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Sample records for residual disease prior

  1. Morbidity in early Parkinson's disease and prior to diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rune; Kjellberg, Jakob; Ibsen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonmotor symptoms are probably present prior to, early on, and following, a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. Nonmotor symptoms may hold important information about the progression of Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the total early and prediagnostic morbidities in the 3......, poisoning and certain other external causes, and other factors influencing health status and contact with health services. It was negatively associated with neoplasm, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease present significant differences...

  2. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Christopher S.; Karp, Judith E.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in the laboratory have lead to substantial improvements in clinical decision-making by the use of pre-treatment prognostic risk stratification factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Unfortunately similar progress has not been made in treatment response criteria, with the definition of “complete remission” in AML largely unchanged for over half a century. Several recent clinical trials have demonstrated that higher sensitivity measurements of residual disease burden during or after treatment can be performed, that results are predictive for clinical outcome and can be used to improve outcomes by guiding additional therapeutic intervention to patients in clinical complete remission but at increased relapse risk. We review here these recent trials, the characteristics and challenges of the modalities currently used to detect minimal residual disease (MRD), and outline opportunities to both refine detection and better clinically utilize MRD measurements. MRD measurement is already the standard of care in other myeloid malignancies such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It is our belief that response criteria for non-APL AML should be updated to include assessment for molecular complete remission (mCR) and that recommendations for post-consolidation surveillance should include regular monitoring for molecular relapse as a standard of care. PMID:23799371

  3. Minimal residual disease in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vela, José Antonio; García Marco, José Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is an important endpoint in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). It is highly predictive of prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival and could be considered a surrogate for PFS in the context of chemoimmunotherapy based treatment. Evaluation of MRD level by flow cytometry or molecular techniques in the era of the new BCR and Bcl-2 targeted inhibitors could identify the most cost-effective and durable treatment sequencing. A therapeutic approach guided by the level of MRD might also determine which patients would benefit from an early stop or consolidation therapy. In this review, we discuss the different MRD methods of analysis, which source of tumour samples must be analysed, the future role of the detection of circulating tumour DNA, and the potential role of MRD negativity in clinical practice in the modern era of CLL therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of prior machining deformation on the development of tensile residual stresses in weld-fabricated nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevey, P.S.; Mason, P.W.; Hornbach, D.J.; Molkenthin, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Austenitic alloy weldments in nuclear systems may be subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure if the sum of residual and applied stresses exceeds a critical threshold. Residual stresses developed by prior machining and welding may either accelerate or retard SCC, depending on their magnitude and sign. A combined x-ray diffraction and mechanical procedure was used to determine the axial and hoop residual stress and yield strength distributions into the inside-diameter surface of a simulated Alloy 600 penetration J-welded into a reactor pressure vessel. The degree of cold working and the resulting yield strength increase caused by prior machining and weld shrinkage were calculated from the line-broadening distributions. Tensile residual stresses on the order of +700 MPa were observed in both the axial and the hoop directions at the inside-diameter surface in a narrow region adjacent to the weld heat-affected zone. Stresses exceeding the bulk yield strength were found to develop due to the combined effects of cold working of the surface layers during initial machining and subsequent weld shrinkage. The residual stress and cold work distributions produced by prior machining were found to influence strongly the final residual stress state developed after welding

  5. Gender differences in residual effect of prior drop jumps on oxygen uptake during heavy cycling exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neringa Baranauskienė

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: Prior eccentric–concentric exercise of thigh muscles (100 drop jumps accelerates VO2 kinetics at the start and increases VO2 during steady state of heavy cycling only in the male group. So, prior exercise of such type has a higher negative impact on cycling economy in men than in women and this might be related to greater muscle damage and fatigue in physically active male persons after plyometric exercise.

  6. Eliminating Hairy Cell Leukemia Minimal Residual Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with hairy cell leukemia who have disease-related symptoms that require treatment will be randomly assigned to receive cladribine with either concurrent rituximab or rituximab at least 6 months after completing cladribine therapy.

  7. Dosimetry prior to I-131-therapy of benign thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Lassmann, Michael; Reiners, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The activity to be administered in I-131 therapy of benign thyroid disease is determined by the radiation absorbed dose necessary to cure the disease, the target mass, and the residence time of the I-131 in the target volume. Data from 73 patients with complete sets of uptake measurements 2, 6, 24, 48, and 96 (n = 53) or 120 (n = 20) hours after oral administration of 1 MBq I-131 were used to deduce residence times from subsets of 3, 2, or only 1 measurement for each individual. The values were compared to those obtained with the reference method, i.e. a fit of an uptake function based on a 2-compartment model to all 5 measurements, to quantify the errors introduced by the less demanding assessments. Deviations are less than 10% if the 2- compartment uptake function is fitted to only 3 values measured after 6, 24, and 96-120 h. Use of 2, 24, and 96-120 h data results in errors > 20% in individual patients. The effective half-lives as determined from 2 measurements after 24 and 96-120 h correlate well with those deduced from the reference method with larger deviations in individuals with slow iodine kinetics and late maximal uptake. Residence times determined from the 24 h uptake, assuming linear increase during the first day, and the effective half-life limited to maximum 8 days underestimate the actual values systematically in patients with long and short half-lives. These errors can be eliminated by a modification of the calculation method resulting in deviations less than 14% in all but one individual for this procedure. The accuracy of methods based on only one retention value increases with the time of measurement after the administration of I-131. While systematic errors up to a factor of two occur if the 24 h uptake is used for the estimate, deviations are less than 18% for measurements after 120 h. The results suggest that only one late uptake assessment warrants residence time estimates with an acceptable error. Given the high inherent uncertainties in the

  8. A multigene array for measurable residual disease detection in AML patients undergoing SCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, M; McGowan, K S; Lu, K; Jain, N; Candia, J; Hensel, N F; Tang, J; Calvo, K R; Battiwalla, M; Barrett, A J; Hourigan, C S

    2015-01-01

    AML is a diagnosis encompassing a diverse group of myeloid malignancies. Heterogeneous genetic etiology, together with the potential for oligoclonality within the individual patient, have made the identification of a single high-sensitivity marker of disease burden challenging. We developed a multiple gene measurable residual disease (MG-MRD) RQ–PCR array for the high-sensitivity detection of AML, retrospectively tested on 74 patients who underwent allo-SCT at the NHLBI in the period 1994–2012. MG-MRD testing on peripheral blood samples prior to transplantation demonstrated excellent concordance with traditional BM-based evaluation and improved risk stratification for post-transplant relapse and OS outcomes. Pre-SCT assessment by MG-MRD predicted all clinical relapses occurring in the first 100 days after allo-SCT compared with 57% sensitivity using WT1 RQ–PCR alone. Nine patients who were negative for WT1 prior to transplantation were correctly reclassified into a high-risk MG-MRD-positive group, associated with 100% post-transplant mortality. This study provides proof of principle that a multiple gene approach may be superior to the use of WT1 expression alone for AML residual disease detection. PMID:25665046

  9. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior... transfer, to an allowance for depletion under section 611 in respect of ores or minerals extracted from...

  10. Minimal Residual Disease Assessment in Lymphoma: Methods and Applications.

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    Herrera, Alex F; Armand, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Standard methods for disease response assessment in patients with lymphoma, including positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans, are imperfect. In other hematologic malignancies, particularly leukemias, the ability to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) is increasingly influencing treatment paradigms. However, in many subtypes of lymphoma, the application of MRD assessment techniques, like flow cytometry or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, has been challenging because of the absence of readily detected circulating disease or canonic chromosomal translocations. Newer MRD detection methods that use next-generation sequencing have yielded promising results in a number of lymphoma subtypes, fueling the hope that MRD detection may soon be applicable in clinical practice for most patients with lymphoma. MRD assessment can provide real-time information about tumor burden and response to therapy, noninvasive genomic profiling, and monitoring of clonal dynamics, allowing for many possible applications that could significantly affect the care of patients with lymphoma. Further validation of MRD assessment methods, including the incorporation of MRD assessment into clinical trials in patients with lymphoma, will be critical to determine how best to deploy MRD testing in routine practice and whether MRD assessment can ultimately bring us closer to the goal of personalized lymphoma care. In this review article, we describe the methods available for detecting MRD in patients with lymphoma and their relative advantages and disadvantages. We discuss preliminary results supporting the potential applications for MRD testing in the care of patients with lymphoma and strategies for including MRD assessment in lymphoma clinical trials.

  11. Minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have reported our results on minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Briefly, B M-aspirates were collected from 817 patients at primary surgery. Tumor cells in B M were detected by immunocytochemistry using anticytokeratin-antibodies (A E1/ A E3). Analyses of the primary tumor included histological grading, vascular invasion and immunohistochemical detection of cerbB2, cathepsin D, p53 and ER/PgRexpression. These analyses were compared to clinical outcome. Median follow-up was 49 months. ITC were detected in 13.2% of the patients. The detection rate rose with increasing tumor size (p=0.011) and lymph node involvement (p<0.001). Systemic relapse and death from breast cancer occurred in 31.7% and 26.9% of the B M-positive versus 13.7% and 10.9% of B M-negative patients, respectively (p<0.001). Analyzing node-positive and node-negative patients separately, ITC-positivity was associated with poor prognosis in the node-positive group and in node-negative patients not receiving adjuvant therapy (T1N0). In multivariate analysis, ITC in B M was an independent prognostic factor together with N-, T-, ER/Pg R-status, histological grade and vascular invasion. Combination of several independent prognostic factors can classify subgroups of patients into excellent and high-risk prognosis groups. Like other groups we have investigated the clinical role of monitoring minimal residual disease before and after adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. One hundred and eighteen high risk stage II breast cancer patients entering the Scandinavian Study Group multicenter trial were randomized to 9 cycles of dose escalated and tailored FEC (5-flurouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) or standard FEC followed by high dose chemotherapy. B M samples at diagnosis and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy were assessed for the presence of I CT. Median observation time for patients was 68 months. ITC positivity in bone marrow was evaluated as a prognostic and predictive marker and

  12. Radioiodine therapy in patients with Graves' disease and the effects of prior carbimazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyampudi, Arun; Hamide, Abdoul; Halanaik, Dhanapathi; Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar

    2014-09-01

    The use of radioiodine as the first line of treatment in Graves' disease is restricted in India because of its limited availability and an unrealistic risk perception associated with it. Additionally, the effectiveness of radioiodine ablation in Graves' disease is influenced by many factors. Prior medical antithyroid therapy is one such important factor. To analyze the efficacy of low dose radioiodine therapy (5 mCi) in treatment of naive patients of Graves' disease in comparison to that in which it was already primed with an antithyroid drug, carbimazole. A non-randomized, interventional study conducted in the Department of Medicine and Endocrinology of a tertiary care institute in South India. The study had two groups; Group A (36 treatment naive, uncomplicated Graves' disease patients) and B (34 Graves' disease patients on carbimazole prior to radioiodine therapy). Both groups had baseline clinical, biochemical evaluation and were reassessed at 3 and 6 months for evaluating the clinical status for possible documentation of cure. The cure rate was 61.1% in drug naive group and 58.8% in pretreated group at 6 months following radioiodine (P = 0.845). Higher baseline 999m technicium (99m Tc) uptake, male gender, BMI and higher baseline free thyroxine (fT4) level predicted treatment failure following radioiodine therapy. Administration of carbimazole prior to low dose radioiodine therapy does not alter the efficacy of radioiodine. Low fixed dose (5 mCi) of radioactive iodine may be a safe and effective primary therapeutic option in Graves' disease patients pretreated with antithyroid drugs.

  13. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). METHODS: Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 ± 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. RESULTS: A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 ± 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients. PMID:19630105

  14. Perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid or early azathioprine/biological therapy are predictors of disease behavior change in patients with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Czegledi, Zsofia; Szamosi, Tamas; Banai, Janos; David, Gyula; Zsigmond, Ferenc; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Gemela, Orsolya; Papp, Janos; Lakatos, Laszlo

    2009-07-28

    To assess the combined effect of disease phenotype, smoking and medical therapy [steroid, azathioprine (AZA), AZA/biological therapy] on the probability of disease behavior change in a Caucasian cohort of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Three hundred and forty well-characterized, unrelated, consecutive CD patients were analyzed (M/F: 155/185, duration: 9.4 +/- 7.5 years) with a complete clinical follow-up. Medical records including disease phenotype according to the Montreal classification, extraintestinal manifestations, use of medications and surgical events were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were interviewed on their smoking habits at the time of diagnosis and during the regular follow-up visits. A change in disease behavior was observed in 30.8% of patients with an initially non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behavior after a mean disease duration of 9.0 +/- 7.2 years. In a logistic regression analysis corrected for disease duration, perianal disease, smoking, steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy use were independent predictors of disease behavior change. In a subsequent Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and a proportional Cox regression analysis, disease location (P = 0.001), presence of perianal disease (P < 0.001), prior steroid use (P = 0.006), early AZA (P = 0.005) or AZA/biological therapy (P = 0.002), or smoking (P = 0.032) were independent predictors of disease behavior change. Our data suggest that perianal disease, small bowel disease, smoking, prior steroid use, early AZA or AZA/biological therapy are all predictors of disease behavior change in CD patients.

  15. Post-induction residual disease in translocation t(12;21)-positive childhood ALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Jeanette; Madsen, Hans O; Nyvold, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    of induction therapy (prednisolone, vincristine, doxorubicin, i.t. methotrexate) by a competitive, clone-specific, semi-nested PCR analysis. RESULTS: Among 96 children diagnosed with ALL, and quantified for post induction residual disease, 32 were t(12;21)-positive. The median residual disease was similar...... and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-MRD 95 study, which includes children from Iceland, Norway, and Denmark diagnose d with ALL, patients were screened for the presence of t(12; 21) by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at diagnosis, and their residual disease was quantified after 4 weeks...

  16. Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Still a Work in Progress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Mosna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimal residual disease evaluation refers to a series of molecular and immunophenotypical techniques aimed at detecting submicroscopic disease after therapy. As such, its application in acute myeloid leukemia has greatly increased our ability to quantify treatment response, and to determine the chemosensitivity of the disease, as the final product of the drug schedule, dose intensity, biodistribution, and the pharmakogenetic profile of the patient. There is now consistent evidence for the prognostic power of minimal residual disease evaluation in acute myeloid leukemia, which is complementary to the baseline prognostic assessment of the disease. The focus for its use is therefore shifting to individualize treatment based on a deeper evaluation of chemosensitivity and residual tumor burden. In this review, we will summarize the results of the major clinical studies evaluating minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia in adults in recent years and address the technical and practical issues still hampering the spread of these techniques outside controlled clinical trials. We will also briefly speculate on future developments and offer our point of view, and a word of caution, on the present use of minimal residual disease measurements in “real-life” practice. Still, as final standardization and diffusion of the methods are sorted out, we believe that minimal residual disease will soon become the new standard for evaluating response in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

  17. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Van De Poll-franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline; Van Herk-sukel, Myrthe P. P.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Rottmann, Nina; Horsbøl, Trine; Dalton, Susanne; Denollet, Johan

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a

  18. Correlation set analysis: detecting active regulators in disease populations using prior causal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chia-Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of active causal regulators is a crucial problem in understanding mechanism of diseases or finding drug targets. Methods that infer causal regulators directly from primary data have been proposed and successfully validated in some cases. These methods necessarily require very large sample sizes or a mix of different data types. Recent studies have shown that prior biological knowledge can successfully boost a method's ability to find regulators. Results We present a simple data-driven method, Correlation Set Analysis (CSA, for comprehensively detecting active regulators in disease populations by integrating co-expression analysis and a specific type of literature-derived causal relationships. Instead of investigating the co-expression level between regulators and their regulatees, we focus on coherence of regulatees of a regulator. Using simulated datasets we show that our method performs very well at recovering even weak regulatory relationships with a low false discovery rate. Using three separate real biological datasets we were able to recover well known and as yet undescribed, active regulators for each disease population. The results are represented as a rank-ordered list of regulators, and reveals both single and higher-order regulatory relationships. Conclusions CSA is an intuitive data-driven way of selecting directed perturbation experiments that are relevant to a disease population of interest and represent a starting point for further investigation. Our findings demonstrate that combining co-expression analysis on regulatee sets with a literature-derived network can successfully identify causal regulators and help develop possible hypothesis to explain disease progression.

  19. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, C W; Saad, T F

    1999-01-01

    In the United States, there is a large and growing population of patients undergoing dialysis because of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These patients present special management considerations for dentists, including antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial endocarditis (BE). ESRD patients, particularly those with an arteriovenous shunt for hemodialysis access, are predisposed to valvular endocarditis. Thus, BE prevention is the primary goal of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental or other invasive procedures in these patients. Bacteremia may predispose to infection of synthetic vascular access grafts, although this form of endovascular infection in ESRD patients has not been as well-characterized as BE. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be of some benefit for prevention of synthetic graft infections as well as BE. Poor dentist and physician compliance with BE prophylaxis regimens, as well as errors in dosing, timing, or duration of prophylaxis, have been reported. These problems are of particular concern in the treatment of chronically ill patients. In this article, we review the rationale for prophylactic antibiotic therapy prior to dental procedures in ESRD patients with vascular access. We also elaborate on the current American Heart Association guidelines for BE prophylaxis, and address special considerations for ESRD patients.

  20. Application of acetone acetals as water scavengers and derivatization agents prior to the gas chromatographic analysis of polar residual solvents in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, Niels; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2015-12-18

    The sensitivity of gas chromatography (GC) combined with the full evaporation technique (FET) for the analysis of aqueous samples is limited due to the maximum tolerable sample volume in a headspace vial. Using an acetone acetal as water scavenger prior to FET-GC analysis proved to be a useful and versatile tool for the analysis of high boiling analytes in aqueous samples. 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP) was used in this case resulting in methanol and acetone as reaction products with water. These solvents are relatively volatile and were easily removed by evaporation enabling sample enrichment leading to 10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to the standard 10μL FET sample volumes for a selection of typical high boiling polar residual solvents in water. This could be improved even further if more sample is used. The method was applied for the determination of residual NMP in an aqueous solution of a cefotaxime analogue and proved to be considerably better than conventional static headspace (sHS) and the standard FET approach. The methodology was also applied to determine trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous samples like contact lens fluids, where scavenging of the water would avoid laborious extraction prior to derivatization. During this experiment it was revealed that DMP reacts quantitatively with EG to form 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (2,2-DD) under the proposed reaction conditions. The relatively high volatility (bp 93°C) of 2,2-DD makes it possible to perform analysis of EG using the sHS methodology making additional derivatization reactions superfluous. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ibrutinib for chronic graft-versus-host disease after failure of prior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklos, David; Cutler, Corey S; Arora, Mukta; Waller, Edmund K; Jagasia, Madan; Pusic, Iskra; Flowers, Mary E; Logan, Aaron C; Nakamura, Ryotaro; Blazar, Bruce R; Li, Yunfeng; Chang, Stephen; Lal, Indu; Dubovsky, Jason; James, Danelle F; Styles, Lori; Jaglowski, Samantha

    2017-11-23

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with few effective options available after failure of corticosteroids. B and T cells play a role in the pathophysiology of cGVHD. Ibrutinib inhibits Bruton tyrosine kinase in B cells and interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase in T cells. In preclinical models, ibrutinib reduced severity of cGVHD. This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ibrutinib in patients with active cGVHD with inadequate response to corticosteroid-containing therapies. Forty-two patients who had failed 1 to 3 prior treatments received ibrutinib (420 mg) daily until cGVHD progression. The primary efficacy end point was cGVHD response based on 2005 National Institutes of Health criteria. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, best overall response was 67%; 71% of responders showed a sustained response for ≥20 weeks. Responses were observed across involved organs evaluated. Most patients with multiple cGVHD organ involvement had a multiorgan response. Median corticosteroid dose in responders decreased from 0.29 mg/kg per day at baseline to 0.12 mg/kg per day at week 49; 5 responders discontinued corticosteroids. The most common adverse events were fatigue, diarrhea, muscle spasms, nausea, and bruising. Plasma levels of soluble factors associated with inflammation, fibrosis, and cGVHD significantly decreased over time with ibrutinib. Ibrutinib resulted in clinically meaningful responses with acceptable safety in patients with ≥1 prior treatments for cGVHD. Based on these results, ibrutinib was approved in the United States for treatment of adult patients with cGVHD after failure of 1 or more lines of systemic therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02195869. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Screening prior to biological therapy in Crohn's disease: adherence to guidelines and prevalence of infections. Results from a multicentre retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, Mike; Belderbos, Tim D. G.; Fidder, Herma H.; Leenders, Max; Dijkstra, Gerard; Peters, Charlotte P.; Eshuis, Emma J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is recommended. To assess adherence to screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in Crohn's disease patients and its yield. A multicentre

  3. Screening prior to biological therapy in Crohn's disease : Adherence to guidelines and prevalence of infections. Results from a multicentre retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Have, Mike; Belderbos, Tim D. G.; Fidder, Herma H.; Leenders, Max; Dijkstra, Gerard; Peters, Charlotte P.; Eshuis, Emma J.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Siersema, Peter D.; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Oldenburg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is recommended. Aims: To assess adherence to screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in Crohn's disease patients and its yield.

  4. [Investigation of the relationship between chronic diseases and residual symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjie; Fu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Ye; Ge, Ying

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prognosis-related influence factors of the residual symptoms after the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the second affiliated hospital of dalian medical university. Among patients who were diagnosed with BPPV and treated by CRP, the one that still show residual symptoms were enrolled in our study, then make a follow-up irregularly about the tendency of their residual symptoms' self-healing,and respectively record in their gender, age and chronic diseases and so on. Single-factor analysis and multi-factors analysis was utilized to investigate the residual symptoms' related influencing factors. In this study, 149 cases of patients were in record, for the residual symptoms, 71 patients can go to self-healing, 78 patients can not; age is 23-88, 30 cases in the young group, 46 cases in the middle aged group, 47 cases in the young elderly group, 26 cases in the elderly group; patients suffering from high blood pressure are 76 cases, 76 cases had diabetes, 47 cases had hyperlipidemia, 110 cases had heart disease, 43 cases had ischemic encephalopathy. The residual symptoms in the elderly females patients and patients suffering from the hypertension, diabetes, heart disease patients and ischemic encephalopathy are not easy to heal by itself, in which, the older and the fact suffering from the hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors influencing the prognosis of the residual symptoms.

  5. Survival End Points for Huntington Disease Trials Prior to a Motor Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey D; Mills, James A; Leavitt, Blair R; Durr, Alexandra; Roos, Raymund A; Stout, Julie C; Reilmann, Ralf; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Gregory, Sarah; Scahill, Rachael I; Langbehn, Douglas R; Tabrizi, Sarah J

    2017-11-01

    Predictive genetic testing in Huntington disease (HD) enables therapeutic trials in HTT gene expansion mutation carriers prior to a motor diagnosis. Progression-free survival (PFS) is the composite of a motor diagnosis or a progression event, whichever comes first. To determine if PFS provides feasible sample sizes for trials with mutation carriers who have not yet received a motor diagnosis. This study uses data from the 2-phase, longitudinal cohort studies called Track and from a longitudinal cohort study called the Cooperative Huntington Observational Research Trial (COHORT). Track had 167 prediagnosis mutation carriers and 156 noncarriers, whereas COHORT had 366 prediagnosis mutation carriers and noncarriers. Track studies were conducted at 4 sites in 4 countries (Canada, France, England, and the Netherlands) from which data were collected from January 17, 2008, through November 17, 2014. The COHORT was conducted at 38 sites in 3 countries (Australia, Canada, and the United States) from which data were collected from February 14, 2006, through December 31, 2009. Results from the Track data were externally validated with data from the COHORT. The required sample size was estimated for a 2-arm prediagnosis clinical trial. Data analysis took place from May 1, 2016, to June 10, 2017. The primary end point is PFS. Huntington disease progression events are defined for the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale total motor score, total functional capacity, symbol digit modalities test, and Stroop word test. Of Track's 167 prediagnosis mutation carriers, 93 (55.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 40.06 (8.92) years; of the 156 noncarriers, 87 (55.7%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 45.58 (10.30) years. Of the 366 COHORT participants, 229 (62.5%) were women and the mean (SD) age was 42.21 (12.48) years. The PFS curves of the Track mutation carriers showed good external validity with the COHORT mutation carriers after adjusting for initial progression. For

  6. Correlation of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with MRI and MRA in the evaluation of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogutt, M.S.; Goldwag, S.S.; Gupta, K.L.; Kaneko, K.; Humbert, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated a group of patients with sickle cell disease and a clinical history of prior stroke, comparing transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) to both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to determine its efficacy for the detection of flow abnormalities associated with prior cerebral infarction. Using MRI as the standard examination, there was 94 % sensitivity and 30 % specificity, and using MRA as the standard examination, there was 91 % sensitivity and 22 % specificity. We concur with other reports that the transcranial Doppler examination is a highly sensitive study. In our group of sickle cell disease patients with prior stroke, TCD reliably detected flow abnormalities that correlated to areas of prior cerebral infarction. (orig.)

  7. How to preserve residual renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease and on dialysis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, Raymond T.

    2006-01-01

    A review is given on various aspects of GFR in patients with chronic kidney disease and in dialysis patients. These include the measurement of GFR, measures to preserve GFR in chronic kidney disease and dialysis, the importance of residual GFR in dialysis patients and factors that influence GFR in

  8. Automated detection of residual cells after sex-mismatched stem-cell transplantation – evidence for presence of disease-marker negative residual cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Tilman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new chimerism analysis based on automated interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH evaluation was established to detect residual cells after allogene sex-mismatched bone marrow or blood stem-cell transplantation. Cells of 58 patients were characterized as disease-associated due to presence of a bcr/abl-gene-fusion or a trisomy 8 and/or a simultaneous hybridization of gonosome-specific centromeric probes. The automatic slide scanning platform Metafer with its module MetaCyte was used to analyse 3,000 cells per sample. Results Overall 454 assays of 58 patients were analyzed. 13 of 58 patients showed residual recipient cells at one stage of more than 4% and 12 of 58 showed residual recipient cells less than 4%, respectively. As to be expected, patients of the latter group were associated with a higher survival rate (48 vs. 34 month. In only two of seven patients with disease-marker positive residual cells between 0.1–1.3% a relapse was observed. Besides, disease-marker negative residual cells were found in two patients without relapse at a rate of 2.8% and 3.3%, respectively. Conclusion The definite origin and meaning of disease-marker negative residual cells is still unclear. Overall, with the presented automatic chimerism analysis of interphase FISH slides, a sensitive method for detection of disease-marker positive residual cells is on hand.

  9. Control of postharvest diseases of fruit by heat and fungicides: efficacy, residue levels, and residue persistence. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2011-08-24

    Extensive research has been done in recent years to reduce the heavy dependence on chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases and disorders of horticultural crops. Alternative strategies were based on improved cultural practices, biological control, plant-defense promoters, and physical treatments such as UV illumination, radiofrequency treatment, heat therapy, and storage technologies. Among these, postharvest heat treatments such as hot water dips, short hot water rinsing and brushing, and hot air conditioning have reduced rot development and enhanced fruit resistance to chilling injury in sensitive cultivars while retaining fruit quality during cold storage and shelf life. Additive or synergistic increases in effectiveness were observed by integrating heat therapy with various chemical compounds, thus leading to significant reductions in the application of active ingredients to protect produce from decay. This paper highlights the knowledge on this topic with emphasis on heat therapy effects and factors affecting the uptake, persistence, and performance of fungicide residues when they are applied in combination with hot water.

  10. Development of a prediction model for residual disease in newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janco, Jo Marie Tran; Glaser, Gretchen; Kim, Bohyun; McGree, Michaela E; Weaver, Amy L; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N

    2015-07-01

    To construct a tool, using computed tomography (CT) imaging and preoperative clinical variables, to estimate successful primary cytoreduction for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Women who underwent primary cytoreductive surgery for stage IIIC/IV EOC at Mayo Clinic between 1/2/2003 and 12/30/2011 and had preoperative CT images of the abdomen and pelvis within 90days prior to their surgery available for review were included. CT images were reviewed for large-volume ascites, diffuse peritoneal thickening (DPT), omental cake, lymphadenopathy (LP), and spleen or liver involvement. Preoperative factors included age, body mass index (BMI), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, albumin, CA-125, and thrombocytosis. Two prediction models were developed to estimate the probability of (i) complete and (ii) suboptimal cytoreduction (residual disease (RD) >1cm) using multivariable logistic analysis with backward and stepwise variable selection methods. Internal validation was assessed using bootstrap resampling to derive an optimism-corrected estimate of the c-index. 279 patients met inclusion criteria: 143 had complete cytoreduction, 26 had suboptimal cytoreduction (RD>1cm), and 110 had measurable RD ≤1cm. On multivariable analysis, age, absence of ascites, omental cake, and DPT on CT imaging independently predicted complete cytoreduction (c-index=0.748). Conversely, predictors of suboptimal cytoreduction were ECOG PS, DPT, and LP on preoperative CT imaging (c-index=0.685). The generated models serve as preoperative evaluation tools that may improve counseling and selection for primary surgery, but need to be externally validated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Influence of Repeat Surgery and Residual Disease on Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Anne; Bjerre, Karsten; Offersen, Birgitte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of women who have breast-conserving surgery (BCS) subsequently undergo re-excision or proceed to mastectomy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with residual disease after repeat surgery and to determine their effect on ipsilateral breast tumor re...

  12. Radical surgery in patients with residual disease after (chemo)radiation for cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Aniek; Arts, Henriette J. G.; Klip, Harry; Nijhuis, Esther R.; Pras, Elisabeth; Hollema, Harry; Wisman, G. Bea A.; Nijman, Hans W.; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Reyners, Anna K. L.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Thomas, Gillian; van der Zee, Ate G. J.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine possible impact of routinely scheduled biopsies and more radical surgery for residual central disease in locally advanced cervical cancer after (chemo) radiation. Methods/Materials: Data were analyzed of a consecutive series of cervical cancer

  13. Competitive PCR for quantification of minimal residual disease in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, C; Madsen, H O; Ryder, L P

    2000-01-01

    under identical conditions. After restriction enzyme cleavage, the PCR products originating from the competitor and the malignant clone can be distinguished by size in a gel electrophoresis step and the amount of residual disease can be determined. The method is very sensitive with a detection limit...

  14. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, Julia [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Price, Elissa R. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Division of Women' s Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Breast Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Murray, Melissa P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  15. Breast MR imaging for the assessment of residual disease following initial surgery for breast cancer with positive margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, Julia; Price, Elissa R.; Jochelson, Maxine S.; Watson, Elizabeth; Morris, Elizabeth A.; Murray, Melissa P.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of post-operative MR in predicting residual disease in women with positive margins, emphasizing the size thresholds at which residual disease can be confidently identified. This IRB-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 175 patients with MR after positive margins following initial surgery for breast cancer. Two expert readers independently re-evaluated MR images for evidence of residual disease at the surgical cavity and multifocal/multicentric disease. All patients underwent definitive surgery and MR findings were correlated to histopathology. 139/175 (79.4%) patients had residual disease at surgery. Average overall sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for residual disease at the surgical cavity were 73%, 72%, 91% and 45%, respectively. The readers identified 42/45 (93%, reader 1) and 43/45 (95%, reader 2) patients with residual invasive disease at the cavity of ≥5 mm and 22/22 (100%, both readers) patients with disease ≥10 mm. Average sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for unknown multifocal/multicentric disease were 90%, 96%, 93% and 86%, respectively. Post-operative breast MR can accurately depict ≥5-mm residual disease at the surgical cavity and unsuspected multifocal/multicentric disease. These findings have the potential to lead to more appropriate selection of second surgical procedures in women with positive margins. (orig.)

  16. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A. Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs. This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related diseases. Antigenic characteristics of glycated lysine residues in proteins together with the presence of serum autoantibodies to the glycated lysine products and lysine-rich proteins in diabetes and arthritis patients indicates that these modified lysine residues may be a novel biomarker for protein glycation in aging and age-related diseases.

  17. The Benefit of Chemotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients With Residual Disease After Trimodality Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Grace J; Koshy, Matthew; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Horiba, M Naomi; Edelman, Martin J; Burrows, Whitney M; Battafarano, Richard J; Suntharalingam, Mohan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the potential benefits of chemotherapy in esophageal cancer patients treated with chemoradiation followed by surgery. At our institution, 145 patients completed trimodality therapy from 1993 to 2009. Neoadjuvant treatment predominantly consisted of 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin with a concurrent median radiation dose of 50.4 Gy. Sixty-two patients received chemotherapy postoperatively. The majority (49/62) received 3 cycles of docetaxel. Within the entire cohort, a 5-year overall survival (OS) benefit was found in those who received postoperative chemotherapy, OS 37.1% versus 18.0% (P=0.024). The response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation was as follows: 33.8% had a pathologic complete response and 62.8% with residual disease. A 5-year OS and cause-specific survival (CSS) advantage were associated with postoperative chemotherapy among those with macroscopic residual disease after neoadjuvant therapy: OS 38.7% versus 13.9% (P=0.016), CSS 42.8% versus 18.8% (P=0.048). This benefit was not seen in those with a pathologic complete response or those with microscopic residual. A stepwise multivariate Cox regression model evaluating the partial response group revealed that postoperative chemotherapy and M stage were independent predictors of overall and CSS. This analysis revealed that patients with gross residual disease after trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer who received postoperative chemotherapy had an improved overall and CSS. These data suggest that patients with residual disease after trimodality therapy and a reasonable performance status may benefit from postoperative chemotherapy. Prospective trials are needed to confirm these results to define the role of postoperative treatment after trimodality therapy.

  18. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoormans, Dounya; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics...... adjustment for depression, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical characteristics......., anxiety, and depression. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, we examined the risk associated with pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression for developing CVD after cancer diagnosis, adjusting for age, pharmaceutically treated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus...

  19. A mind map for managing minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher B; Ravandi, Farhad

    2017-11-01

    Advances in detecting traces of leukemia that were previously unidentifiable have increasingly led to the incorporation of information about residual disease into clinical decision making for patients with leukemia in both the postinduction and consolidation settings. This review discusses current concepts related to minimal residual disease (MRD), which is defined as submicroscopic disease detected during morphologic complete remission. The focus is on acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Basic methods for detecting MRD include flow cytometry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and mutation analysis. Several studies using these assays have demonstrated prognostic implications based on MRD-positive vs MRD-negative status. As our understanding of the biological factors responsible for MRD in AML evolves, residual disease should be evaluated in the context of other prognostic markers. Current therapeutic options for managing MRD in AML are limited, and the clinical implications of a positive MRD test result can be significant. Regarding individual patients, an evidence-based approach must be applied while the institution- and assay-specific differences that currently exist are considered. Challenges associated with MRD assessment, such as the limited standardization of available assays and the paucity of effective agents to eradicate MRD, will need to be overcome before physicians who treat leukemia can use MRD as a tool for clinical management.

  20. Experiences and own management regarding residual symptoms among people with coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Lisa Ring; Milberg, Anna; Hjelm, Katarina; Friedrichsen, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Between 7% and 30% of people with treated coeliac disease suffer from residual symptoms, and there is a knowledge gap about their own management of these symptoms. To explore experiences and management concerning residual symptoms despite a gluten-free diet in people with coeliac disease. A qualitative explorative design with semi-structured interviews with 22 adults with coeliac disease in Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The informants had, at diagnosis, thought that their symptoms would disappear if they followed a gluten-free diet, but the disease was continuing to have a substantial impact on their lives, despite several years of treatment. They experienced cognitive, somatic as well as mental symptoms, including impact on personality (e.g. having a "shorter fuse", being more miserable or tired). However, only a few informants had sought medical care for persistent symptoms. Instead they tried to manage these by themselves, e.g. abstaining from food during periods of more intense symptom, or using distraction. The management of persistent symptoms resembled thorough detective work. To prevent problems related to residual symptoms the informants used withdrawal of social contact as well as acceptance of their situation. People with treated coeliac disease may experience residual symptoms of both a physical and psychological nature, causing major negative impacts on their lives in different ways. In the light of this, healthcare staff should change their practices regarding the follow-up of these people, and in addition to medical care should provide guidance on management strategies to facilitate the daily life. Furthermore, information to newly diagnosed persons should make them aware of the possibility to experience continued symptoms, despite treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors associated with residual gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in patients receiving proton pump inhibitor maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawara, Fumiaki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Morita, Yoshinori; Uda, Atsushi; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Saito, Masaya; Ooi, Makoto; Ishida, Tsukasa; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Shiei; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Masaru; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Hayakumo, Takanobu; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori; Azuma, Takeshi

    2017-03-21

    To elucidate the factors associated with residual gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in patients receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) maintenance therapy in clinical practice. The study included 39 GERD patients receiving maintenance PPI therapy. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). The relationships between the FSSG score and patient background factors, including the CYP2C19 genotype, were analyzed. The FSSG scores ranged from 1 to 28 points (median score: 7.5 points), and 19 patients (48.7%) had a score of 8 points or more. The patients' GSRS scores were significantly correlated with their FSSG scores (correlation coefficient = 0.47, P reflux-related symptom scores: 12 ± 1.9 vs 2.5 ± 0.8, P reflux disease patients were significantly lower than those of the other patients (total scores: 5.5 ± 1.0 vs 11.8 ± 6.3, P < 0.05; dysmotility symptom-related scores: 1.0 ± 0.4 vs 6.0 ± 0.8, P < 0.01). Approximately half of the GERD patients receiving maintenance PPI therapy had residual symptoms associated with a lower quality of life, and the CYP2C19 genotype appeared to be associated with these residual symptoms.

  2. Minimal residual disease as the target for immunotherapy and gene therapy of cancer (Review)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2005), s. 1377-1380 ISSN 1021-335X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA MZd(CZ) NR8004; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : residual tumour disease * gene therapy * cytokines Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2005

  3. Minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV 16-associated tumours as target for immunotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, Supplement 1 (2006), - ISSN 1107-3756. [World Congress on Advances in Oncology /11./ and International Symposium on Molecular Medicine /9./. 12.10.2006-14.10.2006, Hersonissos] R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NR7807; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500520605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : minimal residual disease * HPV16 * immunotherapy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Depletion of Treg cells inhibits minimal residual disease after surgery of HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šímová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Bieblová, Jana; Rosalia, Rodney Alexander; Frič, Jan; Reiniš, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2006), s. 1567-1571 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA301/04/0492 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * residual tumour disease * Treg cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.556, year: 2006

  5. HPV16-associated tumours: Therapy of surgical minimal residual disease with dendritic cell-based vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Indrová, Marie; Mendoza, Luis; Mikyšková, Romana; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2004), s. 1165-1170 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA ČR GA301/01/0985; GA AV ČR IAA5052203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * minimal residual tumour disease * dendritic cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  6. Adjuvant Maneuvers for Residual Curvature Correction During Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Men with Peyronie's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berookhim, Boback M; Karpman, Edward; Carrion, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    The surgical treatment of comorbid erectile dysfunction and Peyronie's disease has long included the implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis as well as a number of adjuvant maneuvers to address residual curvature after prosthesis placement. To review the various surgical options for addressing curvature after prosthesis placement, with specific attention paid to an original article by Wilson et al. reporting on modeling over a penile prosthesis for the management of Peyronie's disease. A literature review was performed analyzing articles reporting the management of penile curvature in patients undergoing implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis. Reported improvement in Peyronie's deformity as well as the complication rate associated with the various surgical techniques described. Modeling is a well-established treatment modality among patients with Peyronie's disease undergoing penile prosthesis implantation. A variety of other adjuvant maneuvers to address residual curvature when modeling alone is insufficient has been presented in the literature. Over 20 years of experience with modeling over a penile prosthesis have proven the efficacy and safety of this treatment option, providing the surgeon a simple initial step for the management of residual curvature after penile implantation which allows for the use of additional adjuvant maneuvers in those with significant deformities. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Evil radioactivity. Subjective perception of radioactivity in patients with thyroid disease prior to treatment with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Beyer, T.; Mueller, S.P.; Goerges, R.; Bockisch, A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: We assess the perspective of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity by means of a cultural-anthropological approach based on qualitative measures and quantitative scores. From the interviews with the patients we evaluate as to how much radioactivity is accepted as an abstract term or as a benefit within the medical context. Patients, methods: 68 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (35 women, 33 men, 32-81 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1=positive, 5=negative) to quantify their attitudes. Results: The responses of all patients towards radioactivity in general were heterogeneous with most responses reflecting a negative perception. Many patients expressed their associated fears about atomic energy, malignant diseases and radioactive contamination. The scoring system reflected a mostly negative opinion base. However, patients became more positive once they assumed an immediate benefit of radioactivity for the treatment of their own disease (p=0.01). Conclusions: Knowing about significant differences in patient's perception about radioactivity in general or in the clinical context may help to optimise and tailor the initial, pre-therapeutical interview towards the patient. (orig.)

