheric Anomaly before Kyushu|Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available GIM data released by IGS is used in the article and a new method of combining the Sliding Time Window Method and the Ionospheric TEC correlation analysis method of adjacent grid points is proposed to study the relationship between pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies and earthquake. By analyzing the abnormal change of TEC in the 5 grid points around the seismic region, the abnormal change of ionospheric TEC is found before the earthquake and the correlation between the TEC sequences of lattice points is significantly affected by earthquake. Based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of TEC anomaly, anomalies of 6 h, 12 h and 6 h were found near the epicenter three days before the earthquake. Finally, ionospheric tomographic technology is used to do tomographic inversion on electron density. And the distribution of the electron density in the ionospheric anomaly is further analyzed.

  7. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  8. Quantum machine learning for quantum anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Rebentrost, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from "normal" data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas such as finance, fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning, and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine-learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely used algorithms are the kernel principal component analysis and the one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources that are logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine-learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.

  9. Conventional Chromosome Analysis of Fetuses with Central Nervous System Anomalies and Associated Anomalies: Is Anything Changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Ekmekci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS abnormalities are often isolated but can accompany various genetic syndromes. In this study, we evaluated conventional karyotype results and associated findings of fetuses that were diagnosed with CNS abnormalities. Cases included in the study were diagnosed with fetal CNS anomalies and underwent conventional karyotyping. Conventional karyotype results of subjects were compared with karyotype results of fetal karyotyped patients as a result of maternal anxiety in a two-year period. In this period, 69 patients were diagnosed with fetal CNS anomalies and 64 of them underwent invasive fetal karyotyping. Of these, 32 patients had isolated CNS anomalies, while 32 were associated with other anomalies. There was no significant difference between karyotype results when compared with the control group (p = 0.76. Apart from some specific anomalies, the aneuploidy rate does not significantly differ between fetuses with CNS anomalies and the control group. Advanced genetic evaluation may provide additional diagnostic benefits, especially for this group.

  10. Conventional Chromosome Analysis of Fetuses with Central Nervous System Anomalies and Associated Anomalies: Is Anything Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Emre; Demirel, Emine; Gencdal, Servet

    2018-02-06

    Central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities are often isolated but can accompany various genetic syndromes. In this study, we evaluated conventional karyotype results and associated findings of fetuses that were diagnosed with CNS abnormalities. Cases included in the study were diagnosed with fetal CNS anomalies and underwent conventional karyotyping. Conventional karyotype results of subjects were compared with karyotype results of fetal karyotyped patients as a result of maternal anxiety in a two-year period. In this period, 69 patients were diagnosed with fetal CNS anomalies and 64 of them underwent invasive fetal karyotyping. Of these, 32 patients had isolated CNS anomalies, while 32 were associated with other anomalies. There was no significant difference between karyotype results when compared with the control group ( p = 0.76). Apart from some specific anomalies, the aneuploidy rate does not significantly differ between fetuses with CNS anomalies and the control group. Advanced genetic evaluation may provide additional diagnostic benefits, especially for this group.

  11. Understanding water's anomalies with locally favored structures

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, John; Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Water is a complex structured liquid of hydrogen-bonded molecules that displays a surprising array of unusual properties, also known as water anomalies, the most famous being the density maximum at about $4^\\circ$C. The origin of these anomalies is still a matter of debate, and so far a quantitative description of water's phase behavior starting from the molecular arrangements is still missing. Here we provide a simple physical description from microscopic data obtained through computer simul...

  12. Anomalies hematologiques au cours des accidents vasculaires ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: En Côte d'Ivoire, les accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) sont de plus en plus fréquents. Les anomalies biochimiques sont décrites au cours de ces pathologies. Cependant une composante hématologique est de plus en plus évoquée. L'objectif de cette étude a été de rapporter les anomalies ...

  13. An exceptional combination of congenital coronary anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharrat, Ilyes; El-Fassy, Eric; Amabile, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of congenital coronary artery anomalies combining the absence of the circumflex artery, ectopic origins of left anterior descending and diagonal arteries and abnormal courses of these vessels. These rare anomalies were detected during an elective coronary angiography in a patient with stable angina that was related to significant stenosis of the posterolateral and middle right coronary artery. A computed tomography scanner with three-dimensional reconstructions confirmed the anatomy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation with flavor

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We study models with contributions of similar size to the soft masses from anomaly- and gravity mediation, thereby curing the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. A possible origin of this hybrid setup in a 5-dimensional brane world is briefly discussed. The absence of excessive flavor violation is explained by alignment. The gravitino can be heavy enough so that the gravitino problem of supersymmetric theories with leptogenesis is avoided. The model has a characteristic signature:...

  15. Medical imaging for congenital anomalies of the lung. Focused on tracheobronchial and parenchymal anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohda, Ehiichi; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Ishibashi, Ryouchi [Tachikawa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    This is a review of medical imaging studies for congenital anomalies of the lung focused on tracheobronchial and parenchymal anomalies. It is important to know the findings of these developmental anomalies, because they are frequently manifested as infectious diseases or mass. Documented details are pulmonary agenesis, aplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia, tracheal agenesis, bridging bronchus, tracheal bronchus, congenital tracheal stenosis, bronchial atresia, bronchobiliary fistula, bronchogenic cyst, bronchopulmonary sequestration, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and pulmonary lymphangiectasia. (author)

  16. High salinity anomalies south of Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K.; Carter, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Patches of higher salinity water were observed, using Seaglider data, in the upper 50m of the water-column between Oahu and Penguin Bank. These anomalies occur approximately once a month, and are visible in the glider data for an average of 3 days. Anomalies have abrupt transitions occurring over mere hours. Salinity within the patches can reach values in excess of 35.2 psu, 0.3 higher than the average profile for the region. The salinity signature associated with the anomalies corresponds to Subtropical surface water, found north of the Hawaiian island chain. The high salinity water is trapped by the thermocline in the mixed layer. Seasonal variations of the anomaly depth are directly related to the seasonal variations of mixed layer depth. These patches of high salinity coincide with the presence of eddies. Using sea surface height as an indicator, we found that eddy-eddy interaction and eddy-island interaction dictate the advection of upwelled waters into the region. Infrequently, we observe corresponding temperature anomalies. The larger the distance between the center of the eddy and the glider, the less visible the temperature anomaly. Positive (negative) values indicate salinity above (below) the mean profile.

  17. Coronary artery anomalies in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuff, Mette H; Trolle, Christian; Wen, Jan; Jensen, Jesper M; Nørgaard, Bjarne L; Gutmark, Ephraim J; Gutmark-Little, Iris; Mortensen, Kristian H; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Andersen, Niels H

    Congenital heart disease, primarily involving the left-sided structures, is often seen in patients with Turner Syndrome. Moreover, a few case reports have indicated that coronary anomalies may be more prevalent in Turner Syndrome than in the normal population. We therefore set out to systematically investigate coronary arterial anatomy by computed tomographic coronary angiography (coronary CTA) in Turner Syndrome patients. Fifty consecutive women with Turner Syndrome (mean age 47 years [17-71]) underwent coronary CTA. Patients were compared with 25 gender-matched controls. Coronary anomaly was more frequent in patients with Turner Syndrome than in healthy controls [20% vs. 4% (p = 0.043)]. Nine out of ten abnormal cases had an anomalous left coronary artery anatomy (absent left main trunk, n = 7; circumflex artery originating from the right aortic sinus, n = 2). One case had a tubular origin of the right coronary artery above the aortic sinus. There was no correlation between the presence of coronary arterial anomalies and karyotype, bicuspid aortic valve, or other congenital heart defects. Coronary anomalies are highly prevalent in Turner Syndrome. The left coronary artery is predominantly affected, with an absent left main coronary artery being the most common anomaly. No hemodynamically relevant coronary anomalies were found. Copyright © 2016 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  18. GRAVITY ANOMALIES OF THE CRUST AND UPPER MANTLE FOR CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Senachin

    2016-01-01

    anomaly to –150 mGal, the boundaries of which are outlined by narrow zones of positive anomalies. The southern Caspian Sea is also characterized by a negative anomaly to –150 mGal, while Tien Shan is marked by a narrow band of positive anomalies up to 110 mGal. In most of the study area, the field is close to normal and varies within a few dozens of milligals. Moderately positive gravity (within 40¸80 mGal is typical of the rest of the Alpine-Himalayan folded belt. A slight positive gravity field is revealed in the marginal seas of Southeast Asia, wherein there are two narrow zones of high-amplitude anomalies of different signs (up to 200 mGal, which are generated by isostatically uncompensated systems of island arcs and trenches (Fig. 6.The gravity effect of the Earth's crust estimated for Asia shows the presence of major anomalies varying in the range of 940 mGal (from –380 to +560 mGal. The maximum positive anomaly is located in the vicinity of the African triple junction of the rift zones, wherein the anomaly reaches a positive maximum of about +560 mGal. Positive anomalies are also revealed in the Tarim Basin (+130 mGal, Southeastern China (+100 mGal, the Iranian plateau (+180 mGal, and back-arc subduction zones of the Indian and Pacific plates (+290 mGal. Large negative anomalies correspond to the Caspian and Black Seas (–380 mGal, Himalayas (–280 mGal, and eastern Tibet (–330 mGal. The Eastern Mediterranean is characterized by a negative anomaly (–310 mGal.The eastern Arabian Peninsula and the Mesopotamian lowlands are characterized by negative anomalies up to –220 mGal. The map of calculated crustal gravity anomalies also shows submarine ridges (+280 mGal that trend from south to north and seem to trace ‘hot spots’ that burn through the lithospheric plate (Fig. 7.Gravitational anomalies in the mantle were calculated by subtracting the gravity effect of the crust from the observed gravity field. The anomalies range from –570 to +350 m

  19. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  20. Gravity and geothermal anomalies in Borno Basin, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some prominent geothermal anomalies are found occurring in association with gravity anomalies in the Borno basin. Similar gravity anomalies also occur in the Benue and Niger (Nupe) basins. Both the geothermal and gravity anomalies of Borno basin are trending NW-SE similar to the Niger (Nupe) basin, while the Benue ...

  1. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  2. Review of Bothnian Sea shore-level displacement data and use of a GIS tool to estimate isostatic uplift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorela, A.; Penttinen, T.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2009-02-01

    The aim and approach of the study were to produce source data estimates necessary for modelling the future biosphere. The study updated the list of 14 C datings of sea-level index points, which show when lakes and mires were isolated from the Baltic Sea due to isostatic uplift. The study concentrated on the Bothnian Sea, especially the Olkiluoto area. The older Finnish datings (a list of 260 sea-level index points determined in 1995) were checked and revised as needed. New data was available for 56 Finnish and 41 Swedish index points. State-of-the-art 14 C calibration methods were applied. Various available data were used to estimate the parameters of the glacio-isostatic uplift model's slow component. The component describes the uplift in relation to time using parameters B s , which is related to the uplift's total duration, and A s , which is half of the total uplift possible in the period lasting from the Last Glacial Maximum to the distant future. The B s values were estimated by means of 1) crustal thickness and 2) shoreline displacement curves. In applying method 1, this study revised the function describing the relationship between crustal thickness and B s and created a new derivative-based method that also estimates the parameter A s without radiocarbon datings and using only crustal thickness and current uplift maps. In method 2, sea-level index point subsets along the Finnish and Swedish coasts of the Bothnian Sea were selected from the revised database, and their datings and elevations were used to determine the corresponding land uplift parameters. The parameter value distributions were used to produce maps. The values of the inertia factor B s are on average 6% higher than those calculated in 2001 but they are 10% lower in the Olkiluoto region. According to the interpolations of the new and old data, the estimated uplift at Olkiluoto for AD 12000 is 2.8 m (7%) less than calculated previously. The derivative-based method predicts an uplift for AD

  3. Joint inversion estimate of regional glacial isostatic adjustment in Antarctica considering a lateral varying Earth structure (ESA STSE Project REGINA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasgen, Ingo; Martín-Español, Alba; Horvath, Alexander; Klemann, Volker; Petrie, Elizabeth J.; Wouters, Bert; Horwath, Martin; Pail, Roland; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Clarke, Peter J.; Konrad, Hannes; Drinkwater, Mark R.

    2017-12-01

    A major uncertainty in determining the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet from measurements of satellite gravimetry, and to a lesser extent satellite altimetry, is the poorly known correction for the ongoing deformation of the solid Earth caused by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Although much progress has been made in consistently modeling the ice-sheet evolution throughout the last glacial cycle, as well as the induced bedrock deformation caused by these load changes, forward models of GIA remain ambiguous due to the lack of observational constraints on the ice sheet's past extent and thickness and mantle rheology beneath the continent. As an alternative to forward-modeling GIA, we estimate GIA from multiple space-geodetic observations: Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), Envisat/ICESat and Global Positioning System (GPS). Making use of the different sensitivities of the respective satellite observations to current and past surface-mass (ice mass) change and solid Earth processes, we estimate GIA based on viscoelastic response functions to disc load forcing. We calculate and distribute the viscoelastic response functions according to estimates of the variability of lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity in Antarctica. We compare our GIA estimate with published GIA corrections and evaluate its impact in determining the ice-mass balance in Antarctica from GRACE and satellite altimetry. Particular focus is applied to the Amundsen Sea Sector in West Antarctica, where uplift rates of several centimetres per year have been measured by GPS. We show that most of this uplift is caused by the rapid viscoelastic response to recent ice-load changes, enabled by the presence of a low-viscosity upper mantle in West Antarctica. This paper presents the second and final contributions summarizing the work carried out within a European Space Agency funded study, REGINA (www.regina-science.eu).

  4. A Comparison of the Crustal Deformation Predicted by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to Seismicity in the Baffin Region of Northern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, T. S.; Schamehorn, T.; Bent, A. L.; Allen, T. I.; Mulder, T.; Simon, K.

    2016-12-01

    The horizontal crustal strain-rates induced by glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) in northern Canada and western Greenland region are compared to the spatial pattern of seismicity. For the comparison, an updated seismicity catalogue was created from the 2010 version of the NRCan Seismic Hazard Earthquake Epicentre File (SHEEF2010) catalogue and the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) catalogue of the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS). Crustal motion rates were computed with the Innu/Laur16 ice-sheet history and the VM5a viscosity profile (Simon et al., 2015; 2016). This GIA model optimizes the fit to relative sea-level and vertical crustal motion measurements around Hudson Bay and in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA). A region in Baffin Bay with historically high seismicity, including the 1933 M 7.4 and the 1934 and 1945 M 6.5 earthquakes, features high predicted GIA strain-rates. Elsewhere, agreement is not strong, with zones of seismicity occurring where predicted horizontal crustal strain-rates are small and large crustal strain-rates predicted where earthquake occurrence is muted. For example, large compressional crustal strain-rates are predicted beneath seismically quiescent portions of the Greenland ice sheet. Similarly, large predicted extensional strain-rates occur around southern Hudson Bay and the Foxe Basin, which are also regions of relative seismic quiescence. Additional factors to be considered include the orientation of the background stress field, relative to the predicted stress changes, and potential pre-existing zones of lithospheric weakness.

  5. Comparison of structure, morphology, and leach characteristics of multi-phase ceramics produced via melt processing and hot isostatic pressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandeneau, Christopher S.; Hong, Tao; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Vance, Eric R.; Amoroso, Jake W.