  8. Evil radioactivity. Subjective perception of radioactivity in patients with thyroid disease prior to treatment with radioiodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Grevenbroich (Germany); Beyer, T.; Mueller, S.P.; Goerges, R.; Bockisch, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hopfenbach, A. [Radiologisch-Nuklearmedizinische Gemeinschaftspraxis, Grevenbroich (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Aim: We assess the perspective of patients with thyroid disease towards radiation and radioactivity by means of a cultural-anthropological approach based on qualitative measures and quantitative scores. From the interviews with the patients we evaluate as to how much radioactivity is accepted as an abstract term or as a benefit within the medical context. Patients, methods: 68 patients with autonomously functioning thyroid lesions (35 women, 33 men, 32-81 years) were included in this study. All patients were interviewed in an open dialogue with the principal investigator. Patients were asked to describe their attitude towards radioactivity in general and towards radioiodine therapy in particular. Patients were asked to use a scoring system (1=positive, 5=negative) to quantify their attitudes. Results: The responses of all patients towards radioactivity in general were heterogeneous with most responses reflecting a negative perception. Many patients expressed their associated fears about atomic energy, malignant diseases and radioactive contamination. The scoring system reflected a mostly negative opinion base. However, patients became more positive once they assumed an immediate benefit of radioactivity for the treatment of their own disease (p=0.01). Conclusions: Knowing about significant differences in patient's perception about radioactivity in general or in the clinical context may help to optimise and tailor the initial, pre-therapeutical interview towards the patient. (orig.)

  9. Antibiotics threaten wildlife: circulating quinolone residues and disease in Avian scavengers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Lemus

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues that may be present in carcasses of medicated livestock could pass to and greatly reduce scavenger wildlife populations. We surveyed residues of the quinolones enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin and other antibiotics (amoxicillin and oxytetracycline in nestling griffon Gyps fulvus, cinereous Aegypius monachus and Egyptian Neophron percnopterus vultures in central Spain. We found high concentrations of antibiotics in the plasma of many nestling cinereous (57% and Egyptian (40% vultures. Enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also found in liver samples of all dead cinereous vultures. This is the first report of antibiotic residues in wildlife. We also provide evidence of a direct association between antibiotic residues, primarily quinolones, and severe disease due to bacterial and fungal pathogens. Our results indicate that, by damaging the liver and kidney and through the acquisition and proliferation of pathogens associated with the depletion of lymphoid organs, continuous exposure to antibiotics could increase mortality rates, at least in cinereous vultures. If antibiotics ingested with livestock carrion are clearly implicated in the decline of the vultures in central Spain then it should be considered a primary concern for conservation of their populations.

  10. Early detection of tumor relapse/regrowth by consecutive minimal residual disease monitoring in high-risk neuroblastoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirase, Satoshi; Saitoh, Atsuro; Hartomo, Tri Budi; Kozaki, Aiko; Yanai, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Daiichiro; Kawasaki, Keiichiro; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Matsuo, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Mori, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Akira; Iijima, Kazumoto; Nishio, Hisahide; Nishimura, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor accounting for ~15% of cancer-associated mortalities in children. Despite the current intensive therapy, >50% of high-risk patients experience tumor relapse or regrowth caused by the activation of minimal residual disease (MRD). Although several MRD detection protocols using various reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) markers have been reported to evaluate the therapeutic response and disease status of neuroblastoma patients, their clinical significance remains elusive. The present study reports two high-risk neuroblastoma patients, whose MRD was consecutively monitored using 11 RT-qPCR markers (CHRNA3, CRMP1, DBH, DCX, DDC, GABRB3, GAP43, ISL1, KIF1A, PHOX2B and TH) during their course of treatment. The two patients initially responded to the induction therapy and reached MRD-negative status. The patients' MRD subsequently became positive with no elevation of their urinary homovanillic acid, urinary vanillylmandelic acid and serum neuron-specific enolase levels at 13 or 19 weeks prior to the clinical diagnosis of tumor relapse or regrowth. The present cases highlight the possibility of consecutive MRD monitoring using 11 markers to enable an early detection of tumor relapse or regrowth in high-risk neuroblastoma patients. PMID:27446404

  11. Residual Salivary Secretion Ability May Be a Useful Marker for Differential Diagnosis in Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Maeshima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We have elucidated decreased resting salivary flow in approximately 60% of patients with autoimmune diseases not complicated by Sjögren syndrome (SjS. In this study, salivary stimulation tests using capsaicin were performed to examine residual salivary secretion ability in patients with autoimmune diseases. Materials and Methods. Fifty-eight patients were divided into three groups: patients with primary or secondary SjS (SjS group, patients with systemic sclerosis not complicated by SjS (SSc group, and patients with other autoimmune diseases (non-SjS/non-SSc group. Simple filter paper and filter paper containing capsaicin were used to evaluate salivary flow rates. Results. Resting salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group but did not differ significantly between the SjS and SSc groups. Capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow rates were significantly lower in the SjS and SSc groups than in the non-SjS/non-SSc group, but not significantly different between the SjS and SSc groups. In the non-SjS/non-SSc group, salivary flow rates increased after capsaicin stimulation to the threshold level for determination of salivary gland dysfunction, whereas no improvement was observed in the SjS and SSc groups. Conclusion. Residual salivary secretion ability may be a useful marker for differential diagnosis in autoimmune diseases.

  12. Iron storage in liver, bone marrow and splenic Gaucheroma reflects residual disease in type 1 Gaucher disease patients on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenboog, Martine; Bohte, Anneloes E; Akkerman, Erik M; Stoker, Jaap; Hollak, Carla E M

    2017-11-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the storage of glycosphingolipids in macrophages. Despite effective therapy, residual disease is present in varying degrees and may be associated with late complications, such as persistent bone or liver disease and increased cancer risk. Gaucher macrophages are capable of storing iron and locations of residual disease may thus be detectable with iron imaging. Forty type 1 GD (GD1) patients and 40 matched healthy controls were examined using a whole-body magnetic resonance imaging protocol consisting of standard sequences, allowing analysis of iron content per organ, expressed as R2* (Hz). Median R2* values were significantly elevated in GD1 patients as compared to healthy controls in liver [41 Hz (range 29-165) vs. 38 Hz (range 28-53), P Gaucher lesions known as Gaucheroma were found to have increased R2* values. R2* values of liver, spleen and vertebral bone marrow strongly correlated with serum ferritin levels. GD1 patients with persistent hyperferritinaemia demonstrate increased iron levels in liver and bone marrow, which may carry a risk for liver fibrosis and cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prior blunt chest trauma may be a cause of single vessel coronary disease; hypothesis and review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Mette Damkjær; Nielsen, PE; Sleight, P

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a case where a patient (with no risk factors, and single vessel disease) developed angina pectoris after previous blunt chest trauma, we searched Medline for blunt chest trauma and myocardial ischaemia. We found 77 cases describing AMI after blunt chest trauma, but only one reporting...... angina pectoris. We focused on the age and sex distribution, type of trauma, the angiography findings and the time interval between the trauma and the angiography. The age distribution was atypical, compared to AMI in general; 82% of the patients with AMI after blunt chest trauma were less than 45 years......, which strongly suggested a causal relation between the trauma and subsequent occlusion. AMI should therefore be considered in patients suffering from chest pain after blunt chest trauma. Because traumatic AMI might often be the result of an intimal tear or dissection, thrombolytic therapy might worsen...

  14. Prognostic Value of Residual Disease after Interval Debulking Surgery for FIGO Stage IIIC and IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne J. Rutten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although complete debulking surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC is more often achieved with interval debulking surgery (IDS following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT, randomized evidence shows no long-term survival benefit compared to complete primary debulking surgery (PDS. We performed an observational cohort study of patients treated with debulking surgery for advanced EOC to evaluate the prognostic value of residual disease after debulking surgery. All patients treated between 1998 and 2010 in three Dutch referral gynaecological oncology centres were included. The prognostic value of residual disease after surgery for disease specific survival was assessed using Cox-regression analyses. In total, 462 patients underwent NACT-IDS and 227 PDS. Macroscopic residual disease after debulking surgery was an independent prognostic factor for survival in both treatment modalities. Yet, residual tumour less than one centimetre at IDS was associated with a survival benefit of five months compared to leaving residual tumour more than one centimetre, whereas this benefit was not seen after PDS. Leaving residual tumour at IDS is a poor prognostic sign as it is after PDS. The specific prognostic value of residual tumour seems to depend on the clinical setting, as minimal instead of gross residual tumour is associated with improved survival after IDS, but not after PDS.

  15. Pharmaceutically treated anxiety but not depression prior to cancer diagnosis predicts the onset of cardiovascular disease among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, Dounya; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke; Vissers, Pauline; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Pedersen, Susanne S; Rottmann, Nina; Horsbøl, Trine; Dalton, Susanne; Denollet, Johan

    2017-11-01

    To examine the associations between pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), while controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and clinical characteristics in a population-based observational study. Adult 1-year breast cancer survivors (n = 7227), diagnosed between 01-01-1999 and 12-31-2010, with no history of CVD, were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Drug dispensing data were derived from the PHARMO Database Network and used as proxy for CVD, anxiety, and depression. By multivariable Cox regression analysis, we examined the risk associated with pharmaceutically treated anxiety and depression for developing CVD after cancer diagnosis, adjusting for age, pharmaceutically treated hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus in the year prior to cancer diagnosis, tumor stage, and cancer treatment. During the 13-year follow-up period, 193 (3%) breast cancer survivors developed CVD. Women pharmaceutically treated for anxiety in the year prior to their cancer diagnosis had a 48% increased hazard for CVD [HR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.05-1.08] after full adjustment. This association was restricted to breast cancer survivors who were 65 years or younger. Depression was not associated with CVD risk [HR = 0.89; 95% CI 0.52-1.53]. Older age [HR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.05-1.08], hypertension [HR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.32-2.46], and hypercholesterolemia [HR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.15-2.33] were associated with an increased hazard for incident CVD, whereas hormone therapy [HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.42-0.83] was protective. Anxiety present in the year prior to breast cancer diagnosis increases the risk of incident CVD in 1-year breast cancer survivors, after adjustment for depression, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and clinical characteristics.

  16. Influence of antibiotic therapy prior to admission on the efficacy of classical methods for the diagnosis of meningococcal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemescu, Roxana Elena; Iancu, Luminiţa Smaranda; Dorneanu, Olivia Simona; Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of preadmission antibiotic therapy on the results of the classical methods for bacteriological confirmation of meningococcal disease (MD). Retrospective study of the MD cases diagnosed in the "St. Parascheva" Universitary Clinical Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 1994 and 2011. The etiological diagnosis was made by identifying the meningococcus in the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) in 71.9% of the 323 patients and by blood culture in 8%. Preadmission antibiotic therapy received 39% of the patients, thus the sensitivity of test was significantly reduced: direct examination from 64.6% to 43.2% (p antibiotic therapy significantly increased the ratio of cases in which meningococcus was not detected in CSF by any of the classical methods (44% compared to 17.9% in the cases without prior treatment). The proportion of cases in which meningococcal isolation was done by two methods decreased from 38.5% to 19.2%, and of those by all three methods from 16.9% to 5.6% (p antibiotic therapy also decreased the rate of positive blood cultures from 14.7% to 3.5% (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.009). Antibiotic treatment prior to admission significantly decreases the percentage of patients with MD in which meningococcal isolation can be done; this requires the use of a more sensitive diagnosis method (ex. qPCR).

  17. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic factors in operable breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy: towards a quantification of residual disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Sarah; Kwiatkowski, Fabrice; Abrial, Catherine; Wang-Lopez, Qian; de Boissieu, Paul; Garbar, Christian; Bensussan, Armand; Curé, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) allows for a more frequent use of breast-conservative surgery; it is also an in vivo model of individual tumor sensitivity which permits to determine new prognostic factors to personalize the therapeutic approach. Between 2000 and 2012, 318 patients with primary invasive breast cancer were treated with a median of 6 cycles of NACT; they received either an anthracycline-based FEC 100 protocol (31.1%), or anthracyclines + taxanes (53.5%), with trastuzumab if indicated (15.4%). After a median follow-up of 44.2 months, the pathological complete response rate according to the classification of Chevallier et al. [Am J Clin Oncol 1993;16:223-228] was 19.3%, and overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 10 years were 60.2 and 69.6%, respectively. Univariate analyses demonstrated that the Residual Disease in Breast and Nodes (RDBN) index was the most significant prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.0082) and DFS (p = 0.0022), and multivariate analyses mainly revealed that the residual tumor size, residual involved node number and post-chemotherapy Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grading were the most significant prognostic factors. In a cohort of patients who were all homogeneously treated with some of the most common drugs for breast cancer, we demonstrate that NACT may provide additional prognostic factors and confirm the RDBN index. As this index allows for the prediction of survival with different breast cancer subtypes, we suggest that it should be calculated routinely to help clinicians to select patients who need adjuvant treatments. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Comparing the new European cardiovascular disease prevention guideline with prior American Heart Association guidelines: an editorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Van-Khue; Martin, Seth S; Blumenthal, Roger S; Blaha, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Atherosclerotic heart disease and stroke remain the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention can improve the well-being of a population and possibly cut downstream healthcare spending, and must be the centerpiece of any sustainable health economy model. As lifestyle and CVD risk factors differ among ethnicities, cultures, genders, and age groups, an accurate risk assessment model is the critical first step for guiding appropriate use of testing, lifestyle counseling resources, and preventive medications. Examples of such models include the US Framingham Risk Score and the European SCORE system. The European Society of Cardiology recently published an updated set of guidelines on CVD prevention. This review highlights the similarities and differences between European and US risk assessment models, as well as their respective recommendations on the use of advanced testing for further risk reclassification and the appropriate use of medications. In particular, we focus on head-to-head comparison of the new European guideline with prior American Heart Association statements (2002, 2010, and 2011) covering risk assessment and treatment of asymptomatic adults. Despite minor disagreements on the weight of recommendations in certain areas, such as the use of coronary calcium score and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in risk assessment, CVD prevention experts across the 2 continents agree on 1 thing: prevention works in halting the progression of atherosclerosis and decreasing disease burden over a lifetime. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Partial regulatory T cell depletion prior to acute feline immunodeficiency virus infection does not alter disease pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rochelle Mikkelsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection in cats follows a disease course similar to HIV-1, including a short acute phase characterized by high viremia, and a prolonged asymptomatic phase characterized by low viremia and generalized immune dysfunction. CD4(+CD25(hiFoxP3(+ immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cells have been implicated as a possible cause of immune dysfunction during FIV and HIV-1 infection, as they are capable of modulating virus-specific and inflammatory immune responses. Additionally, the immunosuppressive capacity of feline Treg cells has been shown to be increased during FIV infection. We have previously shown that transient in vivo Treg cell depletion during asymptomatic FIV infection reveals FIV-specific immune responses suppressed by Treg cells. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological influence of Treg cells during acute FIV infection. We asked whether Treg cell depletion prior to infection with the highly pathogenic molecular clone FIV-C36 in cats could alter FIV pathogenesis. We report here that partial Treg cell depletion prior to FIV infection does not significantly change provirus, viremia, or CD4(+ T cell levels in blood and lymphoid tissues during the acute phase of disease. The effects of anti-CD25 mAb treatment are truncated in cats acutely infected with FIV-C36 as compared to chronically infected cats or FIV-naïve cats, as Treg cell levels were heightened in all treatment groups included in the study within two weeks post-FIV infection. Our findings suggest that the influence of Treg cell suppression during FIV pathogenesis is most prominent after Treg cells are activated in the environment of established FIV infection.

  1. Partial regulatory T cell depletion prior to acute feline immunodeficiency virus infection does not alter disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, S Rochelle; Long, Julie M; Zhang, Lin; Galemore, Erin R; VandeWoude, Sue; Dean, Gregg A

    2011-02-25

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats follows a disease course similar to HIV-1, including a short acute phase characterized by high viremia, and a prolonged asymptomatic phase characterized by low viremia and generalized immune dysfunction. CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells have been implicated as a possible cause of immune dysfunction during FIV and HIV-1 infection, as they are capable of modulating virus-specific and inflammatory immune responses. Additionally, the immunosuppressive capacity of feline Treg cells has been shown to be increased during FIV infection. We have previously shown that transient in vivo Treg cell depletion during asymptomatic FIV infection reveals FIV-specific immune responses suppressed by Treg cells. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological influence of Treg cells during acute FIV infection. We asked whether Treg cell depletion prior to infection with the highly pathogenic molecular clone FIV-C36 in cats could alter FIV pathogenesis. We report here that partial Treg cell depletion prior to FIV infection does not significantly change provirus, viremia, or CD4(+) T cell levels in blood and lymphoid tissues during the acute phase of disease. The effects of anti-CD25 mAb treatment are truncated in cats acutely infected with FIV-C36 as compared to chronically infected cats or FIV-naïve cats, as Treg cell levels were heightened in all treatment groups included in the study within two weeks post-FIV infection. Our findings suggest that the influence of Treg cell suppression during FIV pathogenesis is most prominent after Treg cells are activated in the environment of established FIV infection.

  2. Comparison of volumetric and functional parameters in simultaneous cardiac PET/MR: feasibility of volumetric assessment with residual activity from prior PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Brenneis, B.; Grothoff, M.; Gutberlet, M. [University Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Oppolzer, B.; Werner, P.; Jochimsen, T.; Sattler, B.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Foldyna, B. [University Leipzig - Heart Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Massachusetts General Hospital - Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Lurz, P. [University Leipzig - Heart Center, Clinic for Internal Medicine/Cardiology, Leipzig (Germany); Lehmkuhl, L. [Herz- und Gefaess-Klinik GmbH, Radiologische Klinik, Bad Neustadt (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    To compare cardiac left ventricular (LV) parameters in simultaneously acquired hybrid fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F] FDG) positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) in patients with residual tracer activity of upstream PET/CT. Twenty-nine patients (23 men, age 58±17 years) underwent cardiac PET/MRI either directly after a non-cardiac PET/CT with homogenous cardiac [18F] FDG uptake (n=20) or for viability assessment (n=9). Gated cardiac [18F] FDG PET and cine MR sequences were acquired simultaneously and evaluated blinded to the cross-imaging results. Image quality (IQ), end-diastolic (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial mass (LVMM) were measured. Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), regression and a Bland-Altman analysis were assessed. Except LVMM, volumetric and functional LV parameters demonstrated high correlations (LVESV: r=0.97, LVEDV: r=0.95, LVEF: r=0.91, LVMM: r=0.87, each p<0.05), but wide limits of agreement (LOA) for LVEDV (-25.3-82.5ml); LVESV (-33.1-72.7ml); LVEF (-18.9-14.8%) and LVMM (-78.2-43.2g). Intra- and interobserver reliability were very high (ICC≥0.95) for all parameters, except for MR-LVEF (ICC=0.87). PET-IQ (0-3) was high (mean: 2.2±0.9) with significant influence on LVMM calculations only. In simultaneously acquired cardiac PET/MRI data, LVEDV, LVESV and LVEF show good agreement. However, the agreement seems to be limited if cardiac PET/MRI follows PET/CT and only the residual activity is used. (orig.)

  3. Residual tumor cells that drive disease relapse after chemotherapy do not have enhanced tumor initiating capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapati V Hegde

    Full Text Available Although chemotherapy is used to treat most advanced solid tumors, recurrent disease is still the major cause of cancer-related mortality. Cancer stem cells (CSCs have been the focus of intense research in recent years because they provide a possible explanation for disease relapse. However, the precise role of CSCs in recurrent disease remains poorly understood and surprisingly little attention has been focused on studying the cells responsible for re-initiating tumor growth within the original host after chemotherapy treatment. We utilized both xenograft and genetically engineered mouse models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC to characterize the residual tumor cells that survive chemotherapy treatment and go on to cause tumor regrowth, which we refer to as tumor re-initiating cells (TRICs. We set out to determine whether TRICs display characteristics of CSCs, and whether assays used to define CSCs also provide an accurate readout of a cell's ability to cause tumor recurrence. We did not find consistent enrichment of CSC marker positive cells or enhanced tumor initiating potential in TRICs. However, TRICs from all models do appear to be in EMT, a state that has been linked to chemoresistance in numerous types of cancer. Thus, the standard CSC assays may not accurately reflect a cell's ability to drive disease recurrence.

  4. Antigen retrieval prior to on-tissue digestion of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissue sections yields oxidation of proline residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djidja, Marie-Claude; Claude, Emmanuelle; Scriven, Peter; Allen, David W; Carolan, Vikki A; Clench, Malcolm R

    2017-07-01

    MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) has been shown to allow the study of protein distribution and identification directly within formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, direct protein identification from tissue sections remains challenging due to signal interferences and/or existing post-translational or other chemical modifications. The use of antigen retrieval (AR) has been demonstrated for unlocking proteins prior to in situ enzymatic digestion and MALDI-MSI analysis of FFPE tissue sections. In the work reported here, the identification of proline oxidation, which may occur when performing the AR protocol, is described. This facilitated and considerably increased the number of identified peptides when adding proline oxidation as a variable modification to the MASCOT search criteria. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: MALDI Imaging, edited by Dr. Corinna Henkel and Prof. Peter Hoffmann. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The importance of monitoring minimal residual disease in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenova, A.; Subova, Z.; Cizmar, A.; Sejnova, D.; Kaiserova, E.; Hikkel, I.; Hikkelova, M.; Bubanska, E.; Oravkinova, I.

    2012-01-01

    Since the strong correlation between minimal residual disease (MRD) levels and risk of relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, monitoring of MRD provides unique information regarding treatment response. Because the significance of MRD monitoring has been strongly supported by several studies and because it has been implemented in the latest protocols, there has been a significant effort to develop MRD monitoring in the Slovak Republic. Between 1. 10. 2006 and 31. 12. 2009, 50 children with ALL who were treated at three Slovak centers were included in the RQ PCR MRD pilot project. Based on MRD stratification, we identified 26 patients who were stratified into the HRG (high risk group) 3 patients (11,5 %), IRG (intermediate risk group), 14 p. 54 % and SRG (standard risk group), 9 p. (34,5 %). (author)

  6. Assessing ectasia susceptibility prior to LASIK: the role of age and residual stromal bed (RSB in conjunction to Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ability to detect preoperative ectasia risk among LASIK candidates using classic ERSS (Ectasia Risk Score System and Pentacam Belin-Ambrósio deviation index (BAD-D, and to test the benefit of a combined approach including BAD-D and clinical data. Methods: A retrospective nonrandomized study involved preoperative LASIK data from 23 post-LASIK ectasia cases and 266 stable-LASIK (follow up > 12 months. Preoperative clinical and Pentacam (Oculus; Wetzlar, Germany data were obtained from all cases. Mann-Whitney's test was performed to assess differences between groups. Stepwise logistic regression was used for combining parameters.The areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves (AUC were calculated for all parameters and combinations, with pairwise comparisons of AUC (DeLong's method. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for age, residual stromal bed (RSB, central corneal thickness and BAD-D (p0.05. ERSS was 3 or more on 12/23 eyes from the ectasia group (sensitivity = 52.17% and 48/266 eyes from the stable LASIK group (18% false positive. BAD-D had AUC of 0.931 (95% CI: 0.895 to 0.957, with cut-off of 1.29 (sensitivity = 87%; specificity = 92.1%. Formula combining BAD-D, age and RSB provided 100% sensitivity and 94% specificity, with better AUC (0.989; 95% CI: 0.969 to 0.998 than all individual parameters (p>0.001. Conclusion: BAD-D is more accurate than ERSS. Combining clinical data and BAD-D improved ectasia susceptibility screening. Further validation is necessary. Novel combined functions using other topometric and tomographic parameters should be tested to further enhance accuracy.

  7. Removal of acidic interferences in multi-pesticides residue analysis of fruits using modified magnetic nanoparticles prior to determination via ultra-HPLC-MS/MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Peipei; Wang, Zhiwei; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Xinquan; Shang, Chunqing; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hu; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles modified with 3-(N,N-diethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane (Fe 3 O 4 -PSA NPs) for use as a sorbent for dispersive solid phase extraction of pesticide residues. The Fe 3 O 4 -PSA NPs were prepared by silanizing Fe 3 O 4 NPs and modifying them with 3-(N,N-diethylamino) propyltrimethoxysilane. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy, FTIR and zeta potential measurements were employed to characterize the modified NPs. They were then used as an adsorbent to remove acidic interferences (such as malic acid and succinic acid), which are major interferences in LC-MS/MS analysis in causing ion suppression in the MS spectra of pesticides. In addition, graphitized carbon black (GCB) was used as an adsorbent to eliminate interferences by pigments. The use of Fe 3 O 4 -PSA NPs can replace time-consuming centrifugation as used in the so-called QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method. This improvement is particularly significant in high-throughput analysis. Following the optimization of the quantities of Fe 3 O 4 -PSA NPs and GCB, the method was applied to the determination of 56 pesticides in (spiked) fruits (apple, kiwi, orange and pear) by ultra-HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical ranges typically extend from 1 to 200 ng∙mL −1 , and recoveries range from 60.2 to 130 % at different concentrations of all four kinds of fruits. The LOQs for the pesticides are 10 ng∙kg −1 , which makes the method a viable tool for pesticide monitoring in fruits. (author)

  8. Association between blood pressure and Alzheimer disease measured up to 27 years prior to diagnosis: the HUNT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabin, Jessica Mira; Tambs, Kristian; Saltvedt, Ingvild; Sund, Erik; Holmen, Jostein

    2017-05-31

    A lot of attention has been paid to the relationship of blood pressure and dementia because epidemiological research has reported conflicting evidence. Observational data has shown that midlife hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia later in life, whereas there is evidence that low blood pressure is predictive in later life. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between dementia and blood pressure measured up to 27 years (mean 17.6 years) prior to ascertainment. In Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, incident dementia data were collected during 1995-2011, and the diagnoses were validated by a panel of experts in the field. By using the subjects' personal identification numbers, the dementia data were linked to data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (the HUNT Study), a large, population-based health study performed in 1984-1986 (HUNT 1) and 1995-1997 (HUNT 2). A total of 24,638 participants of the HUNT Study were included in the present study, 579 of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, or vascular dementia. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the association between dementia and blood pressure data from HUNT 1 and HUNT 2. Over the age of 60 years, consistent inverse associations were observed between systolic blood pressure and all-cause dementia, mixed Alzheimer/vascular dementia, and Alzheimer disease, but not with vascular dementia, when adjusting for age, sex, education, and other relevant covariates. This was observed for systolic blood pressure in both HUNT 1 and HUNT 2, regardless of antihypertensive medication use. There was an adverse association between systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, and Alzheimer disease in individuals treated with antihypertensive medication under the age of 60 years. Our data are in line with those in previous studies demonstrating an inverse association between dementia and systolic blood pressure in

  9. Autologous blood stem-cell transplantation in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease and prior radiation to the pelvic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbling, M.H.; Holle, R.; Haas, R.; Knauf, W.; Doerken, B.H.; Ho, A.D.; Kuse, R.; Pralle, H.; Fliedner, T.M.; Hunstein, W.

    1990-01-01

    Patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease who respond to salvage therapy are successfully treated with cyclophosphamide, carmustine (BCNU), and etoposide (VP-16) (CBV) followed by autologus bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). Because of heavy pretreatment including radiation to the pelvic site, marrow harvest was not feasible in those patients. We therefore used blood-derived hemopoietic precursor cells as an alternative stem-cell source to rescue them after superdose chemotherapy. Hemopoietic precursor cells were mobilized into the peripheral blood either by chemotherapeutic induction of transient myelosuppression followed by an overshooting of blood stem-cell concentration, or by continuous intravenous (IV) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) administration. The median time to reach 1,000 WBC per microliter, 500 polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) per microliter, or 20,000 platelets per microliter was 10, 20.5, and 38 days, respectively, for 50% of all patients. The platelet counts of two patients never dropped below 20,000/microL following autologous blood stem-cell transplantation (ABSCT), whereas two other patients had to be supported with platelets for 75 and 86 days posttransplant until a stable peripheral platelet count of 20,000/microL was attained. Among the 11 assessable patients, seven are in unmaintained complete remission (CR) at a median follow-up of 318 days. This is a first report on a series of ABSCTs in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease proving that, despite prior damage to the marrow site, the circulating stem-cell pool is still a sufficient source of hemopoietic precursor cells for stem-cell rescue

  10. Screening for residual disease in pediatric burkitt lymphoma using consensus primer pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agsalda, Melissa; Kusao, Ian; Troelstrup, David; Shiramizu, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Assessing molecular persistent or minimal residual disease (PD/MRD) in childhood Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is challenging because access to original tumor is usually needed to design patient-specific primers (PSPs). Because BL is characterized by rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgV(H)) genes, IgV(H) primer pools from IgV(H1)-IgV(H7) regions were tested to detect PD/MRD, thus eliminating the need for original tumor. The focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility of using IgV(H) primer pools to detect disease in clinical specimens. Fourteen children diagnosed with B-NHL had follow-up repository specimens available to assess PD/MRD. Of the 14 patients, 12 were PD/MRD negative after 2 months of therapy and remained in remission at the end of therapy; 2/14 patients were PD/MRD positive at 2-3 months and later relapsed. PSP-based assays from these 14 patients showed 100% concordance with the current assay. This feasibility study warrants further investigation to assess PD/MRD using IgV(H) primer pools, which could have clinical significance as a real-time assessment tool to monitor pediatric BL and possibly other B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma therapy.

  11. Screening for Residual Disease in Pediatric Burkitt Lymphoma Using Consensus Primer Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Agsalda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing molecular persistent or minimal residual disease (PD/MRD in childhood Burkitt lymphoma (BL is challenging because access to original tumor is usually needed to design patient-specific primers (PSPs. Because BL is characterized by rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgVH genes, IgVH primer pools from IgVH1–IgVH7 regions were tested to detect PD/MRD, thus eliminating the need for original tumor. The focus of the current study was to assess the feasibility of using IgVH primer pools to detect disease in clinical specimens. Fourteen children diagnosed with B-NHL had follow-up repository specimens available to assess PD/MRD. Of the 14 patients, 12 were PD/MRD negative after 2 months of therapy and remained in remission at the end of therapy; 2/14 patients were PD/MRD positive at 2-3 months and later relapsed. PSP-based assays from these 14 patients showed 100% concordance with the current assay. This feasibility study warrants further investigation to assess PD/MRD using IgVH primer pools, which could have clinical significance as a real-time assessment tool to monitor pediatric BL and possibly other B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma therapy.

  12. Population snapshot of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in South Africa prior to introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedibone M Ndlangisa

    Full Text Available We determined the sequence types of isolates that caused invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD prior to routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV in South Africa. PCV-13 serotypes and 6C isolates collected in 2007 (1 461/2 437, 60% from patients of all ages as part of on-going, national, laboratory-based surveillance for IPD, were selected for genetic characterization. In addition, all 134 non-PCV isolates from children <2 years were selected for characterization. Sequence type diversity by serotype and age category (children <5 years vs. individuals ≥5 years was assessed for PCV serotypes using Simpson's index of diversity. Similar genotypes circulated among isolates from children and adults and the majority of serotypes were heterogeneous. While globally disseminated clones were common among some serotypes (e.g., serotype 1 [clonal complex (CC 217, 98% of all serotype 1] and 14 [CC230, 43%], some were represented mainly by clonal complexes rarely reported elsewhere (e.g., serotype 3 [CC458, 60%] and 19A [CC2062, 83%]. In children <2 years, serotype 15B and 8 were the most common serotypes among non-PCV isolates (16% [22/134] and 15% [20/134] isolates, respectively. Sequence type 7052 and 53 were most common among serotypes 15B and 8 isolates and accounted for 58% (7/12 and 64% (9/14 of the isolates, respectively. Serotype 19F, 14, 19A and 15B had the highest proportions of penicillin non-susceptible isolates. Genotypes rarely reported in other parts of the world but common among some of our serotypes highlight the importance of our data as these genotypes may emerge post PCV introduction.

  13. Optimizing screening for tuberculosis and hepatitis B prior to starting tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Mike; Oldenburg, Bas; Fidder, Herma H; Belderbos, Tim D G; Siersema, Peter D; van Oijen, Martijn G H

    2014-03-01

    Treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with potentially serious infections, including tuberculosis (TB) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). We assessed the cost-effectiveness of extensive TB screening and HBV screening prior to initiating TNF-α inhibitors in CD. We constructed two Markov models: (1) comparing tuberculin skin test (TST) combined with chest X-ray (conventional TB screening) versus TST and chest X-ray followed by the interferon-gamma release assay (extensive TB screening) in diagnosing TB; and (2) HBV screening versus no HBV screening. Our base-case included an adult CD patient starting with infliximab treatment. Input parameters were extracted from the literature. Direct medical costs were assessed and discounted following a third-party payer perspective. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity and Monte Carlo analyses were performed over wide ranges of probability and cost estimates. At base-case, the ICERs of extensive screening and HBV screening were €64,340 and €75,760 respectively to gain one quality-adjusted life year. Sensitivity analyses concluded that extensive TB screening was a cost-effective strategy if the latent TB prevalence is more than 12 % or if the false positivity rate of TST is more than 20 %. HBV screening became cost-effective if HBV reactivation or HBV-related mortality is higher than 37 and 62 %, respectively. Extensive TB screening and HBV screening are not cost-effective compared with conventional TB screening and no HBV screening, respectively. However, when targeted at high-risk patient groups, these screening strategies are likely to become cost-effective.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prior to radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Khadija; Capaldi, Dante P.I.; Hoover, Douglas A.; Palma, David A.; Yaremko, Brian P.; Parraga, Grace

    2015-01-01

    •Three imaging phenotypes of COPD and ventilation heterogeneity.•We examine relationships for non-tumour lobe ventilation voids and clinical tests.•Smoking history and airflow obstruction were diagnostics for imaging phenotypes. Three imaging phenotypes of COPD and ventilation heterogeneity. We examine relationships for non-tumour lobe ventilation voids and clinical tests. Smoking history and airflow obstruction were diagnostics for imaging phenotypes. In this prospectively planned interim-analysis, the prevalence of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) phenotypes was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) patients. Stage-III-NSCLC patients provided written informed consent for pulmonary function tests, imaging and the 6-min-walk-test. Ventilation defect percent (VDP) and CT lung density (relative-of-CT-density-histogram <−950, RA 950 ) were measured. Patients were classified into three subgroups based on qualitative and quantitative COPD and tumour-specific imaging phenotypes: (1) tumour-specific ventilation defects (TSD), (2) tumour-specific and other ventilation defects without emphysema (TSD V ), and, (3) tumour-specific and other ventilation defects with emphysema (TSD VE ). Seventeen stage-III NSCLC patients were evaluated (68 ± 7 years, 7 M/10 F, mean FEV 1 = 77% pred ) including seven current and 10 ex-smokers and eight patients with a prior lung disease diagnosis. There was a significant difference for smoking history (p = .02) and FEV 1 /FVC (p = .04) for subgroups classified using quantitative imaging. Patient subgroups classified using qualitative imaging findings were significantly different for emphysema (RA 950 , p < .001). There were significant relationships for whole-lung VDP (p < .05), but not RECIST or tumour-lobe VDP measurements with pulmonary function and exercise measurements. Preliminary analysis for non-tumour burden ventilation abnormalities

  15. Active disease and residual damage in treated Wegener's granulomatosis: an observational study using pulmonary high-resolution computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komocsi, Andras; Reuter, Michael; Heller, Martin; Murakoezi, Henriette; Gross, Wolfgang L.; Schnabel, Armin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs can distinguish active inflammatory disease from inactive cicatricial disease in patients treated for Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Twenty-eight WG patients with active pulmonary disease underwent a first HRCT examination immediately before standard immunosuppressive treatment and a second examination after clinical remission had been achieved. Lesions remaining after treatment were categorized as residual damage and were compared with findings during active disease to see by what features active and cicatricial disease can be distinguished. During active disease 17 patients had nodules/masses, 12 had ground-glass opacities, 6 had septal lines and 6 had non-septal lines. After treatment, ground-glass opacities had resolved completely. Nodules/masses had resolved in 8 patients and had diminished in 7 patients. Residual nodules were distinguished from nodules/masses in active disease by lack of cavitation and a diameter of mostly <15 mm. In one-third of patients lines resolved, but in 8 instances new lines evolved during immunosuppression. During a follow-up period of a median 26.5 months (range 20.0-33.8), patients with residual nodules or lines had no more relapses than patients with completely cleared lungs. Treated pulmonary WG leaves substantial residual damage. High-resolution CT does assist in the distinction between active and inactive lesions. Ground-glass opacities, cavitating nodules/masses and masses measuring more than 3 cm represent active disease ordinarily. Non-cavitary small nodules and septal or non-septal lines can be either active or cicatricial lesions. The nature of these lesions needs to be clarified by longitudinal observation. (orig.)

  16. Morphological and immunological criteria of minimal residual disease detection in children with B-cell precursors acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beznos, O. A.; Grivtsova, L. Yu; Popa, A. V.; Shervashidze, M. A.; Serebtyakova, I. N.; Tupitsyn, N. N.; Selchuk, V. U.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Titova, G. V.

    2018-01-01

    One of the key factors of prognosis and risk stratification in patients with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is minimal residual disease (MRD). Identification of MRD on the day 15th is one of the most significant in prognosis of the disease. We compared data of a morphological and flow cytometry results of assessment of a bone marrow (BM) at the day 15th of induction chemotherapy in children with BCP-ALL.