    2018-04-01

    Melt processing of multi-phase ceramic waste forms offers potential advantages over traditional solid-state synthesis methods given both the prevalence of melters currently in use and the ability to reduce the possibility of airborne radionuclide contamination. In this work, multi-phase ceramics with a targeted hollandite composition of Ba1.0Cs0.3Cr1.0Al0.3Fe1.0Ti5.7O16 were fabricated by melt processing at 1675 °C and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1250 and 1300 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed hollandite as the major phase in all specimens. Zirconolite/pyrochlore peaks and weaker perovskite reflections were observed after melt processing, while HIP samples displayed prominent perovskite peaks and low-intensity zirconolite reflections. Melt processing produced specimens with large (>50 μm) well-defined hollandite grains, while HIP yielded samples with a more fine-grained morphology. Elemental analysis showed "islands" rich in Cs and Ti across the surface of the 1300 °C HIP sample, suggesting partial melting and partitioning of Cs into multiple phases. Photoemission data revealed multiple Cs 3d spin-orbit pairs for the HIP samples, with the lower binding energy doublets likely corresponding to Cs located in more leachable phases. Among all specimens examined, the melt-processed sample exhibited the lowest fractional release rates for Rb and Cs. However, the retention of Sr and Mo was greater in the HIP specimens.

  6. Glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia and the inference of the 3D mantle structure in Northern Europe from GRACE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Holger; Wu, Patrick; Wang, Hansheng

    2010-05-01

    The ongoing response of the Earth to the glacial and deglacial events of the last Ice Age, the so-called the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) process, is a common phenomenon in North America and Fennoscandia. Knowledge of the GIA process allows us to understand mantle rheology and dynamics, ice sheet thickness history and climate change. Recently, analysis of data of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission allows us to identify long-term GIA mass changes in North America and Fennoscandia. As there are now more than 7 years of data available, the determined trends of these mass changes are robust enough for the inference of the viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle. In this study we focus on the Fennoscandian rebound area. In a first step, GRACE data are taken to fix the radial (1D) viscosity profile and the lithospheric thickness, which are needed as background parameters for 3D earth modeling. The results agree well to former works using relative sea-level and GPS data. In the same way, we test different ice models (ICE-3G, ICE-4G, ICE-5G, RSES) used in the GIA modeling. In a second step, GRACE data help to constrain the 3D viscosity profile, which is currently used in 3D spherical FE modeling. We assign the best 1D results as background profile and also the most reliable ice models from the 1D investigation. Our results show that GRACE data represent another dataset that can be successfully used in GIA investigations. In turn, our results help to solve GRACE-related questions such as identification of the most adequate filter technique in GRACE-based GIA investigations and of the best reduction method for hydrological mass change signals.

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment at the Laurentide ice sheet margin: Models and observations in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Alexander; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Shum, C. K.; Wu, Patrick; van der Wal, Wouter; Fotopoulos, Georgia

    2008-10-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling in North America relies on relative sea level information which is primarily obtained from areas far away from the uplift region. The lack of accurate geodetic observations in the Great Lakes region, which is located in the transition zone between uplift and subsidence due to the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet, has prevented more detailed studies of this former margin of the ice sheet. Recently, observations of vertical crustal motion from improved GPS network solutions and combined tide gauge and satellite altimetry solutions have become available. This study compares these vertical motion observations with predictions obtained from 70 different GIA models. The ice sheet margin is distinct from the centre and far field of the uplift because the sensitivity of the GIA process towards Earth parameters such as mantle viscosity is very different. Specifically, the margin area is most sensitive to the uppermost mantle viscosity and allows for better constraints of this parameter. The 70 GIA models compared herein have different ice loading histories (ICE-3/4/5G) and Earth parameters including lateral heterogeneities. The root-mean-square differences between the 6 best models and the two sets of observations (tide gauge/altimetry and GPS) are 0.66 and 1.57 mm/yr, respectively. Both sets of independent observations are highly correlated and show a very similar fit to the models, which indicates their consistent quality. Therefore, both data sets can be considered as a means for constraining and assessing the quality of GIA models in the Great Lakes region and the former margin of the Laurentide ice sheet.

  8. Re-assessing Present Day Global Mass Transport and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment From a Data Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Jiang, Y.; Simonsen, S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Ligtenberg, S.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.

    2017-12-01

    Determining present-day mass transport (PDMT) is complicated by the fact that most observations contain signals from both present day ice melting and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Despite decades of progress in geodynamic modeling and new observations, significant uncertainties remain in both. The key to separate present-day ice mass change and signals from GIA is to include data of different physical characteristics. We designed an approach to separate PDMT and GIA signatures by estimating them simultaneously using globally distributed interdisciplinary data with distinct physical information and a dynamically constructed a priori GIA model. We conducted a high-resolution global reappraisal of present-day ice mass balance with focus on Earth's polar regions and its contribution to global sea-level rise using a combination of ICESat, GRACE gravity, surface geodetic velocity data, and an ocean bottom pressure model. Adding ice altimetry supplies critically needed dual data types over the interiors of ice covered regions to enhance separation of PDMT and GIA signatures, and achieve half an order of magnitude expected higher accuracies for GIA and consequently ice mass balance estimates. The global data based approach can adequately address issues of PDMT and GIA induced geocenter motion and long-wavelength signatures important for large areas such as Antarctica and global mean sea level. In conjunction with the dense altimetry data, we solved for PDMT coefficients up to degree and order 180 by using a higher-resolution GRACE data set, and a high-resolution a priori PDMT model that includes detailed geographic boundaries. The high-resolution approach solves the problem of multiple resolutions in various data types, greatly reduces aliased errors from a low-degree truncation, and at the same time, enhances separation of signatures from adjacent regions such as Greenland and Canadian Arctic territories.

  9. Study of the mechanical properties of stainless steel 316LN prepared by hot isostatic compression. Influence of preparation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Raphael

    1999-01-01

    This research thesis has been performed within an R and D programme which aimed at optimising and certifying the HIP process (hot isostatic pressing) from a technological as well as metallurgical point of view. The objective has been to improve dimensional reproducibility of fabricated parts, and metallurgical properties of the dense material. Reference parts are those belonging to PWR primary circuit, and are made in cast austenitic-ferritic steel. Thus, the objective has been to show that these parts can be beneficially fabricated by powder metallurgy in austenitic grade. A mock part (a primary circuit pump wheel at the 1/2 scale) has first been fabricated by HIP, and a more complex shape generator has been designed. The author reports the determination of microstructure and mechanical characteristics of the austenitic 316LN steel produced by HIP and used to fabricate mock parts and demonstrator parts, the study of the relationship between dense material properties and fabrication parameters (temperature, pressure, consolidation time), and the analysis of the consequences of an elaboration by HIP on the 316LN steel with comparison with forged parts. After a presentation of the Powder Metallurgy elaboration technique, the author reports a bibliographical study on the precipitation at Prior Particle Boundaries (PPB), reports the study of microstructure and mechanical properties of the HIPed 316LN, and discusses the possibility of a decrease of precipitation at PPBs by adjusting powder degassing or a granulometric sorting. The last part reports the extension of the study of steel coherence to a temperature range which encompasses the primary circuit operation temperature (350 C). Resilience tests are performed as well as mechanical tests on notched axisymmetric samples. A finite element calculation of these samples allows the validation of the use of a Thomson-type model to describe the emergence of defects which are typical of a steel elaborated by powder

  10. Dental Anomalies in a Brazilian Cleft Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Jamile; Mariano, Lorena C; Canguçu, Daiane; Coutinho, Thaynara S L; Hoshi, Ryuichi; Medrado, Alena Peixoto; Martelli-Junior, Hercílio; Coletta, Ricardo D; Reis, Silvia R A

    2016-11-01

      The aim of this study was to radiographically investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies outside the cleft area in a group of Brazilian patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P).   A retrospective analysis of 207 panoramic radiographs of patients with NSCL/P aged 12 to 45 years without history of tooth extraction and orthodontic treatment was performed.   Dental anomalies were found in 75.4% of the patients, and tooth agenesis (29.2%) and supernumerary tooth (2.6%) were the most common anomalies. The risk of agenesis was higher among the individuals with cleft palate (CP) compared with individuals with cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) (agenesis: CP versus CL: odds ratio 6.27, 95% confidence interval 2.21-17.8, P = .0003; CP versus CLP: odds ratio 2.94; 95% confidence interval 1.27-6.81, P = .01). The frequency of dental agenesis was higher in patients with unilateral complete CLP (agenesis: P agenesis: P = .0013), complete CP (agenesis: P agenesis: P dental agenesis (P dental anomalies in patients with NSCL/P was higher than that reported in overall population. This study found preferential associations between dental anomalies and specific extensions of NSCL/P, suggesting that dental agenesis and ectopic tooth may be part of oral cleft subphenotypes.

  11. [Vascular anomalies in the neonatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, M; Vicario, F; Soria, A; Parri, F J; Albert, A

    2017-07-20

    Vascular anomalies in the neonatal period are a diagnostic challenge for the lack of evident signs, symptoms and follow-up, and the convenience of restricting aggressive diagnostic tests. The aim of this work is to review the characteristics of neonatal cases presented to our Vascular Anomalies Unit in the last 5 years. All cases of suspected vascular anomaly presented to our unit before 1 month of age between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed, diagnostic tests and treatments carried out with chronology were analyzed. Presumptive diagnosis and final diagnosis (when available) were compared. Fifteen vascular tumors were found, 2 with visceral involvement: 6 infantile hemangiomas (IH), 3 NICH, 4 RICH, 1 tufted hemangioma, 1 unspecified liver vascular tumor, 3 venous malformations (2 equivocal MRI and a hyperkeratotic venous malformation), 4 lymphatic malformations, 3 of them macrocystic, and 2 vascular lesions that were diagnosed of fibrosarcoma and sclerema neonatorum and they were not vascular anomalies. Only 3 patients with macrocystic lymphatic malformations had prenatal diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis of vascular anomalies during the first month of life is difficult, even with MRI. Only in a few cases early treatment is needed, so it is worth taking time to follow-up. Different types of treatment (observation, propranolol, biopsy, laser, embolization, and resection) will depend on the condition to be treated. A continuous observation can avoid unnecessary procedures and risks.

  12. HYPERSPECTRAL ANOMALY DETECTION IN URBAN SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Rejas Ayuga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR, shortwave infrared (SWIR and thermal infrared (TIR from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain and San José (Costa Rica respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  13. Agricultural pesticide residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    The utilization of tracer techniques in the study of agricultural pesticide residues is reviewed under the following headings: lysimeter experiments, micro-ecosystems, translocation in soil, degradation of pesticides in soil, biological availability of soil-applied substances, bound residues in the soil, use of macro- and microautography, double and triple labelling, use of tracer labelling in animal experiments. (U.K.)

  14. Classification automatique d'anomalies du trafic

    OpenAIRE

    Owezarski, Philippe; Fernandes, Guilherme

    2009-01-01

    National audience; La détection d'anomalies dans le trafic réseau et leur caractérisation est un sujet d'importance depuis de nombreuses années. Une gestion efficace de grands réseaux dépend clairement de la capacité à identifier et limiter l'effet de ces anomalies. En particulier, les anomalies causées par une attaque de déni de service par inondation ont un très fort impact sur la qualité de service des réseaux, même lorsque les liens sont largement surdimensionnés et pas saturés par ces at...

  15. Gauge Anomalies and Neutrino Seesaw Models

    CERN Document Server

    Neves Cebola, Luis Manuel

    Despite the success of the Standard Model concerning theoretical predictions, there are several experimental results that cannot be explained and there are reasons to believe that there exists new physics beyond it. Neutrino oscillations, and hence their masses, are examples of this. Experimentally it is known that neutrinos masses are quite small, when compared to all Standard Model particle masses. Among the theoretical possibilities to explain these tiny masses, the seesaw mechanism is a simple and well-motivated framework. In its minimal version, heavy particles are introduced that decouple from the theory in the early universe. To build consistent theories, classical symmetries need to be preserved at quantum level, so that there are no anomalies. The cancellation of these anomalies leads to constraints in the parameters of the theory. One attractive solution is to realize the anomaly cancellation through the modication of the gauge symmetry. In this thesis we present a short review of some features of t...

  16. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  17. Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevlud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of network anomalies. Network anomalies include everything that is quite different from the normal operation. For detection of anomalies were used machine learning systems. Machine learning can be considered as a support or a limited type of artificial intelligence. A machine learning system usually starts with some knowledge and a corresponding knowledge organization so that it can interpret, analyse, and test the knowledge acquired. There are several machine learning techniques available. We tested Decision tree learning and Bayesian networks. The open source data-mining framework WEKA was the tool we used for testing the classify, cluster, association algorithms and for visualization of our results. The WEKA is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks.

  18. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  19. [Megadolichobasilar anomaly causing acute deafness with vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, M H; Radeloff, A; Bink, A; Gstöttner, W; Ziemann, U

    2008-01-01

    Megadolichobasilar anomaly, a dilatant arteriopathy of the basilar artery attributable to chronic arterial hypertension, can cause cranial nerve compression syndromes of the cerebellopontine angle or infarcts of the vertebrobasilar circulation. In this paper, we report on a patient with known megadolichobasilar anomaly and a partially thrombosed fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery, who presented with acute-onset vertigo and subsequent deafness due to thromboembolic occlusion of the labyrinthine artery. Because of the vascular origin of the patient's symptoms, his vertigo disappeared over time while the deafness persisted.

  20. Comparing corrective actions with anomaly resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.W.; Harms, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    Quality control and assurance are essential to any system to safeguard nuclear materials. Formalization of quality assurance activities for safeguards under the name of quality assurance has begun at several organizations. The approach to quality assurance for safeguards differs from quality assurance for facilities and hardware both in the definition and use of the product, which is information. Anomaly resolution is comparable to corrective actions in quality assurance of a hardware product, but is also part of the product of safeguards and, therefore, has its own quality assurance. This paper reviews corrective actions as compared to anomaly resolution

  1. Congenital anomalies of the neonatal head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.B.; Teele, R.L.; Dobkin, G.R.; Fine, C.; Bundy, A.L.; Doubilet, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    US is a noninvasive modality that has proved highly valuable in the assessment of congenital intracranial anomalies in the neonate. The patterns of malformation must be familiar to those who obtain and interpret neonatal cranial sonograms. The authors present a variety of cases of congenital anomalies studied with US, including agenesis of the corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, occipital enecphalocele, congenital hydrocephalus, vein of Galen aneurysm, hydranencephaly, holoprosencephaly, absence of the septum pellucidum, schizencephaly, and hypoplastic cerebellum. Correlation with other radiographic modalities and pathologic follow-up, available in a majority of cases, is included

  2. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  3. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  4. Moho geometry gravity inversion experiment (MoGGIE): A refined model of the Australian Moho, and its tectonic and isostatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Alan R. A.

    2010-08-01

    At the continent-scale, models of Moho depth based on seismic estimates alone can be inadequate due to irregular or sparse data. Gravity-based Moho modelling provides better coverage, however, the methods used are typically hampered by an inability to explicitly honour seismic constraints and are also limited by over simplistic model conditions, e.g. laterally-homogenous layering. I present a new method to generate a continent-scale Moho model, based on the constrained inversion of free-air gravity data. This method explicitly honours seismic Moho estimates and accounts for a laterally heterogeneous crust and mantle. Resolution and sensitivity testing shows that, for wavelengths greater than 200 km, crustal density and Moho depth are recovered with reasonable accuracy, ± 30 kg m - 3 and ± 3 km respectively. MoGGIE uses a six layer model incorporating ocean, sedimentary basin, upper crust, lower/oceanic crust, eclogitised crust and mantle. Inversion variables were the density of the crustal layers, constrained by a standard density model, and the depths to intra-crustal boundaries and the Moho, constrained by 230 seismic depth estimates. The results demonstrate that a balanced approach to seismically-constrained gravity inversion has the capability to generate detailed and well-constrained models of the Moho and crustal density at the continent-scale. For Australia, this is a clear improvement on the sparse and irregular resolution of the Moho provided by seismic estimates of crustal thickness, which fail to resolve short-wavelength features. Newly defined tectonic features include extensive magmatic underplates, crustal-scale shear zones, and the boundaries between tectonic blocks. Isostatic analysis reveals that little of the continent is close to isostatic equilibrium, with isostatic disequilibria preserved at multiple scales, from hundreds of kilometres to the entire continent. These disequilibria are interpreted to indicate long-wavelength flexure of highly

  5. On the Interface Generated by Hot Isostatic Pressing Compaction Process Between an AISI 304 Container and the Ti6Al4V Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherillo, Fabio; Aprea, Paolo; Astarita, Antonello; Scherillo, Antonella; Testani, Claudio; Squillace, Antonino

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the interface between a Ti6Al4V component made by Hot Isostatic Pressing and the AISI 304 container was studied in detail. The interface is dominated by interdiffusion with evident Kirkendall effect. Different intermetallic phases have been recognized. In particular, on the AISI 304 side of the interface, both χ and σ phases have been identified, whereas on the Ti6Al4V side λ phase (Laves), FeTi, (Fe,Ni)Ti, Ti2Ni, and β-Ti are present.

  6. Effects of hot isostatic pressing on the elastic modulus and tensile properties of 316L parts made by powder bed laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavery, N.P.; Cherry, J.; Mehmood, S.; Davies, H.; Girling, B.; Sackett, E.; Brown, S.G.R.; Sienz, J.

    2017-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L steel have been examined for parts built by a powder bed laser fusion process, which uses a laser to melt and build parts additively on a layer by layer basis. Relative density and porosity determined using various experimental techniques were correlated against laser energy density. Based on porosity sizes, morphology and distributions, the porosity was seen to transition between an irregular, highly directional porosity at the low laser energy density and a smaller, more rounded and randomly distributed porosity at higher laser energy density, thought to be caused by keyhole melting. In both cases, the porosity was reduced by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). High throughput ultrasound based measurements were used to calculate elasticity properties and show that the lower porosities from builds with higher energy densities have higher elasticity moduli in accordance with empirical relationships, and hot isostatic pressing improves the elasticity properties to levels associated with wrought/rolled 316L. However, even with hot isostatic pressing the best properties were obtained from samples with the lowest porosity in the as-built condition. A finite element stress analysis based on the porosity microstructures was undertaken, to understand the effect of pore size distributions and morphology on the Young's modulus. Over 1–5% porosity range angular porosity was found to reduce the Young's modulus by 5% more than rounded porosity. Experimentally measured Young's moduli for samples treated by HIP were closer to the rounded trends than the as-built samples, which were closer to angular trends. Tensile tests on specimens produced at optimised machine parameters displayed a high degree of anisotropy in the build direction and test variability for as-built parts, especially between vertical and horizontal build directions. The as-built properties were generally found to have a higher yield stress, but lower upper

  7. Ceramic containers for spent nuclear fuel. II. Reactions between TiO2 and the steel canning during hot isostatic processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, B.; Forberg, S.

    1984-01-01

    Rutile was selected for some practical studies of processing and properties of ceramic containers. Hot isostatic pressing at 1280 0 C has resulted in reaction zones between the TiO 2 powder and the steel canning. The phases ilmenite, pseudobrookite, rutile, and iron have been identified by x-ray diffraction and by microprobe analysis. The microstructures have been interpreted by classical metallographic methods, and some microstructures obtained by hot pressing and rapid cooling have also been examined for purposes of comparison. Some implications of the microstructures have been discussed in terms of microcracking and slow crack growth. 13 refs., 7 figs

  8. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  9. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and tensile behavior of a hot isostatically pressed nickel-based superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Chunlei; Wu, Xinhua; Mei, Junfa; Andrews, Paul; Voice, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Post-HIP heat treatment led to refined microstructure and improved tensile properties. •Deformation occurred mainly by forming stacking faults in γ′ at RT and elevated temperature. •Net-shape HIPed RR1000 failed in a transgranular fracture mode. -- Abstract: A nickel-based superalloy powder RR1000 has been hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) and heat treated to produce different microstructures. Microstructures were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Tensile testing was performed at room temperature and 700 °C and the deformed samples were examined using SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that in the as-HIPed condition the microstructure consisted of coarse and irregular-shaped primary and secondary γ′ together with a low volume fraction of fine γ′ (<50 nm in diameter). Solution treatment below the γ′ solvus followed by air cooling resulted in the formation of finer cuboidal secondary γ′ (350–750 nm) and medium-sized spherical tertiary γ′ (100–200 nm). This led to an improvement of both the 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Ageing of the solution-treated or of the as-HIPed samples at 760 °C resulted in the precipitation of a high population of fine γ′ (around 50 nm) which further increased the strength. Within the resolution limit of the current TEM analysis, deformation at room temperature seemed to occur mainly by dislocations cutting through secondary γ′ and very fine γ′, accompanied by the formation of stacking faults within these precipitates; most of the medium-sized tertiary γ′ precipitates in solution-treated and aged samples were not cut through but were surrounded by dislocations. Deformation at 700 °C happened by dislocations cutting through γ′ precipitates and γ matrix, leading to the formation of extended stacking faults across both γ and γ′. It is suggested that the optimum treatment of the current powder superalloy is to

  10. Holocene sea-level changes along the North Carolina Coastline and their implications for glacial isostatic adjustment models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. P.; Peltier, W. R.; Culver, S. J.; Drummond, R.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kemp, A. C.; Mallinson, D.; Thieler, E. R.; Riggs, S. R.; Ames, D. V.; Thomson, K. H.

    2009-08-01

    We have synthesized new and existing relative sea-level (RSL) data to produce a quality-controlled, spatially comprehensive database from the North Carolina coastline. The RSL database consists of 54 sea-level index points that are quantitatively related to an appropriate tide level and assigned an error estimate, and a further 33 limiting dates that confine the maximum and minimum elevations of RSL. The temporal distribution of the index points is very uneven with only five index points older than 4000 cal a BP, but the form of the Holocene sea-level trend is constrained by both terrestrial and marine limiting dates. The data illustrate RSL rapidly rising during the early and mid Holocene from an observed elevation of -35.7 ± 1.1 m MSL at 11062-10576 cal a BP to -4.2 m ± 0.4 m MSL at 4240-3592 cal a BP. We restricted comparisons between observations and predictions from the ICE-5G(VM2) with rotational feedback Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) model to the Late Holocene RSL (last 4000 cal a BP) because of the wealth of sea-level data during this time interval. The ICE-5G(VM2) model predicts significant spatial variations in RSL across North Carolina, thus we subdivided the observations into two regions. The model forecasts an increase in the rate of sea-level rise in Region 1 (Albemarle, Currituck, Roanoke, Croatan, and northern Pamlico sounds) compared to Region 2 (southern Pamlico, Core and Bogue sounds, and farther south to Wilmington). The observations show Late Holocene sea-level rising at 1.14 ± 0.03 mm year -1 and 0.82 ± 0.02 mm year -1 in Regions 1 and 2, respectively. The ICE-5G(VM2) predictions capture the general temporal trend of the observations, although there is an apparent misfit for index points older than 2000 cal a BP. It is presently unknown whether these misfits are caused by possible tectonic uplift associated with the mid-Carolina Platform High or a flaw in the GIA model. A comparison of local tide gauge data with the Late Holocene RSL

  11. Risk of congenital anomalies in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, S; Chevrier, C; Robert-Gnansia, E; Lorente, C; Brula, P; Hours, M

    2004-01-01

    Although municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has contributed to increase the overall environmental load of particulate matter containing dioxins and metals, evidence of health consequences to populations is sparse. To assess at a regional level (in southeast France) the impact of these emissions on birth defect rates. Communities with fewer than 50 000 inhabitants surrounding the 70 incinerators that operated at least one year from 1988 to 1997 were studied. Each exposed community (n = 194) was assigned an exposure index estimated from a Gaussian plume model. Poisson models and a reference population of the 2678 unexposed communities in the region were used to calculate relative risks for congenital malformations, adjusted for year of birth, maternal age, department of birth, population density, average family income, and when available, local road traffic. The rate of congenital anomalies was not significantly higher in exposed compared with unexposed communities. Some subgroups of major anomalies, specifically facial clefts and renal dysplasia, were more frequent in the exposed communities. Among exposed communities, a dose-response trend of risk with increasing exposure was observed for obstructive uropathies. Risks of cardiac anomalies, obstructive uropathies, and skin anomalies increased linearly with road traffic density. Although both incinerator emissions and road traffic may plausibly explain some of the excess risks observed, several alternative explanations, including exposure misclassification, ascertainment bias, and residual confounding cannot be excluded. Some of the effects observed, if real, might be attributable to old-technology MSWIs and the persistent pollution they have generated.

  12. Peters anomaly in association with multiple midline anomalies and a familial chromosome 4 inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Edward; Pikman, Yana; Kimonis, Virginia E

    2006-06-01

    We describe the clinical presentation of a boy with Peters anomaly and a cataract of the left eye in association with multiple midline defects. His extraocular developmental abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, cardiac anomalies, an atretic cranial meningocele, as well as malformation of the left ear with chronic otitis media. Genetic analysis revealed a balanced paracentric inversion of chromosome 4, inv(4)(q12q13.3), also present in his asymptomatic father and siblings. His normal stature and cognitive development distinguish this case from the Peters Plus syndrome. The presence of a cranial meningocele represents a new association with Peters anomaly.

  13. The "parity" anomaly on an unorientable manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The "parity" anomaly—more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry—arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. This anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we give a full description of the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in 2 +1 dimensions on a possibly unorientable spacetime. We consider an application to topological superconductors and another application to M theory. The application to topological superconductors involves using knowledge of the "parity" anomaly as an ingredient in constructing gapped boundary states of these systems and in particular in gapping the boundary of a ν =16 system in a topologically trivial fashion. The application to M theory involves showing the consistency of the path integral of an M theory membrane on a possibly unorientable worldvolume. In the past, this has been done only in the orientable case.

  14. Radiographic studies on morphological anomalies in artificially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiographic examination revealed anomalies such as hypoplasia and hyperplasia of fins, supernumeracry and agenesis of fins, fin cleft, and fusion of fins, scoliosis and kyphosis. The phenotypic lateral body curvatures and stump body trait were basically due to varying degrees and positions of scoliosis and thus, ...

  15. Calcium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Wasserburg, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    We report isotopic anomalies in Ca which were found in two Ca-Al-rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite. These inclusions previously had been shown to contain special anomalies for Mg and O which were attributed to fractionation and unknown nuclear effects. The Ca data, when corrected for mass fractionation by using 40 Ca/ 44 Ca as a standard, show nonlinear isotopic effects in 48 Ca of +13.5 per mil and in 42 Ca of +1.7 per mil for one sample. The second sample shows a 48 Ca depletion of -2.9 per mil, but all other isotopes are normal. Samples with large excesses in 26 Mg show no Ca anomalies. The effects demonstrate that isotopic anomalies exist for higher-atomic-number refractory elements in solar-system materials and do not appear to be readily explainable by a simple model. The correlation of O, Mg, and Ca results on the same inclusions requires the addition and preservation in the solar system of components from idverse nucleosynthetic sources. Observed anomalous Mg and Ca compositions for coexisting mineral phases are uniform within each inclusion, and require initial isotopic homogeneity within an inclusion but the preservation of wide variations between inclusions. Assuming formation of these inclusions by condensation from a gaseous part of the solar nebula, this implies isotopic heterogeneity on a scale of 10-10 2 km within the nebula

  16. Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, N.R.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2014-01-01

    From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the

  17. QCD anomalies in hadronic weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.-M.; Trine, S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the flavor-changing operators associated with the strong axial and trace anomalies. Their short-distance generation through penguinlike diagrams is obtained within the QCD external field formalism. Standard-model operator evolution exhibits a suppression of anomalous effects in K and B hadronic weak decays. A genuine set of dimension-eight ΔS=1 operators is also displayed

  18. Conformal transformation, gauge fields and trace anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, M.S.; Barcelos-Neto, J.

    1988-02-01

    In a recent work, Padmanabhan (1985 Class. Quant. Grav. 2 4105) showed an interesting way of constructing a general conformally invariant scalar theory by introducing a conformal gauge field. We comment on the extrapolation of this idea to the fermionic field and study the trace anomaly for the scalar case by using the path integral formalism.

  19. Anomalies in radiation decays of charmed mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskij, Yu.L.; Pervushin, V.N.; Sarikov, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amplitudes of the charmed meson decays D→0 - +0 - +γ and F→0 - +0 - +γ are calculated in the framework of the SU(4)xSU(4)-chiral Lagrangians with account for anomalies. It is shown that in this approach no E1-transition exists

  20. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  1. Drug safety in pregnancy - monitoring congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, Margery; De Jong-Van Den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Jordan, Sue

    Aim This paper outlines research into the causes of congenital anomalies, and introduces a pan-European study. The potential roles of nurses and midwives in this area are illustrated by a case report. Background Since the thalidomide disaster, use of drugs in pregnancy has been carefully monitored

  2. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  3. Supercurrent anomalies in 4d SCFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    We use holographic renormalization of minimal N=2 gauged supergravity in order to derive the general form of the quantum Ward identities for 3d N=2 and 4d N=1 superconformal theories on general curved backgrounds, including an arbitrary fermionic source for the supercurrent. The Ward identities for 4d N=1 theories contain both bosonic and fermionic global anomalies, which we determine explicitly up to quadratic order in the supercurrent source. The Ward identities we derive apply to any superconformal theory, independently of whether it admits a holographic dual, except for the specific values of the a and c anomaly coefficients, which are equal due to our starting point of a two-derivative bulk supergravity theory. We show that the fermionic anomalies lead to an anomalous transformation of the supercurrent under rigid supersymmetry on backgrounds admitting Killing spinors, even if all superconformal anomalies are numerically zero on such backgrounds. The anomalous transformation of the supercurrent under rigid supersymmetry leads to an obstruction to the Q-exactness of the stress tensor in supersymmetric vacua, and may have implications for the applicability of localization techniques. We use this obstruction to the Q-exactness of the stress tensor, together with the Ward identities, in order to determine the general form of the stress tensor and R-current one-point functions in supersymmetric vacua, which allows us to obtain general expressions for the supersymmetric Casimir charges and partition function.

  4. Frequency Characteristics of Geomagnetic Induction Anomalies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    19

    Res., 98, 15967–15985. Gombos A. M et al 1995 The tectonic evolution of western India and its impacts on hydrocarbon occurrences; on overview; Sediment.Geol.,96, 119-129. Ingham M. R., Bhingam D. K. and Gough D.I 1983 Magnetovariational study of a geothermal anomaly; Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc., 72, 597-618.