  17. Prognostic value of deep sequencing method for minimal residual disease detection in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahuerta, Juan J.; Pepin, François; González, Marcos; Barrio, Santiago; Ayala, Rosa; Puig, Noemí; Montalban, María A.; Paiva, Bruno; Weng, Li; Jiménez, Cristina; Sopena, María; Moorhead, Martin; Cedena, Teresa; Rapado, Immaculada; Mateos, María Victoria; Rosiñol, Laura; Oriol, Albert; Blanchard, María J.; Martínez, Rafael; Bladé, Joan; San Miguel, Jesús; Faham, Malek; García-Sanz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the prognostic value of minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in multiple myeloma (MM) patients using a sequencing-based platform in bone marrow samples from 133 MM patients in at least very good partial response (VGPR) after front-line therapy. Deep sequencing was carried out in patients in whom a high-frequency myeloma clone was identified and MRD was assessed using the IGH-VDJH, IGH-DJH, and IGK assays. The results were contrasted with those of multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) and allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR). The applicability of deep sequencing was 91%. Concordance between sequencing and MFC and ASO-PCR was 83% and 85%, respectively. Patients who were MRD– by sequencing had a significantly longer time to tumor progression (TTP) (median 80 vs 31 months; P < .0001) and overall survival (median not reached vs 81 months; P = .02), compared with patients who were MRD+. When stratifying patients by different levels of MRD, the respective TTP medians were: MRD ≥10−3 27 months, MRD 10−3 to 10−5 48 months, and MRD <10−5 80 months (P = .003 to .0001). Ninety-two percent of VGPR patients were MRD+. In complete response patients, the TTP remained significantly longer for MRD– compared with MRD+ patients (131 vs 35 months; P = .0009). PMID:24646471

  18. Minimal Residual Disease Diagnostics and Chimerism in the Post-Transplant Period in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Bacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In acute myeloid leukemia (AML, the selection of poor-risk patients for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is associated with rather high post-transplant relapse rates. As immunotherapeutic intervention is considered to be more effective before the cytomorphologic manifestation of relapse, post-transplant monitoring gains increasing attention in stem cell recipients with a previous diagnosis of AML. Different methods for detection of chimerism (e.g., microsatellite analysis or quantitative real-time PCR are available to quantify the ratio of donor and recipient cells in the post-transplant period. Various studies demonstrated the potential use of mixed chimerism kinetics to predict relapse of the AML. CD34+-specific chimerism is associated with a higher specificity of chimerism analysis. Nevertheless, a decrease of donor cells can have other causes as well. Therefore, efforts continue to introduce minimal residual disease (MRD monitoring based on molecular mutations in the post-transplant period. The NPM1 (nucleophosmin mutations can be monitored by sensitive quantitative real-time PCR in subsets of stem cell recipients with AML, but for approximately 20% of patients, suitable molecular mutations for post-transplant MRD monitoring are not available so far. This emphasizes the need for an expansion of the panel of MRD markers in the transplant setting.

  19. Genotype-Specific Minimal Residual Disease Interpretation Improves Stratification in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, David; Enshaei, Amir; Bartram, Jack; Hancock, Jeremy; Harrison, Christine J.; Hough, Rachael; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Schwab, Claire; Vora, Ajay; Wade, Rachel; Moppett, John; Moorman, Anthony V.; Goulden, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Minimal residual disease (MRD) and genetic abnormalities are important risk factors for outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Current risk algorithms dichotomize MRD data and do not assimilate genetics when assigning MRD risk, which reduces predictive accuracy. The aim of our study was to exploit the full power of MRD by examining it as a continuous variable and to integrate it with genetics. Patients and Methods We used a population-based cohort of 3,113 patients who were treated in UKALL2003, with a median follow-up of 7 years. MRD was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction analysis of Ig/TCR gene rearrangements, and patients were assigned to a genetic subtype on the basis of immunophenotype, cytogenetics, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. To examine response kinetics at the end of induction, we log-transformed the absolute MRD value and examined its distribution across subgroups. Results MRD was log normally distributed at the end of induction. MRD distributions of patients with distinct genetic subtypes were different (P acute lymphoblastic leukemia responded more slowly. The risk of relapse was correlated with MRD kinetics, and each log reduction in disease level reduced the risk by 20% (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.83; P < .001). Although the risk of relapse was directly proportional to the MRD level within each genetic risk group, absolute relapse rate that was associated with a specific MRD value or category varied significantly by genetic subtype. Integration of genetic subtype–specific MRD values allowed more refined risk group stratification. Conclusion A single threshold for assigning patients to an MRD risk group does not reflect the response kinetics of the different genetic subtypes. Future risk algorithms should integrate genetics with MRD to accurately identify patients with the lowest and highest risk of relapse. PMID:29131699

  20. Postinduction minimal residual disease monitoring by polymerase chain reaction in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganin, Maddalena; Fabbri, Giulia; Conter, Valentino; Barisone, Elena; Polato, Katia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Giraldi, Eugenia; Fagioli, Franca; Aricò, Maurizio; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) provides information for patient stratification and individual risk-directed treatment. Cooperative studies have documented that measurement of blast clearance from the bone marrow during and after induction therapy identifies patient populations with different risk of relapse. We explored the possible contribution of measurements of MRD during the course of treatment. We used RQ-PCR to detect MRD in 110 unselected patients treated in Italy in the International Collaborative Treatment Protocol for Children and Adolescents With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000). The trial took place in AIEOP centers during postinduction chemotherapy. Results were categorized as negative, low positive (below the quantitative range [< 5 × 10(-4)]), or high positive (≥ 5 × 10(-4)). Patients with at least one low-positive or high-positive result were assigned to the corresponding subgroup. Patients who tested high positive, low positive, or negative had significantly different cumulative incidences of leukemia relapse: 83.3%, 34.8%, and 8.6%, respectively (P < .001). Two thirds of positive cases were identified within 4 months after induction-consolidation therapy, suggesting that this time frame may be most suitable for cost-effective MRD monitoring, particularly in patients who did not clear their disease at the end of consolidation. These findings provide further insights into the dynamic of MRD and the ongoing effort to define molecular relapse in childhood ALL. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. [THE COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF DETECTION OF MINIMAL RESIDUAL DISEASE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD AND MARROW IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUCOSIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaur, G A; Riger, T O; Popov, A M; Nasedkina, T V; Kustanovich, A M; Solodovnikov, A G; Streneva, O V; Shorikov, E V; Tsvirenko, S V; Saveliev, L I; Fechina, L G

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of minimal residual disease is an important prognostic factor under acute lymphoblastic leucosis in children and adults. In overwhelming majority of research studies bone marrow is used to detect minimal residual disease. The comparative characteristic of detection of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow was carried out. The prognostic role of occurrence of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow under therapy according protocol MLL-Baby was evaluated. The analysis embraced 142 pair samples from 53 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis and various displacements of gene MLL younger than 365 days. The minimal residual disease was detected by force of identification of chimeric transcripts using polymerase chain reaction in real-time mode in 7 sequential points of observation established by protocol of therapy. The comparability of results of qualitative detection of minimal residual disease in bone marrow and peripheral blood amounted to 84.5%. At that, in all 22 (15.5%) discordant samples minimal residual disease was detected only in bone marrow. Despite of high level of comparability of results of detection of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood and bone marrow the occurrence of minimal residual disease in peripheral blood at various stages of therapy demonstrated no independent prognostic significance. The established differences had no relationship with sensitivity of method determined by value of absolute expression of gene ABL. Most likely, these differences reflected real distribution of tumor cells. The results of study demonstrated that application of peripheral blood instead of bone marrow for monitoring of minimal residual disease under acute lymphoblastic leucosis in children of first year of life is inappropriate. At the same time, retention of minimal residual disease in TH4 in bone marrow was an independent and prognostic unfavorable factor under therapy of acute lymphoblastic

  2. Role of specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients for the assessment of tumor stage and residual disease following tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcic, Gregor; Jelenc, Franc; Cerkovnik, Petra; Stegel, Vida; Novakovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the detection of tumor-specific KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (KRAS) and B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutations in the peripheral blood of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients at all stages and adenomas was used for the estimation of disease stage prior to surgery and for residual disease following surgery. A total of 65 CRC patients were enrolled. The primary tumor tested positive for the specific mutations (KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61, 117 or 146 and BRAF mutations in codon 600) in 35 patients. In all these patients, the specimen of normal bowel resected with the tumor was also tested for the presence of the same mutations in order to exclude the germ-line mutations. Only patients who tested positive for the specific mutation in the primary tumor were included in further analysis for the presence of tumor-specific mutation in the peripheral blood. No statistically significant differences were found between the detection rates of tumor mutations in the blood and different tumor stages (P=0.491). However, statistically significant differences in the proportions of patients with detected tumor-specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood were found when comparing the groups of patients with R0 and R2 resections (P=0.038). Tumor-specific DNA mutations in the peripheral blood were more frequently detected in the patients with an incomplete surgical clearance of the tumor due to macroscopic residual disease (R2 resections). Therefore, the study concludes that the follow-up of somatic KRAS- and BRAF-mutated DNA in the peripheral blood of CRC patients may be useful in assessing the surgical clearance of the disease. PMID:27900004

  3. Cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes: comparison with nondiabetic individuals without and with prior cardiovascular disease. 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, A.E.; Bos, G.; Vegt, F. de; Kostense, P.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian

  4. Cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes : comparison with nondiabetic individuals without and with prior cardiovascular disease. 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, Annemarie; Bos, Griët; de Vegt, Femmie; Kostense, Piet J; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J; Bouter, Lex M; Stehouwer, Coen D A

    AIMS: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. METHODS AND RESULTS: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian

  5. Cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes: comparison with nondiabetic individuals without and with prior cardiovascular disease - 10-year follow-up of the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, A.; Bos, G.; de Vegt, F.; Kostense, P.J.; Dekker, J.M.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: We questioned whether prior cardiovascular disease has the same impact on risk of cardiovascular events as type 2 diabetes, and whether this differed between men and women. Methods and results: To address these issues we compared the 10-year risk of cardiovascular events among 208 Caucasian

  6. The effect of Atorvastatin therapy tumour necrosis factor- and vascular adhesion molecules in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with no prior history of coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Charlton-Menys, V.; Bao, W.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Colhoun, H.M.; Betteridge, D.J.; Durrington, P.; Hitman, G.; Neil, H.A.W.; Livingstone, S.J.; Fuller, J.H.; DeMicco, D.A.; Preston, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of atorvastatin (and placebo) on tumour necrosis factor (TNF)a, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in patients with type 2 diabetes without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) and investigated whether

  7. Structural analysis on mutation residues and interfacial water molecules for human TIM disease understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM) deficiency is a genetic disease caused often by the pathogenic mutation E104D. This mutation, located at the side of an abnormally large cluster of water in the inter-subunit interface, reduces the thermostability of the enzyme. Why and how these water molecules are directly related to the excessive thermolability of the mutant have not been investigated in structural biology. Results This work compares the structure of the E104D mutant with its wild type counterparts. It is found that the water topology in the dimer interface of HsTIM is atypical, having a "wet-core-dry-rim" distribution with 16 water molecules tightly packed in a small deep region surrounded by 22 residues including GLU104. These water molecules are co-conserved with their surrounding residues in non-archaeal TIMs (dimers) but not conserved across archaeal TIMs (tetramers), indicating their importance in preserving the overall quaternary structure. As the structural permutation induced by the mutation is not significant, we hypothesize that the excessive thermolability of the E104D mutant is attributed to the easy propagation of atoms' flexibility from the surface into the core via the large cluster of water. It is indeed found that the B factor increment in the wet region is higher than other regions, and, more importantly, the B factor increment in the wet region is maintained in the deeply buried core. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that for the mutant structure at normal temperature, a clear increase of the root-mean-square deviation is observed for the wet region contacting with the large cluster of interfacial water. Such increase is not observed for other interfacial regions or the whole protein. This clearly suggests that, in the E104D mutant, the large water cluster is responsible for the subunit interface flexibility and overall thermolability, and it ultimately leads to the deficiency of this enzyme. Conclusions Our study

  8. Consensus guidelines on plasma cell myeloma minimal residual disease analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroz, Maria; Came, Neil; Lin, Pei; Chen, Weina; Yuan, Constance; Lagoo, Anand; Monreal, Mariela; de Tute, Ruth; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Rawstron, Andy C; Paiva, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Major heterogeneity between laboratories in flow cytometry (FC) minimal residual disease (MRD) testing in multiple myeloma (MM) must be overcome. Cytometry societies such as the International Clinical Cytometry Society and the European Society for Clinical Cell Analysis recognize a strong need to establish minimally acceptable requirements and recommendations to perform such complex testing. A group of 11 flow cytometrists currently performing FC testing in MM using different instrumentation, panel designs (≥ 6-color) and analysis software compared the procedures between their respective laboratories and reviewed the literature to propose a consensus guideline on flow-MRD analysis and reporting in MM. Consensus guidelines support i) the use of minimum of five initial gating parameters (CD38, CD138, CD45, forward, and sideward light scatter) within the same aliquot for accurate identification of the total plasma cell compartment; ii) the analysis of potentially aberrant phenotypic markers and to report the antigen expression pattern on neoplastic plasma cells as being reduced, normal or increased, when compared to a normal reference plasma cell immunophenotype (obtained using the same instrument and parameters); and iii) the percentage of total bone marrow plasma cells plus the percentages of both normal and neoplastic plasma cells within the total bone marrow plasma cell compartment, and over total bone marrow cells. Consensus guidelines on minimal current and future MRD analyses should target a lower limit of detection of 0.001%, and ideally a limit of quantification of 0.001%, which requires at least 3 × 10(6) and 5 × 10(6) bone marrow cells to be measured, respectively. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  9. Monitoring minimal residual disease in children with high-risk relapses of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: prognostic relevance of early and late assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, C; Hagedorn, N; Sramkova, L; Mann, G; Panzer-Grümayer, R; Peters, C; Bourquin, J-P; Klingebiel, T; Borkhardt, A; Cario, G; Alten, J; Escherich, G; Astrahantseff, K; Seeger, K; Henze, G; von Stackelberg, A

    2015-08-01

    The prognosis for children with high-risk relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is poor. Here, we assessed the prognostic importance of response during induction and consolidation treatment prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) aiming to evaluate the best time to assess minimal residual disease (MRD) for intervention strategies and in future trials in high-risk ALL relapse patients. Included patients (n=125) were treated uniformly according to the ALL-REZ BFM (Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster) 2002 relapse trial (median follow-up time=4.8 years). Patients with MRD ⩾10(-3) after induction treatment (76/119, 64%) or immediately preceding HSCT (19/71, 27%) had a significantly worse probability of disease-free survival 10 years after relapse treatment begin, with 26% (±6%) or 23% (±7%), respectively, compared with 58% (±8%) or 48% (±7%) for patients with MRD treatment reduced MRD to treatment can be used to quantify the activity of different induction treatment strategies in phase II trials. MRD persistence at ⩾10(-3) before HSCT reflects a disease highly resistant to conventional intensive chemotherapy and requiring prospective controlled investigation of new treatment strategies and drugs.

  10. The demography of Atelopus decline: Harlequin frog survival and abundance in central Panama prior to and during a disease outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca McCaffery

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus are a species-rich genus of Neotropical toads that have experienced disproportionately severe population declines and extinctions caused by the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. The genus Atelopus is of high conservation concern, but relatively little is known about the population dynamics and life history of the majority of species. We examined the demography of one population of Atelopus zeteki and two populations of A. varius in central Panama using three to six years of mark-recapture data collected prior to and during an outbreak of Bd. We estimated male survival probabilities prior to the arrival of Bd and sex-specific population sizes for these three populations using state-space Bayesian population models. Prior to the arrival of Bd, monthly apparent survival probabilities were higher for A. varius males than for A. zeteki males, and recaptures among years were low in both species. Abundance of both species varied over time and declined rapidly after the arrival of Bd. Male densities were generally greater than female densities, though female densities were higher or equivalent to males after the arrival of Bd. Estimates of survival and abundance over time may be explained by differences in the use of stream habitat by the two sexes and three populations, both during and between breeding seasons. These estimates provide key baseline population information that can be used to inform reintroductions from captive assurance colonies and studies of extant Atelopus populations as part of conservation and management programs.

  11. Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. A systematic literature search (1998-2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In the budget-impact analysis, the

  12. Minimal Residual Disease Evaluation in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: An Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajic-Veljanoski, O.; Pham, B.; Pechlivanoglou, P.; Krahn, M.; Higgins, Caroline; Bielecki, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimal residual disease (MRD) testing by higher performance techniques such as flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to detect the proportion of remaining leukemic cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood during and after the first phases of chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The results of MRD testing are used to reclassify these patients and guide changes in treatment according to their future risk of relapse. We conducted a systematic review of the economic literature, cost-effectiveness analysis, and budget-impact analysis to ascertain the cost-effectiveness and economic impact of MRD testing by flow cytometry for management of childhood precursor B-cell ALL in Ontario. Methods A systematic literature search (1998–2014) identified studies that examined the incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing by either flow cytometry or PCR. We developed a lifetime state-transition (Markov) microsimulation model to quantify the cost-effectiveness of MRD testing followed by risk-directed therapy to no MRD testing and to estimate its marginal effect on health outcomes and on costs. Model input parameters were based on the literature, expert opinion, and data from the Pediatric Oncology Group of Ontario Networked Information System. Using predictions from our Markov model, we estimated the 1-year cost burden of MRD testing versus no testing and forecasted its economic impact over 3 and 5 years. Results In a base-case cost-effectiveness analysis, compared with no testing, MRD testing by flow cytometry at the end of induction and consolidation was associated with an increased discounted survival of 0.0958 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and increased discounted costs of $4,180, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $43,613/QALY gained. After accounting for parameter uncertainty, incremental cost-effectiveness of MRD testing was associated with an ICER of $50,249/QALY gained. In

  13. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...... monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time...

  14. Evaluation of myocardial damage and cardiac residual capacity by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indo, Shunju

    1992-01-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether the extent-score (Ex-Score) calculated by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy is a reliable indicator of the severity of myocardial damage and cardiac residual capacity in valvular heart diseases. The subjects consisted of 38 patients (10 with aortic regurgitation (AR), 4 with aortic stenosis (AS), 13 with mitral regurgitation (MR) and 11 with mitral stenosis (MS)). Ex-Scores were significantly correlated with the severity of myocardial damage found in biopsied specimens obtained intraoperatively (correlation efficiency to Ex-Score with cell diameter in AR, % fibrosis in AR, cell diameter in AS, electron microscopic score in MR and % fibrosis in MS was 0.873, 0.734, 0.970, 0.913 and 0.659, respectively). Ex-Scores were also correlated with cardiac residual capacity determined by radioisotope angiography (correlation efficiency to Ex-Score with %Δ ejection fraction in AR, %Δ end-systolic volume in MR, %Δ end-diastolic volume in MS was -0.764, 0.790 and -0.763, respectively). These results suggest that the severity of myocardial damage and cardiac residual capacity can be estimated by Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy (Ex-Score) in valvular heart diseases. (author)

  15. Comparison of single-dose and double-dose thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy for the detection of coronary artery disease and prior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood, D.K.; McCarthy, D.M.; Sciacca, R.R.; Cannon, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy was performed after exercise, 4 hours after exercise (redistribution) and after a separate rest injection in 87 patients undergoing coronary arteriography. Significant coronary lesions were present in 62 of the patients. Interpretation of the rest and redistribution scintiscans was the same in 69 patients, 45 of whom had coronary artery disease (CAD). In 16 of the 17 patients with CAD and differing interpretations, defects were present on redistribution scintiscans but not on rest scintiscans; 11 of these patients had evidence of prior transmural myocardial infarction and the other five had an occluded coronary artery supplying the region of the defect. Redistribution scintiscans were more sensitive than rest scintiscans for the detection of prior myocardial infarction (93% vs 54%; P < 0.01). The increased sensitivity was confined to the detection of prior inferior myocardial infarctions. In 36 of 38 patients with persistent perfusion defects on 4-hour redistribution scintiscans, either a prior infarction or an occluded coronary vessel was present. These data demonstrate that redistribution thallium-201 scintiscans may be substituted for conventional rest scintiscans, resulting in reduced cost and radiation exposure to the patients

  16. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... children vaccination....... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children children

  17. Analysis of minimal residual disease by Ig/TCR gene rearrangements: guidelines for interpretation of real-time quantitative PCR data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, V. H. J.; Cazzaniga, G.; Schrauder, A.; Hancock, J.; Bader, P.; Panzer-Grumayer, E. R.; Flohr, T.; Sutton, R.; Cave, H.; Madsen, H. O.; Cayuela, J. M.; Trka, J.; Eckert, C.; Foroni, L.; Zur Stadt, U.; Beldjord, K.; Raff, T.; van der Schoot, C. E.; van Dongen, J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Most modern treatment protocols for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) include the analysis of minimal residual disease (MRD). To ensure comparable MRD results between different MRD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) laboratories, standardization and quality control are essential. The European Study

  18. Invasive pneumococcal disease in Danish children, 1996-2007, prior to the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde N; Kristensen, Tim D; Kaltoft, Margit S

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology, microbiology and outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) into the Danish routine...... immunization programme October 2007. Methods: Clinical and microbiological records on cases of IPD in children Hospital, Denmark 1996-2007, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: We identified 106 cases of IPD. The annual incidence of IPD was 11 per 100 000 in children

  19. Screening prior to biological therapy in Crohn's disease: adherence to guidelines and prevalence of infections. Results from a multicentre retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Have, Mike; Belderbos, Tim D G; Fidder, Herma H; Leenders, Max; Dijkstra, Gerard; Peters, Charlotte P; Eshuis, Emma J; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y; Siersema, Peter D; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Oldenburg, Bas

    2014-10-01

    Screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is recommended. To assess adherence to screening for opportunistic infections prior to starting biological therapy in Crohn's disease patients and its yield. A multicentre retrospective study was conducted in Crohn's disease patients in whom infliximab or adalimumab was started between 2000 and 2010. Screening included tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay or chest X-ray for tuberculosis. Extended screening included screening for tuberculosis and viral infections. Patients were followed until three months after ending treatment. Primary endpoints were opportunistic and serious infections. 611 patients were included, 91% on infliximab. 463 (76%) patients were screened for tuberculosis, of whom 113 (24%) underwent extended screening. Screening for tuberculosis and hepatitis B increased to, respectively, 90-97% and 36-49% in the last two years. During a median follow-up of two years, 64/611 (9%, 3.4/100 patient-years) opportunistic infections and 26/611 (4%, 1.6/100 patient-years) serious infections were detected. Comorbidity was significantly associated with serious infections (hazard ratio 3.94). Although screening rates for tuberculosis and hepatitis B increased, screening for hepatitis B was still suboptimal. More caution is required when prescribing biologicals in patients with comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-term disease and economic outcomes of prior authorization criteria for Hepatitis C treatment in Pennsylvania Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Mina; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Donohue, Julie M; Roberts, Mark S; James, A Everette; Dunn, Michael A; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-09-01

    Several highly effective but costly therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are available. As a consequence of their high price, 36 state Medicaid programs limited treatment coverage to patients with more advanced HCV stages. States have only limited information available to predict the long-term impact of these decisions. We adapted a validated hepatitis C microsimulation model to the Pennsylvania Medicaid population to estimate the existing HCV prevalence in Pennsylvania Medicaid and estimate the impact of various HCV drug coverage policies on disease outcomes and costs. Outcome measures included rates of advanced-stage HCV outcomes and treatment and disease costs in both Medicaid and Medicare. We estimated that 46,700 individuals in Pennsylvania Medicaid were infected with HCV in 2015, 33% of whom were still undiagnosed. By expanding treatment to include mild fibrosis stage (Metavir F2), Pennsylvania Medicaid will spend an additional $273 million on medications in the next decade with no substantial reduction in the incidence of liver cancer or liver-related death. Medicaid patients who are not eligible for treatment under restricted policies would get treatment once they transition to the Medicare program, which would incur 10% reduction in HCV-related costs due to early treatment in Medicaid. Further expanding treatment to patients with early fibrosis stages (F0 or F1) would cost Medicaid an additional $693 million during the next decade but would reduce the number of individuals in need of treatment in Medicare by 46% and decrease Medicare treatment costs by 23%. In some scenarios, outcomes could worsen with eligibility expansion if there is inadequate capacity to treat all patients. Expansion of HCV treatment coverage to less severe stages of liver disease may not substantially improve liver related outcomes for patients in Pennsylvania Medicaid in scenarios in which coverage through Medicare is widely available. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Carotid and coronary disease management prior to open and endovascular aortic surgery. What are the current guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Several bodies produce broadly concurring and updated guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of cardiovascular disease in both surgical and non-surgical patients. Recent developments include revised recommendations on preoperative stress testing, referral for possible coronary revascularization and medical management. It is recognized that non-invasive cardiac tests are relatively poor at predicting perioperative risk, and "prophylactic" coronary revascularization has a limited role. The planned aortic intervention (open or endovascular repair) also influences preoperative management. Patients presenting for elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair should only be referred for cardiological testing if they have active symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD), known CAD and poor functional exercise capacity, or multiple risk factors for CAD. Coronary revascularization before AAA surgery should be limited to patients with established indications, so cardiac stress testing should only be performed if it would change management i.e. the patient is a candidate for and would benefit from coronary revascularization. When endovascular aortic repair is planned, it is reasonable to proceed to surgery without further cardiac stress testing or evaluation unless otherwise indicated. All non-emergency patients require medical optimization, but perioperative beta blockade benefits only certain patients. Some of the data informing recent guidelines have been questioned and some guidelines are being revised. Current guidelines do not specifically address the management of patients with known or suspected carotid artery disease who may require aortic surgery. For these patients, an individualized approach is required. This review considers recent guidelines. Algorithms for investigation and management based on their recommendations are included.

  2. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Evaluation of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis depending on the underlying lung diseases: Emphysema vs prior tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Suzuki, Junko; Kawashima, Masahiro; Okuda, Kenichi; Sato, Ryota; Suzukawa, Maho; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Ohta, Ken

    2015-11-01

    There have been scarce data evaluating the differences of clinical characteristics and prognosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) depending on underlying pulmonary diseases. We tried to clarify them in CPA patients who had pulmonary emphysema or previous pulmonary tuberculosis. We reviewed and evaluated CPA patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 with pulmonary emphysema (PE group; n = 29), with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (PT group; n = 47) and with combination of these 2 underlying conditions (CTE group; n = 24). In CT findings, fungus balls were rare in PE group (7% in PE group and 36% in PT group; p = 0.006). Compared with PT group, PE group patients exhibited more frequent preceding antibiotics administration (45% vs 11%; p = 0.002) and fever (52% vs 17%; p = 0.002), less frequent hemosputum (24% vs 57%; p = 0.008), and more frequent consolidations in imaging (79% vs 38%; p = 0.001) and respiratory failure (34% vs 13%; p = 0.020), possibly suggesting more acute clinical manifestations of CPA in emphysematous patients. Trend of the differences between PT and PE group was not changed when patients with fungal balls were excluded. Multivariate Cox regression analysis of risks for all-cause mortality revealed age (HR, 1.079; p = 0.002) and emphysema (HR, 2.45; p = 0.040) as risk factors. Assessment of underlying lung diseases is needed when we estimate prognosis and consider treatment of CPA patients. Particularly, emphysematous patients can be presented as refractory pneumonia and show poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: An Assessment of Effect Modification by Prior Allergic Disease History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Noh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term effect of ambient air pollution on emergency department (ED visits in Seoul for asthma according to patients’ prior history of allergic diseases. Methods Data on ED visits from 2005 to 2009 were obtained from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. To evaluate the risk of ED visits for asthma related to ambient air pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm [PM10], a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution was used; a single-lag model and a cumulative-effect model (average concentration over the previous 1-7 days were also explored. The percent increase and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated for each interquartile range (IQR increment in the concentration of each air pollutant. Subgroup analyses were done by age, gender, the presence of allergic disease, and season. Results A total of 33 751 asthma attack cases were observed during the study period. The strongest association was a 9.6% increase (95% CI, 6.9% to 12.3% in the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in O3 concentration. IQR changes in NO2 and PM10 concentrations were also significantly associated with ED visits in the cumulative lag 7 model. Among patients with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis, the risk of ED visits for asthma per IQR increase in PM10 concentration was higher (3.9%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 6.7% than in patients with no such history. Conclusions Ambient air pollutants were positively associated with ED visits for asthma, especially among subjects with a prior history of allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis.

  5. Detection of residual disease after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer (preSANO): a prospective multicentre, diagnostic cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordman, Bo Jan; Spaander, Manon C W; Valkema, Roelf; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I; Shapiro, Joël; Biermann, Katharina; van der Gaast, Ate; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Krishnadath, Kausilia K; Lagarde, Sjoerd M; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Oostenbrug, Liekele E; Siersema, Peter D; Schoon, Erik J; Sosef, Meindert N; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van Lanschot, J Jan B

    2018-05-31

    After neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for oesophageal cancer, roughly half of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma and a quarter of those with adenocarcinoma have a pathological complete response of the primary tumour before surgery. Thus, the necessity of standard oesophagectomy after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy should be reconsidered for patients who respond sufficiently to neoadjuvant treatment. In this study, we aimed to establish the accuracy of detection of residual disease after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with different diagnostic approaches, and the optimal combination of diagnostic techniques for clinical response evaluations. The preSANO trial was a prospective, multicentre, diagnostic cohort study at six centres in the Netherlands. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had histologically proven, resectable, squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction, and were eligible for potential curative therapy with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (five weekly cycles of carboplatin [area under the curve 2 mg/mL per min] plus paclitaxel [50 mg/m 2 of body-surface area] combined with 41·4 Gy radiotherapy in 23 fractions) followed by oesophagectomy. 4-6 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, patients had oesophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies and endoscopic ultrasonography with measurement of maximum tumour thickness. Patients with histologically proven locoregional residual disease or no-pass during endoscopy and without distant metastases underwent immediate surgical resection. In the remaining patients a second clinical response evaluation was done (PET-CT, oesophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies, endoscopic ultrasonography with measurement of maximum tumour thickness, and fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes), followed by surgery 12-14 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was the correlation between clinical response during

  6. The case for testing memory with both stories and word lists prior to dbs surgery for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Bowers, Dawn; Price, Catherine C; Bauer, Russell M; Nisenzon, Anne; Foote, Kelly D; Okun, Michael S

    2011-04-01

    Patients seeking deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery for Parkinson's disease (PD) typically undergo neuropsychological assessment to determine candidacy for surgery, with poor memory performance interpreted as a contraindication. Patients with PD may exhibit worse memory for word lists than for stories due to the lack of inherent organization in a list of unrelated words. Unfortunately, word list and story tasks are typically developed from different normative datasets, and the existence of a memory performance discrepancy in PD has been challenged. We compared recall of stories and word lists in 35 non-demented PD candidates for DBS. We administered commonly used neuropsychological measures of word list and story memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Logical Memory), along with a second word list task that was co-normed with the story task. Age-corrected scores were higher for the story task than for both word list tasks. Compared to story recall, word list recall correlated more consistently with motor severity and composite measures of processing speed, working memory, and executive functioning. These results support the classic view of fronto-subcortical contributions to memory in PD and suggest that executive deficits may influence word list recall more than story recall. We recommend a multi-componential memory battery in the neuropsychological assessment of DBS candidates to characterize both mesial temporal and frontal-executive memory processes. One should not rely solely on a word list task because patients exhibiting poor memory for word lists may perform better with stories and therefore deserve an interdisciplinary discussion for DBS surgery.

  7. Role of optimal medication given to patients with hypertension and ischemic heart disease prior to an acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Pop

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAdministering optimal cardiovascular medication (OCM to patients with hypertension (HBP and ischemic heart disease (IHD lowers cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.The main objective of this study was to compare in-hospital cardiac mortality among patients with HBP and/or IHD, treated or untreated with OCM, who developed a first episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS.MethodsThe study was carried out retrospectively and included patients admitted with a first episode of ACS between 2013 and 2016. The patients were divided into three groups: those with HBP, IHD, and a history of HBP + IHD. Patients were then divided into two subgroups: subgroup A consisted of patients undergoing optimal anti-ischemic and/or antihypertensive therapy, while subgroup B consisted of patients without OCM.ResultsThis analysis comprised 1096 patients. Mean age was 64.3 ± 18 years. There were 581 patients in subgroup A – 53%, and 515 patients in subgroup B – 47%. Total cardiac mortality was 9.98%, different depending on the groups and subgroups studied: HBP group total – 7%, subgroup A – 5.1%, significantly lower compared to subgroup B – 9.4% (p = 0.05; IHD group total – 12.2%, subgroup A – 9.07%, significantly lower compared to subgroup B – 15.8% (p = 0.05; HBP + IHD group total – 14.35%, subgroup A – 9.9%, significantly lower compared to subgroup B – 18.8% (p = 0.05.ConclusionsThe lack of OCM in patients with HBP and/or IHD is correlated to a significant increase in in-hospital cardiac mortality among patients who develop a first-episode ACS.

  8. The effect of prior walking on coronary heart disease risk markers in South Asian and European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Saravana Pillai; Deighton, Kevin; Bishop, Nicolette C; King, James; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Rogan, Alice; Sedgwick, Matthew; Thackray, Alice E; Webb, David; Stensel, David J

    2015-12-01

    Heart disease risk is elevated in South Asians possibly due to impaired postprandial metabolism. Running has been shown to induce greater reductions in postprandial lipaemia in South Asian than European men, but the effect of walking in South Asians is unknown. Fifteen South Asian and 14 white European men aged 19-30 years completed two, 2-day trials in a randomised crossover design. On day 1, participants rested (control) or walked for 60 min at approximately 50 % maximum oxygen uptake (exercise). On day 2, participants rested and consumed two high-fat meals over a 9-h period during which 14 venous blood samples were collected. South Asians exhibited higher postprandial triacylglycerol [geometric mean (95 % confidence interval) 2.29 (1.82 to 2.89) vs. 1.54 (1.21 to 1.96) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], glucose [5.49 (5.21 to 5.79) vs. 5.05 (4.78 to 5.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)], insulin [32.9 (25.7 to 42.1) vs. 18.3 (14.2 to 23.7) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] and interleukin-6 [2.44 (1.61 to 3.67) vs. 1.04 (0.68 to 1.59) pg mL(-1) h(-1)] than Europeans (all ES ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.03). Between-group differences in triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin were not significant after controlling for age and percentage body fat. Walking reduced postprandial triacylglycerol [1.79 (1.52 to 2.12) vs. 1.97 (1.67 to 2.33) mmol L(-1) h(-1)] and insulin [21.0 (17.0 to 26.0) vs. 28.7 (23.2 to 35.4) µU mL(-1) h(-1)] (all ES ≥ 0.23. P ≤ 0.01), but group differences were not significant. Healthy South Asians exhibited impaired postprandial metabolism compared with white Europeans, but these differences were diminished after controlling for potential confounders. The small-moderate reduction in postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin after brisk walking was not different between the ethnicities.

  9. Digital PCR analysis of circulating tumor DNA: a biomarker for chondrosarcoma diagnosis, prognostication, and residual disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteridge, Alice; Rathbone, Victoria M; Gibbons, Rebecca; Bi, Mark; Archard, Nicholas; Davies, Kate E J; Brown, Jake; Plagnol, Vincent; Pillay, Nischalan; Amary, Fernanda; O'Donnell, Paul; Gupta, Manu; Tirabosco, Roberto; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Forshew, Tim

    2017-10-01

    Conventional chondrosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor in adults. Prognosis corresponds with tumor grade but remains variable, especially for individuals with grade (G) II disease. There are currently no biomarkers available for monitoring or prognostication of chondrosarcoma. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has recently emerged as a promising biomarker for a broad range of tumor types. To date, little has been done to study the presence of ctDNA and its potential utility in the management of sarcomas, including chondrosarcoma. In this study, we have assessed ctDNA levels in a cohort of 71 patients, 32 with sarcoma, including 29 individuals with central chondrosarcoma (CS) and 39 with locally aggressive and benign bone and soft tissue tumors, using digital PCR. In patients with CS, ctDNA was detected in pretreatment samples in 14/29 patients, which showed clear correlation with tumor grade as demonstrated by the detection of ctDNA in all patients with GIII and dedifferentiated disease (n = 6) and in 8/17 patients with GII disease, but never associated with GI CS. Notably detection of ctDNA preoperatively in GII disease was associated with a poor outcome. A total of 14 patients with CS had ctDNA levels assessed at multiple time points and in most patients there was a clear reduction following surgical removal. This research lays the foundation for larger studies to assess the utility of ctDNA for chondrosarcoma diagnosis, prognostication, early detection of residual disease and monitoring disease progression. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Residual adrenal function in autoimmune Addison's disease: improvement after tetracosactide (ACTH1-24) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Earn H; MacArthur, Katie; Mitchell, Anna L; Hughes, Beverly A; Perros, Petros; Ball, Stephen G; James, R Andrew; Quinton, Richard; Chen, Shu; Furmaniak, Jadwiga; Arlt, Wiebke; Pearce, Simon H S

    2014-01-01

    Despite lifelong steroid hormone replacement, there is excess morbidity and mortality associated with autoimmune Addison's disease. In health, adrenocortical cells undergo continuous self-renewal from a population of subcapsular progenitor cells, under the influence of ACTH, suggesting a therapeutic possibility. We aimed to determine whether tetracosactide (synthetic ACTH1-24) could revive adrenal steroidogenic function in autoimmune Addison's disease. Thirteen patients (aged 16-65 y) with established autoimmune Addison's disease for more than 1 year were recruited at the Newcastle University Clinical Research Facility. The intervention included a 20-week study of regular sc tetracosactide (ACTH1-24) therapy. Serum and urine corticosteroids were measured during medication withdrawal at baseline and every 5 weeks during the study. Serum cortisol levels remained less than 100 nmol/L in 11 of 13 participants throughout the study. However, two women achieved peak serum cortisol concentrations greater than 400 nmol/L after 10 and 29 weeks of tetracosactide therapy, respectively, allowing withdrawal of corticosteroid replacement. Concurrently, urine glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid metabolite excretion increased from subnormal to above the median of healthy controls. One of these responders remains well with improving peak serum cortisol (672 nmol/L) 28 months after stopping all treatments. The other responder showed a gradual reduction in serum cortisol and aldosterone over time, and steroid therapy was recommenced after a 28-week period without glucocorticoid replacement. This is the first study to demonstrate that established autoimmune Addison's disease is amenable to a regenerative medicine therapy approach.

  11. Flow cytometric minimal residual disease assessment of peripheral blood in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients has potential for early detection of relapsed extramedullary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Alissa; Charest, Karry; Schmidt, Ryan; Briggs, Debra; Deangelo, Daniel J; Li, Betty; Morgan, Elizabeth A; Pozdnyakova, Olga

    2018-03-27

    To evaluate peripheral blood (PB) for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We analysed 76 matched bone marrow (BM) aspirate and PB specimens independently for the presence of ALL MRD by six-colour flow cytometry (FC). The overall rate of BM MRD-positivity was 24% (18/76) and PB was also MRD-positive in 22% (4/18) of BM-positive cases. We identified two cases with evidence of leukaemic cells in PB at the time of the extramedullary relapse that were interpreted as MRD-negative in BM. The use of PB MRD as a non-invasive method for monitoring of systemic relapse may have added clinical and diagnostic value in patients with high risk of extramedullary disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Use of observation followed by outpatient stress testing in chest pain patients with prior coronary artery disease history: An evaluation of prognostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Yasser; Schwartz, Melvin H; Pandey, Prasant S; Abdul Latif, Maida S; Matsumura, Martin E

    2015-06-01

    To determine the outcomes of patients with chest pain (CP) and prior history of coronary artery disease (CAD) managed with observation followed by outpatient stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Retrospective analysis of patients with CP managed with observation followed by outpatient stress MPI, comparing cardiovascular (CV) event rates stratified by CAD history. 375 patients were included: 111 with and 264 without a CAD history. All patients underwent outpatient stress MPI within 72 h of observation. MPI identified patients at risk for CV events. However, while patients with negative MPI and without a CAD history had very low rates of short- and long-term CAD events (0.8%, 0.8%, and 1.3% at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively), event rates of those with a negative test but a CAD history were significantly higher (2.6%, 5.3%, and 6.6% at 30 days, 1 year and 3 years, respectively; p = 0.044 and p = 0.034 compared to CAD- patients at 1 year and 3 years, respectively). In a multivariable logistic regression model, a positive MPI proved to be an independent predictor of long-term CV events in patients with CP and prior CAD. Observation followed by stress MPI can effectively risk stratify CP patients with prior CAD for CV risk. These patients are at increased risk of CV events even after a low-risk stress MPI study. Patients presenting with CP and managed with a strategy of observation followed by a negative stress MPI warrant close short- and long-term monitoring for recurrent events.