  5. Detection of cardiovascular anomalies: Hybrid systems approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ledezma, Fernando

    2012-06-06

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid interpretation of the cardiovascular system. Based on a model proposed by Simaan et al. (2009), we study the problem of detecting cardiovascular anomalies that can be caused by variations in some physiological parameters, using an observerbased approach. We present the first numerical results obtained. © 2012 IFAC.

  6. Congenital spine anomalies: the closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The term congenital spinal anomalies encompasses a wide variety of dysmorphology that occurs during early development. Familiarity with current terminology and a practical, clinico-radiologic classification system allows the radiologist to have a more complete understanding of malformations of the spine and improves accuracy of diagnosis when these entities are encountered in practice. (orig.)

  7. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one.

  8. Possible Waardenburg syndrome with gastrointestinal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutman, J; Steinherz, R; Sivan, Y; Goodman, R M

    1986-01-01

    We describe a patient with possible Waardenburg syndrome associated with anal atresia and oesophageal atresia with tracheooesophageal fistula. Three other published cases with atretic gastrointestinal anomalies associated with the Waardenburg syndrome are reviewed. We conclude that the association between atretic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and the Waardenburg syndrome may be a significant one. Images PMID:3712396

  9. An Unsupervised Deep Hyperspectral Anomaly Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Peng, Yu; Wang, Shaojun; Leong, Philip H W

    2018-02-26

    Hyperspectral image (HSI) based detection has attracted considerable attention recently in agriculture, environmental protection and military applications as different wavelengths of light can be advantageously used to discriminate different types of objects. Unfortunately, estimating the background distribution and the detection of interesting local objects is not straightforward, and anomaly detectors may give false alarms. In this paper, a Deep Belief Network (DBN) based anomaly detector is proposed. The high-level features and reconstruction errors are learned through the network in a manner which is not affected by previous background distribution assumption. To reduce contamination by local anomalies, adaptive weights are constructed from reconstruction errors and statistical information. By using the code image which is generated during the inference of DBN and modified by adaptively updated weights, a local Euclidean distance between under test pixels and their neighboring pixels is used to determine the anomaly targets. Experimental results on synthetic and recorded HSI datasets show the performance of proposed method outperforms the classic global Reed-Xiaoli detector (RXD), local RX detector (LRXD) and the-state-of-the-art Collaborative Representation detector (CRD).

  10. Congenital sixth nerve palsy with associated anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama Kasturi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital abduction deficit is most likely due to Duane's retraction syndrome as congenital abducens nerve palsy is very rare. We report two cases of infantile abduction deficit due to sixth nerve palsy associated with other anomalies to highlight the importance of including neuroimaging in the evaluation of an infant presenting with a limitation of abduction.

  11. Congenital sixth nerve palsy with associated anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Nirupama

    2017-10-01

    Congenital abduction deficit is most likely due to Duane's retraction syndrome as congenital abducens nerve palsy is very rare. We report two cases of infantile abduction deficit due to sixth nerve palsy associated with other anomalies to highlight the importance of including neuroimaging in the evaluation of an infant presenting with a limitation of abduction.

  12. Vascular anomalies and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, M; Bedri, I; Böszörményi, G; Villányi, K

    1988-01-01

    In the past 7 years a total of 90 RLAs were performed in patients with testicular tumour and the vascular anomaly of the retroperitoneum was diagnosed in 10 cases. Attention is called to these vascular disorders which render the performance of lymph dissection difficult but can never influence the question of operability.

  13. Anomaly Detection using the "Isolation Forest" algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Anomaly detection can provide clues about an outlying minority class in your data: hackers in a set of network events, fraudsters in a set of credit card transactions, or exotic particles in a set of high-energy collisions. In this talk, we analyze a real dataset of breast tissue biopsies, with malignant results forming the minority class. The "Isolation Forest" algorithm finds anomalies by deliberately “overfitting” models that memorize each data point. Since outliers have more empty space around them, they take fewer steps to memorize. Intuitively, a house in the country can be identified simply as “that house out by the farm”, while a house in the city needs a longer description like “that house in Brooklyn, near Prospect Park, on Union Street, between the firehouse and the library, not far from the French restaurant”. We first use anomaly detection to find outliers in the biopsy data, then apply traditional predictive modeling to discover rules that separate anomalies from normal data...

  14. Oxygen isotopic anomaly and solar nebular photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Shimizu, M.

    1983-01-01

    At the cool periphery of the solar nebula, oxygen could photochemically be formed from water. The mixing of 17 O and 18 O enriched by the self-shielding effect of 16 O 2 to the dust grain melted by the shock waves there would explain the oxygen isotopic anomaly in the high-temperature mineral of the carbonaceous meteorites. (Auth.)

  15. Experimental and phenomenological status of neutrino anomalies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of neutrino anomalies is summarized; the KamLAND experiment is described and the recent results of KamLAND presented. Author Affiliations. Sandip Pakvasa1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. Pramana – Journal of Physics. Current Issue : Vol.

  16. Anomaly observed in the Pamir experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempa, Ya.; Malinovski, Ya.

    2001-01-01

    Emulsion cloud chambers used in the Pamir experiment during many years differed both in area and in design. It enabled to analyze spatial nad angular parameters of the recorded particles in chambers of different designs. Paper contains the detected anomalies and their preliminary interpretation [ru

  17. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber M. Anderson

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV. To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05. Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8. Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4% and epididymal anomalies (EAs in 1 testis (2%. Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4% and EA in 4 (14.28%. When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116. Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies.

  18. An Unsupervised Deep Hyperspectral Anomaly Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral image (HSI based detection has attracted considerable attention recently in agriculture, environmental protection and military applications as different wavelengths of light can be advantageously used to discriminate different types of objects. Unfortunately, estimating the background distribution and the detection of interesting local objects is not straightforward, and anomaly detectors may give false alarms. In this paper, a Deep Belief Network (DBN based anomaly detector is proposed. The high-level features and reconstruction errors are learned through the network in a manner which is not affected by previous background distribution assumption. To reduce contamination by local anomalies, adaptive weights are constructed from reconstruction errors and statistical information. By using the code image which is generated during the inference of DBN and modified by adaptively updated weights, a local Euclidean distance between under test pixels and their neighboring pixels is used to determine the anomaly targets. Experimental results on synthetic and recorded HSI datasets show the performance of proposed method outperforms the classic global Reed-Xiaoli detector (RXD, local RX detector (LRXD and the-state-of-the-art Collaborative Representation detector (CRD.

  19. PROBLEMA ANOMALI DALAM INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sautma Ronni Basana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on Initial Public Offerings (IPO showed that IPO stocks on average were underpriced, underperformed in the long run aftermarket and the Hot and Cold market cycle was present. These phenomenom can be explained by among others, the following: Asymetric Information, Winner's Curse, Traditional-Ibbotson, and Signalling Equilibrium Phenomenom. However, all of these can't give a satisfactory explanation because they were based on the price which existed on the secondary market (Underpriced Theory. The Withdrawn IPO (WIPO theory tried to explain the IPO anomaly differently so that the IPO anomaly could be explained clearly. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Studi tentang Penawaran Saham Perdana (IPO menunjukkan saham-saham IPO secara rata-rata mengalami Underpriced, kinerja jangka panjang yang jelek dan adanya siklus pasar "Hot" dan "Cold". Ada beberapa penjelasan terhadap fenomena tersebut, antara lain: Informasi Asimetri, WinnerCurse, Tradisional-Ibbotson, Signaling Equilibrium Phenomenom tetapi semuanya belum memuaskan karena berdasarkan pada basis harga yang ada di pasar sekunder (Teori Underpriced. Teori Withdrawn IPO (WIPO mencoba menjelaskan fenomena anomali IPO dengan cara yang berbeda sehingga fenomena anomali IPO dapat dijelaskan secara tuntas. Kata kunci: Penawaran Saham Perdana (IPO, Underpriced, Withdrawn IPO (WIPO.

  20. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberalesand Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany); Choque, David [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut,14476 Golm (Germany); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Martínez, Cristián [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-03-17

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS{sub 4}, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m{sup 2}=−2l{sup −2} and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged N=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  1. Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louko, Jorma [University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-07

    Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will

  2. [Clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Split, Wojciech; Sawrasewicz-Rybak, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to consider Kimmerle anomaly (ponticulus posterior of the atlas) as an anatomic variant, which can cause a set of clinical symptoms and signs. A hundred and eight patients, 58 females and 50 males at the age of 18-59 years (M. 36.9 years, SD = 9.6) with radiologically verified Kimmerle anomaly were examined. A control group comprised 40 healthy subjects at the similar age range. The diagnosis of headaches was based on the criteria proposed by the IHS. A character of headaches, their localization, frequency, duration, number of days with headaches per year, circumstances associated with their onset and concomitant symptoms were evaluated. All the patients were subjected to electrophysiological studies (ENG, EEG and VEP). The results were statistically analyzed using a SPSS/PC+ computer system. It was revealed that clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly occurred most frequently in the third and fourth decade of life (65% of cases). These were most often tension-type headaches (50% of cases with headaches), vascular headaches (26% of cases) and neuralgia (24% of cases). Intensity of headaches was high. Headaches were accompanied by other complaints like vertigo (59% of cases) and in one third of cases--nausea. About 10% of patients also suffered from vomiting, paresthesia, dizziness, short periods of loss of consciousness. Sporadically--tinitus, drop attack, and vegetative symptoms. In cases without pain the most frequent signs were short periods of loss of consciousness, dizziness, and also nausea and dizziness. The EEG examination revealed pathology in 40% of patients with Kimmerle anomaly. The ENG examination in more than 33% of anomaly cases showed injury in the central part of vestibular system. Improper answers were reported in about 75% of the patients during the VEP examination.

  3. [Residual neuromuscular blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Buder, T; Schmartz, D

    2017-06-01

    Even small degrees of residual neuromuscular blockade, i. e. a train-of-four (TOF) ratio >0.6, may lead to clinically relevant consequences for the patient. Especially upper airway integrity and the ability to swallow may still be markedly impaired. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that residual neuromuscular blockade may affect postoperative outcome of patients. The incidence of these small degrees of residual blockade is relatively high and may persist for more than 90 min after a single intubating dose of an intermediately acting neuromuscular blocking agent, such as rocuronium and atracurium. Both neuromuscular monitoring and pharmacological reversal are key elements for the prevention of postoperative residual blockade.

  4. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  5. Residuation in orthomodular lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chajda Ivan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that every idempotent weakly divisible residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law can be transformed into an orthomodular lattice. The converse holds if adjointness is replaced by conditional adjointness. Moreover, we show that every positive right residuated lattice satisfying the double negation law and two further simple identities can be converted into an orthomodular lattice. In this case, also the converse statement is true and the corresponence is nearly one-to-one.

  6. Prevalence of dental anomalies in a Mexican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ruben Herrera-Atoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on dental anomaly prevalence is instrumental to diagnosis and treatment in different populations. A retrospective study was done to determine dental anomaly prevalence and associations in a group of orthodontic patients in a Mexican population. Methods: Number, shape, eruption and structural dental anomalies were assessed from the records of 670 subjects. Prevalence, distribution, and associations between the different anomalies were calculated. Chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests (p<0.05 were used to identify significant differences by sex, and to establish associations among the studied anomalies. Results: Twenty-eight percent of the sample exhibited at least one dental anomaly. Statistical analysis identified no differences by gender. The most common anomaly was impacted teeth (13.58%, followed by microdontic upper lateral incisors (6.26%. These two anomalies also had the highest number of significant associations with other anomalies. Conclusions: The dental anomalies prevalence documented here differ from those reported in the literature for other populations in the world. Dental anomalies are normally associated with each other and occur in groups linked to ethnic origin. The present results indicate the presence of differing suites of anomalies between the studied Mexican population and other populations in the world. This variation highlights the need for further research on dental anomalies in Latin America to aid in their diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Pure duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 with ebstein anomaly and clavicular anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rachel; Al-Murrani, Amel; Aftimos, Salim; Asquith, Philip; Mazzaschi, Roberto; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; George, Alice M; Love, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    This report is of a patient with pure trisomy of 15q24-qter who presents with the rare Ebstein anomaly and a previously unreported skeletal anomaly. Chromosome microarray analysis allowed high-resolution identification of the extent of the trisomy and provided a means of achieving higher-resolution breakpoint data. The phenotypic expression of unbalanced chromosomal regions is a complex phenomenon, and fine mapping of the involved region, as described here, is only a first step on the path to its full understanding. Overexpression of the LINGO-1 and CSPG4 genes has been implicated in developmental delay seen in other patients with trisomy of 15q24-qter, but our patient is currently too young to ascertain developmental progress. The genetic underpinning of Ebstein anomaly and the skeletal anomaly reported here is unclear based on our high-resolution dosage mapping.

  8. Pure Duplication of the Distal Long Arm of Chromosome 15 with Ebstein Anomaly and Clavicular Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel O'Connor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is of a patient with pure trisomy of 15q24-qter who presents with the rare Ebstein anomaly and a previously unreported skeletal anomaly. Chromosome microarray analysis allowed high-resolution identification of the extent of the trisomy and provided a means of achieving higher-resolution breakpoint data. The phenotypic expression of unbalanced chromosomal regions is a complex phenomenon, and fine mapping of the involved region, as described here, is only a first step on the path to its full understanding. Overexpression of the LINGO-1 and CSPG4 genes has been implicated in developmental delay seen in other patients with trisomy of 15q24-qter, but our patient is currently too young to ascertain developmental progress. The genetic underpinning of Ebstein anomaly and the skeletal anomaly reported here is unclear based on our high-resolution dosage mapping.

  9. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  10. Improved anomaly detection using multi-scale PLS and generalized likelihood ratio test

    KAUST Repository

    Madakyaru, Muddu

    2017-02-16

    Process monitoring has a central role in the process industry to enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety, and to avoid expensive maintenance. In this paper, a statistical approach that exploit the advantages of multiscale PLS models (MSPLS) and those of a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test to better detect anomalies is proposed. Specifically, to consider the multivariate and multi-scale nature of process dynamics, a MSPLS algorithm combining PLS and wavelet analysis is used as modeling framework. Then, GLR hypothesis testing is applied using the uncorrelated residuals obtained from MSPLS model to improve the anomaly detection abilities of these latent variable based fault detection methods even further. Applications to a simulated distillation column data are used to evaluate the proposed MSPLS-GLR algorithm.

  11. Pure Duplication of the Distal Long Arm of Chromosome 15 with Ebstein Anomaly and Clavicular Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Rachel; Al-Murrani, Amel; Aftimos, Salim; Asquith, Philip; Mazzaschi, Roberto; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; George, Alice M.; Love, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    This report is of a patient with pure trisomy of 15q24-qter who presents with the rare Ebstein anomaly and a previously unreported skeletal anomaly. Chromosome microarray analysis allowed high-resolution identification of the extent of the trisomy and provided a means of achieving higher-resolution breakpoint data. The phenotypic expression of unbalanced chromosomal regions is a complex phenomenon, and fine mapping of the involved region, as described here, is only a first step on the path to...

  12. On the recovery of the physical and mechanical properties of a CuCrZr alloy subjected to heat treatments simulating the thermal cycle of hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzwarth, U.; Pisoni, M.; Scholz, R.; Stamm, H.; Volcan, A.

    2000-01-01

    Due to their high mechanical strength and thermal conductivity precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloys are being considered as potential heat sink material for the ITER divertor vertical target. The fabrication of the divertor component involves a joining procedure by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The impact of this method on the degradation of the physical and mechanical properties of the CuCrZr alloy and their possible subsequent recovery by (re-)aging heat treatments have been investigated by hardness measurements, tensile testing and measurements of thermal diffusivity and electrical resistivity. The thermal cycle of hot isostatic pressing has been simulated by solution annealing finished by cooling rates between 0.03 and 1.5 K s -1 . The experiments revealed that a successful recovery of the desired mechanical strength is only achievable if cooling rates of about 1 K s -1 or higher can be realized after HIP. Otherwise the alloy becomes already over-aged during slow cooling after the joining procedure

  13. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF THE KIDNEYS AND URINARY TRACT IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Kopač

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract are the commonest congenital anomalies in children, often detected prenatally with ultrasound. This method is useful for assesing the degree of dilatation of the collecting system, structure of the kidney parenchyma, amount of amniotic fluid and urinary bladder. Hydronephrosis is the most common among them. Anomalies can be bilateral or unilateral and different defects may coexist in an individual child. Anomalies of other organs and organ systems are often associated with anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract, described in numerous syndromes. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract can be divided in anomalies of the renal parencyma development, renal embryonic migration and position, cystic kidney diseases and anomalies of the urinary tract (collecting system of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. They are the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease in children.

  14. Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louko, Jorma

    2007-01-01

    Bastianelli and van Nieuwenhuizen's monograph 'Path Integrals and Anomalies in Curved Space' collects in one volume the results of the authors' 15-year research programme on anomalies that arise in Feynman diagrams of quantum field theories on curved manifolds. The programme was spurred by the path-integral techniques introduced in Alvarez-Gaume and Witten's renowned 1983 paper on gravitational anomalies which, together with the anomaly cancellation paper by Green and Schwarz, led to the string theory explosion of the 1980s. The authors have produced a tour de force, giving a comprehensive and pedagogical exposition of material that is central to current research. The first part of the book develops from scratch a formalism for defining and evaluating quantum mechanical path integrals in nonlinear sigma models, using time slicing regularization, mode regularization and dimensional regularization. The second part applies this formalism to quantum fields of spin 0, 1/2, 1 and 3/2 and to self-dual antisymmetric tensor fields. The book concludes with a discussion of gravitational anomalies in 10-dimensional supergravities, for both classical and exceptional gauge groups. The target audience is researchers and graduate students in curved spacetime quantum field theory and string theory, and the aims, style and pedagogical level have been chosen with this audience in mind. Path integrals are treated as calculational tools, and the notation and terminology are throughout tailored to calculational convenience, rather than to mathematical rigour. The style is closer to that of an exceedingly thorough and self-contained review article than to that of a textbook. As the authors mention, the first part of the book can be used as an introduction to path integrals in quantum mechanics, although in a classroom setting perhaps more likely as supplementary reading than a primary class text. Readers outside the core audience, including this reviewer, will gain from the book a

  15. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jung Wha [Seoul Nationl Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric

  16. Radiological evaluation congenital gastrointestinal tract anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hee; Kim, Ock; Jang, Jung Wha

    1983-01-01

    With the improvements, during recent years, in the control of the infections and nutritional diseases the subject of congenital malformation becomes of increasing importance. The radiologic signs are crucial for prompt diagnosis of anomalies of alimentary tract and with early identification of resulting complication, surgical therapy is usually life-saving. 30 cases of congenital anomalies of alimentary tract in infants were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence and radiological findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1, The most common lesion was hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, followed by congenital megacolon and anorectal anomaly, tracheoesophageal fistula, intestinal atresia. 2. Male outnumbered female in most congenital anomalies of alimentary tract. 25 cases were under the age of 1 month. 3. Common symptoms of upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction are vomiting and abdominal distension. In the obstruction of lower gastrointestinal tract, abdominal distension and failure of meconium passage were noted. 4. Roentgenologic findings were as follows, a. Chest A-P and lateral view: In tracheoesophageal fistula, saccular dilatation of upper esophagus and displacement of trachea anterolaterally were the most common finding. b. Simple abdomen: Obstructive pattern of proximal portion of duodenum shows in 11 cases, of distal bowel shows in 16 cases. Duodenal atresia showed 'double bubble' sign, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis showed marked gastric distension, paucity of air in small bowel and increases gastric peristalsis were the most common findings. Hirschsprung's disease showed absenced of rectal gas almostly. The variable length between blind hindgut to anus was seen in anorectal anomalies. c. Esophagogram: Blind sac of upper esophagus was seen at the 4th thoracic spinal level and displacement of trachea anterolaterally. 1 case of tracheoesophageal fistula had an intact esophageal lumen. d. Upper G-I series: In hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, delayed

  17. Deep structure of the Tristan-Gough plume revealed by geoid anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, M.; Flamme, J.; Cadio, C.; Lalancette, M. F.; Metivier, L.; Pajot-Métivier, G.; Diament, M.

    2017-12-01

    The origin of the hotspot Tristan da Cunha located at the southwestern end of Walvis Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean is still a controversial topic. We especially question on the nature of the involved geodynamical processes and on their origin depth. The latest results based on local seismic and magnetic data (Schlömer et al., 2016; Baba et al., 2016; Geissler et al., 2016) suggest the existence of a plume coming from the mid-mantle in the southwest of the archipelago. Here we give a regional view of mantle dynamics patterns in the area by using the high-quality satellite geoid data. To extract the mantle signature, we estimate the crustal and lithospheric signals of the ocean basin and South American and African continents, which contribute to mid- and long-wavelengths in the total geoid. We pay particular attention to the modeling of continental margins and their effects on the residual geoid signal. In addition, we explore a large density values set derived from petrological and geochemical studies in the calculation of the lithospheric geoid model. After subtracting the lithospheric signature to the EGM2008 geoid, we apply a multi-scale analysis, which unfolds the different components of the geoid residual signal. The analysis underlines a set of positive anomalies at 200-400 km in the study area, notably in north and west of Tristan de Cunha, and a positive anomaly at 700-1100 km scale in the southwest of the archipelago. These patterns do not change by using different lithospheric geoid models, which allow us to evaluate the reliability of the residual geoid anomalies. These results indicate the existence of small-scale density anomalies in the upper mantle and a larger scale density anomaly in the mid-mantle. Our study suggests that a large dome toped by plume clusters could be a good candidate to explain the volcanism of Tristan da Cunha.Schlömer et al., 2016 Hunting for the Tristan mantle plume..., EPSL, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.028Baba et

  18. Minor Physical Anomalies, Footprints, and Behavior: Was the Buddha Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Thomas W.; Munoz, Milagros M.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between an anomaly of the footprint suggested by ancient Abhidhamma meditations and Minor Physical Anomalies Scale was observed in children. The footprint anomalies correlated with the activity levels of children in the same way as the scores on the scale and consistently with prior research using the scale. (Author/RD)

  19. Spectrum of congenital anomalies in pregnancies with pregestational diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen; Barisic, Ingeborg; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bakker, Marian; Calzolari, Elisa; Dias, Carlos Matias; Doray, Berenice; Gatt, Miriam; Melve, Kari Klyungsoyr; Nelen, Vera; O'Mahony, Mary; Pierini, Anna; Randrianaivo-Ranjatoelina, Hanitra; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Tucker, David; Verellun-Dumoulin, Christine; Wiesel, Awi

    BACKGROUND Maternal pregestational diabetes is a well-known risk factor for congenital anomalies. This study analyses the spectrum of congenital anomalies associated with maternal diabetes using data from a large European database for the population-based surveillance of congenital anomalies.

  20. Prediction of gravity anomalies for geophysical exploration | Idowu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where the density of the available gravity anomalies is not enough, for a particular purpose of geophysical exploration, more gravity stations can be established within the surveyed area and the gravity anomalies observed for these stations. In some cases, where observations of gravity anomalies are not possible due, ...

  1. High Type Imperforate Anus Without Associated Anomalies in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The High type imperforate anus is usually associated with congenital anomaly in the other systems or organs. It is rare to have the above type without accompanying anomalies. Aim: To report a case of high imperforate anus without associated anomalies of the other systems or organs in a Nigerian child who ...

  2. Lithologic boundaries from gravity and magnetic anomalies over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    67

    shows the same trend as that of Bouguer gravity anomaly and total magnetic intensity anomaly map indicating towards a shallow sources. The magnetic map in general ..... keeping the ERT results in consideration we have chosen the upward continuation at 150 m as regional anomaly both for gravity and magnetic studies.

  3. Spectrum of congenital anomalies in pregnancies with pregestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Maternal pregestational diabetes is a well-known risk factor for congenital anomalies. This study analyses the spectrum of congenital anomalies associated with maternal diabetes using data from a large European database for the population-based surveillance of congenital anomalies....

  4. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  5. Automatic program for the interpretation of two-dimensional gravity and magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagini, A.

    1985-01-01

    This automatic inversion program for the interpretation of two-dimensional gravity and magnetic anomalies has been developed mainly in support of the US Geological Survey's effort to characterize potential radioactive-waste storage sites at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Determining subsurface shapes and extensions of geologic bodies necessitates extensive modeling of magnetic and gravity data. Geologic models for the source of magnetic or gravity anomalies are often developed by trial and error: an approximation is made to establish an initial model, the anomaly due to the model is calculated and compared with the observed anomaly, and the model is iteratively modified to improve the agreement between calculated and observed anomalies. The method presented is not a least-squares method like other methods developed during the last few years, but minimizes the sum of the squares of the residuals by varying only one variable (coordinate) at a time. Varying one variable at a time allows one to use all available information in the model calculation, which can essentially reduce the computation time. The objective of this program is to find the shape of geologic bodies when the physical parameters are known. Except for the outermost corners, only the z-coordinate of each corner-point is varied. The variation of only one variable at a time has the advantage that a large number of bodies and corner-points (in this program up to 50 bodies, each with up to 50 corner-points) can be used for the model calculation without solving a large matrix. This can be important, especially for smaller computers. The program is written in ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77 and is interactive; thus it requires little knowledge of the computer system and its editing facilities. 5 refs

  6. Calendar anomalies in the Russian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Maria Caporale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research note investigates whether or not calendar anomalies (such as the January, day-of-the-week and turn-of-the-month effects characterize the Russian stock market, which could be interpreted as evidence against market efficiency. Specifically, OLS, GARCH, EGARCH and TGARCH models are estimated using daily data for the MICEX market index over the period Sept. 1997–Apr. 2016. The empirical results show the importance of taking into account transactions costs (proxied by the bid-ask spreads: once these are incorporated into the analysis, calendar anomalies disappear, and therefore, there is no evidence of exploitable profit opportunities based on them that would be inconsistent with market efficiency.

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  8. Helical CT of congenital ossicular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hisato; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari

    2001-01-01

    Since January 1996 to December 2000, 26 cases of congenital ossicular anomaly could be diagnosed with helical CT. All cases were unilateral. In 8 patients with malformation of the external ear, CT showed malleoincudal fixation (n=5), malleoincudal fixation and deformed incuts long process (n=1), deformed incus long process (n=1), and partial fusion of malleus neck and incus long process (n=1). In 18 patients with normal external ear, CT showed defect of the incus long process (n=5), defect of both the incus long process and stapes superstructure (n=8, 2 patients with congenital cholesteatoma, 1 with hypoplastic oval window), defect of the stapes superstructure (n=2, 1 patient with oval window absence), defect of the malleus manubrium (n=1), ossification of the stampede's tendon (n=1), and monopod stapes (n=1). Helical CT can evaluate the auditory ossicular chain in detail and is useful for diagnosing congenital ossicular anomaly. (author)

  9. MR imaging evaluation of congenital spine anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bury, E.A.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, 135 patients between the ages of 1 week and 18 years were examined with MR imaging for possible congenital anomalies of the spine and spinal cord. Tethered cords with various other associated pathologies such as lipomas and myelomeningoceles were found in 36 patients. The remaining abnormal examinations consisted of syrinxes, Chiari malformations, diastematomyelia, and conus masses. In 55 patients the studies were interpreted as normal. Of these, three were subsequently shown by surgery of myelography to be abnormal. The first had a thickened filum with a small epidermoid, the second a thickened filum, and the third, with only sagittal images, a diastematomyelia. Children presenting with symptoms highly suspicious for congenital abnormalities but with a normal MR study in multiple planes may still require further evaluation with myelography. Multiplanar MR examination in most instances will be a sufficient evaluation for congenital anomalies

  10. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1% of the birth cohorts. It is well known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment...... for known confounders such as maternal age. The proportion of ART children is not negligible, and knowledge about the causes of the higher risk of congenital malformations is crucial to develop prevention strategies to reduce the future risk in ART children. The aim of this review is to summarize...... the literature on the association between ART and congenital anomalies with respect to subfertility, fertility treatment other than ART, and different ART methods including intracytoplasmic sperm injection, blastocyst culture, and cryotechniques. Trends over time in ART and congenital anomalies will also...

  11. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ghorbani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  12. Focal pachygyria with unusual vascular anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M; Tanaka, R; Takeda, N; Ikuta, F; Oyanagi, K

    1990-01-01

    A case of focal pachygyria with an unusual vascular anomaly is reported. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated few and broad gyri, and an abnormally thickened cortex of the right frontal lobe. In addition, T2-weighted imaging showed a high intensity lesion beneath the thickened cortex. In the pachygyric cortex, the peripheral portions of the arteries were tortuous and irregularly dilated, and prominent deep medullary veins were found draining into the subependymal veins. Histological examination revealed a decreased number of neurons with no tendency towards lamination, and degenerative changes with gliosis in the white matter. These findings suggest that the etiology of this anomaly may be gradual perfusion failure restricted to the territory of the anomalous vessels through the period of neuronal migration to the post-migratory, perinatal stage.

  13. [Ebstein's anomaly associated with interventricular communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, W L; Leite, A F; Fernandes, R L; de Oliveira, V G; de Mesquita, A O; Melo, J C; Machado, W A; da Silva, M A

    1993-06-01

    Twelve-year-old patient, with congestive heart failure and mild, caused by Ebstein's anomaly with interventricular septal defect, was studied and submitted to surgical correction which consisted in covering the interventricular defect with a path of bovine pericardium and substituting for the tricuspid valve with a biological prosthesis (porcine). After surgical correction, the patient was submitted to strict clinical and laboratorial (echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization) evaluation which presented excellent adjustment of the cardiac antriums, with improvement of myocardial function index. The problems related to the diagnosis of the association of the Ebstein's anomaly with interventricular septal defect can be solved with a well done semiology, helped by accurate laboratorial procedures like echodopplercardiogram and cardiac catheterization. The total surgical correction can be achieved with results and, with this fact, change the natural development of the disease.