  13. Effectiveness of postoperative radiation therapy in stage IB cervical cancer with residual disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.; Perez-Tamayo, C.; Komaki, R.U.; Terada, K.; Roberts, J.A.; Morley, G.W.; Greenberg, M.; Mattingly, R.; Hopkins, M.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with stage IB cervical cancer were treated with radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and pelvic radiation therapy to approximately 5,090 rad. Patients were divided into two groups: group I, nine patients with involved parametria or positive margins at surgery; group II, 12 patients with metastatic pelvic lymph nodes. Patients in group I had an actuarial survival of 40% at 5 years and 20% at 10 years; patients in group II had an actuarial survival of 67% at 5 and 10 years (.01 < P < .05). The overall actuarial survival was 55% at 5 years and 43% at 10 years. Thus, patients with stage IB disease and involved parametrium or surgical margins do poorly. Alternative forms of therapy should be considered when this disease picture is clinically suspected preoperatively

  14. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Nadeem A.; Moinuddin,; Ali, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related dise...

  15. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Residual and recurrent disease after laser surgery. Cervikal intraepitelial neoplasi; Persistens og residiv etter laserbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsmo, S.; Oeian, P.; Stalsberg, H. (University and Regional Hospital, Tromsoe (Norway))

    1992-03-01

    Between 1983 and 1988, 402 women with ages ranging from 18 to 73 years were treated for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using the CO{sub 2}-laser. 89 patients underwent vaporization and 313 conization. Preoperative biopsy examination showed CIN III in 214 patients. Five cases of invasive cancer were diagnosed, either preoperatively after conization or on both occasions. At the first postoperative examination residual disease was found in 21 patients of the vaporization group and in 13 patients of the conization group. Later examinations revealed recurrence in 10 patients in the vaporization group and in 13 patients in the conization group. Median time for recurrence was 11 months. 30 patients were treated twice or more. No case of invasive cancer was diagnosed after treatment. 18 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. DNA Methylation Adds Prognostic Value to Minimal Residual Disease Status in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borssén, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    . In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T......: 29% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Most importantly, CIMP classification at diagnosis allowed subgrouping of high-risk T-ALL patients (MRD ≥0.1% at day 29) into two groups with significant differences in outcome (CIR3y rates: CIMP negative 50% vs. CIMP positive 12%; P = 0.02). These groups did not differ...... regarding ETP phenotype, but the CIMP-negative group was younger (P = 0.02) and had higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P = 0.004) compared with the CIMP-positive group. CONCLUSIONS: CIMP classification at diagnosis in combination with MRD during induction therapy is a strong candidate for further...

  17. PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE (MEN AND WOMEN PRIOR TO CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING DEPENDING ON THEIR INVOLVEMENT IN THE INDIVIDUAL PSYCHO-CORRECTION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Starunskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. The study of psychological characteristics of patients is important for the creation and planning of psychological correction and improve the efficiency of the treatment of coronary heart disease.Тhe purpose. This research is devoted to the study of the psychological features in patients with coronary artery disease (CHD in the preoperative period, depending on their involvement in psycho-correction program.Material and methods. We observed 30 patients with coronary heart disease before coronary bypass surgery. Clinical-psychological method (observation, conversation and psychological testing were used.Results  and conclusions. We found that patients who participated in psycho-correction program had lower values of «anxiety», «phobic anxiety» and «obsessive-compulsive» symptoms. In both groups of patients, on average, we identified the prevalence  of the coping-strategies «self-control» and «planning solution». Furthermore, on average, the «self-awareness» and «extraversion» were more manifested features in the structure of the personality traits of the surveyed patients. The revealed features should be taken into account in planning the programs of psycho-correction for patients with CHD prior to CABG surgery.

  18. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Sabina; Frick, Petra; Bertsch, Uwe; Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Gerda; Mielke, Janina; Maringer, Marko; Piening, Niklas; Hepp, Alexander; Daude, Nathalie; Windl, Otto; Levin, Johannes; Giese, Armin; Sakthivelu, Vignesh; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans; Westaway, David

    2017-01-01

    Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G) at levels comparable to wild-type (wt) controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G) mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G) mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G) mice), were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  19. Low Residual CBF Variability in Alzheimer's Disease after Correction for CO(2) Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders Bertil; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested the claim that inter-individual CBF variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is substantially reduced after correction for arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Specifically, we tested whether the variability of CBF in brain of patients with AD differed significantly from brain of age...... for the differences of CO(2) tension, the patients with AD lost the inter-individual CBF variability that continued to characterize the HC subjects. The difference (¿K(1)) between the blood-brain clearances (K(1)) of water (the current measure of CBF) and oxygen (the current measure of oxygen clearance) was reduced......-matched healthy control subjects (HC). To eliminate the CO(2)-induced variability, we developed a novel and generally applicable approach to the correction of CBF for changes of PaCO(2) and applied the method to positron emission tomographic (PET) measures of CBF in AD and HC groups of subjects. After correction...

  20. Expression of the C- KIT Molecule in Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Implications of the Immuno phenotypes CD117 and CD15 in the Detection of Minimal Residual Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S.

    2001-01-01

    Study of the c-kit proto-oncogene (CD117) may be of help for the identification of phenotypic profiles that are absent or present at very low frequencies on normal human blast cells and therefore might be of great value for the detection of leukemic cells displaying such immuno phenotypes in patients in complete remission. Design and methods: Ninety patients with acute myeloid leukemias, diagnosed according to FAB criteria and immunological marker studies, were studied for the dual expression on blast cells of the CD117/CD15 immuno phenotype co expression by direct immunofluorescence assay using dual staining combination flow cytometry. Results: In 69/90 acute myeloid leukemia patients analyzed (77%), blast cells expressed the CD117 antigen. Moreover, in 38 of them (42% of acute myeloid leukemia cases), leukemic blasts co expressed the CD117 and CD15 antigens. There was no significant correlation between the FAB classification and the CD117 and CD15 expression in acute myeloid leukemia cases. Conclusions: These results suggest that immunological methods for the detection of MRD based on the existence of aberrant phenotypes could be used in the majority of AML patients. This phenotype CD117/CD15, present in acute myeloid leukemia cases at a relatively high frequency (42%), represents an aberrant phenotype, because it was not detected on normal human blast cells, suggesting that the use of these combinations of monoclonal antibodies could be of help in detecting residual leukemic blasts among normal blast cells. The use of the CD117 antigen in different monoclonal antibodies combinations may be of great help for the detection of minimal residual disease in a high proportion of acute myeloid leukemia cases, especially in those patients displaying the CD117+/CD15+ immuno phenotype, because cells co expressing both antigens in normal blasts, if present, are at very low frequencies. The simultaneous assessment of two or more markers in single cells has facilitated the

  1. Minimal Residual Disease Detection and Evolved IGH Clones Analysis in Acute B Lymphoblastic Leukemia Using IGH Deep Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinghua; Jia, Shan; Wang, Changxi; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Sixi; Zeng, Xiaojing; Mai, Huirong; Yuan, Xiuli; Du, Yuanping; Wang, Xiaodong; Hong, Xueyu; Li, Xuemei; Wen, Feiqiu; Xu, Xun; Pan, Jianhua; Li, Changgang; Liu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Acute B lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is one of the most common types of childhood cancer worldwide and chemotherapy is the main treatment approach. Despite good response rates to chemotherapy regiments, many patients eventually relapse and minimal residual disease (MRD) is the leading risk factor for relapse. The evolution of leukemic clones during disease development and treatment may have clinical significance. In this study, we performed immunoglobulin heavy chain ( IGH ) repertoire high throughput sequencing (HTS) on the diagnostic and post-treatment samples of 51 pediatric B-ALL patients. We identified leukemic IGH clones in 92.2% of the diagnostic samples and nearly half of the patients were polyclonal. About one-third of the leukemic clones have correct open reading frame in the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of IGH , which demonstrates that the leukemic B cells were in the early developmental stage. We also demonstrated the higher sensitivity of HTS in MRD detection and investigated the clinical value of using peripheral blood in MRD detection and monitoring the clonal IGH evolution. In addition, we found leukemic clones were extensively undergoing continuous clonal IGH evolution by variable gene replacement. Dynamic frequency change and newly emerged evolved IGH clones were identified upon the pressure of chemotherapy. In summary, we confirmed the high sensitivity and universal applicability of HTS in MRD detection. We also reported the ubiquitous evolved IGH clones in B-ALL samples and their response to chemotherapy during treatment.

  2. Pre- and post-transplant minimal residual disease predicts relapse occurrence in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovisa, Federica; Zecca, Marco; Rossi, Bartolomeo; Campeggio, Mimma; Magrin, Elisa; Giarin, Emanuela; Buldini, Barbara; Songia, Simona; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Mina, Tommaso; Acquafredda, Gloria; Quarello, Paola; Locatelli, Franco; Fagioli, Franca; Basso, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Relapse remains the leading cause of treatment failure in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We retrospectively investigated the prognostic role of minimal residual disease (MRD) before and after HSCT in 119 children transplanted in complete remission (CR). MRD was measured by polymerase chain reaction in bone marrow samples collected pre-HSCT and during the first and third trimesters after HSCT (post-HSCT1 and post-HSCT3). The overall event-free survival (EFS) was 50%. The cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality was 41% and 9%. Any degree of detectable pre-HSCT MRD was associated with poor outcome: EFS was 39% and 18% in patients with MRD positivity <1 × 10 -3 and ≥1 × 10 -3 , respectively, versus 73% in MRD-negative patients (P < 0·001). This effect was maintained in different disease remissions, but low-level MRD had a very strong negative impact only in patients transplanted in second or further CR. Also, MRD after HSCT enabled patients to be stratified, with increasing MRD between post-HSCT1 and post-HSCT3 clearly defining cohorts with a different outcome. MRD is an important prognostic factor both before and after transplantation. Given that MRD persistence after HSCT is associated with dismal outcome, these patients could benefit from early discontinuation of immunosuppression, or pre-emptive immuno-therapy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Impact of Preradiation Residual Disease Volume on Time to Locoregional Failure in Cutaneous Merkel Cell Carcinoma—A TROG Substudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnigan, Renee [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Hruby, George [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sydney Cancer Centre, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle (Australia); Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Dickie, Graeme [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Rischin, Danny [Department of Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Poulsen, Michael, E-mail: michael_poulsen@health.qld.gov.au [Division of Cancer Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the impact of margin status and gross residual disease in patients treated with chemoradiation therapy for high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell cancer (MCC). Methods and Materials: Data were pooled from 3 prospective trials in which patients were treated with 50 Gy in 25 fractions to the primary lesion and draining lymph nodes and 2 schedules of carboplatin based chemotherapy. Time to locoregional failure was analyzed according to the burden of disease at the time of radiation therapy, comparing patients with negative margins, involved margins, or macroscopic disease. Results: Analysis was performed on 88 patients, of whom 9 had microscopically positive resection margins and 26 had macroscopic residual disease. The majority of gross disease was confined to nodal regions. The 5-year time to locoregional failure, time to distant failure, time to progression, and disease-specific survival rates for the whole group were 73%, 69%, 62%, and 66% respectively. The hazard ratio for macroscopic disease at the primary site or the nodes was 1.25 (95% confidence interval 0.57-2.77), P=.58. Conclusions: No statistically significant differences in time to locoregional failure were identified between patients with negative margins and those with microscopic or gross residual disease. These results must, however, be interpreted with caution because of the limited sample size.

  4. Residual disease and HPV persistence after cryotherapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 in HIV-positive women in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo De Vuyst

    Full Text Available To assess residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3 disease and clearance of high-risk (hr human papillomavirus (HPV infections at 6 months after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women.Follow-up study.79 HIV-positive women received cryotherapy for CIN2/3 in Nairobi, Kenya, and underwent conventional cytology 6 months later. Biopsies were performed on high grade cytological lesions and hrHPV was assessed before (cervical cells and biopsy and after cryotherapy (cells.At 6 months after cryotherapy CIN2/3 had been eliminated in 61 women (77.2%; 95% Confidence Interval, (CI: 66.4-85.9. 18 women (22.8% had residual CIN2/3, and all these women had hrHPV at baseline. CD4 count and duration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART were not associated with residual CIN2/3. CIN3 instead of CIN2 was the only significant risk factor for residual disease (odds ratio, OR vs CIN2 = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.2-15.0 among hrHPV-positive women after adjustment for age and HPV16 infection. Persistence of hrHPV types previously detected in biopsies was found in 77.5% of women and was associated with residual CIN2/3 (OR = 8.1, 95% CI: 0.9-70. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of hrHPV test in detecting residual CIN2/3 were 0.94, 0.36, and 0.96 respectively.Nearly one quarter of HIV-positive women had residual CIN2/3 disease at 6 months after cryotherapy, and the majority had persistent hrHPV. CD4 count and cART use were not associated with residual disease or hrHPV persistence. The value of hrHPV testing in the detection of residual CIN2/3 was hampered by a low specificity.

  5. Residual Disease and HPV Persistence after Cryotherapy for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2/3 in HIV-Positive Women in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Hugo; Mugo, Nelly R.; Franceschi, Silvia; McKenzie, Kevin; Tenet, Vanessa; Njoroge, Julia; Rana, Farzana S.; Sakr, Samah R.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Chung, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 disease and clearance of high-risk (hr) human papillomavirus (HPV) infections at 6 months after cryotherapy among HIV-positive women. Design Follow-up study. Methods 79 HIV-positive women received cryotherapy for CIN2/3 in Nairobi, Kenya, and underwent conventional cytology 6 months later. Biopsies were performed on high grade cytological lesions and hrHPV was assessed before (cervical cells and biopsy) and after cryotherapy (cells). Results At 6 months after cryotherapy CIN2/3 had been eliminated in 61 women (77.2%; 95% Confidence Interval, (CI): 66.4–85.9). 18 women (22.8%) had residual CIN2/3, and all these women had hrHPV at baseline. CD4 count and duration of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were not associated with residual CIN2/3. CIN3 instead of CIN2 was the only significant risk factor for residual disease (odds ratio, OR vs CIN2 = 4.3; 95% CI: 1.2–15.0) among hrHPV-positive women after adjustment for age and HPV16 infection. Persistence of hrHPV types previously detected in biopsies was found in 77.5% of women and was associated with residual CIN2/3 (OR = 8.1, 95% CI: 0.9–70). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of hrHPV test in detecting residual CIN2/3 were 0.94, 0.36, and 0.96 respectively. Conclusions Nearly one quarter of HIV-positive women had residual CIN2/3 disease at 6 months after cryotherapy, and the majority had persistent hrHPV. CD4 count and cART use were not associated with residual disease or hrHPV persistence. The value of hrHPV testing in the detection of residual CIN2/3 was hampered by a low specificity. PMID:25343563

  6. Prolonged persistence of PCR-detectable minimal residual disease after diagnosis or first relapse predicts poor outcome in childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, E. J.; Verhagen, O. J.; van Leeuwen, E. F.; van den Berg, H.; Behrendt, H.; Slater, R. M.; von dem Borne, A. E.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The follow up of minimal residual disease (MRD) in childhood B-precursor ALL by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be of help for further stratification of treatment protocols, to improve outcome. However, the clinical relevance of this approach has yet to be defined. We report the retrospective

  7. Control of spread of Augusta disease caused by tobacco necrosis virus in tulip by composting residual waste of small bulbs, tunics, roots and soil debris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, C.J.; Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the elimination of the infectious virus/fungus complex of tobacco necrosis virus (TNV; cause of Augusta disease in tulip) and Olpidium brassicae in different soil types and residual waste material of soil debris, small tulip bulbs, roots and tunics by temperature treatments of

  8. Immunoglobulin kappa deleting element rearrangements in precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia are stable targets for detection of minimal residual disease by real-time quantitative PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, V. H. J.; Willemse, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Hählen, K.; van Wering, E. R.; van Dongen, J. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangements are used as PCR targets for detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We Investigated the occurrence of monoclonal immunoglobulin kappa-deleting element (IGK-Kde) rearrangements by Southern blotting and PCR/heteroduplex

  9. Diagnostic and prognostic value of a careful symptom evaluation and high sensitive troponin in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris without prior cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Debbie Maria; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Hosbond, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    -TnI in stable chest pain patients without prior cardiovascular disease. METHODS: During a one-year period, 487 patients with suspected stable AP underwent invasive or CT-coronary angiography (significant stenosis ≥50%). At study inclusion, a careful symptom evaluation was obtained, and patients were classified...... as having typical AP, atypical AP, or non-cardiac chest pain. Hs-TnI was measured in all patients and divided into tertiles for analysis. Follow-up was a median of 4.9 years with cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable AP, ischemic stroke, coronary.......07-5.79; p 12-2.01; p = 0.007) and experiencing future CVE (typical AP, HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.74-3.99; p = 0.001, hs-TnI, HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06-1.49; p = 0.008). Patients in the lowest hs-TnI tertile, without typical AP (n = 107) had a 1.9% absolute risk of significant...

  10. The Use of Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists for Correction of Thrombocytopenia prior to Elective Procedures in Chronic Liver Diseases: Review of Current Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD undergo a range of invasive procedures during their clinical lifetime. Various hemostatic abnormalities are frequently identified during the periprocedural work-up; including thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia of cirrhosis is multifactorial in origin, and decreased activity of thrombopoietin has been identified to be a major cause. Liver is an important site of thrombopoietin production and its levels are decreased in patients with cirrhosis. Severe thrombocytopenia (platelet counts < 60–75,000/µL is associated with increased risk of bleeding with invasive procedures. In recent years, compounds with thrombopoietin receptor agonist activity have been studied as therapeutic options to raise platelet counts in CLD. We reviewed the use of Eltrombopag, Romiplostim, and Avatrombopag prior to various invasive procedures in patients with CLD. These agents seem promising in raising platelet counts before elective procedures resulting in reduction in platelet transfusions, and they also enabled more patients to undergo the procedures. However, these studies were not primarily aimed at comparing bleeding episodes among groups. Use of these agents had some adverse consequences, importantly being the occurrence of portal vein thrombosis. This review highlights the need of further studies to identify reliable methods of safely reducing the provoked bleeding risk linked to thrombocytopenia in CLD.

  11. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Prevalent in Women With Prior Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Independently Associated With Insulin Resistance and Waist Circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Andreasen, Camilla; Vedtofte, Louise

    2017-01-01

    , insulin resistance (P = 0.0057) and waist circumference (P = 0.0109) were independently associated with NAFLD. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was prevalent in this cohort of relatively young and nonseverely obese women with pGDM who are considered healthy apart from their increased risk for diabetes. Insulin......OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a potentially reversible condition but is also associated with progressive fibrosis and cirrhosis. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) have a higher risk for NAFLD. RESEARCH DESIGN...... AND METHODS: One hundred women without diabetes who had pGDM (median [interquartile range]: age 38.6 [6.4] years; BMI 31.0 [6.2] kg/m(2)) and 11 healthy control subjects without NAFLD (age 37.9 [7.8] years; BMI 28.1 [0.8] kg/m(2)) underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), DXA whole-body scan...

  12. Comparative analysis of minimal residual disease detection by multiparameter flow cytometry and enhanced ASO RQ-PCR in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, R; Lundan, T; Kairisto, V; Pelliniemi, T-T; Putkonen, M; Anttila, P; Huotari, V; Mäntymaa, P; Siitonen, S; Uotila, L; Penttilä, T-L; Juvonen, V; Selander, T; Remes, K

    2014-01-01

    Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative PCR (ASO RQ-PCR) are the two most sensitive methods to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in multiple myeloma (MM). We compared these methods in 129 paired post-therapy samples from 22 unselected, consecutive MM patients in complete/near complete remission. Appropriate immunophenotypic and ASO RQ-PCR-MRD targets could be detected and MRD analyses constructed for all patients. The high PCR coverage could be achieved by gradual widening of the primer sets used for clonality detection. In addition, for 13 (55%) of the patients, reverse orientation of the ASO primer and individual design of the TaqMan probe improved the sensitivity and specificity of ASO RQ-PCR analysis. A significant nonlinear correlation prevailed between MFC-MRD and PCR-MRD when both were positive. Discordance between the methods was found in 32 (35%) paired samples, which were negative by MFC-MRD, but positive by ASO RQ-PCR. The findings suggest that with the described technique, ASO RQ-PCR can be constructed for all patients with MM. ASO RQ-PCR is slightly more sensitive in MRD detection than 6−10-color flow cytometry. Owing to technical demands ASO RQ-PCR could be reserved for patients in immunophenotypic remission, especially in efficacy comparisons between different drugs and treatment modalities

  13. Interplay of histidine residues of the Alzheimer’s disease Aβ peptide governs its Zn-induced oligomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, Andrey N.; Kozin, Sergey A.; Zhokhov, Sergey S.; Mantsyzov, Alexey B.; Kechko, Olga I.; Pastore, Annalisa; Makarov, Alexander A.; Polshakov, Vladimir I.

    2016-02-01

    Conformational changes of Aβ peptide result in its transformation from native monomeric state to the toxic soluble dimers, oligomers and insoluble aggregates that are hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interactions of zinc ions with Aβ are mediated by the N-terminal Aβ1-16 domain and appear to play a key role in AD progression. There is a range of results indicating that these interactions trigger the Aβ plaque formation. We have determined structure and functional characteristics of the metal binding domains derived from several Aβ variants and found that their zinc-induced oligomerization is governed by conformational changes in the minimal zinc binding site 6HDSGYEVHH14. The residue H6 and segment 11EVHH14, which are part of this site are crucial for formation of the two zinc-mediated interaction interfaces in Aβ. These structural determinants can be considered as promising targets for rational design of the AD-modifying drugs aimed at blocking pathological Aβ aggregation.

  14. Role of CD81 and CD58 in minimal residual disease detection in pediatric B lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsikov, E; Harris, M H; Silverman, L B; Sallan, S E; Weinberg, O K

    2018-06-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) in B lymphoblastic leukemia has been demonstrated to be a powerful predictor of clinical outcome in numerous studies in both children and adults. In this study, we evaluated 86 pediatric patients with both diagnostic and remission flow cytometry studies and compared expression of CD81, CD58, CD19, CD34, CD20, and CD38 in the detection of MRD. We evaluated 86 patients with B lymphoblastic leukemia who had both diagnostic studies and remission studies for the presence of MRD using multicolor flow cytometry. We established our detection limit for identifying abnormal lymphoblasts using serial dilutions. We also compared flow cytometry findings with molecular MRD detection in a subset of patients. We found that we can resolve differences between hematogones and lymphoblasts in 85 of 86 cases using a combination of CD45, CD19, CD34, CD10, CD20, CD38, CD58, and CD81. Our detection limit using flow cytometry is 0.002% for detecting a population of abnormal B lymphoblasts. Comparison with MRD assessment by molecular methods showed a high concordance rate with flow cytometry findings. Our study highlights importance of using multiple markers to detect MRD in B lymphoblastic leukemia. Our findings indicate that including both CD58 and CD81 markers in addition to CD19, CD34, CD20, CD38, and CD10 are helpful in MRD detection by flow cytometry. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Flow cytometric minimal residual disease monitoring in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by regimens with reduced intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 191 consecutive unselected children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged from 1 to 16 years were enrolled in the study. Bone marrow samples were obtained at the time of initial diagnostics as well as at days 15 (n = 188, 36 (n = 191, and 85 (n = 187 of remission induction. Minimal residual disease (MRD was assessed by 6–10-color flow cytometry. Flow cytometry data at day 15 allowed distinguishing three patients groups with significantly different outcome (p ˂ 0.0001: 35.64 % patients with MRD < 0.1 % represented 5-year event-free survival (EFS of 100 %; 48.40 % cases with 0.1 % ≤ MRD< 10 % had EFS 84.6 ± 4.2 %; 15.96 % patients with very high MRD (≥ 10 % belonged to group with poor outcome (EFS 56.7 ± 9.0 %. At the end of remission induction (day 36 36 children (18.85 % with MRD higher than 0.1 % had significantly worse outcome compared to remaining ones (EFS 49.4 ± 9.0 and 93.5 ± 2.1 % respectively; p ˂ 0.0001. From a clinical standpoint it is relevant to evaluate both low-risk and high-risk criteria. Multivariate analysis showed that day 15 MRD data is better for low-risk patients definition while end-induction MRD is the strongest unfavorable prognostic factor.

  16. Precise quantification of minimal residual disease at day 29 allows identification of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and an excellent outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvold, Charlotte; Madsen, Hans O; Ryder, Lars P

    2002-01-01

    The postinduction level of minimal residual disease (MRD) was quantified with a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in 104 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed between June 1993 and January 1998 and followed for a median of 4.2 years. A significant correlat......The postinduction level of minimal residual disease (MRD) was quantified with a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique in 104 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) diagnosed between June 1993 and January 1998 and followed for a median of 4.2 years. A significant......-free survival for patients with higher MRD levels was 0.52 (P =.0007). The group of patients with a D29 MRD less than 0.01% included patients with T-cell disease, white blood cell count more than 50 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis, or age 10 years or older, and could not be identified by up-front criteria. The best...

  17. Favorable Local Control From Consolidative Radiation Therapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Despite Gross Residual Disease, Positive Margins, or Nodal Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Matthew J., E-mail: mjferri@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Danish, Hasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Switchenko, Jeffrey M. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Deng, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); George, Bradley A.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Wasilewski, Karen J.; Cash, W. Thomas [Aflac Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Khan, Mohammad K.; Eaton, Bree R.; Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To report the influence of radiation therapy (RT) dose and surgical pathology variables on disease control and overall survival (OS) in patients treated for high-risk neuroblastoma at a single institution. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective study of 67 high-risk neuroblastoma patients who received RT as part of definitive management from January 2003 until May 2014. Results: At a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 26 patients (38.8%) failed distantly; 4 of these patients also failed locally. One patient progressed locally without distant failure. Local control was 92.5%, and total disease control was 59.5%. No benefit was demonstrated for RT doses over 21.6 Gy with respect to local relapse–free survival (P=.55), disease-free survival (P=.22), or OS (P=.72). With respect to local relapse–free survival, disease-free survival, and OS, no disadvantage was seen for positive lymph nodes on surgical pathology, positive surgical margins, or gross residual disease. Of the patients with gross residual disease, 75% (6 of 8) went on to have no evidence of disease at time of last follow-up, and the 2 patients who failed did so distantly. Conclusions: Patients with high-risk neuroblastoma in this series maintained excellent local control, with no benefit demonstrated for radiation doses over 21.6 Gy, and no disadvantage demonstrated for gross residual disease after surgery, positive surgical margins, or pathologic lymph node positivity. Though the limitations of a retrospective review for an uncommon disease must be kept in mind, with small numbers in some of the subgroups, it seems that dose escalation should be considered only in exceptional circumstances.

  18. Analysis of Margin Index as a Method for Predicting Residual Disease After Breast-Conserving Surgery in a European Cancer Center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2011-06-03

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) × 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  19. Analysis of margin index as a method for predicting residual disease after breast-conserving surgery in a European cancer center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bolger, Jarlath C

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS), followed by appropriate adjuvant therapies is established as a standard treatment option for women with early-stage invasive breast cancers. A number of factors have been shown to correlate with local and regional disease recurrence. Although margin status is a strong predictor of disease recurrence, consensus is yet to be established on the optimum margin necessary. Margenthaler et al. recently proposed the use of a "margin index," combining tumor size and margin status as a predictor of residual disease after BCS. We applied this new predictive tool to a population of patients with primary breast cancer who presented to a symptomatic breast unit to determine its suitability in predicting those who require reexcision surgery. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of our breast cancer database from January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2010 was performed, including all patients who underwent BCS. Of 531 patients who underwent BCS, 27.1% (144\\/531) required further reexcision procedures, and 55 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Margin index was calculated as: margin index = closest margin (mm)\\/tumor size (mm) x 100, with index >5 considered optimum. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients included, 31% (17\\/55) had residual disease. Fisher\\'s exact test showed margin index not to be a significant predictor of residual disease on reexcision specimen (P = 0.57). Of note, a significantly higher proportion of our patients presented with T2\\/3 tumors (60% vs. 38%). CONCLUSIONS: Although an apparently elegant tool for predicting residual disease after BCS, we have shown that it is not applicable to a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland.

  20. Anti myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein associated immunoglobulin G (AntiMOG-IgG-associated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder with persistent disease activity and residual cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha Pandit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies targeting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG have been recently reported in association with idiopathic inflammatory central nervous system disorders. Initially believed to be a benign disorder, anti MOG-IgG was noted to cause steroid responsive recurrent optic neuritis and isolated longitudinally extensive myelitis. However, there is growing evidence that the disease may be predominantly relapsing, often producing severe visual loss and involving regions other than the spinal cord and optic nerve. We report an adolescent male with an aggressive disease course previously undescribed in anti MOG-IgG-associated disease that left him with residual cognitive dysfunction.

  1. Maximal COX-2 and ppRb expression in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arendt Thomas

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neuronal expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and cell cycle proteins is suggested to contribute to neurodegeneration during Alzheimer's disease (AD. The stimulus that induces COX-2 and cell cycle protein expression in AD is still elusive. Activated glia cells are shown to secrete substances that can induce expression of COX-2 and cell cycle proteins in vitro. Using post mortem brain tissue we have investigated whether activation of microglia and astrocytes in AD brain can be correlated with the expression of COX-2 and phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (ppRb. The highest levels of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity are observed in the first stages of AD pathology (Braak 0–II, Braak A. No significant difference in COX-2 or ppRb neuronal immunoreactivity is observed between Braak stage 0 and later Braak stages for neurofibrillary changes or amyloid plaques. The mean number of COX-2 or ppRb immunoreactive neurons is significantly decreased in Braak stage C compared to Braak stage A for amyloid deposits. Immunoreactivity for glial markers KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP appears in the later Braak stages and is significantly increased in Braak stage V-VI compared to Braak stage 0 for neurofibrillary changes. In addition, a significant negative correlation is observed between the presence of KP1, CR3/43 and GFAP immunoreactivity and the presence of neuronal immunoreactivity for COX-2 and ppRb. These data show that maximal COX-2 and ppRb immunoreactivity in neurons occurs during early Braak stages prior to the maximal activation of astrocytes and microglia. In contrast to in vitro studies, post mortem data do not support a causal relation between the activation of microglia and astrocytes and the expression of neuronal COX-2 and ppRb in the pathological cascade of AD.

  2. DNA Methylation Adds Prognostic Value to Minimal Residual Disease Status in Pediatric T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borssén, Magnus; Haider, Zahra; Landfors, Mattias; Norén-Nyström, Ulrika; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Åsberg, Ann E; Kanerva, Jukka; Madsen, Hans O; Marquart, Hanne; Heyman, Mats; Hultdin, Magnus; Roos, Göran; Forestier, Erik; Degerman, Sofie

    2016-07-01

    Despite increased knowledge about genetic aberrations in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), no clinically feasible treatment-stratifying marker exists at diagnosis. Instead patients are enrolled in intensive induction therapies with substantial side effects. In modern protocols, therapy response is monitored by minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis and used for postinduction risk group stratification. DNA methylation profiling is a candidate for subtype discrimination at diagnosis and we investigated its role as a prognostic marker in pediatric T-ALL. Sixty-five diagnostic T-ALL samples from Nordic pediatric patients treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL 2008 (NOPHO ALL 2008) protocol were analyzed by HumMeth450K genome wide DNA methylation arrays. Methylation status was analyzed in relation to clinical data and early T-cell precursor (ETP) phenotype. Two distinct CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) groups were identified. Patients with a CIMP-negative profile had an inferior response to treatment compared to CIMP-positive patients (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR3y ) rate: 29% vs. 6%, P = 0.01). Most importantly, CIMP classification at diagnosis allowed subgrouping of high-risk T-ALL patients (MRD ≥0.1% at day 29) into two groups with significant differences in outcome (CIR3y rates: CIMP negative 50% vs. CIMP positive 12%; P = 0.02). These groups did not differ regarding ETP phenotype, but the CIMP-negative group was younger (P = 0.02) and had higher white blood cell count at diagnosis (P = 0.004) compared with the CIMP-positive group. CIMP classification at diagnosis in combination with MRD during induction therapy is a strong candidate for further risk classification and could confer important information in treatment decision making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Droplet Digital PCR for BCR/ABL(P210) Detecting of CML: A High Sensitive Method of the Minimal Residual Disease& Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Jun; Zheng, Chao-Feng; Liu, Zhuang; Tan, Yan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Bin-Liang; Li, Guo-Xia; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Ren, Fang-Gang; Zhang, Yao-Fang; Chang, Jian-Mei; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2018-04-25

    The present study intended to establish a droplet digital PCR (dd-PCR) for monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with BCR/ABL (P210)-positive CML, thereby achieving deep-level monitoring of tumor load and determining the efficacy for guided clinically individualized treatment. Using dd-PCR and RT-qPCR, two cell suspensions were obtained from K562 cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells by gradient dilution and were measured at the cellular level. At peripheral blood(PB) level, 61 cases with CML-chronic phase (CML-CP) were obtained after tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment and regular follow-ups. By RT-qPCR, BCR/ABL (P210) fusion gene was undetectable in PB after three successive analyses, which were performed once every three months. At the same time, dd-PCR was performed simultaneously with the last equal amount of cDNA. Ten CML patients with MR4.5 were followed up by the two methods. At the cellular level, consistency of results of dd-PCR and RT-qPCR reached R 2 ≥0.99, with conversion equation of Y=33.148X 1.222 (Y: dd-PCR results; X: RT-qPCR results). In the dd-PCR test, 11 of the 61 CML patients (18.03%) tested positive and showed statistically significant difference (PPCR 3 months earlier than by RT-qPCR. In contrast with RT-qPCR, dd-PCR is more sensitive, thus enabling accurate conversion of dd-PCR results into internationally standard RT-qPCR results by conversion equation, to achieve a deeper molecular biology-based stratification of BCR/ABL(P210) MRD. It has some reference value to monitor disease progression in clinic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery or chemotherapy in mice carrying HPV16-associated tumours: cytokine and gene therapy with IL-2 and GM-CSF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikyšková, Romana; Indrová, Marie; Šímová, Jana; Jandlová, Táňa; Bieblová, Jana; Jinoch, P.; Bubeník, Jan; Vonka, V.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2004), s. 161-167 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA MZd NC7148; GA MZd NC7552; GA ČR GA301/01/0985 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HPV16 * gene therapy * minimal residual tumour disease Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.056, year: 2004

  5. Genetically modified cellular vaccines against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-associated tumors: adjuvant treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery/chemotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2009), s. 169-173 ISSN 1107-0625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/06/0774; GA ČR GA301/07/1410 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : residual tumour disease * HPV16 * cellular vaccines Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2009

  6. NF-κB-Activating Complex Engaged in Response to EGFR Oncogene Inhibition Drives Tumor Cell Survival and Residual Disease in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin M. Blakely

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oncogene-targeted therapy often elicits profound initial tumor responses in patients, responses are generally incomplete because some tumor cells survive initial therapy as residual disease that enables eventual acquired resistance. The mechanisms underlying tumor cell adaptation and survival during initial therapy are incompletely understood. Here, through the study of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinoma, we show that NF-κB signaling is rapidly engaged upon initial EGFR inhibitor treatment to promote tumor cell survival and residual disease. EGFR oncogene inhibition induced an EGFR-TRAF2-RIP1-IKK complex that stimulated an NF-κB-mediated transcriptional survival program. The direct NF-κB inhibitor PBS-1086 suppressed this adaptive survival program and increased the magnitude and duration of initial EGFR inhibitor response in multiple NSCLC models, including a patient-derived xenograft. These findings unveil NF-κB activation as a critical adaptive survival mechanism engaged by EGFR oncogene inhibition and provide rationale for EGFR and NF-κB co-inhibition to eliminate residual disease and enhance patient responses.

  7. Disappearance of Ph1 chromosome with intensive chemotherapy and detection of minimal residual disease by polymerase chain reaction in a patient with blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Miyagawa, K; Endo, M; Takaku, F; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1993-06-01

    We diagnosed a patient with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) on the basis of clinical findings, Ph1 chromosome detected by cytogenetic analysis, and bcr-abl fusion mRNA detected by reverse transcriptase-dependent polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). One month after diagnosis, the patient developed extramedullary blast crisis in the lymph nodes, and then medullary blast crisis in the bone marrow, in which different surface markers were shown. Combination chemotherapy with BH-AC, VP16, and mitoxantrone was administered; this resulted in rapid disappearance of the lymphadenopathy, restoration of normal hematopoiesis, and no Ph1 chromosome being detected by cytogenetic analysis. RT-PCR performed to detect the residual Ph1 clone revealed that although the Ph1 clone was preferentially suppressed, it was still residual. The intensive chemotherapy regimen preferentially suppressed the Ph1-positive clone and led to both clinical and cytogenetic remission in this patient with BC of CML; we suggest that RT-PCR is a sensitive and useful method for detecting minimal residual disease during the clinical course of this disease.

  8. Locally advanced breast cancer: comparison of mammography, sonography and MR imaging in evaluation of residual disease in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londero, Viviana; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Del Frate, Chiara; Francescutti, Giuliana; Zuiani, Chiara; Puglisi, Fabio; Di Loreto, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated and imaging findings are correlated with pathologic findings. Fifteen patients enrolled in an experimental protocol of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent clinical examination, mammography, sonography and dynamic MRI, performed in this order, before and respectively after 2 and 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four radiologists, two for mammography, one for sonography and one for MR, examined the images, blinded to the results of the other examinations. All patients underwent radical or conservative surgery, and imaging findings were compared with pathologic findings. MRI identified 2/15 (13.3.%) clinically complete response (CR), 9/15 (60%) partial response (PR), 3/15 (20%) stable disease (SD) and 1/15 (6.7%) progressive disease. Mammography identified 1/15 (6.7%) clinically CR, 8/15 (53.3%) PR and 4/15 (27%) SD, and was not able to evaluate the disease in 2/15 (13%) cases. Sonography presented the same results as MRI. Therefore, MRI and sonography compared to mammography correctly identified residual disease in 100 vs. 86%. MRI resulted in two false-negative results because of the presence of microfoci of in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (LCI). MRI was superior to mammography in cases of multifocal or multicentric disease (83 vs. 33%). Sonography performed after MRI improves the accuracy in evaluation of uncertain foci of multifocal disease seen on MR images with an increase of diagnostic accuracy from 73 to 84.5%. MRI assesses response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy better than traditional methods of physical examination and mammography. (orig.)

  9. Locally advanced breast cancer: comparison of mammography, sonography and MR imaging in evaluation of residual disease in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londero, Viviana; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Del Frate, Chiara; Francescutti, Giuliana; Zuiani, Chiara [Institute of Radiology, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100, Udine (Italy); Puglisi, Fabio [Department of Oncology, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100, Udine (Italy); Di Loreto, Carla [Institute of Pathology, University of Udine, via Colugna 50, 33100, Udine (Italy)

    2004-08-01

    The accuracy of mammography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying residual disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is evaluated and imaging findings are correlated with pathologic findings. Fifteen patients enrolled in an experimental protocol of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy underwent clinical examination, mammography, sonography and dynamic MRI, performed in this order, before and respectively after 2 and 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Four radiologists, two for mammography, one for sonography and one for MR, examined the images, blinded to the results of the other examinations. All patients underwent radical or conservative surgery, and imaging findings were compared with pathologic findings. MRI identified 2/15 (13.3.%) clinically complete response (CR), 9/15 (60%) partial response (PR), 3/15 (20%) stable disease (SD) and 1/15 (6.7%) progressive disease. Mammography identified 1/15 (6.7%) clinically CR, 8/15 (53.3%) PR and 4/15 (27%) SD, and was not able to evaluate the disease in 2/15 (13%) cases. Sonography presented the same results as MRI. Therefore, MRI and sonography compared to mammography correctly identified residual disease in 100 vs. 86%. MRI resulted in two false-negative results because of the presence of microfoci of in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) and invasive lobular carcinoma (LCI). MRI was superior to mammography in cases of multifocal or multicentric disease (83 vs. 33%). Sonography performed after MRI improves the accuracy in evaluation of uncertain foci of multifocal disease seen on MR images with an increase of diagnostic accuracy from 73 to 84.5%. MRI assesses response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy better than traditional methods of physical examination and mammography. (orig.)

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for automatic detection of foci @]@of residual or recurrent disease after prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, N.A.; Orman, Amber; Abramowitz, Matthew; Pollack, Alan; Stoyanova, Radka [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); Padgett, Kyle [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Miami, FL (United States); University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Casillas, Victor [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Punnen, Sanoj [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This study aimed to develop an automated procedure for identifying suspicious foci of residual/recurrent disease in the prostate bed using dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) in prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy. Data of 22 patients presenting for salvage radiotherapy (RT) with an identified gross tumor volume (GTV) in the prostate bed were analyzed retrospectively. An unsupervised pattern recognition method was used to analyze DCE-MRI curves from the prostate bed. Data were represented as a product of a number of signal-vs.-time patterns and their weights. The temporal pattern, characterized by fast wash-in and gradual wash-out, was considered the ''tumor'' pattern. The corresponding weights were thresholded based on the number (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) of standard deviations away from the mean, denoted as DCE1.0,.., DCE2.5, and displayed on the T2-weighted MRI. The resultant four volumes were compared with the GTV and maximum pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Pharmacokinetic modeling was also carried out. Principal component analysis determined 2-4 significant patterns in patients' DCE-MRI. Analysis and display of the identified suspicious foci was performed in commercial software (MIM Corporation, Cleveland, OH, USA). In general, DCE1.0/DCE1.5 highlighted larger areas than GTV. DCE2.0 and GTV were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). DCE2.0/DCA2.5 were also significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.52, 0.67, p < 0.05). K{sup trans} for DCE2.5 was statistically higher than the GTV's K{sup trans} (p < 0.05), indicating that the automatic volume better captures areas of malignancy. A software tool was developed for identification and visualization of the suspicious foci in DCE-MRI from post-prostatectomy patients and was integrated into the treatment planning system. (orig.) [German] Entwicklung eines automatischen Analyseverfahrens, um nach Prostatektomie mittels dynamischer kontrastmittelverstaerkter

  11. Constrained noninformative priors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwood, C.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Jeffreys noninformative prior distribution for a single unknown parameter is the distribution corresponding to a uniform distribution in the transformed model where the unknown parameter is approximately a location parameter. To obtain a prior distribution with a specified mean but with diffusion reflecting great uncertainty, a natural generalization of the noninformative prior is the distribution corresponding to the constrained maximum entropy distribution in the transformed model. Examples are given

  12. Healthcare utilisation prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases and the influence of livestock exposure: a longitudinal case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, B.J. van der; Dijk, C.E. van; Zock, J.P.; Smit, L.A.M.; Baliatsas, C.; Heerderik, D.J.; Yzermans, C.J.

    2018-01-01

    An increased prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, was found amongst residents in a livestock dense area. We hypothesised that exposure to livestock farms might be a substantial environmental factor that contributes to the development of these

  13. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  14. Prognostic Implication of Functional Incomplete Revascularization and Residual Functional SYNTAX Score in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki Hong; Lee, Joo Myung; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Rhee, Tae-Min; Hwang, Doyeon; Park, Jonghanne; Zhang, Jinlong; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Hu, Xinyang; Wang, Jianan; Ye, Fei; Chen, Shaoliang; Yang, Junqing; Chen, Jiyan; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Akasaka, Takashi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic implication of functional incomplete revascularization (IR) and residual functional SYNTAX (Synergy Between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) score (rFSS) in comparison with 3-vessel fractional flow reserve (FFR) and residual SYNTAX score. IR is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 385 patients who underwent 3-vessel FFR measurement after stent implantation were included in this study. The rFSS was defined as residual SYNTAX score measured only in vessels with FFR ≤0.8. The study population was divided into the functional IR group (rFSS ≥1) and the functional complete revascularization (CR) group (rFSS = 0). The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs; a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and ischemia-driven revascularization) at 2 years. Functional CR was achieved in 283 patients (73.5%). At 2-year follow-up, the functional IR group showed a significantly higher risk for MACEs (functional IR vs. CR, 14.6% vs. 4.2%; hazard ratio: 4.09; 95% confidence interval: 1.82 to 9.21; p system (rFSS) after stent implantation better discriminated the risk for adverse events than anatomic or physiological assessment alone. (Clinical Implication of 3-Vessel Fractional Flow Reserve [FFR]; NCT01621438). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Different distribution patterns of lymphocytes and microglia in the hippocampus of patients with residual versus paranoid schizophrenia: further evidence for disease course-related immune alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Stefan; Busse, Mandy; Schiltz, Kolja; Bielau, Hendrik; Gos, Tomasz; Brisch, Ralf; Mawrin, Christian; Schmitt, Andrea; Jordan, Wolfgang; Müller, Ulf J; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann

    2012-11-01

    Certain cytokines have been identified in the peripheral blood as trait markers of schizophrenia, while others are considered relapse-related state markers. Furthermore, data from peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nuclear imaging studies suggest that (1) blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction (e.g., immigration of lymphocytes into brain tissue and intrathecal antibody production) correlates with the development of negative symptoms, while (2) the brain's mononuclear phagocyte system (microglial cells) is activated during acute psychosis. Based on these neuroinflammatory hypotheses, we have quantified the numerical density of immunostained CD3+ T-lymphocytes, CD20+ B-lymphocytes, and HLA-DR+ microglial cells in the posterior hippocampus of 17 schizophrenia patients and 11 matched controls. Disease course-related immune alterations were considered by a separate analysis of residual (prevailing negative symptoms, n=7) and paranoid (prominent positive symptoms, n=10) schizophrenia cases. Higher densities of CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes were observed in residual versus paranoid schizophrenia (CD 3: left: P=0.047, right: P=0.038; CD20: left: P=0.020, right: P=0.010) and controls (CD3: left: P=0.057, right: P=0.069; CD20: left: P=0.008, right: P=0.006). In contrast, HLA-DR+ microglia were increased in paranoid schizophrenia versus residual schizophrenia (left: P=0.030, right: P=0.012). A similar trend emerged when this group was compared to controls (left: P=0.090, right: P=0.090). BBB impairment and infiltration of T cells and B cells may contribute to the pathophysiology of residual schizophrenia, while microglial activation seems to play a role in paranoid schizophrenia. The identification of diverse immune endophenotypes may facilitate the development of distinct anti-inflammatory schizophrenia therapies to normalize BBB function, (auto)antibody production or microglial activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  17. Development of standardized approaches to reporting of minimal residual disease data using a reporting software package designed within the European LeukemiaNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, M; Nyvold, Charlotte Guldborg; Jovanovic, J V

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of fusion transcripts and overexpressed genes is a promising tool for following minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with hematological malignancies. Its widespread clinical use has to some extent been hampered by differences in data analysis and presen......Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detection of fusion transcripts and overexpressed genes is a promising tool for following minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with hematological malignancies. Its widespread clinical use has to some extent been hampered by differences in data analysis...... and presentation that complicate multicenter clinical trials. To address these issues, we designed a highly flexible MRD-reporting software program, in which data from various qPCR platforms can be imported, processed, and presented in a uniform manner to generate intuitively understandable reports. The software...... was tested in a two-step quality control (QC) study; the first step involved eight centers, whose previous experience with the software ranged from none to extensive. The participants received cDNA from consecutive samples from a BCR-ABL+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patient and an acute myeloid leukemia...

  18. A complementary role of multiparameter flow cytometry and high-throughput sequencing for minimal residual disease detection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: an European Research Initiative on CLL study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rawstron, A C

    2016-04-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) after therapy is an independent predictor of outcome. Given the increasing number of new agents being explored for CLL therapy, using MRD as a surrogate could greatly reduce the time necessary to assess their efficacy. In this European Research Initiative on CLL (ERIC) project we have identified and validated a flow-cytometric approach to reliably quantitate CLL cells to the level of 0.0010% (10(-5)). The assay comprises a core panel of six markers (i.e. CD19, CD20, CD5, CD43, CD79b and CD81) with a component specification independent of instrument and reagents, which can be locally re-validated using normal peripheral blood. This method is directly comparable to previous ERIC-designed assays and also provides a backbone for investigation of new markers. A parallel analysis of high-throughput sequencing using the ClonoSEQ assay showed good concordance with flow cytometry results at the 0.010% (10(-4)) level, the MRD threshold defined in the 2008 International Workshop on CLL guidelines, but it also provides good linearity to a detection limit of 1 in a million (10(-6)). The combination of both technologies would permit a highly sensitive approach to MRD detection while providing a reproducible and broadly accessible method to quantify residual disease and optimize treatment in CLL.

  19. Host and disease factors are associated with cognitive function in European HIV-infected adults prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winston, A; Stöhr, W; Antinori, A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Deficits in cognitive function remain prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this European multicentre study was to assess factors associated with cognitive function in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-infected subjects at the time of enrolment in the NEAT 001/Agence...... Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) 143 study. METHODS: Prior to starting ART, seven cognitive tests exploring domains including episodic memory, verbal fluency, executive function and psychomotor speed were administered with scores standardized to z-score using the study population sample mean...... and standard deviation. The primary measure was overall z-score average (NPZ). We assessed associations between baseline factors and test results using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Of 283 subjects with baseline cognitive assessments, 90% were male and 12% of black ethnicity. Median (interquartile...

  20. Polyglutamine expansions cause decreased CRE-mediated transcription and early gene expression changes prior to cell death in an inducible cell model of Huntingtons disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Swartz, J.; Kita, H.

    2001-01-01

    Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Mechanisms in Disease, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK, 1Taisho Laboratory of Functional Genomics, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma,...

  1. Sheep scrapie susceptibility-linked polymorphisms do not modulate the initial binding of cellular to disease-associated prion protein prior to conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigter, A.; Bossers, A.

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of the host-encoded protease-sensitive cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the scrapie-associated protease-resistant isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein (PrP) is the central event in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. Differences in transmissibility and

  2. The Prior-project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette; Albretsen, Jørgen

    digitisation of Arthur Prior’s Nachlass kept in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. The DH infrastructure in question is the Prior Virtual Lab (PVL). PVL was established in 2011 in order to provide researchers in the field of temporal logic easy access to the papers of Arthur Norman Prior (1914-1969), and officially......In this paper, we present a DH research infrastructure which relies heavily on a combination of domain knowledge with information technology. The general goal is to develop tools to aid scholars in their interpretations and understanding of temporal logic. This in turn is based on an extensive...

  3. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection and localization of residual or recurrent disease in patients with multiple myeloma after stem cell transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlin, Thorsten; Wisotzki, Christian; Klutmann, Susanne [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hamburg (Germany); Weber, Christoph; Habermann, Christian R.; Herrmann, Jochen [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Ayuk, Francis; Wolschke, Christine; Kroeger, Nicolaus [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic for Stem Cell Transplantation, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT for the detection and localization of residual or recurrent disease in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after stem cell transplantation. A total of 197 whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 99 patients with MM at different time points in the course of disease after autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Post-transplant PET/CT scans and clinical remission status as determined by the clinical gold standard (Uniform Response Criteria) were analysed and compared. A total of 576 focal osseous and extramedullary lesions were detected in 79 scans. Additional diffuse bone marrow involvement was detected in 17 patients. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT had a sensitivity of 54.6%, a specificity of 82.1%, a positive predictive value of 82.3%, a negative predictive value of 54.2% and an overall accuracy of 65.5%. The sensitivity of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was shown to depend on the disease category according to the Uniform Response Criteria for myeloma. In patients with MM in the post-transplant setting, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may (1) contribute to the detection and localization of disease, (2) provide information about the extent of distinct myeloma manifestations and the total disease burden and (3) add information about the metabolic activity of disease, but (4) has substantially lower sensitivity for this purpose compared to the pretreatment setting. (orig.)

  4. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  5. Laparoscopy-assisted versus transabdominal reoperation in Hirschprung's disease for residual aganglionosis and transition zone pathology after transanal pull-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xue; Li, Ning; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Wen; Yu, Donghai; Zhu, Tianqi; Feng, Jiexiong

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe laparoscopic reoperation (LSR) and compare its outcomes with transabdominal reoperation (TAR) for treating Hirschsprung's disease (HD). Eighteen patients with HD underwent reoperation for recurring constipation due to residual aganglionosis and transition zone pathology after an initial transanal procedure (LSR, n=10; TAR, n=8). Preoperative, operative and postoperative data were collected through patient follow-ups ranging from 13 to 75months to compare operative characteristics and postoperative outcomes between the two groups. Ten patients underwent laparoscopic reoperation in our institution without major complications. On average, blood loss was significantly lower in the LSR group (mean±standard deviation, 83±32.7mL) than in the TAR group (185±69mL) (P=0.001). The LSR group had a shorter hospitalization time (12±2days) than the TAR group (15±2.1days) (P=0.02). There was no statistically significant difference in incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups. LSR is safe and technically feasible in HD for recurring constipation due to residual aganglionosis and transition zone pathology, when initial transanal procedure fails. Although RA and TZP can be cured by reoperation, great efforts should be made to diminish the necessity of reoperation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    ’s search led him through the work of Castañeda, and back to his own work on hybrid logic: the first made temporal reference philosophically respectable, the second made it technically feasible in a modal framework. With the aid of hybrid logic, Prior built a bridge from a two-dimensional UT calculus...

  7. Prior Knowledge Assessment Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    assessment in a reasonable amount of time. Hands-on assessments can be extremely diverse in makeup and administration depending on the subject matter...DEVELOPING AND USING PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENTS TO TAILOR TRAINING D-3 ___ Brush and scrub ___ Orchards ___ Rice

  8. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  9. Effectiveness of Large-Scale Chagas Disease Vector Control Program in Nicaragua by Residual Insecticide Spraying Against Triatoma dimidiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Kota; Nakamura, Jiro; Pérez, Byron; Tercero, Doribel; Pérez, Lenin; Tabaru, Yuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. C-Terminal Tyrosine Residue Modifications Modulate the Protective Phosphorylation of Serine 129 of α-Synuclein in a Yeast Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinknecht, Alexandra; Popova, Blagovesta; Lázaro, Diana F; Pinho, Raquel; Valerius, Oliver; Outeiro, Tiago F; Braus, Gerhard H

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson´s disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of proteinaceous inclusions called Lewy bodies that are mainly composed of α-synuclein (αSyn). Elevated levels of oxidative or nitrative stresses have been implicated in αSyn related toxicity. Phosphorylation of αSyn on serine 129 (S129) modulates autophagic clearance of inclusions and is prominently found in Lewy bodies. The neighboring tyrosine residues Y125, Y133 and Y136 are phosphorylation and nitration sites. Using a yeast model of PD, we found that Y133 is required for protective S129 phosphorylation and for S129-independent proteasome clearance. αSyn can be nitrated and form stable covalent dimers originating from covalent crosslinking of two tyrosine residues. Nitrated tyrosine residues, but not di-tyrosine-crosslinked dimers, contributed to αSyn cytotoxicity and aggregation. Analysis of tyrosine residues involved in nitration and crosslinking revealed that the C-terminus, rather than the N-terminus of αSyn, is modified by nitration and di-tyrosine formation. The nitration level of wild-type αSyn was higher compared to that of A30P mutant that is non-toxic in yeast. A30P formed more dimers than wild-type αSyn, suggesting that dimer formation represents a cellular detoxification pathway in yeast. Deletion of the yeast flavohemoglobin gene YHB1 resulted in an increase of cellular nitrative stress and cytotoxicity leading to enhanced aggregation of A30P αSyn. Yhb1 protected yeast from A30P-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and peroxynitrite-induced nitrative stress. Strikingly, overexpression of neuroglobin, the human homolog of YHB1, protected against αSyn inclusion formation in mammalian cells. In total, our data suggest that C-terminal Y133 plays a major role in αSyn aggregate clearance by supporting the protective S129 phosphorylation for autophagy and by promoting proteasome clearance. C-terminal tyrosine nitration increases pathogenicity and can only be partially detoxified by

  11. Quality control of flow cytometry data analysis for evaluation of minimal residual disease in bone marrow from acute leukemia patients during treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorklund, E.; Matinlauri, I.; Tierens, A.

    2009-01-01

    before implementation of MRD at cutoff level 10 as one of stratifying parameters in next Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) treatment program for ALL. In 4 quality control (QC) rounds 15 laboratories determined the MRD levels in 48 follow-up samples from 12 ALL patients treated...... according to NOPHO 2000. Analysis procedures were standardized. For each QC round a compact disc containing data in list-mode files was sent out and results were submitted to a central laboratory. At cutoff level 10, which will be applied for clinical decisions, laboratories obtained a high concordance (91......Low levels of leukemia cells in the bone marrow, minimal residual disease (MRD), are considered to be a powerful indicator of treatment response in acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL). A Nordic quality assurance program, aimed on standardization of the flow cytometry MRD analysis, has been established...

  12. B-ALL minimal residual disease flow cytometry: an application of a novel method for optimization of a single-tube model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Aaron C; Greig, Bruce W; Mosse, Claudio A; Seegmiller, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    Optimizing a clinical flow cytometry panel can be a subjective process dependent on experience. We develop a quantitative method to make this process more rigorous and apply it to B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (B-ALL) minimal residual disease (MRD) testing. We retrospectively analyzed our existing three-tube, seven-color B-ALL MRD panel and used our novel method to develop an optimized one-tube, eight-color panel, which was tested prospectively. The optimized one-tube, eight-color panel resulted in greater efficiency of time and resources with no loss in diagnostic power. Constructing a flow cytometry panel using a rigorous, objective, quantitative method permits optimization and avoids problems of interdependence and redundancy in a large, multiantigen panel. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  13. Pre-operative assessment of residual disease in locally advanced breast cancer patients: A sequential study by quantitative diffusion weighted MRI as a function of therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Khushbu; Sharma, Uma; Sah, Rani G; Mathur, Sandeep; Hari, Smriti; Seenu, Vurthaluru; Parshad, Rajinder; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2017-10-01

    The potential of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in assessing pathologic response and surgical margins in locally advanced breast cancer patients (n=38) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was investigated. DWI was performed at pre-therapy (Tp0), after I (Tp1) and III (Tp3) NACT at 1.5T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of whole tumor (ADC WT ), solid tumor (ADC ST ), intra-tumoral necrosis (ADC Nec ) was determined. Further, ADC of 6 consecutive shells (5mm thickness each) including tumor margin to outside tumor margins (OM1 to OM5) was calculated and the data analyzed to define surgical margins. Of 38 patients, 6 were pathological complete responders (pCR), 19 partial responders (pPR) and 13 were non-responders (pNR). Significant increase was observed in ADC ST and ADC WT in pCR and pPR following therapy. Pre-therapy ADC was significantly lower in pCR compared to pPR and pNR indicating the heterogeneous nature of tumor which may affect drug perfusion and consequently the response. ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly different among pCR, pPR and pNR at Tp3 which may serve as response predictive parameter. Further, at Tp3, ADC of outside margins (OM1, OM2, and OM3) was significantly lower compared to that seen at Tp0 in pCR, indicating the presence of residual disease in these shells. Pre-surgery information may serve as a guide to define cancer free margins and the extent of residual disease which may be useful in planning breast conservation surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of Wilms Tumor 1 Gene Expression as a Reliable Marker for Prognosis and Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring in Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Normal Karyotype Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Irena; Karan-Djurasevic, Teodora; Ugrin, Milena; Virijevic, Marijana; Vidovic, Ana; Tomin, Dragica; Suvajdzic Vukovic, Nada; Pavlovic, Sonja; Tosic, Natasa

    2017-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype (AML-NK) represents the largest group of AML patients classified with an intermediate prognosis. A constant need exists to introduce new molecular markers for more precise risk stratification and for minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring. Quantitative assessment of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene transcripts was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The bone marrow samples were collected at the diagnosis from 104 AML-NK patients and from 34 of these patients during follow-up or disease relapse. We found that overexpression of the WT1 gene (WT1 high status), present in 25.5% of patients, was an independent unfavorable factor for achieving complete remission. WT1 high status was also associated with resistance to therapy and shorter disease-free survival and overall survival. Assessment of the log reduction value of WT1 expression, measured in paired diagnosis/complete remission samples, revealed that patients with a log reduction of < 2 had a tendency toward shorter disease-free survival and overall survival and a greater incidence of disease relapse. Combining WT1 gene expression status with NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutational status, we found that the tumor behavior of intermediate patients (FLT3-ITD - /NPM1 - double negative) with WT1 high status is almost the same as the tumor behavior of the adverse risk group. WT1 expression status represents a good molecular marker of prognosis, response to treatment, and MRD monitoring. Above all, the usage of the WT1 expression level as an additional marker for more precise risk stratification of AML-NK patients could lead to more adapted, personalized treatment protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha A.R.

    Full Text Available Use of Antibiotic that might result in deposition of residues in meat, milk and eggs must not be permitted in food intended for human consumption. If use of antibiotics is necessary as in prevention and treatment of animal diseases, a withholding period must be observed until the residues are negligible or no longer detected. The use of antibiotics to bring about improved performance in growth and feed efficiency, to synchronize or control of reproductive cycle and breeding performance also often lead to harmful residual effects. Concern over antibiotic residues in food of animal origin occurs in two times; one which produces potential threat to direct toxicity in human, second is whether the low levels of antibiotic exposure would result in alteration of microflora, cause disease and the possible development of resistant strains which cause failure of antibiotic therapy in clinical situations. A withdrawal period is established to safeguard human from exposure of antibiotic added food. The withdrawal time is the time required for the residue of toxicological concern to reach safe concentration as defined by tolerance. It is the interval from the time an animal is removed from medication until permitted time of slaughter. Heavy responsibility is placed on the veterinarian and livestock producer to observe the period for a withdrawal of a drug prior to slaughter to assure that illegal concentration of drug residue in meat, milk and egg do not occur. Use of food additives may improve feed efficiency 17% in beef cattle, 10% in lambs, 15% in poultry and 15% in swine. But their indiscriminate use will produce toxicity in consumers. WHO and FAO establish tolerances for a drug, pesticide or other chemical in the relevant tissues of food producing animals. The tolerance is the tissue concentration below, which a marker residue for the drug or chemical must fall in the target tissue before that animal edible tissues are considered safe for human

  16. The Effect of Milrinone on Splanchnic and Cerebral Perfusion in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease Prior to Surgery: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Otilia; Cheung, Po-Yin; Phillipos, Ernest; Aranha-Netto, Abimael; Joynt, Chloe

    2015-08-01

    Despite the advancement in the postoperative care of neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD), there is little information on preoperative management of systemic and regional hemodynamics, which may be related to outcomes. We aimed to determine the preoperative effect of milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, on cardiac output and splanchnic and cerebral perfusion in neonates with CHD. Neonates with CHD requiring cardiac surgery were enrolled in a prospective, single-blinded study once a clinical decision of starting milrinone (0.75 μg/kg per minute intravenously) using institutional criteria was made. Demographic and clinical variables and outcomes were recorded. Combined cardiac output and measures of splanchnic (superior mesenteric and celiac arteries) and cerebral (anterior and middle cerebral arteries) perfusion were determined by Doppler studies at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h after milrinone infusion. Investigators were unaware of intervention time points and patients in analyzing blood flow measurements. Seventeen term (39.2 ± 1.3 weeks) neonates were included with hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome (78.5%) as the most common diagnosis. Combined cardiac output increased by 28% within 48 h (613 ± 154 vs. 479 ± 147 mL/kg per minute at baseline, P milrinone infusion (P milrinone infusion (P milrinone infusion. Milrinone increases cardiac output with concurrent effects on splanchnic and cerebral blood flows during the short-term preoperative use in neonates with CHD.

  17. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. (author)

  18. Education and coronary heart disease risk associations may be affected by early-life common prior causes: a propensity matching analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Buka, Stephen L; Rogers, Michelle L; Liu, Tao; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D; Martin, Laurie T; Gilman, Stephen E

    2012-04-01

    Education is inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD); however whether this is attributable to causal effects of schooling rather than potential confounders existing before school entry (eg, childhood intelligence, childhood economic circumstances, childhood chronic illness, parental mental health) remains unknown. We evaluated whether education is associated with 10-year CHD risk independent of 21 prospectively assessed childhood conditions, in participants ages 38-47 years. Using linear regression analyses, we evaluated associations of education with 10-year CHD risk, the latter calculated by use of the validated Framingham risk algorithm incorporating diabetes, blood pressure, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, age, and sex. Propensity score matching incorporated 21 early-life potential confounders. Regression analyses demonstrated college graduation was associated with -27.9% lower (95% CI, -36.2, -18.6%) 10-year CHD risk compared with ≤high school after matching on propensity score that included age, sex and race (n = 272); addition of 21 early life potential confounders resulted in effect size of -13.1% (95% CI, -33.4, 13.4; mean n = 110). Participants with college degree had substantially lower risk of CHD (27.9%) after accounting for demographics; the addition of early life potential confounders resulted in a moderate effect size (13.1%), suggesting potential importance of early life factors in explaining observed associations between education and CHD risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Increase in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 19A prior to the implementation of the expanded pneumococcal vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Martínez, F; Saavedra Lozano, J; Navarro Gómez, M L; Santos Sebastián, M M; Rodríguez Fernández, R; González Sánchez, M; Hernández-Sampelayo Matos, T

    2013-11-01

    To describe the epidemiology, clinical syndromes and microbiological characteristics of serotype 19A as the main cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children admitted to a tertiary hospital in Spain. A retrospective (1998-2004) and prospective (2005-2009) study was conducted on children with IPD produced by serotype 19A. The study was divided into three periods (P): P1 (1998-2001) when PCV7 had not been commercialized; P2 (2002-2005) with 40% vaccine coverage among children; and P3 (2006-2009) when the vaccine was added to the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Madrid. A total of 155 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) producing IPD were analysed, with 21 of them being serotype 19A (14%). An increased prevalence of serotype 19A was found: 2/45 cases (4.4%) in P1, 3/41 cases (7.3%) in P2 and 16/69 cases (23.2%) in P3. It occurred mostly in children younger than 2 years (16/21; 76%). This serotype was the main cause of meningitis (5/20; 25%), pleural empyema (3/22; 14%) and bacteraemic mastoiditis (2/4; 50%). Thirteen isolates (61.5%) had an MIC ≥ 0.12μ/ml for penicillin in extra-meningeal infections, and 3 of the 5 isolates causing meningitis (60%) had an MIC ≥ 1μ/ml for cefotaxime. Serotype 19A was the main causal agent of IPD in the PCV7 era (P3), with high antibiotic resistance rates. This serotype was responsible for all types of IPD, being the main cause of meningitis. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular sources of residual cardiovascular risk, clinical signals, and innovative solutions: relationship with subclinical disease, undertreatment, and poor adherence: implications of new evidence upon optimizing cardiovascular patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kones R

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard KonesCardiometabolic Research Institute, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Residual risk, the ongoing appreciable risk of major cardiovascular events (MCVE in statin-treated patients who have achieved evidence-based lipid goals, remains a concern among cardiologists. Factors that contribute to this continuing risk are atherogenic non-low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles and atherogenic processes unrelated to LDL cholesterol, including other risk factors, the inherent properties of statin drugs, and patient characteristics, ie, genetics and behaviors. In addition, providers, health care systems, the community, public policies, and the environment play a role. Major statin studies suggest an average 28% reduction in LDL cholesterol and a 31% reduction in relative risk, leaving a residual risk of about 69%. Incomplete reductions in risk, and failure to improve conditions that create risk, may result in ongoing progression of atherosclerosis, with new and recurring lesions in original and distant culprit sites, remodeling, arrhythmias, rehospitalizations, invasive procedures, and terminal disability. As a result, identification of additional agents to reduce residual risk, particularly administered together with statin drugs, has been an ongoing quest. The current model of atherosclerosis involves many steps during which disease may progress independently of guideline-defined elevations in LDL cholesterol. Differences in genetic responsiveness to statin therapy, differences in ability of the endothelium to regenerate and repair, and differences in susceptibility to nonlipid risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, hypertension, and molecular changes associated with obesity and diabetes, may all create residual risk. A large number of inflammatory and metabolic processes may also provide eventual therapeutic targets to lower residual risk. Classically, epidemiologic and other evidence suggested that raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol

  1. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  2. Effects of intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy with idarubicin and high dose cytarabine on minimal residual disease levels in newly diagnosed adult precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Bradstock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An intensive induction regimen, consisting of idarubicin and high dose cytarabine, was assessed in 19 adult patients, median age 44 years, with newly diagnosed precursor-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Patients achieving a complete response (CR were given an attenuated consolidation course. The primary endpoints were induction death rate and incidence of serious non-hematological toxicity. Grades 3–4 diarrhoea occurred in 47% of patients during induction. Two patients (11% died during induction therapy, and 2 were withdrawn due to resistant disease or prolonged marrow hypoplasia. Fifteen patients achieved CR (79%, but levels of minimal residual disease (MRD after induction were comparable with those previously observed using a modified pediatric protocol. Overall survival at 5 years was 36.8% while leukemia-free survival was 44.1%. An intensive AML protocol used in adults with ALL resulted in substantial toxicity and provided similar levels of cytoreduction to conventional ALL protocols, without improving long-term outcomes.

  3. Early recovery of circulating immature B cells in B-lymphoblastic leukemia patients after CD19 targeted CAR T cell therapy: A pitfall for minimal residual disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenbin; Salem, Dalia; McCoy, Catharine S; Lee, Daniel; Shah, Nirali N; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice; Yuan, Constance M

    2017-09-09

    CD19-targeted chimeric-antigen receptor-modified T-cells (CAR-T) are promising in the treatment of refractory B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Minimal residual disease (MRD) detection by multicolor flow cytometry (FCM) is critical to distinguish B-ALL MRD from regenerating, non-neoplastic B-cell populations. FCM was performed on samples from 9 patients with B-ALL treated with CAR-T. All 9 patients showed response to CAR-T. Additionally, FCM revealed circulating CD10 + B cells, potentially mimicking MRD. Circulating CD10+ B-cells were detected in blood from 3 days to 3 months after CAR-T, comprising 73% (median) of B-cells (52-83%, 95%CI). They expressed CD19, CD10, CD20, bright CD9, CD22, CD24, moderate CD38 and dim CD58, but were CD34 (-), with bright CD45 and polyclonal surface light chain immunoglobulin (sIg) expression. A similar CD10 + B-cell subpopulation was detected by marrow FCM, amidst abundant B-cell precursors. These circulating CD10 + B-cells are compatible with immature B-cells, and are a reflection of B-cell recovery within the marrow. They are immunophenotypically distinguishable from residual B-ALL. Expression of light chain sIg and key surface antigens characterizing regenerating B-cell precursors can distinguish immature B-cells from B-ALL MRD and prevent misdiagnosis. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2017 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  4. Sets of priors reflecting prior-data conflict and agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.M.; Coolen, F.P.A.; Carvalho, J.P.; Lesot, M.-J.; Kaymak, U.; Vieira, S.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Bayesian inference enables combination of observations with prior knowledge in the reasoning process. The choice of a particular prior distribution to represent the available prior knowledge is, however, often debatable, especially when prior knowledge is limited or data are scarce, as then

  5. Prior indigenous technological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary open questions of astrobiology is whether there is extant or extinct life elsewhere the solar system. Implicit in much of this work is that we are looking for microbial or, at best, unintelligent life, even though technological artefacts might be much easier to find. Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) work on searches for alien artefacts in the solar system typically presumes that such artefacts would be of extrasolar origin, even though life is known to have existed in the solar system, on Earth, for eons. But if a prior technological, perhaps spacefaring, species ever arose in the solar system, it might have produced artefacts or other technosignatures that have survived to present day, meaning solar system artefact SETI provides a potential path to resolving astrobiology's question. Here, I discuss the origins and possible locations for technosignatures of such a prior indigenous technological species, which might have arisen on ancient Earth or another body, such as a pre-greenhouse Venus or a wet Mars. In the case of Venus, the arrival of its global greenhouse and potential resurfacing might have erased all evidence of its existence on the Venusian surface. In the case of Earth, erosion and, ultimately, plate tectonics may have erased most such evidence if the species lived Gyr ago. Remaining indigenous technosignatures might be expected to be extremely old, limiting the places they might still be found to beneath the surfaces of Mars and the Moon, or in the outer solar system.

  6. Tank 12H residuals sample analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shine, E. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coleman, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hay, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-06-11

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 12H final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Eleven Tank 12H floor and mound residual material samples and three cooling coil scrape samples were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August of 2014.

  7. Circulating lipocalin 2 is neither related to liver steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease nor to residual liver function in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Elisabeth M; Pohl, Rebekka; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Schacherer, Doris; Eisinger, Kristina; Wiest, Reiner; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Buechler, Christa

    2016-09-01

    Lipocalin 2 (LCN2) is induced in the injured liver and associated with inflammation. Aim of the present study was to evaluate whether serum LCN2 is a non-invasive marker to assess hepatic steatosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. Therefore, LCN2 was measured by ELISA in serum of 32 randomly selected patients without fatty liver (controls), 24 patients with ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD and 42 patients with liver cirrhosis mainly due to alcohol. Systemic LCN2 was comparable in patients with liver steatosis, those with liver cirrhosis and controls. LCN2 negatively correlated with bilirubin in both cohorts. In cirrhosis, LCN2 was not associated with more advanced liver injury defined by the CHILD-PUGH score and model for end-stage liver disease score. Resistin but not C-reactive protein or chemerin positively correlated with LCN2. LCN2 levels were not increased in patients with ascites or patients with esophageal varices. Consequently, reduction of portal pressure by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt did not affect LCN2 levels. Hepatic venous blood (HVS), portal venous blood and systemic venous blood levels of LCN2 were similar. HVS LCN2 was unchanged in patients with end-stage liver cirrhosis compared to those with well-compensated disease arguing against increased hepatic release. Current data exclude that serum LCN2 is of any value as steatosis marker in patients with NAFLD and indicator of liver function in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conformation-Specific IR and UV Spectroscopy of the Amino Acid Glutamine: Amide-Stacking and Hydrogen Bonding in AN Important Residue in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick S.; Dean, Jacob C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases including Huntington's disease (HD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). An intriguing aspect of the structure of glutamine is its incorporation of an amide group in its side chain, thereby opening up the possibility of forming amide-amide H-bonds between the peptide backbone and side chain. In this study the conformational preferences of two capped gluatamines Z(carboxybenzyl)-Glutamine-X (X=OH, NHMe) are studied under jet-cooled conditions in the gas phase in order to unlock the intrinsic structural motifs that are favored by this flexible sidechain. Conformational assignments are made by comparing the hydride stretch ( 3100-3700 cm-1) and amide I and II ( 1400-1800 cm-1) resonant ion-dip infrared spectra with predictions from harmonic frequency calculations. Assigned structures will be compared to previously published results on both natural and unnatural residues. Particular emphasis will be placed on the comparison between glutamine and unconstrained γ-peptides due to the similar three-carbon spacing between backbone and side chain in glutamine to the backbone spacing in γ-peptides. The ability of the glutamine side-chain to form amide stacked conformations will be a main focus, along with the prevalence of extended backbone type structures. W. H. James, III, C W. Müller, E. G. Buchanan, M. G. D. Nix, L. Guo, L. Roskop, M. S. Gordon, L. V. Slipchenko, S. H. Gellman, and T. S. Zwier, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131(40), 14243-14245.

  9. Touch-down reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of IgV(H) rearrangement and Sybr-Green-based real-time RT-PCR quantitation of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peková, Soňa; Marková, J.; Pajer, Petr; Dvořák, Michal; Cetkovský, P.; Schwarz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2005), s. 23-34 ISSN 1084-8592 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : minimal residual disease * chronic lymphocytic leukaemia * IgV (H) rearrangement Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.562, year: 2003

  10. The TEL-AML1 real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) might replace the antigen receptor-based genomic PCR in clinical minimal residual disease studies in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, V.; Breunis, W. B.; dee, R.; Verhagen, O. J. H. M.; Kroes, W.; van Wering, E. R.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van den Berg, H.; van der Schoot, C. E.

    2002-01-01

    Prospective studies in children with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have shown that polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) using immunoglobin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements as targets can be used to identify patients

  11. Deficits in synaptic function occur at medial perforant path-dentate granule cell synapses prior to Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapses in the novel TgF344-Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lindsey A; McMahon, Lori L

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology begins decades prior to onset of clinical symptoms, and the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus are among the first and most extensively impacted brain regions. The TgF344-AD rat model, which more fully recapitulates human AD pathology in an age-dependent manner, is a next generation preclinical rodent model for understanding pathophysiological processes underlying the earliest stages of AD (Cohen et al., 2013). Whether synaptic alterations occur in hippocampus prior to reported learning and memory deficit is not known. Furthermore, it is not known if specific hippocampal synapses are differentially affected by progressing AD pathology, or if synaptic deficits begin to appear at the same age in males and females in this preclinical model. Here, we investigated the time-course of synaptic changes in basal transmission, paired-pulse ratio, as an indirect measure of presynaptic release probability, long-term potentiation (LTP), and dendritic spine density at two hippocampal synapses in male and ovariectomized female TgF344-AD rats and wildtype littermates, prior to reported behavioral deficits. Decreased basal synaptic transmission begins at medial perforant path-dentate granule cell (MPP-DGC) synapses prior to Schaffer-collateral-CA1 (CA3-CA1) synapses, in the absence of a change in paired-pulse ratio (PPR) or dendritic spine density. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTP magnitude is unaffected at CA3-CA1 synapses at 6, 9, and 12months of age, but is significantly increased at MPP-DGC synapses in TgF344-AD rats at 6months only. Sex differences were only observed at CA3-CA1 synapses where the decrease in basal transmission occurs at a younger age in males versus females. These are the first studies to define presymptomatic alterations in hippocampal synaptic transmission in the TgF344-AD rat model. The time course of altered synaptic transmission mimics the spread of pathology through hippocampus in human AD and provides

  12. Clinical impact of minimal residual disease in children with different subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with Response-Adapted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, C-H; Pei, D; Raimondi, S C; Coustan-Smith, E; Jeha, S; Cheng, C; Bowman, W P; Sandlund, J T; Ribeiro, R C; Rubnitz, J E; Inaba, H; Gruber, T A; Leung, W H; Yang, J J; Downing, J R; Evans, W E; Relling, M V; Campana, D

    2017-02-01

    To determine the clinical significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with prognostically relevant subtypes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we analyzed data from 488 patients treated in St Jude Total Therapy Study XV with treatment intensity based mainly on MRD levels measured during remission induction. MRD levels on day 19 predicted treatment outcome for patients with hyperdiploid >50 ALL, National Cancer Institute (NCI) standard-risk B-ALL or T-cell ALL, while MRD levels on day 46 were prognostic for patients with NCI standard-risk or high-risk B-ALL. Patients with t(12;21)/(ETV6-RUNX1) or hyperdiploidy >50 ALL had the best prognosis; those with a negative MRD on day 19 had a particularly low risk of relapse: 1.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Patients with NCI high-risk B-ALL or T-cell ALL had an inferior outcome; even with undetectable MRD on day 46, cumulative risk of relapse was 12.7% and 15.5%, respectively. Among patients with NCI standard-risk B-ALL, the outcome was intermediate overall but was poor if MRD was ⩾1% on day 19 or MRD was detectable at any level on day 46. Our results indicate that the clinical impact of MRD on treatment outcome in childhood ALL varies considerably according to leukemia subtype and time of measurement.