  14. Dental anomaly patterns associated with tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Ji; Lee, Je Woo; Song, Ji Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between tooth agenesis and the occurrence of other dental anomalies in children and adolescents. Panoramic radiographs of 195 subjects with tooth agenesis, except for the third molar, were retrospectively examined and compared with a non-agenesis control group of 600 subjects. Their ages ranged from 7 to 15 years. Panoramic and periapical radiographs were used to analyze the presence of other associated dental anomalies. The occurrences of these anomalies were compared with those in the non-agenesis group. Subjects with tooth agenesis showed a significantly higher prevalence of a small maxillary lateral incisor (17.7%), distoangulation of the mandibular second premolar (6.5%), delayed development of a permanent tooth (10.8%), and hypo-occlusion of a primary molar (11.8%). In contrast, the prevalence of a supernumerary tooth was higher in the control group, and no difference was observed in the prevalence of ectopic eruption of a first molar. According to the agenesis area, microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors occurred more often in patients with anterior or premolar agenesis than in the molar agenesis groups. Distoangulation of the mandibular second premolars, delayed tooth development, and hypo-occlusion of the primary molars were associated with premolar tooth agenesis. A small maxillary lateral incisor, distoangulation of the mandibular second premolar, delayed development of a permanent tooth, and hypo-occlusion of a primary molar were frequently associated with tooth agenesis, providing additional evidence of a genetic interrelationship in the causes of these dental anomalies.

  15. Adaptive Anomaly Detection using Isolation Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-20

    5) Personnel Supported The grant is used to support a research assistant James Tan Swee Chuan, part-time for a period of 10 months. (6...Information Technology Faculty: Information Technology 1 Mass: A New Ranking Measure for Anomaly Detection Kai Ming Ting, James Tan Swee Chuan...processing and computer vision, Whistler (2002). [6] P. Domingos and G. Hulten, Mining high-speed data streams, Proceedings of the Sixth ACM SIGKDD

  16. Tree-ring anomalies in Toona ciliata

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Ingo; Banks, John Charles Gripper

    2006-01-01

    New increment core samples of Toona ciliata collected in the Australian tropics and subtropics compared to already existing material from the Upper Kangaroo Valley, near Sydney exhibit distinct differences in tree-ring structures. This necessitated a closer examination of the wood anatomy, possible false rings and the species’ crossdating capacity in northeast Australia. During tree-ring analysis two growth anomalies (extensive zones of narrow and indistinct rings) and three types of false ri...

  17. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  18. Anomaly extraction from the path integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christos, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Fujikawa's recently proposed derivation of the anomaly from the path integral is examined. It is attempted to give a better understanding of his work. In particular, evasions of his result are discussed; for example it is shown how chiral U(1) axial invariance can be maintained by employing a gauge variant regularization prescription. A brief connection with the point-splitting method is also made. (orig.)

  19. Walls, anomalies, and deconfinement in quantum antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komargodski, Zohar; Sulejmanpasic, Tin; Ünsal, Mithat

    2018-02-01

    We consider the Abelian-Higgs model in 2 +1 dimensions with instanton-monopole defects. This model is closely related to the phases of quantum antiferromagnets. In the presence of Z2 preserving monopole operators, there are two confining ground states in the monopole phase, corresponding to the valence bond solid (VBS) phase of quantum magnets. We show that the domain wall carries a 't Hooft anomaly in this case. The anomaly can be saturated by, e.g., charge-conjugation breaking on the wall or by the domain wall theory becoming gapless (a gapless model that saturates the anomaly is S U (2) 1 WZW). Either way the fundamental scalar particles (i.e., spinons) which are confined in the bulk are deconfined on the domain wall. This Z2 phase can be realized either with spin-1/2 on a rectangular lattice or spin-1 on a square lattice. In both cases the domain wall contains spin-1/2 particles (which are absent in the bulk). We discuss the possible relation to recent lattice simulations of domain walls in VBS. We further generalize the discussion to Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olsen (ANO) vortices in a dual superconductor of the Abelian-Higgs model in 3 +1 dimensions and to the easy-plane limit of antiferromagnets. In the latter case the wall can undergo a variant of the BKT transition (consistent with the anomalies) while the bulk is still gapped. The same is true for the easy-axis limit of antiferromagnets. We also touch upon some analogies to Yang-Mills theory.

  20. 't Hooft anomaly matching for discrete symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, C.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-05-01

    The authors show how to extend the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions to discrete symmetries. They check these discrete anomally matching conditions on several proposed low-energy spectra of certain strongly interacting gauge theories. The excluded examples include the proposed chirally symmetric vacuum of pure N = 1 supersymmetric yang-Mills theories, certain non-supersymmetric confining theories and some self-dual N = 1 supersymmetric theories based on exceptional groups

  1. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 1 4 × 2 8  mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and ...

  2. Coronary Anomalies: Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajsekhar Varda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14×28 mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms.

  3. Standard Model Effective Potential from Trace Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Jora

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By analogy with the low energy QCD effective linear sigma model, we construct a standard model effective potential based entirely on the requirement that the tree level and quantum level trace anomalies must be satisfied. We discuss a particular realization of this potential in connection with the Higgs boson mass and Higgs boson effective couplings to two photons and two gluons. We find that this kind of potential may describe well the known phenomenology of the Higgs boson.

  4. Unsuspected urological anomalies in asymptomatic cryptorchid boys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappis, C.H.; Argianas, S.A.; Bousgas, D.; Athanasiades, E.

    1988-01-01

    In a period of 6 years 144 asymptomatic boys with cryptorchidism, of mean age 7 +- SD 3.5 years, underwent orchiopexy. None of these boys referred to a history of a known urological anomaly, urinary tract infection haematuria, palpable mass in the renal region, bladder extrophy, epispadias, hypospadias or anorectal malformation. On the third day after orchiopexy an intravenous pyelography was done in every boy following testicular protection against irradiation. Ultrasonic investigation was not available at that time. There were minor urological abnormalities in 36 (25%) boys and major ones in 8 (5.5%) boys. A major anomaly is defined as one resulting in significant loss of renal substance (one case of single kidney and three cases of unilateral renal hypoplasia), or requiring surgical correction for conservation of the renal substance (one case of ureterocele, two cases of pelviureteric stenosis and one case of vesicoureteric stenosis with ipsilateral hydronephrosis). The unsuspected major urological abnormalities are usually ipsilateral to the more undescended testis. They may be associated with a hernia and are more frequent in bilateral cryptorchidism. In conclusion we encourage the routine use of IVP, or ultrasonic investigation or dynamic renal scanning (99/sup mTc/-DTPA), if it is possible, in all patients undergoing orchiopexy for the detection of an unsuspected major renal anomaly.

  5. Venous Thromboembolism in Pediatric Vascular Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizo A. Nakano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a vascular anomaly suggests that capillaries, veins, arteries, and/or lymphatic vessels have demonstrated abnormal development and growth. Often dilated and misshaped, these vessels augment normal flow of blood and lymphatic fluids that increases the overall risk to develop intralesional thrombosis. Abnormal endothelial and lymphoendothelial cells activate hemostasis and hyperfibrinolytic pathways through poorly understood mechanisms, which contribute to the development of localized intravascular coagulopathy. Vascular malformations, tumors, and complex combined syndromes demonstrate varying degrees of prothrombotic activity and consumptive coagulopathy depending on the vessels involved and the pattern and extent of abnormal growth. The clinical impact of venous thromboembolism in pediatric vascular anomalies varies from painful syndromes that disrupt quality of life to life-threatening embolic disease. There remains little literature on the study, evaluation, and treatment of thrombosis in pediatric vascular anomalies. However, there have been great advances in our ability to image complex lesions, to surgically and interventionally augment disease, and to provide enhanced supportive care including patient education, compression therapy, and strategic use of anticoagulation.

  6. Uranium Groundwater Anomalies and Active Normal Faulting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastino, Wolfango; Panza, Giuliano Francesco; Doglioni, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    The ability to predict earthquakes is one of the greatest challenges for Earth Sciences. Radon has been suggested as one possible precursor, and its groundwater anomalies associated with earthquakes and water-rock interactions were proposed in several seismogenic areas worldwide as due to possible transport of radon through microfractures, or due to crustal gas fluxes along active faults. However, the use of radon as a possible earthquake's precursor is not clearly linked to crustal deformation. Here we show that uranium groundwater anomalies, which were observed in cataclastic rocks crossing the underground Gran Sasso National Laboratory, can be used as a possible precursor of earthquakes in domains where continental lithosphere is subducted. Measurements evidence clear, sharp anomalies from July, 2008 to the end of March, 2009, related to a preparation phase of the seismic swarm, which occurred near L'Aquila, Italy, from October, 2008 to April, 2009. On April 6th, 2009 an earthquake (M w =6.3) occurred at 01:33 UT in the same area, with normal faulting on a NW-SE oriented structure about 15 km long, dipping toward SW. In the framework of the geophysical and geochemical models of the area, these measurements indicate that uranium may be used as a possible strain meter in extensional tectonic settings similar to those where the L'Aquila earthquake occurred. (author)

  7. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  8. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  9. Power coefficient anomaly in Joyo, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Yamashita, Yoshioki; Sasaki, Makoto; Nara, Yoshihiko.

    1981-12-01

    In this report, the presumption about the mechanism having caused the power coefficient anomaly in Joyo during the 75 MW power-raising test in 1979 is described. After the previous report, the new information about the results of the post-irradiation examination and the analysis of the power coefficient of Joyo were able to be obtained. From these information, the mechanism of causing the anomaly was presumed as follows. In 50 MW operation, the fuel burnup reached about 10,000 MWD/ton at the end of second cycle, and produced fission gas was almost retained in fuel pellets. When the power was raised from 50 MW to 75 MW for the first time, the fission gas began to be released when 50 MW was somewhat exceeded. The fission gas release caused the temperature rise and cracking of fuel pellets, and elongated fuel stack length abruptly. These phenomena induced to enlarge the fuel expansion reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, and caused the anomalous behavior of power coefficient. After reaching 75 MW, the fuel stack length did not respond normally to reactor power change, and the magnitude of power coefficient became smaller. The reactivity was lost considerably from the core after the anomaly. (Kako, I.)

  10. Flavorful hybrid anomaly-gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Christian; Hiller, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric models where anomaly and gravity mediation give comparable contributions to the soft terms and discuss how this can be realized in a five-dimensional brane world. The gaugino mass pattern of anomaly mediation is preserved in such a hybrid setup. The flavorful gravity-mediated contribution cures the tachyonic slepton problem of anomaly mediation. The supersymmetric flavor puzzle is solved by alignment. We explicitly show how a working flavor-tachyon link can be realized with Abelian flavor symmetries and give the characteristic signatures of the framework, including O(1) slepton mass splittings between different generations and between doublets and singlets. This provides opportunities for same flavor dilepton edge measurements with missing energy at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Rare lepton decay rates could be close to their current experimental limit. Compared to pure gravity mediation, the hybrid model is advantageous because it features a heavy gravitino which can avoid the cosmological gravitino problem of gravity-mediated models combined with leptogenesis.

  11. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  12. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  13. CT diagnosis of congenital anomalies of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Koreaki

    1980-01-01

    In the diagnosis of central nervous system congenital anomalies, understanding of embryology of the central nervous system and pathophysiology of each anomaly are essential. It is important for clinical approach to central nervous system congenital anomalies to evaluate the size of the head and tention of the anterior fontanelle. Accurate diagnosis of congenital anomalies depends on a correlation of CT findings to clinical pictures. Clinical diagnosis of congenital anomalies should include prediction of treatability and prognosis, in addition to recognition of a disease. (author)

  14. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-27

    This report compared the composition of samples from Wesseling and Leuna. In each case the sample was a residue from carbonization of the residues from hydrogenation of the brown coal processed at the plant. The composition was given in terms of volatile components, fixed carbon, ash, water, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, volatile sulfur, and total sulfur. The result of carbonization was given in terms of (ash and) coke, tar, water, gas and losses, and bitumen. The composition of the ash was given in terms of silicon dioxide, ferric oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, potassium and sodium oxides, sulfur trioxide, phosphorus pentoxide, chlorine, and titanium oxide. The most important difference between the properties of the two samples was that the residue from Wesseling only contained 4% oil, whereas that from Leuna had about 26% oil. Taking into account the total amount of residue processed yearly, the report noted that better carbonization at Leuna could save 20,000 metric tons/year of oil. Some other comparisons of data included about 33% volatiles at Leuna vs. about 22% at Wesseling, about 5 1/2% sulfur at Leuna vs. about 6 1/2% at Leuna, but about 57% ash for both. Composition of the ash differed quite a bit between the two. 1 table.

  15. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  16. Effect of Fe on the phases and microstructure of TiC-Fe cermets by combustion synthesis/quasi-isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weifang; Zhang Xinghong; Wang Jianli; Hong Changqing

    2004-01-01

    Fully dense TiC-Fe cermets (x = 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.%) were produced from Ti-C-Fe powder mixtures by combustion synthesis with quasi-isostatic pressing. The effect of Fe content on combustion temperature, combustion wave velocity, and final product density was investigated. The final product was characterized by XRD, SEM, and TEM. The combustion temperature and wave velocity decreased with increasing Fe content. Product density increased with increasing Fe content (96% at 30 wt.%). X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the final product to contain TiC, Fe phases, lath martensite, and Fe 2 Ti. The TiC particle size decreased with increasing Fe content. In addition, a low density of dislocations was observed in both the TiC particles and Fe binder, indicative of annealing and recrystallization, respectively

  17. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yongjia; Yamasaki, Tohru; Fukami, Takeshi; Mitamura, Tohru; Terasawa, Mititaka

    2003-01-01

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  18. Influence of Powder Surface Contamination in the Ni-Based Superalloy Alloy718 Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting and Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ling Kuo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain a deep understanding of the microstructure-mechanical relationship between solid-state sintering and full-melting processes. The IN718 superalloy was fabricated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP and selective laser melting (SLM. Continuous precipitates were clearly localized along the prior particle boundary (PPB in the HIP materials, while SLM materials showed a microstructure free of PPB. The mechanical properties of specimens that underwent SLM + solution treatment and aging were comparable to those of conventional wrought specimens both at room temperature and 650 °C. However, a drop was observed in the ductility of HIP material at 650 °C. The brittle particles along the PPB were found to affect the HIP materials’ creep life and ductility during solid-state sintering.

  19. Tensile ductility of an AlCoCrFeNi multi-phase high-entropy alloy through hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhi, E-mail: Zhi.Tang@alcoa.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Senkov, Oleg N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Parish, Chad M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, Chuan; Zhang, Fan [CompuTherm LLC, 437 S. Yellowstone Dr., Suite 217, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Santodonato, Louis J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, Gongyao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhao, Guangfeng; Yang, Fuqian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Liaw, Peter K., E-mail: pliaw@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    The microstructure and phase composition of an AlCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) were studied in as-cast (AlCoCrFeNi-AC, AC represents as-cast) and homogenized (AlCoCrFeNi-HP, HP signifies hot isostatic pressed and homogenized) conditions. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC ally has a dendritric structure in the consisting primarily of a nano-lamellar mixture of A2 (disordered body-centered-cubic (BCC)) and B2 (ordered BCC) phases, formed by an eutectic reaction. The homogenization heat treatment, consisting of hot isostatic pressed for 1 h at 1100 °C, 207 MPa and annealing at 1150 °C for 50 h, resulted in an increase in the volume fraction of the A1 phase and formation of a Sigma (σ) phase. Tensile properties in as-cast and homogenized conditions are reported at 700 °C. The ultimate tensile strength was virtually unaffected by heat treatment, and was 396±4 MPa at 700 °C. However, homogenization produced a noticeable increase in ductility. The AlCoCrFeNi-AC alloy showed a tensile elongation of only 1.0%, while after the heat-treatment, the elongation of AlCoCrFeNi-HP was 11.7%. Thermodynamic modeling of non-equilibrium and equilibrium phase diagrams for the AlCoCrFeNi HEA gave good agreement with the experimental observations of the phase contents in the AlCoCrFeNi-AC and AlCoCrFeNi-HP. The reasons for the improvement of ductility after the heat treatment and the crack initiation subjected to tensile loading were discussed.

  20. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies.

  1. RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRANIOVERTEBRAL JUNCTION ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Detailed discussions of the CVJ are conspicuously absent in many standard textbooks and chapters addressing the skull or cervical spine, since it lies in between these regions . CVJ anomalies are common in India subcontinent. OBJECTIVES : To outline the normal anatomy and various abnormalities of craniovertebral junction. To evaluate the most common developmental and acquired craniovertebral junction abnormalities . CRANIOMETRY AND DIAGNOSIS: Radiological evaluation of CVJ requir es identification of only a few anatomic structures. Over the years multiple lines , planes and angles have been described for assessment of CVJ relationship , initially with radiography and later with polytomography. Two lines have remained particularly use ful for evaluation of CVJ relationship with virtually any imaging modality: the chamberlain`s line and weckenheim ’ s clivus base line . Two angles also continue to be useful: the welcher basal angle and atlanto occipital joint axis angle. PATIENTS AND METHOD S: The prospective study of craniovertebral junction anomalies was carried out at Kurnool medical college , Governament general hospital Kurnool from NOV 2012 to AUG 2014. The patients are subjected to clinical evaluation and radiological evaluation. OBSERV ATIONS AND RESULTS : In our study there is male predominance with male to female ratio of 2:1 . Majority of patients are in the age group of 11 - 40 (73.26%. The commonest symptom seen is weakness of extremities ( 70% with associated numbness (50%. On clinica l examination pyramidal tract involvement noticed in 70% of cases. Basilar invagination is the most common followed by Atlantoocoipital assimilation (40% and AAD (30% . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are invalvable adjuncts to the plain radiographs in the evaluation of the craniovertebral junction anomalies. Chamberlain’s line and McGregor line are the most commonly applied craniometric measurements

  2. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal; Adams, Denise M.; Gupta, Anita; Lim, Foong-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  3. Origin of conductivity anomalies in the asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, T.; Zhang, B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity anomalies with anisotropy parallel to the plate motion have been observed beneath the oceanic lithosphere by electromagnetic studies (e.g., Evans et al., 2005; Baba et al., 2010; Naif et al., 2013). Electrical conductivity of the oceanic asthenosphere at ~100 km depth is very high, about 10-2 to 10-1 S/m. This zone is also known in seismology as the low velocity zone. Since Karato (1990) first suggested that electrical conductivity is sensitive to water content in NAMs, softening of asthenosphere has been regarded as a good indicator for constraining the distribution of water. There are two difficulties to explain the observed conductivity features in the asthenosphere. Recent publications on electrical conductivity of hydrous olivine suggested that olivine with the maximum soluble H2O content at the top of the asthenosphere has much lower conductivity less than 0.1 S/m (e.g., Yoshino et al., 2006; 2009a; Poe et al., 2010; Du Frane and Tyburczy, 2012; Yang, 2012), which is a typical value of conductivity anomaly observed in the oceanic mantle. Partial melting has been considered as an attractive agent for substantially raising the conductivity in this region (Shankland and Waff, 1977), because basaltic melt has greater electrical conductivity (> 100.5 S/m) and high wetting properties. However, dry mantle peridotite cannot reach the solidus temperature at depth 100 km. Volatile components can dramatically reduce melting temperature, even if its amount is very small. Recent studies on conductivity measurement of volatile-bearing melt suggest that conductivity of melt dramatically increases with increasing volatile components (H2O: Ni et al., 2010a, b; CO2: Gaillard et al., 2008; Yoshino et al., 2010; 2012a). Because incipient melt includes higher amount of volatile components, conductivity enhancement by the partial melt is very effective at temperatures just above that of the volatile-bearing peridotite solidus. In this study, the electrical

  4. Structure and Transport Anomalies in Soft Colloids

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya

    2013-04-01

    Anomalous trends in nanoparticle correlation and motion are reported in soft nanoparticle suspensions using static and dynamic x-ray scattering measurements. Contrary to normal expectations, we find that particle-particle correlations decrease and particle dynamics become faster as volume fraction rises above a critical particle loading associated with overlap. Our observations bear many similarities to the cascade of structural and transport anomalies reported for complex, network forming molecular fluids such as water, and are argued to share similar physical origins. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  5. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  6. Atomki anomaly and the Secluded Dark Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto Yasuhiro

    2018-01-01

    The Atomiki anomaly can be interpreted as a new light vector boson. If such a new particle exists, it could be a mediator between the Standard Model sector and the dark sector including the dark matter. We discussed some simple effective models with these particles. In the models, the secluded dark matter models are good candidates to satisfy the thermal relic abundance. In particular, we found that the dark matter self-interaction can be large enough to solve the small scale structure puzzle...

  7. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  8. Anomalies in chiral W--gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Marcelo; Vilar, Luiz Claudio Queiroz; Sorella, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    W-algebras are an extension of the Virasoro algebra. They describe the commutation relations between the components of the stress-energy tensor (T ++ ,T -- ) and the currents (W ++++... , W ----... ) of higher spin. Among the various W-algebras considered in the recent literature, the so-called W 3 -algebra plays a rather special role, due to the fact that it has a simple field theory realization. The corresponding field model, known as W 3 -gravity, yields a generalization of the usual bosonic string action. In this work, anomalies in chiral W--gravity are studied

  9. Imaging evaluation of fetal vascular anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Kline-Fath, Beth M.; Koch, Bernadette L.; Laor, Tal [MLC 5031 Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Adams, Denise M. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics and Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Gupta, Anita [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Surgery and Fetal Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Vascular anomalies can be detected in utero and should be considered in the setting of solid, mixed or cystic lesions in the fetus. Evaluation of the gray-scale and color Doppler US and MRI characteristics can guide diagnosis. We present a case-based pictorial essay to illustrate the prenatal imaging characteristics in 11 pregnancies with vascular malformations (5 lymphatic malformations, 2 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, 1 venous-lymphatic malformation, 1 Parkes-Weber syndrome) and vascular tumors (1 congenital hemangioma, 1 kaposiform hemangioendothelioma). Concordance between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses is analyzed, with further discussion regarding potential pitfalls in identification. (orig.)

  10. Atmospheric Methane Growth Anomalies, 2007 - Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Fisher, R. E.; Nisbet, E. G.; Lanoiselle, M.; France, J.

    2012-12-01

    Several marked growth anomalies in atmospheric methane have occurred since 2007. In particular there has been sustained growth in methane in the Southern Hemisphere. This southern growth anomaly is among the larger excursions in the global methane record so far occurring in the 21st century, yet in contrast to Arctic emission, it has had little attention. The increase in methane began in 2007 and continued through early-2012. In the zonal average from the Equator to 30°S, annual increases reached 7.9 ppb/yr in 2007, remained at 7.0 ppb/yr in 2008, fell to around 2.5 ppb/yr in 2009, then increased to 7.9 ppb/yr in 2010. To consider one specific site, recent data from Ascension Island (which samples South Atlantic air almost exclusively) suggests growth of ~11 ppb/yr from July 2010 to July 2011 (winter to winter) falling to 8 ppb/yr over Jan 2011 - Jan 2012 (summer to summer). Isotopic data for 2011 show 13C enrichments and depletions that may suggest inputs from tropical / subtropical fire and wetland sources, respectively. Despite the size of the southern anomaly, there has been virtually no discussion of its causes. Several possibilities exist: some or all may have occurred: 1) that methane emission from southern wetland (late wet season) and fire (dry season) sources increased sharply during this period; 2) that the southern OH methane sink has decreased; 3) that changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have increased inter-hemispheric transport. It is possible that a major factor was high La Nina rainfall in key areas draining into wetlands in southern tropical Africa and Latin America. Tropical methane sources emit roughly 200 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere, nearly two-fifths of the global budget. Thus changes in tropical sources, if sustained on this scale, can have global significance. However the observational network generally is so sparse in the tropics that identifying causes of methane growth events is more akin to guesswork than evidence

  11. A Model-Based Anomaly Detection Approach for Analyzing Streaming Aircraft Engine Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan Walker

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based anomaly detection architecture designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique calculates and monitors residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for anomaly detection purposes. Pivotal to the performance of this technique is the ability to construct a model that accurately reflects the nominal operating performance of the engine. The dynamic model applied in the architecture is a piecewise linear design comprising steady-state trim points and dynamic state space matrices. A simple curve-fitting technique for updating the model trim point information based on steadystate information extracted from available nominal engine measurement data is presented. Results from the application of the model-based approach for processing actual engine test data are shown. These include both nominal fault-free test case data and seeded fault test case data. The results indicate that the updates applied to improve the model trim point information also improve anomaly detection performance. Recommendations for follow-on enhancements to the technique are also presented and discussed.

  12. Atmospheric anomalies over Mt.Etna using GPS signal delays and tomography of radio wave velocities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Puglisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the prominent topography of Mt. Etna, the use of satellite geodetic techniques may significantly suffer from atmospheric heterogeneities. This problem mainly affects the DInSAR technique. To overcome these drawbacks the present study attempts to make headway in measuring and interpreting atmospheric anomalies. We used the GAMIT software to obtain the ZTD (Zenith Total Delay values for the GPS sessions performed on 1996-97, during ERS-2 passes at Mt. Etna. GAMIT software also allows to characterize the statistical behaviour of the tropospheric effects, by using residuals for each station-satellite pair, and to locate the atmospheric anomalies, present mostly at low altitudes. The attempt at using these results to produce a tomography of radio waves velocity of the troposphere suggests that the number of GPS stations used to investigate atmosphere is a critical point in such a study. The three stations are too few to invert anomalies eventually existing in the lower atmosphere. This result is a good starting point for better direct future study to verify the applicability of this tomographic technique to a geodetic network with a higher number of stations, with the aim of characterizing the lower atmosphere of Mt. Etna for a more accurate monitoring of ground deformations.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of Muellerian duct anomalies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Phelps, Andrew; Zapala, Matthew A.; MacKenzie, John D.; MacKenzie, Tippi C.; Courtier, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Muellerian duct anomalies encompass a wide variety of disorders resulting from abnormalities in the embryological development of the Muellerian ducts. In the prepubertal pediatric population, Muellerian duct anomalies are often incidental findings on studies obtained for other reasons. The onset of menses can prompt more clinical symptoms. Proper characterization of Muellerian duct anomalies is important because these anomalies can affect the development of gynecological disorders as well as fertility. Muellerian duct anomalies also carry a high association with other congenital anomalies, particularly renal abnormalities. MRI is widely considered the best modality for assessing Muellerian duct anomalies; it provides multiplanar capability, clear anatomical detail and tissue characterization without ionizing radiation. MRI allows for careful description of Muellerian duct anomalies, often leading to classification into the most widely accepted classification system for Muellerian duct anomalies. This system, developed by the American Society of Reproductive Medicine, includes seven subtypes: uterine agenesis/hypoplasia, unicornuate, didelphys, bicornuate, septate, arcuate, and diethylstilbestrol (DES) drug-related uterus. In cases of complex anomalies that defy classification, MRI allows detailed depiction of all components of the anatomical abnormality, allowing for proper management and surgical planning. (orig.)

  14. Radon anomalies in ground water before earthquakes in Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki

    1992-01-01

    Radon contents in ground waters in Tokyo have been measured since 1976. The correlation between earthquake and radon anomaly will be evaluated easily, when both earthquakes and radon anomalies are a few. In addition, the high reliability of the correlation will be obtained, if an earthquake and an anomaly occur at almost same time. The six earthquakes occurred in 1976∼1990 were chosen based on the magnitude (≥6.0) and the epicentral distance (<100 km). Radon anomalies shortly before the six earthquakes were investigated at the stations where few anomalies have been detected. Anomalies which can be considered to relate with earthquakes appeared near around the dates of the Ibaraki-Chiba (1985) and the Yamanashi-Kanagawa (1983) earthquakes. The anomalies appeared in 6 d before ∼4 d after the earthquakes, and no other anomalies had appeared in over 600 d before the earthquakes. Then it is presumed that these anomalies would be earthquake precursors. The anomalies were found at the stations distributed in 50∼70 km epicentral distances and on the compress quadrants of the earthquake mechanism. (author)

  15. Residual stresses in material processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaczek, K. J.; Watkins, T. R.; Hubbard, C. R.; Wang, Xun-Li; Spooner, S.

    Material manufacturing processes often introduce residual stresses into the product. The residual stresses affect the properties of the material and often are detrimental. Therefore, the distribution and magnitude of residual stresses in the final product are usually an important factor in manufacturing process optimization or component life prediction. The present paper briefly discusses the causes of residual stresses. It then addresses the direct, nondestructive methods of residual stress measurement by X ray and neutron diffraction. Examples are presented to demonstrate the importance of residual stress measurement in machining and joining operations.

  16. Analysis of genitourinary anomalies in patients with VACTERL (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal anomalies, Limb abnormalities) association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Benjamin D; Raam, Manu S; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel E

    2011-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe a novel pattern of genitourinary (GU) anomalies in VACTERL association,which involves congenital anomalies affecting the vertebrae,anus, heart, trachea and esophagus, kidneys, and limbs.We collected clinical data on 105 patients diagnosed with VACTERL association and analyzed a subset of 89 patients who met more stringent inclusion criteria. Twenty-one percent of patients have GU anomalies, which are more severe (but not more frequent) in females. Anomalies were noted in patients without malformations affecting the renal, lower vertebral, or lower gastrointestinal systems. There should be a high index of suspicion for the presence of GU anomalies even in patients who do not have spatially similar malformations.

  17. SRC Residual fuel oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  18. Seasonal ARMA-based SPC charts for anomaly detection: Application to emergency department systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kadri, Farid

    2015-10-22

    Monitoring complex production systems is primordial to ensure management, reliability and safety as well as maintaining the desired product quality. Early detection of emergent abnormal behaviour in monitored systems allows pre-emptive action to prevent more serious consequences, to improve system operations and to reduce manufacturing and/or service costs. This study reports the design of a new methodology for the detection of abnormal situations based on the integration of time-series analysis models and statistical process control (SPC) tools for the joint development of a monitoring system to help supervising of the behaviour of emergency department services (EDs). The monitoring system developed is able to provide early alerts in the event of abnormal situations. The seasonal autoregressive moving average (SARMA)-based exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) anomaly detection scheme proposed was successfully applied to the practical data collected from the database of the paediatric emergency department (PED) at Lille regional hospital centre, France. The method developed utilizes SARMA as a modelling framework and EWMA for anomaly detection. The EWMA control chart is applied to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the SARMA model. The detection results of the EWMA chart are compared with two other commonly applied residual-based tests: a Shewhart individuals chart and a Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control chart.

  19. Composition of carbonization residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1943-11-30

    This report gave a record of the composition of several samples of residues from carbonization of various hydrogenation residue from processing some type of coal or tar in the Bergius process. These included Silesian bituminous coal processed at 600 atm. with iron catalyst, in one case to produce gasoline and middle oil and in another case to produce heavy oil excess, Scholven coal processed at 250 atm. with tin oxalate and chlorine catalyst, Bruex tar processed in a 10-liter oven using iron catalyst, and a pitch mixture from Welheim processed in a 10-liter over using iron catalyst. The values gathered were compared with a few corresponding values estimated for Boehlen tar and Gelsenberg coal based on several assumptions outlined in the report. The data recorded included percentage of ash in the dry residue and percentage of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, total sulfur, and volatile sulfur. The percentage of ash varied from 21.43% in the case of Bruex tar to 53.15% in the case of one of the Silesian coals. Percentage of carbon varied from 44.0% in the case of Scholven coal to 78.03% in the case of Bruex tar. Percentage of total sulfur varied from 2.28% for Bruex tar to a recorded 5.65% for one of the Silesian coals and an estimated 6% for Boehlen tar. 1 table.