  13. Analysis of SAT Type Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Proteins and the Identification of Putative Amino Acid Residues Affecting Virus Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois F.; Blignaut, Belinda; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces. PMID:23717387

  14. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois F Maree

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV initiates infection by adhering to integrin receptors on target cells, followed by cell entry and disassembly of the virion through acidification within endosomes. Mild heating of the virions also leads to irreversible dissociation into pentamers, a characteristic linked to reduced vaccine efficacy. In this study, the structural stability of intra- and inter-serotype chimeric SAT2 and SAT3 virus particles to various conditions including low pH, mild temperatures or high ionic strength, was compared. Our results demonstrated that while both the SAT2 and SAT3 infectious capsids displayed different sensitivities in a series of low pH buffers, their stability profiles were comparable at high temperatures or high ionic strength conditions. Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities. Four His residues at the inter-pentamer interface were identified that change protonation states at pH 6.0. Of these, the H145 of VP3 appears to be involved in interactions with A141 in VP3 and K63 in VP2, and may be involved in orientating H142 of VP3 for interaction at the inter-pentamer interfaces.

  15. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  16. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  17. Prior Elicitation, Assessment and Inference with a Dirichlet Prior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methods are developed for eliciting a Dirichlet prior based upon stating bounds on the individual probabilities that hold with high prior probability. This approach to selecting a prior is applied to a contingency table problem where it is demonstrated how to assess the prior with respect to the bias it induces as well as how to check for prior-data conflict. It is shown that the assessment of a hypothesis via relative belief can easily take into account what it means for the falsity of the hypothesis to correspond to a difference of practical importance and provide evidence in favor of a hypothesis.

  18. PET reconstruction via nonlocal means induced prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingfeng; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Chen, Wufan; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    The traditional Bayesian priors for maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction methods usually incorporate local neighborhood interactions that penalize large deviations in parameter estimates for adjacent pixels; therefore, only local pixel differences are utilized. This limits their abilities of penalizing the image roughness. To achieve high-quality PET image reconstruction, this study investigates a MAP reconstruction strategy by incorporating a nonlocal means induced (NLMi) prior (NLMi-MAP) which enables utilizing global similarity information of image. The present NLMi prior approximates the derivative of Gibbs energy function by an NLM filtering process. Specially, the NLMi prior is obtained by subtracting the current image estimation from its NLM filtered version and feeding the residual error back to the reconstruction filter to yield the new image estimation. We tested the present NLMi-MAP method with simulated and real PET datasets. Comparison studies with conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and a few iterative reconstruction methods clearly demonstrate that the present NLMi-MAP method performs better in lowering noise, preserving image edge and in higher signal to noise ratio (SNR). Extensive experimental results show that the NLMi-MAP method outperforms the existing methods in terms of cross profile, noise reduction, SNR, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CORR).

  19. Positively charged residues at the five-fold symmetry axis of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease virus permit novel receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Clark, Stuart; Kakker, Naresh K; Silk, Rhiannon; Seago, Julian; Wadsworth, Jemma; Chamberlain, Kyle; Knowles, Nick J; Jackson, Terry

    2013-08-01

    Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain RGD-dependent integrin receptors. In contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (HS) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. Here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of FMDV. In cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the A/Turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect CHO and HS-deficient CHO cells as a result of a single glutamine (Q)-to-lysine (K) substitution at VP1-110 (VP1-(Q)110(K)). Using site-directed mutagenesis, the introduction of lysine at this same site also resulted in an acquired ability to infect CHO cells by type O and Asia-1 FMDV. However, this ability appeared to require a second positively charged residue at VP1-109. CHO cells express two RGD-binding integrins (α5β1 and αvβ5) that, although not used by FMDV, have the potential to be used as receptors; however, viruses with the VP1-(Q)110(K) substitution did not use these integrins. In contrast, the VP1-(Q)110(K) substitution appeared to result in enhanced interactions with αvβ6, which allowed a virus with KGE in place of the normal RGD integrin-binding motif to use αvβ6 as a receptor. Thus, our results confirmed the existence of nonintegrin, non-HS receptors for FMDV on CHO cells and revealed a novel, non-RGD-dependent use of αvβ6 as a receptor. The introduction of lysine at VP1-110 may allow for cell culture adaptation of FMDV by design, which may prove useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves intractable.

  20. Positively Charged Residues at the Five-Fold Symmetry Axis of Cell Culture-Adapted Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Permit Novel Receptor Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Stephen; Clark, Stuart; Kakker, Naresh K.; Silk, Rhiannon; Seago, Julian; Wadsworth, Jemma; Chamberlain, Kyle; Knowles, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have a restricted cell tropism which is limited by the need for certain RGD-dependent integrin receptors. In contrast, cell culture-adapted viruses use heparan sulfate (HS) or other unidentified molecules as receptors to initiate infection. Here, we report several novel findings resulting from cell culture adaptation of FMDV. In cell culture, a virus with the capsid of the A/Turkey/2/2006 field isolate gained the ability to infect CHO and HS-deficient CHO cells as a result of a single glutamine (Q)-to-lysine (K) substitution at VP1-110 (VP1-Q110K). Using site-directed mutagenesis, the introduction of lysine at this same site also resulted in an acquired ability to infect CHO cells by type O and Asia-1 FMDV. However, this ability appeared to require a second positively charged residue at VP1-109. CHO cells express two RGD-binding integrins (α5β1 and αvβ5) that, although not used by FMDV, have the potential to be used as receptors; however, viruses with the VP1-Q110K substitution did not use these integrins. In contrast, the VP1-Q110K substitution appeared to result in enhanced interactions with αvβ6, which allowed a virus with KGE in place of the normal RGD integrin-binding motif to use αvβ6 as a receptor. Thus, our results confirmed the existence of nonintegrin, non-HS receptors for FMDV on CHO cells and revealed a novel, non-RGD-dependent use of αvβ6 as a receptor. The introduction of lysine at VP1-110 may allow for cell culture adaptation of FMDV by design, which may prove useful for vaccine manufacture when cell culture adaptation proves intractable. PMID:23740982

  1. Minimal Residual Disease at First Achievement of Complete Remission Predicts Outcome in Adult Patients with Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Zhang

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prognostic effect of minimal residual disease at first achievement of complete remission (MRD at CR1 in adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. A total of 97 patients received treatment in our center between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in this study. Patients were divided into two arms according to the post-remission therapy (chemotherapy alone or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT they received. MRD was detected by four-color flow cytometry. We chose 0.02% and 0.2% as the cut-off points of MRD at CR1 for risk stratification using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The 3-year overall survival (OS and leukemia free survival (LFS rates for the whole cohort were 46.2% and 40.5%. MRD at CR1 had a significantly negative correlation with survival in both arms. Three-year OS rates in the chemotherapy arm were 70.0%, 25.2%, 0% (P = 0.003 for low, intermediate, and high levels of MRD at CR1, respectively. Three-year OS rates in the transplant arm were 81.8%, 64.3%, 27.3% (P = 0.005 for low, intermediate, and high levels of MRD at CR1, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed that higher level of MRD at CR1 was a significant adverse factor for OS and LFS. Compared with chemotherapy alone, allo-HSCT significantly improved LFS rates in patients with intermediate (P = 0.005 and high (P = 0.022 levels of MRD at CR1, but not patients with low level of MRD at CR1 (P = 0.851. These results suggested that MRD at CR1 could strongly predict the outcome of adult ALL. Patients with intermediate and high levels of MRD at CR1 would benefit from allo-HSCT.

  2. Accommodating Uncertainty in Prior Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picard, Richard Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vander Wiel, Scott Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-19

    A fundamental premise of Bayesian methodology is that a priori information is accurately summarized by a single, precisely de ned prior distribution. In many cases, especially involving informative priors, this premise is false, and the (mis)application of Bayes methods produces posterior quantities whose apparent precisions are highly misleading. We examine the implications of uncertainty in prior distributions, and present graphical methods for dealing with them.

  3. Front-line intraperitoneal versus intravenous chemotherapy in stage III-IV epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancer with minimal residual disease: a competing risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Hou; Li, Wai-Hou; Chang, Yi; Peng, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Ching-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Pin; Chuang, Chi-Mu

    2016-03-17

    In the analysis of survival data for cancer patients, the problem of competing risks is often ignored. Competing risks have been recognized as a special case of time-to-event analysis. The conventional techniques for time-to-event analysis applied in the presence of competing risks often give biased or uninterpretable results. Using a prospectively collected administrative health care database in a single institution, we identified patients diagnosed with stage III or IV primary epithelial ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancers with minimal residual disease after primary cytoreductive surgery between 1995 and 2012. Here, we sought to evaluate whether intraperitoneal chemotherapy outperforms intravenous chemotherapy in the presence of competing risks. Unadjusted and multivariable subdistribution hazards models were applied to this database with two types of competing risks (cancer-specific mortality and other-cause mortality) coded to measure the relative effects of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A total of 1263 patients were recruited as the initial cohort. After propensity score matching, 381 patients in each arm entered into final competing risk analysis. Cumulative incidence estimates for cancer-specific mortality were statistically significantly lower (p = 0.017, Gray test) in patients receiving intraperitoneal chemotherapy (5-year estimates, 34.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 29.5-39.6%, and 10-year estimates, 60.7%; 95% CI, 52.2-68.0%) versus intravenous chemotherapy (5-year estimates, 41.3%; 95% CI, 36.2-46.3%, and 10-year estimates, 67.5%, 95% CI, 61.6-72.7%). In subdistribution hazards analysis, for cancer-specific mortality, intraperitoneal chemotherapy outperforms intravenous chemotherapy (Subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96) after correcting other covariates. In conclusion, results from this comparative effectiveness study provide supportive evidence for previous published randomized trials that intraperitoneal chemotherapy

  4. The Prior Internet Resources 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul; Albretsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The Prior Internet Resources (PIR) are presented. Prior’s unpublished scientific manuscripts and his wast letter correspondence with fellow researchers at the time, his Nachlass, is now subject to transcription by Prior-researchers worldwide, and form an integral part of PIR. It is demonstrated...

  5. The Importance of Prior Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Linda Miller

    1989-01-01

    Recounts a college English teacher's experience of reading and rereading Noam Chomsky, building up a greater store of prior knowledge. Argues that Frank Smith provides a theory for the importance of prior knowledge and Chomsky's work provided a personal example with which to interpret and integrate that theory. (RS)

  6. Treatment reduction for children and young adults with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia defined by minimal residual disease (UKALL 2003): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Ajay; Goulden, Nick; Wade, Rachel; Mitchell, Chris; Hancock, Jeremy; Hough, Rachael; Rowntree, Clare; Richards, Sue

    2013-03-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive and specific predictor of relapse risk in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) during remission. We assessed whether treatment intensity could be adjusted for children and young adults according to MRD risk stratification. Between Oct 1, 2003 and June 30, 2011, consecutive children and young adults (aged 1-25 years) with ALL from the UK and Ireland were recruited. Eligible patients were categorised into clinical standard, intermediate, and high risk groups on the basis of a combination of National Cancer Institute (NCI) criteria, cytogenetics, and early response to induction therapy, which was assessed by bone marrow blast counts taken at days 8 (NCI high-risk patients) and 15 (NCI standard-risk patients) after induction began. Clinical standard-risk and intermediate-risk patients were assessed for MRD. Those classified as MRD low risk (undetectable MRD at the end of induction [day 29] or detectable MRD at day 29 that became undetectable by week 11) were randomly assigned to receive one or two delayed intensification courses. Patients had received induction, consolidation, and interim maintenance therapy before they began delayed intensification. Delayed intensification consisted of pegylated asparaginase on day 4; vincristine, dexamethasone (alternate weeks), and doxorubicin for 3 weeks; and 4 weeks of cyclophosphamide and cytarabine. Computer randomisation was done with stratification by MRD result and balancing for sex, age, and white blood cell count at diagnosis by method of minimisation. Patients, clinicians, and data analysts were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was event-free survival (EFS), which was defined as time to relapse, secondary tumour, or death. Our aim was to rule out a 7% reduction in EFS in the group given one delayed intensification course relative to that given two delayed intensification courses. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is

  7. Recruiting for Prior Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    perceptions, expectations and issues for re-enlistment • Develop potential marketing and advertising tactics and strategies targeted to the defined...01 JUN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Recruiting for Prior Service Market 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Command First Handshake to First Unit of Assignment An Army of One Proud to Be e e to Serve Recruiting for Prior Service Market MAJ Eric Givens / MAJ Brian

  8. Washing of waste prior to landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana

    2012-05-01

    The main impact produced by landfills is represented by the release of leachate emissions. Waste washing treatment has been investigated to evaluate its efficiency in reducing the waste leaching fraction prior to landfilling. The results of laboratory-scale washing tests applied to several significant residues from integrated management of solid waste are presented in this study, specifically: non-recyclable plastics from source separation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste and a special waste, automotive shredded residues. Results obtained demonstrate that washing treatment contributes towards combating the environmental impacts of raw wastes. Accordingly, a leachate production model was applied, leading to the consideration that the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), parameters of fundamental importance in the characterization of landfill leachate, from a landfill containing washed wastes, are comparable to those that would only be reached between 90 and 220years later in the presence of raw wastes. The findings obtained demonstrated that washing of waste may represent an effective means of reducing the leachable fraction resulting in a consequent decrease in landfill emissions. Further studies on pilot scale are needed to assess the potential for full-scale application of this treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  10. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are effective in therapy of minimal residual tumour disease after chemotherapy or surgery in a murine model of MHC class I-deficient, HPV16-associated tumours

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reiniš, Milan; Šímová, Jana; Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Bubeník, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 5 (2007), s. 1247-1251 ISSN 1019-6439 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/04/0492; GA ČR GA301/06/0774 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 18933 - CLINIGENE Grant - others:Liga proti rakovině, Praha(CZ) XX Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : HPV 16 * minimal residual tumour disease * CpG oligonucleotides Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.295, year: 2007

  11. CHARACTERIZING RESIDUE TRANSFER EFFICIENCIES USING A FLUORESCENT IMAGING TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and indirect ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study to identify the important parameters for chara...

  12. Avaliação laboratorial da doença residual mínima na leucemia mielóide crônica por Real-Time PCR Evaluation diagnosis of minimal residual disease in chronic myeloid leukemia by Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyne Cristina Grando

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia mielóide crônica (LMC representa 15% das leucemias e apresenta três fases: crônica, acelerada e crise blástica. A partir da análise citogenética, pode ser identificado o cromossomo Philadelphia, característico da LMC. O transplante de células-tronco é o único tratamento curativo, mas é acompanhado de altas taxas de morbimortalidade, dificultando sua aplicação. A doença residual mínima é de grande importância para avaliar a resposta ao tratamento, tanto na verificação de doença residual, quanto na identificação de pacientes com alto risco de recaída. Muitas técnicas específicas têm sido introduzidas para detectar as translocações ou os produtos do cromossomo Philadelphia. A mais sensível é a Real-Time PCR, que detecta uma célula leucêmica em 10(5 células normais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a LMC, dando ênfase à utilização da técnica por Real-Time PCR.Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML represents about 15% of all leukemias and has three phases: the chronic phase, accelerated phase and blast crisis. After cytogenetic analysis, the Philadelphia chromosome, characteristic of CML, can be identificated. Stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for CML, but it is accompanied by high levels of morbimortality, difficulting its application. The minimal residual disease is very important for the evaluation of the response to treatment, to verify the residual disease and also to identify patients with a high risk of relapse. Many specific techniques have been introduced for the detection of translocations or products of the Philadelphia chromosome; the most sensitive being Real-Time PCR which detects 1 leukemia cell in 10(5 normal cells. The aim of this study was to perform a bibliographic review of CML, with emphasis on the utilization of the Real-Time PCR technique.

  13. The role of disease-linked residue glutamine-913 in support of the structure and function of the human electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Evan J; Marshall, Aniko; Parker, Mark D

    2018-02-15

    Mutations in the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) cause proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA). We recently described a novel pRTA mutation p.Gln913Arg (Q913R), inherited in compound heterozygous form with p.Arg510His (R510H). Q913R causes intracellular retention of NBCe1 and a 'gain of function' Cl - leak. To learn more about the importance of glutamine at position 913, we substituted a variety of alternative amino-acid residues (Cys, Glu, Lys, Leu, Ser) at position 913. Studying cRNA-injected Xenopus oocytes by voltage clamp, we find that most de novo mutants exhibit close-to-normal NBCe1 activity; only Q913K expresses a Cl - leak. Studying transiently-transfected, polarised kidney cells by fluorescence microscopy we find that most de novo mutants (except Q913E) are intracellularly retained. A 3D homology model predicts that Gln913 is located in the gating domain of NBCe1 and neighbours the 3D space occupied by another pRTA-associated residue (Arg881), highlighting an important and conformationally-sensitive region of NBCe1. We conclude that the intracellular retention of Q913R is caused by the loss of Gln at position 913, but that the manifestation of the Cl - leak is related to the introduction of Arg at position 913. Our findings will inform future studies to elucidate the nature and the consequences of the leak.

  14. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: implications for livestock disease management and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Agada, Charity A; Adetunji, Victoria O; Akanbi, Ibikunle M

    2013-01-01

    After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA). The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg) and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg) in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38) were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline) and 0.017% (penicillin-G) of the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  15. Oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues in cattle slaughtered in south-western Nigeria: Implications for livestock disease management and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of indiscriminate antibiotic use in ready-for-slaughter cattle in south-western Nigeria, 90 tissue samples from randomly selected slaughtered cattle were evaluated for oxytetracycline and penicillin-G residues using high performance liquid chromatography and the data analysed by one-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA. The findings revealed residues of oxytetracycline (kidney: 9.47 µ/kg ± 3.24 µ/kg; liver: 12.73 µ/kg ± 4.39 µ/kg; muscle: 16.17 µ/kg ± 5.52 µ/kg and penicillin-G (kidney: 6.27 µ/kg ± 2.46 µ/kg; liver: 8.5 µ/kg ± 2.80 µ/kg; muscle: 11.67 µ/kg ± 2.94 µ/kg in all tissues screened. Significantly high levels (oxytetracycline: F = 16.77; penicillin-G: F = 29.38 were, however, found in muscles, followed by liver and then kidney – findings confirming recent antibiotic administration to the animals before slaughter. The dietary intakes through the tissues screened were 0.024% (oxytetracycline and 0.017% (penicillin-G of the acceptable daily intake (ADI. Although the concentrations in the tissues screened were below the maximum residue limits despite recent administration of these antibiotics before slaughter, the lower concentrations are suggestive of the probable low dosages often administered by those involved in indiscriminate use of antibiotics. This therefore raises serious concerns for the livestock industry as well as human health, given the resultant emergence and spread of resistant strains of bacterial pathogens that could ensue from prolonged use of low dosages of antibiotics. Additionally, the lower concentrations of the daily intakes notwithstanding, the plausible exposure to these antibiotics from other food sources is a cause for concern. Since antimicrobial misuse and its consequent effects are not just a problem limited to Nigeria but also a concern in sub-Saharan Africa, the need for national and international stakeholder intervention is emphasised.

  16. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography

  17. Quantum steganography using prior entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihara, Takashi, E-mail: mihara@toyo.jp

    2015-06-05

    Steganography is the hiding of secret information within innocent-looking information (e.g., text, audio, image, video, etc.). A quantum version of steganography is a method based on quantum physics. In this paper, we propose quantum steganography by combining quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. In many steganographic techniques, embedding secret messages in error-correcting codes may cause damage to them if the embedded part is corrupted. However, our proposed steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. The intrinsic form of the cover message does not have to be modified for embedding secret messages. - Highlights: • Our steganography combines quantum error-correcting codes with prior entanglement. • Our steganography can separately create secret messages and the content of cover messages. • Errors in cover messages do not have affect the recovery of secret messages. • We embed a secret message in the Steane code as an example of our steganography.

  18. Prior information in structure estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Nedoma, Petr; Khailova, Natalia; Pavelková, Lenka

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 6 (2003), s. 643-653 ISSN 1350-2379 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS1075102; GA AV ČR IBS1075351; GA ČR GA102/03/0049 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : prior knowledge * structure estimation * autoregressive models Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2003 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/historie/karny-0411258.pdf

  19. Role of pH in determining the cell-type-specific residual activity of glucocerebrosidase in type 1 Gaucher disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weely, S.; van den Berg, M.; Barranger, J. A.; Sa Miranda, M. C.; Tager, J. M.; Aerts, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The properties of control and 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase, the frequently encountered mutated form of the enzyme in type 1 Gaucher disease, were studied in vitro as well as in situ. The catalytic properties of purified 370Asn-->Ser glucocerebrosidase were highly dependent on the assay

  20. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  1. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Ayala, C; Medina Lara, A

    2002-06-01

    A study of unit costs and cost components of two malaria-control strategies (house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides) was undertaken in 11 malaria-endemic states (departamentos) of Colombia, using data provided by control staff on self-administered questionnaires. The accuracy of the data was verified by personal visits, telephone conversations and complementary information from 10 other states. Allthe financial-cost components of the malaria-control operations carried out in the previous 6 months and the results of the control operations themselves (including the numbers of houses sprayed and numbers of bednets impregnated/day) were recorded. The information was stratified according to whether the target communities were 'near' or 'far away' from an operational base, the far-away communities being those that needed overnight stays by the control staff. The main variables analysed were unit costs/house treated, and annual cost/person protected. The results show that house spraying was generally more expensive for the health services than bednet impregnation. This is particularly the case in 'nearby' communities, where most of those at-risk live. In such communities, spraying one house was 7.2 times more expensive than impregnating one bednet. Even if only those sleeping under an impregnated net were assumed to be protected, the unit costs/person protected in a 'nearby' community were twice as high for house spraying than for bednet impregnation. In 'nearby' communities, where technicians could return to the operational base each evening, insecticides made up 80% of the total spraying costs and 42% of the costs of bednet impregnation. In 'far-away' communities, however, salaries and 'per diems' were the most important cost components, representing, respectively, 23% and 22% of the costs of spraying, and 34% plus 27% of the costs of impregnation. Insecticide wastage and non-use of discounts on insecticide prices (available through the

  2. Persistence of TEL-AML1 fusion gene as minimal residual disease has no additive prognostic value in CD 10 positive B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a FISH study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezz-Eldin Azza M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives We have analyzed t(12;21(p13:q22 in an attempt to evaluate the frequency and prognostic significance of TEL-AML1 fusion gene in patients with childhood CD 10 positive B-ALL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Also, we have monitored the prognostic value of this gene as a minimal residual disease (MRD. Methods All bone marrow samples of eighty patients diagnosed as CD 10 positive B-ALL in South Egypt Cancer Institute were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for t(12;21 in newly diagnosed cases and after morphological complete remission as a minimal residual disease (MRD. We determined the prognostic significance of TEL-AML1 fusion represented by disease course and survival. Results TEL-AML1 fusion gene was positive in (37.5% in newly diagnosed patients. There was a significant correlation between TEL-AML1 fusion gene both at diagnosis (r = 0.5, P = 0.003 and as a MRD (r = 0.4, P = 0.01 with favorable course. Kaplan-Meier curve for the presence of TEL-AML1 fusion at the diagnosis was associated with a better probability of overall survival (OS; mean survival time was 47 ± 1 month, in contrast to 28 ± 5 month in its absence (P = 0.006. Also, the persistence at TEL-AML1 fusion as a MRD was not significantly associated with a better probability of OS; the mean survival time was 42 ± 2 months in the presence of MRD and it was 40 ± 1 months in its absence. So, persistence of TEL-AML1 fusion as a MRD had no additive prognostic value over its measurement at diagnosis in terms of predicting the probability of OS. Conclusion For most patients, the presence of TEL-AML1 fusion gene at diagnosis suggests a favorable prognosis. The present study suggests that persistence of TEL-AML1 fusion as MRD has no additive prognostic value.

  3. Design of specimen for weld residual stress simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Park, Jong Sun; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design a laboratory specimen for simulating residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe. Specimen type and method for residual stress generation were proposed based on the review of prior studies and parametric finite element simulation. To prove the proposed specimen type and loading method, the residual stress was generated using the designed specimen by applying proposed method and was measured. The measured residual stress using X-ray diffraction reasonably agreed with the results of finite element simulation considered in the specimen design. Comparison of residual strains measured at several locations of specimen and given by finite element simulation also showed good agreement. Therefore, it is indicated that the designed specimen can reasonably simulate the residual stress of circumferential butt welding of pipe

  4. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  5. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhura I. Kimera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  6. Determination of oxytetracycline residues in cattle meat marketed in the Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimera, Zuhura I; Mdegela, Robinson H; Mhaiki, Consolatha J N; Karimuribo, Esron D; Mabiki, Faith; Nonga, Hezron E; Mwesongo, James

    2015-11-27

    Oxytetracycline is used to treat various diseases in cattle. However, its use may be associated with unacceptable residue levels in food. Oxytetracycline residues in tissues from indigenous cattle were determined in a cross-sectional study conducted in the Kilosa district, Tanzania, between November 2012 and April 2013. A total of 60 tissue samples, including muscle, liver and kidney, were collected from slaughterhouses and butchers and analysed for oxytetracycline using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxytetracycline residues were found in 71.1% of the samples, of which 68.3% were above acceptable regulatory levels. The mean concentration of oxytetracycline across tissues was 3401.1 μg/kg ± 879.3 μg/kg; concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney were 2604.1 μg/kg ± 703.7 μg/kg, 3434.4 μg/kg ± 606.4 μg/kg and 3533.1 μg/kg ± 803.6 μg/kg, respectively. High levels of oxytetracycline residue in meat from indigenous cattle may pose a health threat to consumers in Kilosa. The findings possibly reflect a general lack of implementation of recommended withdrawal periods, ignorance about drug use and lack of extension services. Strict regulation of the use of antimicrobial drugs in the livestock industry and associated testing of animal-derived food sources prior to marketing are required.

  7. Post-prior equivalence for transfer reactions with complex potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jin; Moro, Antonio M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of the post-prior equivalence in the calculation of inclusive breakup and transfer cross sections. For that, we employ the model proposed by Ichimura et al. [Phys. Rev. C 32, 431 (1985), 10.1103/PhysRevC.32.431], conveniently generalized to include the part of the cross section corresponding the transfer to bound states. We pay particular attention to the case in which the unobserved particle is left in a bound state of the residual nucleus, in which case the theory prescribes the use of a complex potential, responsible for the spreading width of the populated single-particle states. We see that the introduction of this complex potential gives rise to an additional term in the prior cross-section formula, not present in the usual case of real binding potentials. The equivalence is numerically tested for the 58Ni(d ,p X ) reaction.

  8. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  9. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  10. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy prediction indexes and residue depletion of antibacterial drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Anadón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetics behaviour of the antibacterial in food producing animals, provides information on the rates of absorption and elimination, half-life in plasma and tissue, elimination pathways and metabolism. The dose and the dosing interval of the antimicrobial can be justified by considering the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD relationship, if established, as well as the severity of the disease, whereas the number of administrations should be in line with the nature of the disease. The target population for therapy should be well defined and possible to identify under field conditions. Based on in vitro susceptibility data, and target animal PK data, an analysis for the PK/PD relationship may be used to support dose regimen selection and interpretation criteria for a clinical breakpoint. Therefore, for all antibacterials with systemic activity, the MIC data collected should be compared with the concentration of the compound at the relevant biophase following administration at the assumed therapeutic dose as recorded in the pharmacokinetic studies. Currently, the most frequently used parameters to express the PK/PD relationship are Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/MIC, %T > MIC (fraction of time in which concentration exceeds MIC and AUC/MIC (area under the inhibitory concentration– time curve/MIC. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters provide the first indication of the potential for persistent residues and the tissues in which they may occur. The information on residue depletion in food-producing animals, provides the data on which MRL recommendations will be based. A critical factor in the antibacterial medication of all food-producing animals is the mandatory withdrawal period, defined as the time during which drug must not be administered prior to the slaughter of the animal for consumption. The withdrawal period is an integral part of the regulatory authorities’ approval process and is designed to ensure that no

  11. Divergent Priors and well Behaved Bayes Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDivergent priors are improper when defined on unbounded supports. Bartlett's paradox has been taken to imply that using improper priors results in ill-defined Bayes factors, preventing model comparison by posterior probabilities. However many improper priors have attractive properties

  12. 2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET in the clinical decision making of esophageal carcinoma: Initial staging and re-staging, evaluating treatment response and residual disease and detecting relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Nair, N.; Joseph, J.K.; Sharma, S.; Kanhere, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Accurate initial staging is essential in the management of esophageal carcinoma. The 5-year survival rate is 3% for patients with metastatic disease at the initial assessment, while the same is 42% for patients with nodal disease. 18F-FDG PET is being actively tested regarding its clinical utility at several centers in this malignancy. We at our center are assessing the role of this investigational modality in staging, evaluating treatment response especially after neo-adjuvant therapy and detecting relapse vis-a-vis the other conventionally used modalities e.g. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and the CT scan. The study population consisted of histologically proven cases of esophageal carcinoma who were mainly referred from the department of thoracic surgery of the neighboring Tata Memorial Hospital with few cases from the outside centers. FDG was produced by an automated nucleophilic method based on the Hamacher procedure. Patients were fasting at least for 6 hours. Sixty minutes after injection of 370 MBq FDG, patients were imaged on the dedicated BGO based GE Advance PET scanner (General Electric Medical systems, Milwaukee, WI). Images were reconstructed using the attenuation weighted Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithm. Axial, coronal, sagittal and 3D images were visually interpreted and foci of increased tracer uptake were considered as disease involvement. The PET scan was interpreted by two experienced nuclear medicine physicians, who were blinded regarding the results of CT scan and EUS except for the location of the primary. The findings of PET were then compared lesion by lesion with that of CT and EUS regarding staging, treatment response evaluation and residual disease evaluation. Till date, the total number of cases of esophageal carcinoma studied was 12, which consisted of primaries in the proximal third (n=1), middle third (n=4) and distal third (n=7). The number of cases assessed for the initial staging purpose was 7

  13. External-beam boost prior to total-body irradiation in relapsed NHL transplant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monson, Jedidiah M; Neuberg, Donna; Freedman, Arnold S; Tarbell, Nancy J; Nadler, Lee M; Mauch, Peter

    1995-07-01

    irradiation; of these 22 patients had {>=} 25% of one lung, or {>=} 15% of both lungs irradiated. Median EBB dose to the partially irradiated lung was 37.2 Gy (range, 16-63). Seven of the 26 patients receiving thoracic radiation (27%) developed symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. Symptoms have resolved in 4 patients and 3 patients have died of pulmonary complications. A total of 21 patients had abdominal radiation; 9 of these patients had direct kidney irradiation, defined as 10% or greater of total kidney volume. The median EBB dose to the partially treated kidney was 24 Gy. None of the 9 patients who received direct kidney irradiation have developed signs of kidney injury, although 1 of the 21 patients who received abdominal radiation developed a hemolytic uremia syndrome. Six patients had {>=} 50% of the heart irradiated to a median EBB dose of 37.8 Gy (range, 32-47.8). One patient developed a pericardial effusion and constrictive pericarditis after BMT while on IL-2 therapy; this patient died of respiratory causes (included in the pulmonary complication group above). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent lymphoma with gross residual disease after reinduction chemotherapy (defined as {>=} 2cm in size in this study) have a poor prognosis following BMT. In an attempt to improve the outcome of these patients, an external beam boost was given to sites of residual gross disease prior to BMT. The efficacy of this treatment remains uncertain. Caution must be exercised when using this approach to treat residual thoracic disease, as there is a high risk of associated radiation pneumonitis. However, for patients with resistant thoracic disease, external beam boost followed by BMT may offer the only potential for cure.

  14. Iterated random walks with shape prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    the parametric probability density function. Then, random walks is performed iteratively aligning the prior with the current segmentation in every iteration. We tested the proposed approach with natural and medical images and compared it with the latest techniques with random walks and shape priors......We propose a new framework for image segmentation using random walks where a distance shape prior is combined with a region term. The shape prior is weighted by a confidence map to reduce the influence of the prior in high gradient areas and the region term is computed with k-means to estimate....... The experiments suggest that this method gives promising results for medical and natural images....

  15. Complex Multi-Block Analysis Identifies New Immunologic and Genetic Disease Progression Patterns Associated with the Residual β-Cell Function 1 Year after Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Pörksen, Sven; Svensson, Jannet; Vikre-Jørgensen, Jennifer; Thomsen, Jane; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Johannesen, Jesper; Pociot, Flemming; Petersen, Jacob Sten; Hansen, Lars; Mortensen, Henrik Bindesbøl; Nielsen, Lotte Brøndum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in Danish children 12 months after diagnosis using Latent Factor Modelling. We include three data blocks of dynamic paraclinical biomarkers, baseline clinical characteristics and genetic profiles of diabetes related SNPs in the analyses. This method identified a model explaining 21.6% of the total variation in the data set. The model consists of two components: (1) A pattern of declining residual β-cell function positively associated with young age, presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and long duration of disease symptoms (P = 0.0004), and with risk alleles of WFS1, CDKN2A/2B and RNLS (P = 0.006). (2) A second pattern of high ZnT8 autoantibody levels and low postprandial glucagon levels associated with risk alleles of IFIH1, TCF2, TAF5L, IL2RA and PTPN2 and protective alleles of ERBB3 gene (P = 0.0005). These results demonstrate that Latent Factor Modelling can identify associating patterns in clinical prospective data – future functional studies will be needed to clarify the relevance of these patterns. PMID:23755131

  16. Comparative analysis of minimal residual disease detection using four-color flow cytometry, consensus IgH-PCR, and quantitative IgH PCR in CLL after allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, S; Ritgen, M; Pott, C; Brüggemann, M; Raff, T; Stilgenbauer, S; Döhner, H; Dreger, P; Kneba, M

    2004-10-01

    The clinically most suitable method for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is still controversial. We prospectively compared MRD assessment in 158 blood samples of 74 patients with CLL after stem cell transplantation (SCT) using four-color flow cytometry (MRD flow) in parallel with consensus IgH-PCR and ASO IgH real-time PCR (ASO IgH RQ-PCR). In 25 out of 106 samples (23.6%) with a polyclonal consensus IgH-PCR pattern, MRD flow still detected CLL cells, proving higher sensitivity of flow cytometry over PCR-genescanning with consensus IgH-primers. Of 92 samples, 14 (15.2%) analyzed in parallel by MRD flow and by ASO IgH RQ-PCR were negative by our flow cytometric assay but positive by PCR, thus demonstrating superior sensitivity of RQ-PCR with ASO primers. Quantitative MRD levels measured by both methods correlated well (r=0.93). MRD detection by flow and ASO IgH RQ-PCR were equally suitable to monitor MRD kinetics after allogeneic SCT, but the PCR method detected impending relapses after autologous SCT earlier. An analysis of factors that influence sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry for MRD detection allowed to devise further improvements of this technique.

  17. Curative treatment for central nervous system medulloepithelioma despite residual disease after resection. Report of two cases treated according to the GPHO protocol HIT 2000 and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Klaus [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Zwiener, Isabella [University Medical Center Univ. Mainz (Germany). Inst. for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics; Welker, Helmut [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Maass, Eberhard [Klinikum Stuttgart - Olgahospital (DE). Pediatrics 5 (Oncology, Hematology, Immunology); Bongartz, Rudolf [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Berthold, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Oncology; Pietsch, Torsten [Bonn Univ. Medical Center (Germany). Dept. of Neuropathology; Warmuth-Metz, Monika [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Bueren, Andre von; Rutkowski, Stefan [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology

    2011-11-15

    Medulloepithelioma of the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) usually occurring in early childhood. It is characterized by highly malignant behavior with a propensity for progression, recurrence, and dissemination despite intensive therapy. Due to its rarity, the optimal management is still unknown. However, gross total resection (GTR) has been considered crucial to achieve cure. In this article, the authors report on 2 cases of CNS medulloepithelioma in which long-term survival (more than 6 years) could be achieved despite evidence of, or suspected postoperative residual disease with an otherwise dismal prognosis. The patients were treated according to different strata of the protocol for primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the German-Austrian multicenter trial of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for childhood brain tumors (HIT 2000). Treatment included postoperative hyperfractionated radiotherapy of the craniospinal axis followed by a boost to the tumor site in combination with chemotherapy. A review of the 2 reported and 37 previously published cases confirmed GTR and older age as positive prognostic factors. (orig.)

  18. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  19. Prognostic significance of flow-cytometry evaluation of minimal residual disease in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP-AML 2002/01 study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldini, Barbara; Rizzati, Frida; Masetti, Riccardo; Fagioli, Franca; Menna, Giuseppe; Micalizzi, Concetta; Putti, Maria Caterina; Rizzari, Carmelo; Santoro, Nicola; Zecca, Marco; Disarò, Silvia; Rondelli, Roberto; Merli, Pietro; Pigazzi, Martina; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), assessment of initial treatment response is an essential prognostic factor; methods more sensitive than morphology are still under evaluation. We report on the measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD), by multicolour flow-cytometry in one centralized laboratory, in 142 children with newly diagnosed AML enrolled in the Associazione Italiana di EmatoOncologia Pediatrica-AML 2002/01 trial. At the end of the first induction course, MRD was 1% in 51 patients. The 8-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 125 children in morphological complete remission and with MRD <0·1%, 0·1-1% and ≥1% was 73·1 ± 5·6%, 37·8 ± 12·1% and 34·1 ± 8·8%, respectively (P < 0·01). MRD was also available after the second induction course in 92/142 patients. MRD was ≥0·1% at the end of the first induction course in 36 patients; 13 reached an MRD <0·1% after the second one and their DFS was 45·4 ± 16·7% vs. 22·8 ± 8·9% in patients with persisting MRD ≥0·1% (P = 0·037). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MRD ≥0·1% after first induction course was, together with a monosomal karyotype, an independent adverse prognostic factor for DFS. Our results show that MRD detected by flow-cytometry after induction therapy predicts outcome in patients with childhood AML and can help stratifying post-remission treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  1. Minimal residual disease or cure in MPNs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mads Emil; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic landscape of the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is markedly changing consequent to the development of JAK-inhibitors and the use of ruxolitinib (RUX) in patients with myelofibrosis (MF) and patients with polycythemia vera (PV) who develop r...

  2. Prior oral conditions in patients undergoing heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups ( p <0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls ( p <0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words: Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis.

  3. The pH Stability of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Particles Is Modulated by Residues Located at the Pentameric Interface and in the N Terminus of VP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Flavia; Vázquez-Calvo, Angela; Sobrino, Francisco; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2015-05-01

    The picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. The FMDV capsid is highly acid labile, and viral particles lose infectivity due to their disassembly at pH values slightly below neutrality. This acid sensitivity is related to the mechanism of viral uncoating and genome penetration from endosomes. In this study, we have analyzed the molecular basis of FMDV acid-induced disassembly by isolating and characterizing a panel of novel FMDV mutants differing in acid sensitivity. Amino acid replacements altering virion stability were preferentially distributed in two different regions of the capsid: the N terminus of VP1 and the pentameric interface. Even more, the acid labile phenotype induced by a mutation located at the pentameric interface in VP3 could be compensated by introduction of an amino acid substitution in the N terminus of VP1. These results indicate that the acid sensitivity of FMDV can be considered a multifactorial trait and that virion stability is the fine-tuned product of the interaction between residues from different capsid proteins, in particular those located within the N terminus of VP1 or close to the pentameric interface. The viral capsid protects the viral genome from environmental factors and contributes to virus dissemination and infection. Thus, understanding of the molecular mechanisms that modulate capsid stability is of interest for the basic knowledge of the biology of viruses and as a tool to improve the stability of conventional vaccines based on inactivated virions or empty capsids. Using foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which displays a capsid with extreme acid sensitivity, we have performed a genetic study to identify the molecular determinants involved in capsid stability. A panel of FMDV mutants with differential sensitivity to acidic pH was generated and characterized, and the results showed that two different regions of FMDV

  4. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  5. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  6. Penalised Complexity Priors for Stationary Autoregressive Processes

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-05-25

    The autoregressive (AR) process of order p(AR(p)) is a central model in time series analysis. A Bayesian approach requires the user to define a prior distribution for the coefficients of the AR(p) model. Although it is easy to write down some prior, it is not at all obvious how to understand and interpret the prior distribution, to ensure that it behaves according to the users\\' prior knowledge. In this article, we approach this problem using the recently developed ideas of penalised complexity (PC) priors. These prior have important properties like robustness and invariance to reparameterisations, as well as a clear interpretation. A PC prior is computed based on specific principles, where model component complexity is penalised in terms of deviation from simple base model formulations. In the AR(1) case, we discuss two natural base model choices, corresponding to either independence in time or no change in time. The latter case is illustrated in a survival model with possible time-dependent frailty. For higher-order processes, we propose a sequential approach, where the base model for AR(p) is the corresponding AR(p-1) model expressed using the partial autocorrelations. The properties of the new prior distribution are compared with the reference prior in a simulation study.

  7. Developments in hydroconversion processes for residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douwes, C T [Shell Res. B.V.; Wijffels, J B; Van Klinken, J; Van Zijll Langhout, W C

    1979-01-01

    A review of recent developments in hydrotreating processes for demetallization, desulfurization, and conversion to distillate products of residues covers catalyst developments for suppression of coke formation, maximum metals tolerance, and conversion selectivity; the effects of hydrogen pressure and temperature on catalyst deactivation and conversion; basic operating characteristics of conventional fixed-bed trickle-flow reactors, and of onstream catalyst replacement reactors, including the expanded-bed and the moving-bed reactor; a comparison of catalyst bed activity level, dirt tolerance, reactor effectiveness, temperature control, and thermal stability of the expanded-bed and moving-bed reactors; residue upgrading in slurry-bed reactors of dispersed vanadium sulfide catalyst in the oil; design and control features for safety and reliability; and a cost comparison between the indirect hydrotreating route, in which the asphalt fraction is separated prior to hydrotreating, and the as yet incompletely developed direct route.

  8. [Waste over history: perceptions about residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velloso, Marta Pimenta

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how Man, over history, felt about the residues produced by human activity. The text is divided into three parts: In the first part it tells the story of the black plague pandemic during the XIV century, showing how this disease was associated with the residues produced by the human body. In the second part it explains how the first notions of waste were, and still are, related to dirt, disease and death. Finally, in the third part, it describes the first measures of hygiene in the Renaissance and refers to the first public health actions at the beginning of the XX century, starting to combat the agents of infectious diseases and their vectors.

  9. Simplified flow cytometric assay to detect minimal residual disease in childhood with acute lymphoblastic leukemia Detecção de doença residual mínima em crianças com leucemia linfoblástica aguda por citometria de fluxo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Delbuono

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The detection of minimal residual disease (MRD is an important prognostic factor in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL providing crucial information on the response to treatment and risk of relapse. However, the high cost of these techniques restricts their use in countries with limited resources. Thus, we prospectively studied the use of flow cytometry (FC with a simplified 3-color assay and a limited antibody panel to detect MRD in the bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood (PB of children with ALL. BM and PB samples from 40 children with ALL were analyzed on days (d 14 and 28 during induction and in weeks 24-30 of maintenance therapy. Detectable MRD was defined as > 0.01% cells expressing the aberrant immunophenotype as characterized at diagnosis among total events in the sample. A total of 87% of the patients had an aberrant immunophenotype at diagnosis. On d14, 56% of the BM and 43% of the PB samples had detectable MRD. On d28, this decreased to 45% and 31%, respectively. The percentage of cells with the aberrant phenotype was similar in both BM and PB in T-ALL but about 10 times higher in the BM of patients with B-cell-precursor ALL. Moreover, MRD was detected in the BM of patients in complete morphological remission (44% on d14 and 39% on d28. MRD was not significantly associated to gender, age, initial white blood cell count or cell lineage. This FC assay is feasible, affordable and readily applicable to detect MRD in centers with limited resources.A detecção de doença residual mínima (DRM é um importante fator prognóstico na leucemia linfóide aguda (LLA infantil e fornece informações sobre a resposta ao tratamento e o risco de recaída. Entretanto, os altos custos das técnicas utilizadas limitam seu uso nos países em desenvolvimento. Desta forma, realizamos um estudo prospectivo para avaliar a citometria de fluxo (CF, utilizando três fluorescências e um painel limitado de anticorpos monoclonais, como método de detec

  10. 40 CFR 180.128 - Pyrethrins; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... byproducts 0.05 Loganberry, postharvest 1.0 Mango, postharvest 1.0 Milk, fat (reflecting negligible residues... a result of its use in cereal grain mills and in storage areas for milled cereal grain products. (3... served. Food must be removed or covered prior to use. (4) Where tolerances are established on both the...

  11. DISEASES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Pallejà, Albert; Tsafou, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Text mining is a flexible technology that can be applied to numerous different tasks in biology and medicine. We present a system for extracting disease-gene associations from biomedical abstracts. The system consists of a highly efficient dictionary-based tagger for named entity recognition...... of human genes and diseases, which we combine with a scoring scheme that takes into account co-occurrences both within and between sentences. We show that this approach is able to extract half of all manually curated associations with a false positive rate of only 0.16%. Nonetheless, text mining should...... not stand alone, but be combined with other types of evidence. For this reason, we have developed the DISEASES resource, which integrates the results from text mining with manually curated disease-gene associations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies from existing databases...

  12. Reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces of Gaussian priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, van der A.W.; Zanten, van J.H.; Clarke, B.; Ghosal, S.

    2008-01-01

    We review definitions and properties of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces attached to Gaussian variables and processes, with a view to applications in nonparametric Bayesian statistics using Gaussian priors. The rate of contraction of posterior distributions based on Gaussian priors can be described

  13. Improving Open Access through Prior Learning Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuangxu; Kawachi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores and presents new data on how to improve open access in distance education through using prior learning assessments. Broadly there are three types of prior learning assessment (PLAR): Type-1 for prospective students to be allowed to register for a course; Type-2 for current students to avoid duplicating work-load to gain…

  14. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322847796

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior

  15. The additional benefit of residual spraying and insecticide-treated curtains for dengue control over current best practice in Cuba: Evaluation of disease incidence in a cluster randomized trial in a low burden setting with intensive routine control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Eugenia; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Rosales, Julio Popa; Mirabal, Mayelin; Cabrera, Pedro; Fonseca, Viviana; Gómez Padrón, Tania; Pérez Menzies, Mirtha; Montada, Domingo; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Aedes control interventions are considered the cornerstone of dengue control programmes, but there is scarce evidence on their effect on disease. We set-up a cluster randomized controlled trial in Santiago de Cuba to evaluate the entomological and epidemiological effectiveness of periodical intra- and peri-domiciliary residual insecticide (deltamethrin) treatment (RIT) and long lasting insecticide treated curtains (ITC). Sixty three clusters (around 250 households each) were randomly allocated to two intervention (RIT and ITC) and one control arm. Routine Aedes control activities (entomological surveillance, source reduction, selective adulticiding, health education) were applied in the whole study area. The outcome measures were clinical dengue case incidence and immature Aedes infestation. Effectiveness of tools was evaluated using a generalized linear regression model with a negative binomial link function. Despite significant reduction in Aedes indices (Rate Ratio (RR) 0.54 (95%CI 0.32-0.89) in the first month after RIT, the effect faded out over time and dengue incidence was not reduced. Overall, in this setting there was no protective effect of RIT or ITC over routine in the 17months intervention period, with for house index RR of 1.16 (95%CI 0.96-1.40) and 1.25 (95%CI 1.03-1.50) and for dengue incidence RR of 1.43 (95%CI 1.08-1.90) and 0.96 (95%CI 0.72-1.28) respectively. The monthly dengue incidence rate (IR) at cluster level was best explained by epidemic periods (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 5.50 (95%CI 4.14-7.31)), the IR in bordering houseblocks (IRR 1.03 (95%CI 1.02-1.04)) and the IR pre-intervention (IRR 1.02 (95%CI 1.00-1.04)). Adding RIT to an intensive routine Aedes control programme has a transient effect on the already moderate low entomological infestation levels, while ITC did not have any effect. For both interventions, we didn't evidence impact on disease incidence. Further studies are needed to evaluate impact in settings with high Aedes

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  17. Magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging differentiates acute recurrent ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis from residual thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Melanie; Mol, Gerben C; van Rooden, Cornelis J; Klok, Frederikus A; Westerbeek, Robin E; Iglesias Del Sol, Antonio; van de Ree, Marcel A; de Roos, Albert; Huisman, Menno V

    2014-07-24

    Accurate diagnostic assessment of suspected ipsilateral recurrent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major clinical challenge because differentiating between acute recurrent thrombosis and residual thrombosis is difficult with compression ultrasonography (CUS). We evaluated noninvasive magnetic resonance direct thrombus imaging (MRDTI) in a prospective study of 39 patients with symptomatic recurrent ipsilateral DVT (incompressibility of a different proximal venous segment than at the prior DVT) and 42 asymptomatic patients with at least 6-month-old chronic residual thrombi and normal D-dimer levels. All patients were subjected to MRDTI. MRDTI images were judged by 2 independent radiologists blinded for the presence of acute DVT and a third in case of disagreement. The sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver reliability of MRDTI were determined. MRDTI demonstrated acute recurrent ipsilateral DVT in 37 of 39 patients and was normal in all 42 patients without symptomatic recurrent disease for a sensitivity of 95% (95% CI, 83% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 92% to 100%). Interobserver agreement was excellent (κ = 0.98). MRDTI images were adequate for interpretation in 95% of the cases. MRDTI is a sensitive and reproducible method for distinguishing acute ipsilateral recurrent DVT from 6-month-old chronic residual thrombi in the leg veins. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Rapid sampling of molecular motions with prior information constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Barak; Enosh, Angela; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Halperin, Dan

    2009-02-01

    Proteins are active, flexible machines that perform a range of different functions. Innovative experimental approaches may now provide limited partial information about conformational changes along motion pathways of proteins. There is therefore a need for computational approaches that can efficiently incorporate prior information into motion prediction schemes. In this paper, we present PathRover, a general setup designed for the integration of prior information into the motion planning algorithm of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT). Each suggested motion pathway comprises a sequence of low-energy clash-free conformations that satisfy an arbitrary number of prior information constraints. These constraints can be derived from experimental data or from expert intuition about the motion. The incorporation of prior information is very straightforward and significantly narrows down the vast search in the typically high-dimensional conformational space, leading to dramatic reduction in running time. To allow the use of state-of-the-art energy functions and conformational sampling, we have integrated this framework into Rosetta, an accurate protocol for diverse types of structural modeling. The suggested framework can serve as an effective complementary tool for molecular dynamics, Normal Mode Analysis, and other prevalent techniques for predicting motion in proteins. We applied our framework to three different model systems. We show that a limited set of experimentally motivated constraints may effectively bias the simulations toward diverse predicates in an outright fashion, from distance constraints to enforcement of loop closure. In particular, our analysis sheds light on mechanisms of protein domain swapping and on the role of different residues in the motion.

  19. Rapid sampling of molecular motions with prior information constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Raveh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are active, flexible machines that perform a range of different functions. Innovative experimental approaches may now provide limited partial information about conformational changes along motion pathways of proteins. There is therefore a need for computational approaches that can efficiently incorporate prior information into motion prediction schemes. In this paper, we present PathRover, a general setup designed for the integration of prior information into the motion planning algorithm of rapidly exploring random trees (RRT. Each suggested motion pathway comprises a sequence of low-energy clash-free conformations that satisfy an arbitrary number of prior information constraints. These constraints can be derived from experimental data or from expert intuition about the motion. The incorporation of prior information is very straightforward and significantly narrows down the vast search in the typically high-dimensional conformational space, leading to dramatic reduction in running time. To allow the use of state-of-the-art energy functions and conformational sampling, we have integrated this framework into Rosetta, an accurate protocol for diverse types of structural modeling. The suggested framework can serve as an effective complementary tool for molecular dynamics, Normal Mode Analysis, and other prevalent techniques for predicting motion in proteins. We applied our framework to three different model systems. We show that a limited set of experimentally motivated constraints may effectively bias the simulations toward diverse predicates in an outright fashion, from distance constraints to enforcement of loop closure. In particular, our analysis sheds light on mechanisms of protein domain swapping and on the role of different residues in the motion.

  20. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  1. Biofertilizer potential of residual biomass of Akk (alotropis procera (Ait.))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The biofertilizer potential of residual biomass, derived from two parts that is flowers and leaves of Akk,was investigated in terms of its applications as a substrate for phyto-beneficial bacterial growth and subsequent inorganic phosphate solubilizing agent. The residual biomass was obtained after the extraction of antioxidants from the leaves and flowers of Akk using different solvent systems. The treatment with residual biomass of Akk (RBA) significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the growth of Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 and Rhizobium sp. E-11 as compared to control (without residual biomass). Maximum microbial growth in terms of optical density (0.92-1.22) was observed for residual biomass sample extracted with aqueous acetone against the control (0.58-0.68). On the other hand, maximum phosphate solubilization (589.27-611.32 mu g mL-1) was recorded for aqueous ethanol extracted residual biomass while the minimum (246.31-382.15 micro g) for aqueous acetone extracted residual biomass against the control (576.65 micro g mL-1). The present study revealed that the tested RBA can be explored as an effective bio-inoculant to supplement synthetic inorganic phosphate fertilizers. However, some appropriate in-vitro assays should be conducted to optimize and standardize the quantity and mesh size of residual biomass prior to use in biofertilizer production as carrier material. (author)

  2. Fundamentals of a moderate thermocracking-deep deasphalting combined process of Karamay vacuum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiming, X; Tonghua, L.; Suogi, Z.; Renan, W. [University of Petroleum, State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Beijing (China); Lailong, L.; Zhen, L. [Karamay Petrochemical Company, Petrochemical Research Institute, Karamay (China)

    2004-07-01

    Thermocracking of heavy oil vacuum residue was carried out to determine the optimum conditions for the thermal cracking of Karamay vacuum residue prior to coke formation. The vacuum residue and the cracked residue after distillation were separated using supercritical fluid extraction and fractionation techniques. Sixteen and thirteen fractions and non-extractable end cuts respectively were separated, and their properties, compositions and average structures determined. Solubility parameters of the end cuts were measured, and those of the fractions calculated. The solubility parameter of the end cut of distilled residue was found to have greatly increased. It was determined that when the difference of the end cut and the extractable fractions amounts to 6.37MPa1/2, in the case of Karamay vacuum residue coke will deposit under thermocracking conditions. Based on the results of a series of solvent deep deasphalting experiments, a scheme for vacuum residue thermocracking and deasphalting of the cracked residue was proposed.

  3. Evaluation of the macula prior to cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeague, Marta; Sharma, Priya; Ho, Allen C

    2018-01-01

    To describe recent evidence regarding methods of evaluation of retinal structure and function prior to cataract surgery. Studies in patients with cataract but no clinically detectable retinal disease have shown that routine use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) prior to cataract surgery can detect subtle macular disease, which may alter the course of treatment or lead to modification of consent. The routine use of OCT has been especially useful in patients being considered for advanced-technology intraocular lenses (IOLs) as subtle macular disease can be a contraindication to the use of these lenses. The cost-effectiveness of routine use of OCT prior to cataract surgery has not been studied. Other technologies that assess retinal function rather than structure, such as microperimetry and electroretinogram (ERG) need further study to determine whether they can predict retinal potential in cataract patients. There is growing evidence for the importance of more detailed retinal evaluation of cataract patients even with clinically normal exam. OCT has been the most established and studied method for retinal evaluation in cataract patients, but other technologies such as microperimetry and ERG are beginning to be studied.

  4. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and/or elect......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and....../or electrodialytic remediation, were used in Portland cement mortar. Mortar bars with 15 % weight replacement of cement by APC residues showed compressive strengths up to 40 MPa after 28/32 days. Heavy metal and salt leaching from both crushed and monolithic mortars with APC residues was generally similar...

  5. Terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, A M; Bernardi, L A; Christiansen, O B

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy loss prior to viability is common and research in the field is extensive. Unfortunately, terminology in the literature is inconsistent. The lack of consensus regarding nomenclature and classification of pregnancy loss prior to viability makes it difficult to compare study results from...... different centres. In our opinion, terminology and definitions should be based on clinical findings, and when possible, transvaginal ultrasound. With this Early Pregnancy Consensus Statement, it is our goal to provide clear and consistent terminology for pregnancy loss prior to viability....

  6. Effect of drying on leaching testing of treated municipal solid waste incineration APC-residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Hyks, Jiri; Astrup, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Air-pollution-control (APC) residues from waste incinerators are hazardous waste according to European legislation and must be treated prior to landfilling. Batch and column leaching data determine which type of landfill can receive the treated APC-residues. CEN standards are prescribed...

  7. Machine for compacting solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.

    1981-11-01

    Machine for compacting solid residues, particularly bulky radioactive residues, constituted of a horizontally actuated punch and a fixed compression anvil, in which the residues are first compacted horizontally and then vertically. Its salient characteristic is that the punch and the compression anvil have embossments on the compression side and interpenetrating plates in the compression position [fr

  8. A Simulation of Pell Grant Awards and Costs Using Prior-Prior Year Financial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelchen, Robert; Jones, Gigi

    2015-01-01

    We examine the likely implications of switching from a prior year (PY) financial aid system, the current practice in which students file the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) using income data from the previous tax year, to prior-prior year (PPY), in which data from two years before enrollment is used. While PPY allows students to…

  9. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  10. Prior Authorization of PMDs Demonstration - Status Update

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS implemented a Prior Authorization process for scooters and power wheelchairs for people with Fee-For-Service Medicare who reside in seven states with high...

  11. Short Report Biochemical derangements prior to emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MMJ VOL 29 (1): March 2017. Biochemical derangements prior to emergency laparotomy at QECH 55. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): March 2017 ... Venepuncture was performed preoperatively for urgent cases, defined as those requiring.

  12. Attentional and Contextual Priors in Sound Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmetz, Michael; Elhilali, Mounya

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and neural studies of selective attention have consistently demonstrated that explicit attentional cues to particular perceptual features profoundly alter perception and performance. The statistics of the sensory environment can also provide cues about what perceptual features to expect, but the extent to which these more implicit contextual cues impact perception and performance, as well as their relationship to explicit attentional cues, is not well understood. In this study, the explicit cues, or attentional prior probabilities, and the implicit cues, or contextual prior probabilities, associated with different acoustic frequencies in a detection task were simultaneously manipulated. Both attentional and contextual priors had similarly large but independent impacts on sound detectability, with evidence that listeners tracked and used contextual priors for a variety of sound classes (pure tones, harmonic complexes, and vowels). Further analyses showed that listeners updated their contextual priors rapidly and optimally, given the changing acoustic frequency statistics inherent in the paradigm. A Bayesian Observer model accounted for both attentional and contextual adaptations found with listeners. These results bolster the interpretation of perception as Bayesian inference, and suggest that some effects attributed to selective attention may be a special case of contextual prior integration along a feature axis.

  13. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)

  14. Touch-down reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of IgV(H) rearrangement and Sybr-Green-based real-time RT-PCR quantitation of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peková, Sona; Marková, Jana; Pajer, Petr; Dvorák, Michal; Cetkovský, Petr; Schwarz, Jirí

    2005-01-01

    Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can relapse even after aggressive therapy and autografts. It is commonly assumed that to prevent relapse the level of minimal residual disease (MRD) should be as low as possible. To evaluate MRD, highly sensitive quantitative assays are needed. The aim of the study was to develop a robust and sensitive method for detection of the clonal immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IgV(H)) rearrangement in CLL and to introduce a highly sensitive and specific methodology for MRD monitoring in patients with CLL who undergo intensive treatment. As a prerequisite for MRD detection, touch-down reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR using degenerate primers were used for the diagnostic identification of (H) gene rearrangement(s). For quantitative MRD detection in 18 patients, we employed a real-time RT-PCR assay (RQ-PCR) making use of patient-specific primers and the cost-saving Sybr-Green reporter dye (SG). For precise calibration of RQ-PCR, patient-specific IgV(H) sequences were cloned. Touch-down RT-PCR with degenerate primers allowed the successful detection of IgV(H) clonal rearrangement(s) in 252 of 257 (98.1%) diagnostic samples. Biallelic rearrangements were found in 27 of 252 (10.7%) cases. Degenerate primers used for the identification of clonal expansion at diagnosis were not sensitive enough for MRD detection. In contrast, our RQ-PCR assay using patient-specific primers and SG reached the sensitivity of 10(-)(6). We demonstrated MRD in each patient tested, including four of four patients in complete remission following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and three of three following allogeneic 'mini'-HSCT. Increments in MRD might herald relapse; aggressive chemotherapy could induce molecular remission. Our touch-down RT-PCR has higher efficiency to detect clonal IgV(H) rearrangements including the biallelic ones. MRD quantitation of IgV(H) expression using SG-based RQ-PCR represents a highly specific

  15. Clinical utility of carotid duplex ultrasound prior to cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Judith C; Kabbani, Loay S; Peterson, Edward L; Masabni, Khalil; Morgan, Jeffrey A; Brooks, Sara; Wertella, Kathleen P; Paone, Gaetano

    2016-03-01

    Clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of carotid duplex examination prior to cardiac surgery have been questioned by the multidisciplinary committee creating the 2012 Appropriate Use Criteria for Peripheral Vascular Laboratory Testing. We report the clinical outcomes and postoperative neurologic symptoms in patients who underwent carotid duplex ultrasound prior to open heart surgery at a tertiary institution. Using the combined databases from our clinical vascular laboratory and the Society of Thoracic Surgery, a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent carotid duplex ultrasound within 13 months prior to open heart surgery from March 2005 to March 2013 was performed. The outcomes between those who underwent carotid duplex scanning (group A) and those who did not (group B) were compared. Among 3233 patients in the cohort who underwent cardiac surgery, 515 (15.9%) patients underwent a carotid duplex ultrasound preoperatively, and 2718 patients did not (84.1%). Among the patients who underwent carotid screening vs no screening, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk factors of cerebrovascular disease (10.9% vs 12.7%; P = .26), prior stroke (8.2% vs 7.2%; P = .41), and prior transient ischemic attack (2.9% vs 3.3%; P = .24). For those undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 306 (17.8%) of 1723 patients underwent preoperative carotid duplex ultrasound. Among patients who had carotid screening prior to CABG, the incidence of carotid disease was low: 249 (81.4%) had minimal or mild stenosis (duplex scanning and those who did not. Primary outcomes of patients who underwent open heart surgery also showed no difference in the perioperative mortality (5.1% vs 6.9%; P = .14) and stroke (2.6% vs 2.4%; P = .85) between patients undergoing preoperative duplex scanning and those who did not. Operative intervention of severe carotid stenosis prior to isolated CABG occurred in 2 of the 17 patients (11.8%) identified who

  16. Thermal inertializing of solid incinerator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proelss, J.

    2003-01-01

    Inertialization of residues is a key task of incinerators. Residues of conventional incineration processes may contain high levels of inorganic or organic pollutants and must be treated prior to recycling. the most effective process is thermal treatment above the melting point. This will destroy organic pollutants like dioxins/furans and pathogenic compounds, while the heavy metals will be partly volatilized. The glassy slag obtained as end product is low in heavy metals and more or less resistant to leaching. The The author describes a method for calculating activity coefficients of volatile components of diluted, liquid multicomponent systems. With these data, the data base for thermodynamic description of fluid mixtures was updated, and a set of characteristic data was established for describing transport in an inflatable module. Once the activity coefficients of interesting constituents of the slag are known along with the transport conditions in the volatilization process, it is possible to optimize the thermal treatment of critical ashes and dusts with a view to energy consumption and process control. In two different exemplary process concepts, the energy consumption for residue treatment is estimated. The processes proposed are compared with published process proposals, and their energy consumption is assessed in a comoparative study [de

  17. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  18. Iterative CT shading correction with no prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengwei; Sun, Xiaonan; Hu, Hongjie; Mao, Tingyu; Zhao, Wei; Sheng, Ke; Cheung, Alice A.; Niu, Tianye

    2015-11-01

    Shading artifacts in CT images are caused by scatter contamination, beam-hardening effect and other non-ideal imaging conditions. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel and general correction framework to eliminate low-frequency shading artifacts in CT images (e.g. cone-beam CT, low-kVp CT) without relying on prior information. The method is based on the general knowledge of the relatively uniform CT number distribution in one tissue component. The CT image is first segmented to construct a template image where each structure is filled with the same CT number of a specific tissue type. Then, by subtracting the ideal template from the CT image, the residual image from various error sources are generated. Since forward projection is an integration process, non-continuous shading artifacts in the image become continuous signals in a line integral. Thus, the residual image is forward projected and its line integral is low-pass filtered in order to estimate the error that causes shading artifacts. A compensation map is reconstructed from the filtered line integral error using a standard FDK algorithm and added back to the original image for shading correction. As the segmented image does not accurately depict a shaded CT image, the proposed scheme is iterated until the variation of the residual image is minimized. The proposed method is evaluated using cone-beam CT images of a Catphan©600 phantom and a pelvis patient, and low-kVp CT angiography images for carotid artery assessment. Compared with the CT image without correction, the proposed method reduces the overall CT number error from over 200 HU to be less than 30 HU and increases the spatial uniformity by a factor of 1.5. Low-contrast object is faithfully retained after the proposed correction. An effective iterative algorithm for shading correction in CT imaging is proposed that is only assisted by general anatomical information without relying on prior knowledge. The proposed method is thus practical

  19. Important predictors of response determined by surgical staging prior to triple modality therapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suntharalingam, M.; Vines, E.; Slawson, R.; Doyle, A.; Schuetz, J.; Greenwald, B.; Sonnet, J.; Krasna, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Since 1992, the University of Maryland has routinely performed preoperative surgical staging including thoracoscopy and laparoscopy on patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation followed by surgical resection for esophageal carcinoma. We have performed an analysis of the pathologic pretreatment data in an attempt to identify possible predictors of response and outcome. Materials: Patients underwent thoracoscopy and laparoscopy in order to determine resectability of the primary lesion and pathologic nodal status prior to therapy. To date, 32 patients have completed triple modality therapy (28 men, 4 women, median age 59). Patients received 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions in conjunction with two cycles of 5-FU (1 gm/m2) and Cisplatin (100 mg/m2) on days 1 and 28. Radiotherapy fields were determined by the extent of disease discovered at time of surgical staging. Ivor Lewis esophagectomy was performed 4 to 6 weeks after completion of chemo/RT. The median follow up is 24.8 months (range 4-49 mo.) Sixteen patients had squamous cell ca and 16 had adenocarcinoma. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed in order to determine the influence of age, KPS, T stage, Lymph Nodes status and histology, on the likelihood of achieving a pathologic complete response and disease free survival. Results: Twenty-eight have undergone preoperative staging (2 refused, 2 medical contraindications.) All 32 patients are valuable for response to therapy and are included in the analysis. The three year cause specific and disease free survival is 46% and 41% respectively with a median CSS of 23 months and DFS of 19 months. The overall complete response rate assessed by histologic and immunohistologic evaluation at the time of esophagectomy is 31%. The DFS at 32 months is 72% (median not reached) for these patients versus 24% for those with residual disease at the time of surgery. The most significant predictor for the likelihood of achieving a pathologic CR was the

  20. Heuristics as Bayesian inference under extreme priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpart, Paula; Jones, Matt; Love, Bradley C

    2018-05-01

    Simple heuristics are often regarded as tractable decision strategies because they ignore a great deal of information in the input data. One puzzle is why heuristics can outperform full-information models, such as linear regression, which make full use of the available information. These "less-is-more" effects, in which a relatively simpler model outperforms a more complex model, are prevalent throughout cognitive science, and are frequently argued to demonstrate an inherent advantage of simplifying computation or ignoring information. In contrast, we show at the computational level (where algorithmic restrictions are set aside) that it is never optimal to discard information. Through a formal Bayesian analysis, we prove that popular heuristics, such as tallying and take-the-best, are formally equivalent to Bayesian inference under the limit of infinitely strong priors. Varying the strength of the prior yields a continuum of Bayesian models with the heuristics at one end and ordinary regression at the other. Critically, intermediate models perform better across all our simulations, suggesting that down-weighting information with the appropriate prior is preferable to entirely ignoring it. Rather than because of their simplicity, our analyses suggest heuristics perform well because they implement strong priors that approximate the actual structure of the environment. We end by considering how new heuristics could be derived by infinitely strengthening the priors of other Bayesian models. These formal results have implications for work in psychology, machine learning and economics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. External Prior Guided Internal Prior Learning for Real-World Noisy Image Denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, David

    2018-06-01

    Most of existing image denoising methods learn image priors from either external data or the noisy image itself to remove noise. However, priors learned from external data may not be adaptive to the image to be denoised, while priors learned from the given noisy image may not be accurate due to the interference of corrupted noise. Meanwhile, the noise in real-world noisy images is very complex, which is hard to be described by simple distributions such as Gaussian distribution, making real noisy image denoising a very challenging problem. We propose to exploit the information in both external data and the given noisy image, and develop an external prior guided internal prior learning method for real noisy image denoising. We first learn external priors from an independent set of clean natural images. With the aid of learned external priors, we then learn internal priors from the given noisy image to refine the prior model. The external and internal priors are formulated as a set of orthogonal dictionaries to efficiently reconstruct the desired image. Extensive experiments are performed on several real noisy image datasets. The proposed method demonstrates highly competitive denoising performance, outperforming state-of-the-art denoising methods including those designed for real noisy images.

  2. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  3. Offending prior to first psychiatric contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, H; Agerbo, E; Dean, K

    2012-01-01

    There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non-psychot......-psychotic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between mental disorder and offending is present prior to illness onset in psychotic and non-psychotic disorders.......There is a well-established association between psychotic disorders and subsequent offending but the extent to which those who develop psychosis might have a prior history of offending is less clear. Little is known about whether the association between illness and offending exists in non...

  4. GENERAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA PURAN (DASCĂLU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Disciplinary research is the first phase of the disciplinary action. According to art. 251 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code no disciplinary sanction may be ordered before performing the prior disciplinary research.These regulations provide an exception: the sanction of written warning. The current regulations in question, kept from the old regulation, provides a protection for employees against abuses made by employers, since sanctions are affecting the salary or the position held, or even the development of individual employment contract. Thus, prior research of the fact that is a misconduct, before a disciplinary sanction is applied, is an essential condition for the validity of the measure ordered. Through this study we try to highlight some general issues concerning the characteristics, processes and effects of prior disciplinary research.

  5. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  6. Can natural selection encode Bayesian priors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Camilo; Marshall, James A R

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary success of many organisms depends on their ability to make decisions based on estimates of the state of their environment (e.g., predation risk) from uncertain information. These decision problems have optimal solutions and individuals in nature are expected to evolve the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if using the optimal solutions. Bayesian inference is the optimal method to produce estimates from uncertain data, thus natural selection is expected to favour individuals with the behavioural mechanisms to make decisions as if they were computing Bayesian estimates in typically-experienced environments, although this does not necessarily imply that favoured decision-makers do perform Bayesian computations exactly. Each individual should evolve to behave as if updating a prior estimate of the unknown environment variable to a posterior estimate as it collects evidence. The prior estimate represents the decision-maker's default belief regarding the environment variable, i.e., the individual's default 'worldview' of the environment. This default belief has been hypothesised to be shaped by natural selection and represent the environment experienced by the individual's ancestors. We present an evolutionary model to explore how accurately Bayesian prior estimates can be encoded genetically and shaped by natural selection when decision-makers learn from uncertain information. The model simulates the evolution of a population of individuals that are required to estimate the probability of an event. Every individual has a prior estimate of this probability and collects noisy cues from the environment in order to update its prior belief to a Bayesian posterior estimate with the evidence gained. The prior is inherited and passed on to offspring. Fitness increases with the accuracy of the posterior estimates produced. Simulations show that prior estimates become accurate over evolutionary time. In addition to these 'Bayesian' individuals, we also

  7. Mineralization of nitrogen from nitrogen-15 labeled crop residues and utilization by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, R.J.; Gilmour, J.T.; Wells, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    The availability of N from the residues of the previous crop to the subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) measure the mineralization of N from 15 N-labeled rice, soybean (Glycine max L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) residues and the uptake by a subsequent rice crop; and (2) compare the 15 N tracer method with the standard fertilizer-N response method used in field studies to quantify the N contribution from the crop residue to the next crop. Nitrogen mineralization from decomposing crop residues was measured by soil sampling prior to seeding the rice crop and after seeding by plant sampling the rice at maturity. The minimum estimate of the amount of residue N mineralized from the time of residue incorporation until rice harvest was 9, 52, and 38% of the rice, soybean, and wheat residue N, respectively. The amount of residue N recovered in the rice crop was 3, 11, and 37% of the rice, soybean, and wheat residue N, respectively. The lower the C/N ratio and the higher the amount of N in the residue, the lower was the amount of residue N recovered in the soil organic fraction at harvest and the higher was the amount of residue N mineralized. The 15 N tracer method compared favorably with the fertilizer N response method when the uptake efficiency of the fertilizer N was taken into account

  8. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  9. Recognition of Prior Learning: The Participants' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Marta C.; Ornelas, José H.; Maroco, João P.

    2016-01-01

    The current narrative on lifelong learning goes beyond formal education and training, including learning at work, in the family and in the community. Recognition of prior learning is a process of evaluation of those skills and knowledge acquired through life experience, allowing them to be formally recognized by the qualification systems. It is a…

  10. Validity in assessment of prior learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2015-01-01

    , the article discusses the need for specific criteria for assessment. The reliability and validity of the assessment procedures depend on whether the competences are well-defined, and whether the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures. Keywords: assessment, prior learning, adult...... education, vocational training, lifelong learning, validity...

  11. Prior learning assessment and quality assurance practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of RPL (Recognition of Prior Learning) in higher education to assess RPL candidates for admission into programmes of study met with a lot of criticism from faculty academics. Lecturers viewed the possibility of admitting large numbers of under-qualified adult learners, as a threat to the institution's reputation, or an ...

  12. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available behavioural invariances in the domain, by identifying actions to be prioritised in local contexts, invariant to task details. This information has the effect of greatly increasing the speed of solving new problems. We formalise this notion as action priors...

  13. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  14. Evaluation of surgical staging prior to combined modality therapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suntharalingam, M.; Vines, E.; Echo, D. van; Greenwald, B.; Krasna, M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Historically, patients with esophageal cancer have had a poor outcome despite aggressive treatment approaches. Recently chemo/RT followed by surgical resection has shown a significant improvement in survival in this patient population. The success of this aggressive approach has been predicated on accurate definition of disease extent and appropriate patient selection. We have performed pre-treatment surgical staging (thoracoscopy and laparoscopy) on 38 pts. referred for management of their localized esophageal cancer. The purpose of this report is to compare the results of clinical (CT, MRI, EGD, EUS) vs. surgical staging. The data gathered prospectively will also be used to identify potential predictors for disease-free survival. METHODS: Thirty-eight pts. were treated with combined modality therapy prior to a planned surgical resection. Patients received 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions in conjunction with 5 FU (1 Gm/m2) and Cisplatin (100 mg/m2) on days 1 and 28. Patients were evaluated 4 to 6 wks. after completion of therapy for consideration of Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. Of the original 38 pts., 4 are awaiting surgery, 3 died prior to resection, 2 pts. progressed through chemo/RT, and 1 refused. To date, 28 pts. are available for analysis with a median follow up of 21.5 months. This group included 16 pts. with squamous cell and 12 with adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: Twenty-five of the 28 pts. taken to surgery have undergone pre treatment surgical staging (2 refused, 1 medically unfit). Evaluation of tumor status revealed noninvasive staging to be accurate 56% of the time. Five pts. were converted from T 2 to T 3 , 1 from T 3 to T 4 and 3 T 4 tumors were found to be T 3 . Using the surgical findings at time of staging, 6 pts. were found to have T 2 tumors, 16 had T 3 tumors, and 3 had T 4 tumors. Clinical lymph node status was confirmed in 15 patients (60%). Six went from N+ to N 0 and 4 pts. thought to be N 0 were N+. Eight patients had evidence of positive

  15. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  16. Residual heat removal during accidental situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, M.; Sureau, H.; Tellier, N.

    1983-07-01

    Existing emergency procedures, whose purpose is residual heat removal and a safe recovery are based on sequential analysis and initiating event diagnosis. This approach was found in some cases inappropriate and inefficient, specially in case of out-of-design accidents corresponding to multiple equipment failure or simultaneous human failures. To cope with these situations, a new approach was necessary. Parallel studies performed in France at Framatome (the designer) and Electricity de France (the utility) gave a new method, called NSSS physical states approach. Prior to the implementation of this method which necessitates further studies and developments, some improvements in the existing operating procedures derived from the NSSS physical states have already been achieved: that is the case for the safety injection control and the development of an emergency procedure called ''U1''. This paper will briefly physical states approach and present the ''U1'' procedure. The tools which will be used to chack these methods are also mentioned

  17. Identification of NAD interacting residues in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Gajendra PS

    2010-03-01

    . We also developed a SVM based method using evolutionary information in the form of position specific scoring matrix (PSSM and obtained maximum MCC 0.75 with accuracy 87.25%. Conclusion For the first time a sequence-based method has been developed for the prediction of NAD binding proteins and their interacting residues, in the absence of any prior structural information. The present model will aid in the understanding of NAD+ dependent mechanisms of action in the cell. To provide service to the scientific community, we have developed a user-friendly web server, which is available from URL http://www.imtech.res.in/raghava/nadbinder/.

  18. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  19. Random template placement and prior information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roever, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In signal detection problems, one is usually faced with the task of searching a parameter space for peaks in the likelihood function which indicate the presence of a signal. Random searches have proven to be very efficient as well as easy to implement, compared e.g. to searches along regular grids in parameter space. Knowledge of the parameterised shape of the signal searched for adds structure to the parameter space, i.e., there are usually regions requiring to be densely searched while in other regions a coarser search is sufficient. On the other hand, prior information identifies the regions in which a search will actually be promising or may likely be in vain. Defining specific figures of merit allows one to combine both template metric and prior distribution and devise optimal sampling schemes over the parameter space. We show an example related to the gravitational wave signal from a binary inspiral event. Here the template metric and prior information are particularly contradictory, since signals from low-mass systems tolerate the least mismatch in parameter space while high-mass systems are far more likely, as they imply a greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence are detectable to greater distances. The derived sampling strategy is implemented in a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm where it improves convergence.