  20. Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated with Major Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Kafatos, Menas C.; Taylor, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the area and time with released energies associated with these events. Extended studies of the TRA using the data from the most recent major earthquakes allowed establishing the main morphological features. It was also established that the TRA are the part of more complex chain of the short-term pre-earthquake generation, which is explained within the framework of a lithosphere-atmosphere coupling processes.

  1. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eune, Myungseok [Sangmyung University, Department of Civil Engineering, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Gim, Yongwan [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sogang University, Research Institute for Basic Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  2. Effective Tolman temperature induced by trace anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eune, Myungseok; Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae

    2017-01-01

    Despite the finiteness of stress tensor for a scalar field on the four-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole in the Israel-Hartle-Hawking vacuum, the Tolman temperature in thermal equilibrium is certainly divergent on the horizon due to the infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature. The origin of this conflict is due to the fact that the conventional Tolman temperature was based on the assumption of a traceless stress tensor, which is, however, incompatible with the presence of the trace anomaly responsible for the Hawking radiation. Here, we present an effective Tolman temperature which is compatible with the presence of the trace anomaly by using the modified Stefan-Boltzmann law. Eventually, the effective Tolman temperature turns out to be finite everywhere outside the horizon, and so an infinite blue-shift of the Hawking temperature at the event horizon does not appear any more. In particular, it is vanishing on the horizon, so that the equivalence principle is exactly recovered at the horizon. (orig.)

  3. Axial gravity, massless fermions and trace anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonora, L. [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); KEK, Tsukuba (Japan). KEK Theory Center; INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Cvitan, M.; Giaccari, S.; Stemberga, T. [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Prester, P.D. [Rijeka Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Physics; Pereira, A.D. [UERJ-Univ. Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; UFF-Univ. Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2017-08-15

    This article deals with two main topics. One is odd parity trace anomalies in Weyl fermion theories in a 4d curved background, the second is the introduction of axial gravity. The motivation for reconsidering the former is to clarify the theoretical background underlying the approach and complete the calculation of the anomaly. The reference is in particular to the difference between Weyl and massless Majorana fermions and to the possible contributions from tadpole and seagull terms in the Feynman diagram approach. A first, basic, result of this paper is that a more thorough treatment, taking account of such additional terms and using dimensional regularization, confirms the earlier result. The introduction of an axial symmetric tensor besides the usual gravitational metric is instrumental to a different derivation of the same result using Dirac fermions, which are coupled not only to the usual metric but also to the additional axial tensor. The action of Majorana and Weyl fermions can be obtained in two different limits of such a general configuration. The results obtained in this way confirm the previously obtained ones. (orig.)

  4. Cochleovestibular anomalies in children with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Propst, Evan J; Blaser, Susan; Trimble, Keith; James, Adrian; Friedberg, Jacob; Papsin, Blake C

    2008-03-01

    To describe the cochleovestibular apparatus on computed tomography (CT) imaging in patients with cholesteatoma. We asked whether cochleovestibular anomalies coexist in individuals with cholesteatoma. Randomized, controlled, prospective measurement. A database search yielded 145 children with cholesteatoma: 31 met inclusion criteria by not having sensorineural hearing loss, not having an associated syndrome, and having digitally stored temporal bone CT imaging available. Prospective measurement of 31 individuals (62 ears) with unilateral cholesteatoma and 32 normally hearing nonsyndromic controls (64 ears) was performed by a neuroradiologist blinded to the study objective. Twenty-six temporal bone aspects on axial imaging were evaluated (16 measurement, 10 calculated from measurement). The cholesteatoma group had a larger endolymphatic fossa and vestibular aqueduct, and there was a trend for the lateral semicircular canal vestibule to be smaller as compared with controls. Subgroup analysis revealed a gradient in prevalence of these findings being most common in the congenital cholesteatoma group, intermediate in the acquired cholesteatoma group, and least common in controls. There were no differences in measurements between ears with cholesteatoma and contralateral disease-free temporal bones. Children with cholesteatoma have abnormal vestibular anatomy. The gradient in prevalence of these findings may suggest a relationship between congenital and acquired cholesteatoma. These may include a generalized temporal bone anomaly that predisposes to cholesteatoma formation, or a third variable such as genetic mutation may predispose to both anomalous cochleovestibular formation and cholesteatoma.

  5. [Laparoscopic management of symptomatic urachal anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ismayel, Alexis; Cruz-González, Germán; Sánchez, Renata; Sánchez-Salas, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, Omaira; Sanabria, Erasmo; Sotelo, Rene; Sánchez-Salas, Rafael E

    2009-03-01

    Acquired urachal anomalies are a rare pathology. Gold-standard treatment for this clinical situation remains the resection of the urachus in its entire tract with or without partial resection of the bladder. Our aim is to up-date authors's experience in the minimally invasive surgical treatment of acquired urachal disease. From 2001 to 2007, 14 patients were operated for acquired urachal disease at our institution. A three portal technique previously described by the authors was employed. The diagnosis of acquired uracal disease was confirmed in all cases and the resection of the urachus in its entire tract performed in cephalocaudal direction onto the bladder. Operative and demographic data was prospectively collected and analysis retrospectively performed. Mean operative time was 63 minutes (45,110), minimal blood loss, and no conversions to open surgery or perioperative complications were verified. The majority of the patients were discharged in the first 24 hours. At a follow-up of 22 months no recurrences of urachal pathology recurrences have been verified. Laparoscopy plays a significant role in the management of symptomatic urachus anomalies. It allows objective confirmation of clinical diagnosis and adequate resection of the urachus in a safe and efficient fashion, while providing the well-known advantages of minimally acces surgery. Preoperative evaluation work-up has minimal impact of therapeutical decision.

  6. Theory of hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Desclaux, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Negative muon spin precession experiments have found giant hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms ranging from a few percent up to 36%. In order to understand these results, the authors present Breit interaction calculations based on atomic self-consistent unrestricted Dirac-Fock solutions which explicitly include all electrons and the negative muon. The Breit interaction results (including the relativistic correction for the bound muon g-factor), vary from near zero for μ - O/N to -5% for μ - Pd/Rh; this latter is much larger than the calculated muonic or nuclear Bohr-Weisskopf anomalies and much smaller than the 36% measured value. For μ - Ni/Co the authors find a calculated range of results (depending on assumed electronic configurations) of -2.3 to -2.7% in excellent agreement with recent measurements. This excellent agreement in μ - Ni/Co provides strong support for the earlier suggestions that the discrepancy in the case of μ - Pd/Rh is due to experimental factors. (Auth.)

  7. Ebstein's Anomaly: Anatomo-echocardiographic correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keirns Candace

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this investigation is to demonstrate that in Ebstein's Anomaly (EA the right ventricle (RV is affected in its three portions and to establish an anatomoechocardiographic correlation between the anatomic features and the equivalent echocardiographic images. Methods Thirty hearts with EA were studied. The alterations of each portions of the RV were described. Fifty adult patients with this anomaly were studied by echocardiography. Results Anatomy: All hearts had atrial situs solitus, 27 had concordant atrioventricular connection and 3 discordant, of these 2 had transposition of the great arteries (TGA and one double outlet right ventricle (DORV. The degree of tricuspid valve (TV displacement showed a spectrum from I to III. The inlet of the RV was markedly thin in 27. The trabecular portion had multiples muscular bands in all. The outlet portion was dilated in 20 and stenotic in 5. In 25 atrial septal defects were found. Echocardiography: All patients had atrial situs solitus, 42 with concordant atrioventricular connection and 8 with discordant, of these last patients 5 had TGA and 3 DORV. The degree of TV displacement varied from I to III. The inlet of RV was markedly thin in 42. The trabecular portion had muscular bands in 45. The outlet portion was dilated in 31 and stenotic in 11. In 30 atrial septal defects were found. Conclusion The EA affects the whole RV and the anatomoechocardiographic correlation provides an appropriate understanding of echocardiographic images in terms of a precise diagnosis, therapeutic decisions and prognosis.

  8. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  9. Analysis on Space Environment from the Anomalies of Geosynchronous Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available While it is well known that space environment can produce spacecraft anomaly, defining space environment effects for each anomalies is difficult. This is caused by the fact that spacecraft anomaly shows various symptoms and reproducing it is impossible. In this study, we try to find the conditions of when spacecraft failures happen more frequently and give satellite operators useful information. Especially, our study focuses on the geosynchronous satellites which cost is high and required high reliability. We used satellite anomaly data given by Satellite News Digest which is internet newspaper providing space industry news. In our analysis, 88 anomaly cases occurred from 1997 to 2008 shows bad corelation with Kp index. Satellite malfunctions were likely to happen in spring and fall and in local time from midnight to dawn. In addition, we found the probability of anomaly increase when high energy electron flux is high. This is more clearly appeared in solar minimum than maximum period.

  10. [Occlusal anomalies in the deciduous and mixed bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legovic, M; Mady, L

    1998-01-01

    In 311 examines (177 boys and 134 girls) with primary dentition and 535 examinees (285 boys and 250 girls) with mixed dentition in Istria--Croatia, the frequency of orthodontic and occlusive anomalies in regard of space plane and premature extraction of c, m1 and m2 are investigated. The orthodontic anomalies are defected in 46.95%, premature loss in 11.25% and occlusive anomalies in 40.85% of examinees with primary dentition, while in mixed dentition the 58.69% of examinees have orthodontic anomaly, the 17.20% premature loss and the 48.97% of examinees have occlusal anomaly. In both phases of dentition the most frequent are occlusive anomalies in the following planes: sagittal, vertical and sagittal-vertical.

  11. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 16 and body stalk anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y; Silverman, N; Jackson, L; Wapner, R; Wallerstein, R

    2000-10-02

    We report on a fetus with placental trisomy 16, maternal uniparental disomy (UPD), and body stalk anomaly. Body stalk anomaly is a rare, fatal developmental abnormality consisting of a defective abdominal wall with abdominal organs in a sac outside the abdominal cavity covered by amnion adherent to the placenta with absence or severe shortness of the umbilical cord. Trisomy 16 was identified in the placenta in all cells. Amniocentesis was karyotypically normal. Parental origin studies showed maternal UPD for chromosome 16 in post-termination fetal tissue. The cause of the body stalk anomaly is not clearly defined. There are no other reports of placental karyotype or UPD investigations with body stalk anomaly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of placental trisomy 16, UPD in fetus, and body stalk anomaly, suggesting placental insufficiency or imprinting effects as cause of this anomaly. Am. J. Med. Genet. 94:284-286, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Prevalence and Distribution of Developmental Dental Anomalies in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Erkmen Almaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies in paediatric patients attending the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kırıkkale University Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and Methods: The study consisted a sample of 9173 patients, aged between 0-15 years, referred to our clinic between 1 August 2011-1 August 2012. The patients were examined clinically and radiographically in terms of the number, size, shape, structure and color anomalies. Results: One hundred sixty six children (1.8% were found to have developmental dental anomalies. The most frequently observed anomalies were congenitally missing teeth (0.52% and supernumerary teeth (0.27%. Anomalies such as dens invaginatus (0.03%, dentinogenesis imperfecta (0.02% and dilaceration (0.02% were encountered more rarely. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and determination of the prevalence of dental anomalies in children is important in the treatment planning.

  13. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed...... to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down...... syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were...

  14. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  15. Impacts of the IOD-associated temperature and salinity anomalies on the intermittent equatorial undercurrent anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junde; Liang, Chujin; Tang, Youmin; Liu, Xiaohui; Lian, Tao; Shen, Zheqi; Li, Xiaojing

    2017-11-01

    The study of Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) has attracted a broad attention in recent years due to its strong response and feedback to the Indian Ocean Dipole. In this paper, we first produce a high-quality simulation of three-dimensional temperature, salinity and zonal current simulation from 1982 to 2014, using a high-resolution ocean general circulation model. On this basis, with two sensitivity experiments, we investigate the role of temperature and salinity anomalies in driving and enhancing the EUC during the positive IOD events by examining the variation of the EUC seasonal cycle and diagnosing the zonal momentum budget along the equatorial Indian Ocean. Our results show that during January-March, the EUC can appear along the entire equatorial Indian Ocean in all years, but during August-November, the EUC can appear and reach the eastern Indian Ocean only during the positive IOD events. The zonal momentum budget analysis indicates that the pressure gradient force contributes most to the variation of the eastward acceleration of zonal currents in the subsurface. During the positive IOD events, strong negative subsurface temperature anomalies exist in the eastern Indian Ocean, with negative surface salinity anomalies in the central and eastern Indian Ocean, resulting in a large pressure gradient force to drive EUC during the August-November. Further, the results of two sensitivity experiments indicate that the temperature anomalies significantly impact the pressure gradient force, playing a leading role in driving the EUC, while the surface salinity anomalies can secondarily help to intensify the eastward EUC through increasing the zonal density gradient in the eastern Indian Ocean and impacting the vertical momentum advection in the subsurface.

  16. On Certain Conceptual Anomalies in Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Crothers S. J.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of conceptual anomalies occurring in the Standard exposition of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. These anomalies relate to issues in both mathematics and in physics and penetrate to the very heart of Einstein’s theory. This paper reveals and amplifies a few such anomalies, including the fact that Einstein’s field equations for the so-called static vacuum configuration, R = 0 , violates his Principle of Equiv- alence, and is therefore ...

  17. Anomaly Detection and Visualization of School Electricity Consumption Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Wenqiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Anomaly detection has been widely used in a variety of research and application domains, such as network intrusion detection, insurance/credit card fraud detection, health-care informatics, industrial damage detection, image processing and novel topic detection in text mining. In this paper, we focus on remote facilities management that identifies anomalous events in buildings by detecting anomalies in building energy data. We have investigated five models to detect anomalies in the school el...

  18. A sign on CT that predicts a hazardous ureteral anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Anterior deviation of the ureter in its mid-course appears to predict inguinoscrotal herniation of the ureter. This finding is a sensitive predictor and should raise concern for this anomaly in the appropriate clinical setting. It is not entirely specific as morbid obesity and congenital anomalies may result in a similar imaging appearance. We believe that this association has not been reported previously. Awareness of this anomaly can have significant operative implications.

  19. Anomaly cancellation condition in abelian lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    1999-11-01

    We analyze the general solution of the Wess-Zumino consistency condition in abelian lattice gauge theories, without taking the classical continuum limit. We find that, if the anomaly density is a local pseudo-scalar field on the lattice, the non-trivial anomaly is always proportional to the anomaly coefficient in the continuum theory. The possible extension of this result to non-abelian theories is briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Anomaly detection based on zero appearances in subspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Guansong

    2017-01-01

    Anomaly detection is regarded as one of the most important tasks in data mining due to its wide application in various domains, such as finance, information security, healthcare and earth science. With advancements in data collection techniques, the volume and dimensionality of anomaly detection data sets increase explosively, and diverse attribute types occur within these data sets. Also, in many data sets, anomalies can be detected in some attributes only, while other attributes are irrelev...