  20. Residual stress by repair welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Toyoda, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Residual stress by repair welds is computed using the thermal elastic-plastic analysis with phase-transformation effect. Coupling phenomena of temperature, microstructure, and stress-strain fields are simulated in the finite-element analysis. Weld bond of a plate butt-welded joint is gouged and then deposited by weld metal in repair process. Heat source is synchronously moved with the deposition of the finite-element as the weld deposition. Microstructure is considered by using CCT diagram and the transformation behavior in the repair weld is also simulated. The effects of initial stress, heat input, and weld length on residual stress distribution are studied from the organic results of numerical analysis. Initial residual stress before repair weld has no influence on the residual stress after repair treatment near weld metal, because the initial stress near weld metal releases due to high temperature of repair weld and then stress by repair weld regenerates. Heat input has an effect for residual stress distribution, for not its magnitude but distribution zone. Weld length should be considered reducing the magnitude of residual stress in the edge of weld bead; short bead induces high tensile residual stress. (author)

  1. Post-prior discrepancies in the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation for ion-helium ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2003-09-28

    We have explored post-prior discrepancies within continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory for ion-atom ionization. Although there are no post-prior discrepancies when electron-target initial and final states are exact solutions of the respective Hamiltonians, discrepancies do arise for multielectronic targets, when a hydrogenic continuum with effective charge is used for the final electron-residual target wavefunction. We have found that the prior version calculations give better results than the post version, particularly for highly charged projectiles. We have explored the reasons for this behaviour and found that the prior version shows less sensitivity to the choice of the final state. The fact that the perturbation potentials operate upon the initial state suggests that the selection of the initial bound state is relatively more important than the final continuum state for the prior version.

  2. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  3. Sparse Multivariate Modeling: Priors and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo

    This thesis presents a collection of statistical models that attempt to take advantage of every piece of prior knowledge available to provide the models with as much structure as possible. The main motivation for introducing these models is interpretability since in practice we want to be able...... a general yet self-contained description of every model in terms of generative assumptions, interpretability goals, probabilistic formulation and target applications. Case studies, benchmark results and practical details are also provided as appendices published elsewhere, containing reprints of peer...

  4. Genome position specific priors for genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    casual mutation is different between the populations but affects the same gene. Proportions of a four-distribution mixture for SNP effects in segments of fixed size along the genome are derived from one population and set as location specific prior proportions of distributions of SNP effects...... for the target population. The model was tested using dairy cattle populations of different breeds: 540 Australian Jersey bulls, 2297 Australian Holstein bulls and 5214 Nordic Holstein bulls. The traits studied were protein-, fat- and milk yield. Genotypic data was Illumina 777K SNPs, real or imputed Results...

  5. Models for Validation of Prior Learning (VPL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Søren

    The national policies for the education/training of adults are in the 21st century highly influenced by proposals which are formulated and promoted by The European Union (EU) as well as other transnational players and this shift in policy making has consequences. One is that ideas which in the past...... would have been categorized as utopian can become realpolitik. Validation of Prior Learning (VPL) was in Europe mainly regarded as utopian while universities in the United States of America (USA) were developing ways to obtain credits to those students which was coming with experiences from working life....

  6. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  7. An overview of the main foodstuff sample preparation technologies for tetracycline residue determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Michael; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-05-15

    Tetracyclines are widely used for both the treatment and prevention of diseases in animals as well as for the promotion of rapid animal growth and weight gain. This practice may result in trace amounts of these drugs in products of animal origin, such as milk and eggs, posing serious risks to human health. The presence of tetracycline residues in foods can lead to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. In order to ensure food safety and avoid exposure to these substances, national and international regulatory agencies have established tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs, including tetracycline antimicrobials. In view of that, numerous sensitive and specific methods have been developed for the quantification of these compounds in different food matrices. One will note, however, that the determination of trace residues in foods such as milk and eggs often requires extensive sample extraction and preparation prior to conducting instrumental analysis. Sample pretreatment is usually the most complicated step in the analytical process and covers both cleaning and pre-concentration. Optimal sample preparation can reduce analysis time and sources of error, enhance sensitivity, apart from enabling unequivocal identification, confirmation and quantification of target analytes. The development and implementation of more environmentally friendly analytical procedures, which involve the use of less hazardous solvents and smaller sample sizes compared to traditional methods, is a rapidly increasing trend in analytical chemistry. This review seeks to provide an updated overview of the main trends in sample preparation for the determination of tetracycline residues in foodstuffs. The applicability of several extraction and clean-up techniques employed in the analysis of foodstuffs, especially milk and egg samples, is also thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Fine-grained leukocyte classification with deep residual learning for microscopic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feiwei; Gao, Nannan; Peng, Yong; Wu, Zizhao; Shen, Shuying; Grudtsin, Artur

    2018-08-01

    Leukocyte classification and cytometry have wide applications in medical domain, previous researches usually exploit machine learning techniques to classify leukocytes automatically. However, constrained by the past development of machine learning techniques, for example, extracting distinctive features from raw microscopic images are difficult, the widely used SVM classifier only has relative few parameters to tune, these methods cannot efficiently handle fine-grained classification cases when the white blood cells have up to 40 categories. Based on deep learning theory, a systematic study is conducted on finer leukocyte classification in this paper. A deep residual neural network based leukocyte classifier is constructed at first, which can imitate the domain expert's cell recognition process, and extract salient features robustly and automatically. Then the deep neural network classifier's topology is adjusted according to the prior knowledge of white blood cell test. After that the microscopic image dataset with almost one hundred thousand labeled leukocytes belonging to 40 categories is built, and combined training strategies are adopted to make the designed classifier has good generalization ability. The proposed deep residual neural network based classifier was tested on microscopic image dataset with 40 leukocyte categories. It achieves top-1 accuracy of 77.80%, top-5 accuracy of 98.75% during the training procedure. The average accuracy on the test set is nearly 76.84%. This paper presents a fine-grained leukocyte classification method for microscopic images, based on deep residual learning theory and medical domain knowledge. Experimental results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. Extended experiments support that the fine-grained leukocyte classifier could be used in real medical applications, assist doctors in diagnosing diseases, reduce human power significantly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Depth image enhancement using perceptual texture priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Duhyeon; Shim, Hyunjung

    2015-03-01

    A depth camera is widely used in various applications because it provides a depth image of the scene in real time. However, due to the limited power consumption, the depth camera presents severe noises, incapable of providing the high quality 3D data. Although the smoothness prior is often employed to subside the depth noise, it discards the geometric details so to degrade the distance resolution and hinder achieving the realism in 3D contents. In this paper, we propose a perceptual-based depth image enhancement technique that automatically recovers the depth details of various textures, using a statistical framework inspired by human mechanism of perceiving surface details by texture priors. We construct the database composed of the high quality normals. Based on the recent studies in human visual perception (HVP), we select the pattern density as a primary feature to classify textures. Upon the classification results, we match and substitute the noisy input normals with high quality normals in the database. As a result, our method provides the high quality depth image preserving the surface details. We expect that our work is effective to enhance the details of depth image from 3D sensors and to provide a high-fidelity virtual reality experience.

  10. Vesícula residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. U. Coelho

    Full Text Available Our objective is to report three patients with recurrent severe upper abdominal pain secondary to residual gallbladder. All patients had been subjected to cholecystectomy from 1 to 20 years before. The diagnosis was established after several episodes of severe upper abdominal pain by imaging exams: ultrasonography, tomography, or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Removal of the residual gallbladder led to complete resolution of symptoms. Partial removal of the gallbladder is a very rare cause of postcholecystectomy symptoms.

  11. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  12. Americium recovery from reduction residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, W.V.; Proctor, S.G.

    1973-12-25

    A process for separation and recovery of americium values from container or bomb'' reduction residues comprising dissolving the residues in a suitable acid, adjusting the hydrogen ion concentration to a desired level by adding a base, precipitating the americium as americium oxalate by adding oxalic acid, digesting the solution, separating the precipitate, and thereafter calcining the americium oxalate precipitate to form americium oxide. (Official Gazette)

  13. The importance of antibiotic residues presence detection in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues are the most present inhibitory substances in milkhaving undesirable effect on human health, technological characteristics and the quality of milk and dairy products. In order to protect consumer's health and to ensure high quality milk production, European Union (EU regulation 2377/90 sets a maximum permitted levels for antibiotic residues in milk. Although the presence of antibiotic residues in milk can be due to animal diseases treatment, and in the case of milking animals, they are mostly present after mastitis treatment. The aim of this work is to stress the importance of the continuous control on antibiotic residues presence in milk, due to the role that milk and dairy products have in human nutrition. In this paper, different groups of antibiotics, mechanisms of theirs action, mistakes occurring in dairy products manufacture as well as the methods for theirs detection are described.

  14. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  15. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  16. Treatment of the press residues of pressed grapes on an industrial scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-24

    EtOH and tartaric acid are recovered from press residues of grapes by distillation and concentration of the EtOH and extraction of the dried residue after removal of seeds with a mixture of H/sub 2/O and mineral acid. Vegetable oil is extracted from the seeds. Collidal substances are coagulated by roasting prior to extraction of tartaric acid. The grape skins are recovered in flake form.

  17. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    In extended linear models the input space is projected onto a feature space by means of an arbitrary non-linear transformation. A linear model is then applied to the feature space to construct the model output. The dimension of the feature space can be very large, or even infinite, giving the model...... a very big flexibility. Support Vector Machines (SVM's) and Gaussian processes are two examples of such models. In this technical report I present a model in which the dimension of the feature space remains finite, and where a Bayesian approach is used to train the model with Gaussian priors...... on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  18. Savings for visuomotor adaptation require prior history of error, not prior repetition of successful actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; de Rugy, Aymar; Marinovic, Welber; Riek, Stephan; Carroll, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    When we move, perturbations to our body or the environment can elicit discrepancies between predicted and actual outcomes. We readily adapt movements to compensate for such discrepancies, and the retention of this learning is evident as savings, or faster readaptation to a previously encountered perturbation. The mechanistic processes contributing to savings, or even the necessary conditions for savings, are not fully understood. One theory suggests that savings requires increased sensitivity to previously experienced errors: when perturbations evoke a sequence of correlated errors, we increase our sensitivity to the errors experienced, which subsequently improves error correction (Herzfeld et al. 2014). An alternative theory suggests that a memory of actions is necessary for savings: when an action becomes associated with successful target acquisition through repetition, that action is more rapidly retrieved at subsequent learning (Huang et al. 2011). In the present study, to better understand the necessary conditions for savings, we tested how savings is affected by prior experience of similar errors and prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors using a factorial design. Prior experience of errors induced by a visuomotor rotation in the savings block was either prevented at initial learning by gradually removing an oppositely signed perturbation or enforced by abruptly removing the perturbation. Prior repetition of the action required to eliminate errors in the savings block was either deprived or enforced by manipulating target location in preceding trials. The data suggest that prior experience of errors is both necessary and sufficient for savings, whereas prior repetition of a successful action is neither necessary nor sufficient for savings. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  20. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  1. Effects of fretting fatigue on the residual stress of shot peened Ti-6Al-4V samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, S.A.; Sathish, S.; Blodgett, M.P.; Mall, S.; Namjoshi, S.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement has been utilized as nondestructive tool for the characterization of fretting fatigue damage in shot peened samples of Ti-6Al-4V. Prior to fretting fatigue damage, compressive residual stresses were found to be uniform over the entire face of the sample and independent of the measurement direction. After fretting fatigue, inside and in the vicinity of the fretting damage zone large relaxation of compressive residual stress was observed. An anisotropic residual stress distribution has been observed in the fretting fatigue damaged region. Residual stress measurements in interrupted fretting fatigue experiments showed that the relaxation of residual stress increases as the number of fretting fatigue cycles increase. The results are discussed in the light of their importance in establishing X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement technique as a nondestructive tool to characterize fretting fatigue damage

  2. Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis for Classification Based on Various Prior Probabilities of Groups with an Application to Breath Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimermanová, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we illustrate the influence of prior probabilities of diseases on diagnostic reasoning. For various prior probabilities of classified groups characterized by volatile organic compounds of breath profile, smokers and non-smokers, we constructed the ROC curve and the Youden index with related asymptotic pointwise confidence intervals.

  3. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  4. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  5. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  6. Elicitation of expert prior opinion: application to the MYPAN trial in childhood polyarteritis nodosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa V Hampson

    Full Text Available Definitive sample sizes for clinical trials in rare diseases are usually infeasible. Bayesian methodology can be used to maximise what is learnt from clinical trials in these circumstances. We elicited expert prior opinion for a future Bayesian randomised controlled trial for a rare inflammatory paediatric disease, polyarteritis nodosa (MYPAN, Mycophenolate mofetil for polyarteritis nodosa.A Bayesian prior elicitation meeting was convened. Opinion was sought on the probability that a patient in the MYPAN trial treated with cyclophosphamide would achieve disease remission within 6-months, and on the relative efficacies of mycophenolate mofetil and cyclophosphamide. Expert opinion was combined with previously unseen data from a recently completed randomised controlled trial in ANCA associated vasculitis.A pan-European group of fifteen experts participated in the elicitation meeting. Consensus expert prior opinion was that the most likely rates of disease remission within 6 months on cyclophosphamide or mycophenolate mofetil were 74% and 71%, respectively. This prior opinion will now be taken forward and will be modified to formulate a Bayesian posterior opinion once the MYPAN trial data from 40 patients randomised 1:1 to either CYC or MMF become available.We suggest that the methodological template we propose could be applied to trial design for other rare diseases.

  7. Leaching From Biomass Gasification Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Boldrin, Alessio; Polletini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled with geoche......The aim of the present work is to attain an overall characterization of solid residues from biomass gasification. Besides the determination of chemical and physical properties, the work was focused on the study of leaching behaviour. Compliance and pH-dependence leaching tests coupled...

  8. Carbaryl residues in maize products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Mansour, S.A.; Mostafa, I.Y.; Hassan, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 14 C-labelled insecticide carbaryl was synthesized from [1- 14 C]-1-naphthol at a specific activity of 3.18mCig -1 . Maize plants were treated with the labelled insecticide under simulated conditions of agricultural practice. Mature plants were harvested and studied for distribution of total residues in untreated grains as popularly roasted and consumed, and in the corn oil and corn germ products. Total residues found under these conditions in the respective products were 0.2, 0.1, 0.45 and 0.16ppm. (author)

  9. Combinatorial construction of toric residues

    OpenAIRE

    Khetan, Amit; Soprounov, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The toric residue is a map depending on n+1 semi-ample divisors on a complete toric variety of dimension n. It appears in a variety of contexts such as sparse polynomial systems, mirror symmetry, and GKZ hypergeometric functions. In this paper we investigate the problem of finding an explicit element whose toric residue is equal to one. Such an element is shown to exist if and only if the associated polytopes are essential. We reduce the problem to finding a collection of partitions of the la...

  10. Putting Priors in Mixture Density Mercer Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatic knowledge driven data mining based on the theory of Mercer Kernels, which are highly nonlinear symmetric positive definite mappings from the original image space to a very high, possibly infinite dimensional feature space. We describe a new method called Mixture Density Mercer Kernels to learn kernel function directly from data, rather than using predefined kernels. These data adaptive kernels can en- code prior knowledge in the kernel using a Bayesian formulation, thus allowing for physical information to be encoded in the model. We compare the results with existing algorithms on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The code for these experiments has been generated with the AUTOBAYES tool, which automatically generates efficient and documented C/C++ code from abstract statistical model specifications. The core of the system is a schema library which contains template for learning and knowledge discovery algorithms like different versions of EM, or numeric optimization methods like conjugate gradient methods. The template instantiation is supported by symbolic- algebraic computations, which allows AUTOBAYES to find closed-form solutions and, where possible, to integrate them into the code. The results show that the Mixture Density Mercer-Kernel described here outperforms tree-based classification in distinguishing high-redshift galaxies from low- redshift galaxies by approximately 16% on test data, bagged trees by approximately 7%, and bagged trees built on a much larger sample of data by approximately 2%.

  11. Prior expectations facilitate metacognition for perceptual decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M T; Seth, A K; Barrett, A B; Kanai, R

    2015-09-01

    The influential framework of 'predictive processing' suggests that prior probabilistic expectations influence, or even constitute, perceptual contents. This notion is evidenced by the facilitation of low-level perceptual processing by expectations. However, whether expectations can facilitate high-level components of perception remains unclear. We addressed this question by considering the influence of expectations on perceptual metacognition. To isolate the effects of expectation from those of attention we used a novel factorial design: expectation was manipulated by changing the probability that a Gabor target would be presented; attention was manipulated by instructing participants to perform or ignore a concurrent visual search task. We found that, independently of attention, metacognition improved when yes/no responses were congruent with expectations of target presence/absence. Results were modeled under a novel Bayesian signal detection theoretic framework which integrates bottom-up signal propagation with top-down influences, to provide a unified description of the mechanisms underlying perceptual decision and metacognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  13. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  14. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  15. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  16. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    a pair of residuals generated by Compact Disc Player. However, these residuals depend on the performance of position servos in the Compact Disc Player. In other publications of the same authors a pair of decoupled residuals is derived. However, the computation of these alternative residuals has been...

  17. Screening of diseases transmissible by blood in recipients prior to transfusion at a university hospital in the northeast of Brazil Triagem de doenças transmissíveis por sangue em receptores de um hospital universitário no nordeste do Brasil, antes da transfusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina F. V. Carrazzone

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Ministry of Health has made tests for HIV1 and HIV2, HTLV I and HTLV II, HCV, HBV, T. cruzi, T. pallidum and Plasmodium in endemic areas, mandatory for all blood collection bags used in the country. However, blood-borne infectious diseases are not investigated in blood recipients before transfusion. For this study, a serological evaluation of recipients before transfusion was carried out. Prior to transfusion, serum samples from 159 blood recipients were analyzed using the same tests used in the serological screening of blood donors. The blood recipients were divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1, patients who had never received blood, Group 2 (G2, patients who had received multiple transfusions and Group 3 (G3 one-off recipients. SPSS v.8 was used for statistical analysis. Values of pO Ministério da Saúde brasileiro determina a realização de testes sorológicos para HIV 1 e 2, HTLV I e II, HCV, HBV, T. cruzi, T. pallidum e Plasmodium nas áreas endêmicas, em todas as bolsas de coleta de sangue utilizadas no País. Entretanto, as doenças infecciosas transmissíveis através do sangue não são inves­tigadas nos receptores de sangue (RS antes da transfusão. Neste estudo, realizamos uma avaliação sorológica dos RS anterior à transfusão. Amostras de soro de 159 RS foram analisadas aplicando-se os mesmos testes utilizados na triagem soro­lógica dos doadores de sangue. Os RS foram divididos em três grupos: Grupo 1 (G1, pacientes que nunca receberam sangue, Grupo 2 (G2, pacientes politransfundidos e Grupo 3 (G3 receptores eventuais. Para a análise estatística utilizou-se o pro­grama SPSS v.8. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados signi­ficantes. Os resultados mostraram que 62 RS apresentaram positividade para uma ou mais doenças infecciosas trans­missíveis pelo sangue. Além disso, vários RS desconheciam seu estado sorológico anterior à transfusão. A identificação de doenças infecciosas transmissíveis pelo

  18. Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions within a family, or they make no distinction between residues important for function and those more relevant for maintaining structure (e.g. in the hydrophobic core. Many protein families bind and/or act on a variety of ligands, meaning that conserved residues often only bind a common ligand sub-structure or perform general catalytic activities. Results Here we present a novel method for functional site prediction based on identification of conserved positions, as well as those responsible for determining ligand specificity. We define Specificity-Determining Positions (SDPs, as those occupied by conserved residues within sub-groups of proteins in a family having a common specificity, but differ between groups, and are thus likely to account for specific recognition events. We benchmark the approach on enzyme families of known 3D structure with bound substrates, and find that in nearly all families residues predicted by SDPsite are in contact with the bound substrate, and that the addition of SDPs significantly improves functional site prediction accuracy. We apply SDPsite to various families of proteins containing known three-dimensional structures, but lacking clear functional annotations, and discusse several illustrative examples. Conclusion The results suggest a better means to predict functional details for the thousands of protein structures determined prior to a clear understanding of molecular function.

  19. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  20. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  1. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on curren...

  2. Solidification process for sludge residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-01-01

    This report investigates the solidification process used at 100-N Basin to solidify the N Basin sediment and assesses the N Basin process for application to the K Basin sludge residue material. This report also includes a discussion of a solidification process for stabilizing filters. The solidified matrix must be compatible with the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility acceptance criteria

  3. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  4. The role of phosphites in scab management and residues in pecan kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphite fungicides are used to manage pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum), the most economically destructive disease of pecan in the Southeast US. The EU has imposed a minimum residue limit (MRL) on these fungicides in pecan kernels. Data shows that the phosphite residue exceeds the 2 ppm M...

  5. Radioactive material in residues of health services residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa R, A. Jr.; Recio, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The work presents the operational actions developed by the one organ responsible regulator for the control of the material use radioactive in Brazil. Starting from the appearance of coming radioactive material of hospitals and clinical with services of nuclear medicine, material that that is picked up and transported in specific trucks for the gathering of residuals of hospital origin, and guided one it manufactures of treatment of residuals of services of health, where they suffer radiological monitoring before to guide them for final deposition in sanitary embankment, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The appearance of this radioactive material exposes a possible one violation of the norms that govern the procedures and practices in that sector in the country. (Author)

  6. Prior Mental Fatigue Impairs Marksmanship Decision Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mental fatigue has been shown to impair subsequent physical performance in continuous and discontinuous exercise. However, its influence on subsequent fine-motor performance in an applied setting (e.g., marksmanship for trained soldiers is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether prior mental fatigue influences subsequent marksmanship performance as measured by shooting accuracy and judgment of soldiers in a live-fire scenario.Methods: Twenty trained infantry soldiers engaged targets after completing either a mental fatigue or control intervention in a repeated measure design. Heart rate variability and the NASA-TLX were used to gauge physiological and subjective effects of the interventions. Target hit proportion, projectile group accuracy, and precision were used to measure marksmanship accuracy. Marksmanship accuracy was assessed by measuring bullet group accuracy (i.e., how close a group of shots are relative to center of mass and bullet group precision (i.e., how close are each individual shot to each other. Additionally, marksmanship decision accuracy (correctly shooting vs. correctly withholding shot when engaging targets was used to examine marksmanship performance.Results: Soldiers rated the mentally fatiguing task (59.88 ± 23.7 as having greater mental workload relative to the control intervention [31.29 ± 12.3, t(19 = 1.72, p < 0.001]. Additionally, soldiers completing the mental fatigue intervention (96.04 ± = 37.1 also had lower time-domain (standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals heart rate variability relative to the control [134.39 ± 47.4, t(18 = 3.59, p < 0.001]. Projectile group accuracy and group precision failed to show differences between interventions [t(19 = 0.98, p = 0.34, t(19 = 0.18, p = 0.87, respectively]. Marksmanship decision errors significantly increased after soldiers completed the mental fatigue intervention (48% ± 22.4 relative to the control

  7. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  8. Sequences outside that of residues 93-102 of 3A protein can contribute to the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to replicate in bovine-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xueqing; Li, Pinghua; Bai, Xingwen; Sun, Pu; Bao, Huifang; Lu, Zengjun; Cao, Yimei; Li, Dong; Chen, Yingli; Qiao, Zilin; Liu, Zaixin

    2014-10-13

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. During 2010 and 2011, there was an epidemic of the Mya-98 lineage of the Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype in East Asia, including China. Changes in the FMDV 3A protein have been previously reported to be associated with the inability of FMDV to grow in bovine cells and cause disease in cattle. In this paper, we report the generation of a full-length infectious cDNA clone of FMDV O/SEA/Mya-98 strain O/GZSB/2011 for the first time along with two genetically modified viruses with deletion at positions 93-102 and 133-143 in 3A based on the established infectious clone. All the recombinant viruses grew well and displayed growth properties and plaque phenotypes similar to those of the parental virus in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells, porcine kidney (PK-15) cells, and primary fetal porcine kidney (FPK) cells. While the recombinant viruses rvGZSB and rvSBΔ133-143 exhibited similar growth properties and plaque phenotypes with the parental virus in primary fetal bovine kidney (FBK) cells, the recombinant virus rvSBΔ93-102, containing deletion at positions 93-102 in 3A, grew at a slower rate and had a smaller plaque size phenotype in FBK cells than that of the parental virus. Therefore, the results suggest that the deletion at positions 93-102 of 3A protein does not affect FMDV replication efficiency in BHK-21, PK-15 and FPK cells, but affects virus replication efficiency in FBK cells, although, cannot alone account for the inability to replicate in bovine cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Strategies to eradicate minimal residual disease in small cell lung cancer: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, L M; Grant, S C; Miller, V A; Ng, K K; Kris, M G

    1999-10-01

    In the last 25 years, treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) has improved with advances in chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Standard chemotherapy regimens can yield 80% to 90% response rates and some cures when combined with thoracic irradiation in limited-stage patients. Nonetheless, small cell lung cancer has a high relapse rate due to drug resistance; this has resulted in poor survival for most patients. Attacking this problem requires a unique approach to eliminate resistant disease remaining after induction therapy. This review will focus on three potential strategies: high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors, and BEC2 plus BCG vaccination.

  10. Estimating security betas using prior information based on firm fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosemans, M.; Frehen, R.; Schotman, P.C.; Bauer, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach for estimating time-varying betas of individual stocks that incorporates prior information based on fundamentals. We shrink the rolling window estimate of beta towards a firm-specific prior that is motivated by asset pricing theory. The prior captures structural

  11. The performance of random coefficient regression in accounting for residual confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Paul; Greenland, Sander

    2006-09-01

    Greenland (2000, Biometrics 56, 915-921) describes the use of random coefficient regression to adjust for residual confounding in a particular setting. We examine this setting further, giving theoretical and empirical results concerning the frequentist and Bayesian performance of random coefficient regression. Particularly, we compare estimators based on this adjustment for residual confounding to estimators based on the assumption of no residual confounding. This devolves to comparing an estimator from a nonidentified but more realistic model to an estimator from a less realistic but identified model. The approach described by Gustafson (2005, Statistical Science 20, 111-140) is used to quantify the performance of a Bayesian estimator arising from a nonidentified model. From both theoretical calculations and simulations we find support for the idea that superior performance can be obtained by replacing unrealistic identifying constraints with priors that allow modest departures from those constraints. In terms of point-estimator bias this superiority arises when the extent of residual confounding is substantial, but the advantage is much broader in terms of interval estimation. The benefit from modeling residual confounding is maintained when the prior distributions employed only roughly correspond to reality, for the standard identifying constraints are equivalent to priors that typically correspond much worse.

  12. DERMAL AND MOUTHING TRANSFERS OF SURFACE RESIDUES MEASURED USING FLUORESCENCE IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    To reduce the uncertainty associated with current estimates of children's exposure to pesticides by dermal contact and non-dietary ingestion, residue transfer data are required. Prior to conducting exhaustive studies, a screening study to develop and test methods for measuring...

  13. Composition of in situ burn residue as a function of weathering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Ascanius, Birgit Elkjær; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2013-01-01

    removed the light compounds eluting before C13. No effect from the prior weathering time or the different ice coverage was seen in the burn residue composition. The content of selected Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined and it was noted that the concentration of PAHs with more than 4 rings...

  14. Proceedings of the 8. biennial residual wood conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference highlighted practical strategies for managing and utilizing residual wood as a true industry resource. Examples of successful wood energy projects were presented along with the technology and products of more than 30 companies involved in the residual wood business. The topics of discussion ranged from biomass supplies, quality issues, and harvesting guidelines to emerging biomass technologies, project overviews, and financing. The presentations outlined the many opportunities that exist for the forest industry to produce energy from biostock, such as healthy and diseased trees, underbrush, sawdust, wood chips, wood pulp and black liquor. Increasing fuel and energy costs along with advances in technology are improving the economy of forest-based biorefineries. The presentations showed how the industry can gain revenue from residual wood, which is steadily becoming a more valuable resource for pellet production and energy generation The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Significance of prior percutaneous revascularisation in patients with acute coronary syndromes: insights from the prospective PROSPECT registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Andrés; Brener, Sorin J; Jiménez, Victor A; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Xu, Ke; Weisz, Giora; Lansky, Alexandra J; De Bruyne, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W

    2016-04-20

    Prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasingly encountered in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, with uncertain significance. We sought to evaluate the impact of prior PCI in ACS patients. Patients with ACS enrolled in the prospective PROSPECT registry underwent three-vessel intravascular ultrasound and virtual histology evaluation after successful PCI of the culprit lesion(s). We identified patients with prior PCI (>6 months before index ACS) and compared their outcomes to those without prior PCI. Time-to-event for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) was estimated up to three years, and the independent association between prior PCI and MACE was evaluated in a multivariable model. Among 696 patients enrolled, 77 (11.1%) had prior PCI. They were older and more likely to have prior myocardial infarction, chronic kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. At three years, patients with prior PCI had significantly higher rates of cardiac death, rehospitalisation for worsening angina, and MACE (adjusted HR=1.73 [95% CI: 1.09, 2.75], p=0.02), independent of other comorbidities and intravascular ultrasound findings. Prior PCI was noted in over 10% of patients with ACS and was associated with higher mortality and morbidity, independent of other comorbidities. Prior PCI should be considered a high-risk feature when evaluating ACS patients.

  16. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  17. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  18. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  19. Generalized Bayesian inference with sets of conjugate priors for dealing with prior-data conflict : course at Lund University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walter, G.

    2015-01-01

    In the Bayesian approach to statistical inference, possibly subjective knowledge on model parameters can be expressed by so-called prior distributions. A prior distribution is updated, via Bayes’ Rule, to the so-called posterior distribution, which combines prior information and information from

  20. The Influence of Prior Knowledge on the Retrieval-Directed Function of Note Taking in Prior Knowledge Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzels, Sandra A. J.; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.; Broers, Nick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prior knowledge activation facilitates learning. Note taking during prior knowledge activation (i.e., note taking directed at retrieving information from memory) might facilitate the activation process by enabling learners to build an external representation of their prior knowledge. However, taking notes might be less effective in…

  1. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Residual life management. Maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainero Garcia, J.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1995-01-01

    The terms Residual Life Management, Life Cycle Management and Long-Term Management are synonymous with a concept which aims to establish efficient maintenance for the profitable and safe operation of a power plant for as long as possible. A Residual Life Management programme comprises a number of stages, of which Maintenance Evaluation focuses on how power plant maintenance practices allow the mitigation and control of component ageing. with this objective in mind, a methodology has been developed for the analysis of potential degradative phenomena acting on critical components in terms of normal power plant maintenance practices. This methodology applied to maintenance evaluation enables the setting out of a maintenance programme based on the Life Management concept, and the programme's subsequent up-dating to allow for new techniques and methods. Initial applications have shown that although, in general terms, power plant maintenance is efficient, the way in which Residual Life Management is approached requires changes in maintenance practices. These changes range from modifications to existing inspection and surveillance methods or the establishment of new ones, to the monitoring of trends or the performance of additional studies, the purpose of which is to provide an accurate evaluation of the condition of the installations and the possibility of life extension. (Author)

  3. Response to baricitinib based on prior biologic use in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Mark C; Kremer, Joel M; Kartman, Cynthia E; Schlichting, Douglas E; Xie, Li; Carmack, Tara; Pantojas, Carlos; Sanchez Burson, Juan; Tony, Hans-Peter; Macias, William L; Rooney, Terence P; Smolen, Josef S

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective RA patients who have failed biologic DMARDs (bDMARDs) represent an unmet medical need. We evaluated the effects of baseline characteristics, including prior bDMARD exposure, on baricitinib efficacy and safety. Methods RA-BEACON patients (previously reported) had moderate to severe RA with insufficient response to one or more TNF inhibitor and were randomized 1:1:1 to once-daily placebo or 2 or 4 mg baricitinib. Prior bDMARD use was allowed. The primary endpoint was a 20% improvement in ACR criteria (ACR20) at week 12 for 4 mg vs placebo. An exploratory, primarily post hoc, subgroup analysis evaluated efficacy at weeks 12 and 24 by ACR20 and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ⩽10. An interaction P-value ⩽0.10 was considered significant, with significance at both weeks 12 and 24 given more weight. Results The odds ratios predominantly favored baricitinib over placebo and were generally similar to those in the overall study (3.4, 2.4 for ACR20 weeks 12 and 24, respectively). Significant quantitative interactions were observed for baricitinib 4 mg vs placebo at weeks 12 and 24: ACR20 by region (larger effect Europe) and CDAI ⩽10 by disease duration (larger effect ⩾10 years). No significant interactions were consistently observed for ACR20 by age; weight; disease duration; seropositivity; corticosteroid use; number of prior bDMARDs, TNF inhibitors or non-TNF inhibitors; or a specific prior TNF inhibitor. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates, including infections, appeared somewhat higher across groups with greater prior bDMARD use. Conclusion Baricitinib demonstrated a consistent, beneficial treatment effect in bDMARD-refractory patients across subgroups based on baseline characteristics and prior bDMARD use. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov/), NCT01721044 PMID:29415145

  4. Resíduos orgânicos para o controle das doenças do feijoeiro causadas por Sclerotium rolfsii / Organic residues for the control of bean diseases caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nataline Tomazeli

    2011-04-01

    -borne plant pathogens. The effect of this agricultural practice, especially on sclerotium-forming pathogens such as Sclerotium rolfsii, is not yet completely understood. The experiment, conducted over a two-year cultivation period, was carried out at UTFPR’s experimental field in one-square meter plots containing soil infested with 100g per plot of the substrate (unhulled rice containing the pathogen. Treatments consisted of liquid swine manure, poultry bedding (PB, ground cabbage, and a control, only pathogen, with four replicates. Eighty bean seeds were sown per plot one week after the treatments were applied. Disease intensity was evaluated based on plantlet emergence, damping-off, incidence, and severity. Factors such as microbial activity, soil fertility levels, number and survival of sclerodia, and plant green matter were evaluated at the end of the cropping cycle. Poultry bed incorporation into the soil showed significant results in reducing intensity of the disease and the pathogen’s inoculum, in both cropping seasons. The organic compound, poultry bedding, had the greatest reduction in incidence and severity of disease and the damping-off. However, although reducing the amount of disease, no increase in emergency first two crops. This beneficial effect of PB may be associated with increased soil organic matter and thus microbial activity, responsible for reducing the pathogenicity of the fungus. As a result of the impact caused by the incorporation of PB to the ground, there was an increase of fresh weight of plant and reducing the number of sclerodia. So based on these results, we can conclude that PB has a suppressive effect on diseases caused by S. rolfsii.

  5. Characterisation and management of concrete grinding residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Matt; Gupta, Nautasha; Watts, Ben; Chadik, Paul A; Ferraro, Christopher; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Concrete grinding residue is the waste product resulting from the grinding, cutting, and resurfacing of concrete pavement. Potential beneficial applications for concrete grinding residue include use as a soil amendment and as a construction material, including as an additive to Portland cement concrete. Concrete grinding residue exhibits a high pH, and though not hazardous, it is sufficiently elevated that precautions need to be taken around aquatic ecosystems. Best management practices and state regulations focus on reducing the impact on such aquatic environment. Heavy metals are present in concrete grinding residue, but concentrations are of the same magnitude as typically recycled concrete residuals. The chemical composition of concrete grinding residue makes it a useful product for some soil amendment purposes at appropriate land application rates. The presence of unreacted concrete in concrete grinding residue was examined for potential use as partial replacement of cement in new concrete. Testing of Florida concrete grinding residue revealed no dramatic reactivity or improvement in mortar strength.

  6. FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PREDICTING RESIDUAL STRESSES IN ... the transverse residual stress in the x-direction (σx) had a maximum value of 375MPa ... the finite element method are in fair agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  8. 9 CFR 311.39 - Biological residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biological residues. 311.39 Section... Biological residues. Carcasses, organs, or other parts of carcasses of livestock shall be condemned if it is determined that they are adulterated because of the presence of any biological residues. ...

  9. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  10. Neutron residual stress measurements in linepipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Michael; Gnaepel-Herold, Thomas; Luzin, Vladimir; Bowie, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Residual stresses in gas pipelines are generated by manufacturing and construction processes and may affect the subsequent pipe integrity. In the present work, the residual stresses in eight samples of linepipe were measured by neutron diffraction. Residual stresses changed with some coating processes. This has special implications in understanding and mitigating stress corrosion cracking, a major safety and economic problem in some gas pipelines

  11. Technical Note: Atmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: methodology and system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kountouris, Panagiotis; Gerbig, Christoph; Rödenbeck, Christian; Karstens, Ute; Koch, Thomas Frank; Heimann, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric inversions are widely used in the optimization of surface carbon fluxes on a regional scale using information from atmospheric CO2 dry mole fractions. In many studies the prior flux uncertainty applied to the inversion schemes does not directly reflect the true flux uncertainties but is used to regularize the inverse problem. Here, we aim to implement an inversion scheme using the Jena inversion system and applying a prior flux error structure derived from a model-data residual analysis using high spatial and temporal resolution over a full year period in the European domain. We analyzed the performance of the inversion system with a synthetic experiment, in which the flux constraint is derived following the same residual analysis but applied to the model-model mismatch. The synthetic study showed a quite good agreement between posterior and true fluxes on European, country, annual and monthly scales. Posterior monthly and country-aggregated fluxes improved their correlation coefficient with the known truth by 7 % compared to the prior estimates when compared to the reference, with a mean correlation of 0.92. The ratio of the SD between the posterior and reference and between the prior and reference was also reduced by 33 % with a mean value of 1.15. We identified temporal and spatial scales on which the inversion system maximizes the derived information; monthly temporal scales at around 200 km spatial resolution seem to maximize the information gain.

  12. HCV Core Residues Critical for Infectivity Are Also Involved in Core-NS5A Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Katarzyna; Baugh, James; Chatterji, Udayan; Lim, Precious J.; Bobardt, Michael D.; Gallay, Philippe A.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver disease. The molecular machinery of HCV assembly and particle release remains obscure. A better understanding of the assembly events might reveal new potential antiviral strategies. It was suggested that the nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A), an attractive recent drug target, participates in the production of infectious particles as a result of its interaction with the HCV core protein. However, prior to the present study, the NS5A-binding site in the viral core remained unknown. We found that the D1 domain of core contains the NS5A-binding site with the strongest interacting capacity in the basic P38-K74 cluster. We also demonstrated that the N-terminal basic residues of core at positions 50, 51, 59 and 62 were required for NS5A binding. Analysis of all substitution combinations of R50A, K51A, R59A, and R62A, in the context of the HCVcc system, showed that single, double, triple, and quadruple mutants were fully competent for viral RNA replication, but deficient in secretion of viral particles. Furthermore, we found that the extracellular and intracellular infectivity of all the mutants was abolished, suggesting a defect in the formation of infectious particles. Importantly, we showed that the interaction between the single and quadruple core mutants and NS5A was impaired in cells expressing full-length HCV genome. Interestingly, mutations of the four basic residues of core did not alter the association of core or NS5A with lipid droplets. This study showed for the first time that basic residues in the D1 domain of core that are critical for the formation of infectious extracellular and intracellular particles also play a role in core-NS5A interactions. PMID:24533158

  13. The characterization of insoluble dissolver residues and the development of treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, H.T.; Brown, P.E.; Pateman, R.J.; Wilkinson, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    Characterization studies have been carried out on the insoluble residue arising from laboratory scale dissolution of single pins of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR). Similar characterization work has also been completed on six samples of insoluble residue recovered from the reprocessing of complete sub-assemblies of mixed oxide fuel irradiated in PFR. Treatment methods for the dissolver insolubles have consisted of preparing immobilized samples in sand/ordinary portland cement (OPC), sand/pulverized fly ash (PFA)/OPC, and blast furnace slag (BFS)/OPC. A programme of leach testing has been carried out according to the conditions laid down in the international Standard Organization Test. Four samples of DFR originated insoluble residues and six samples of PFR originated insoluble residues have been immobilized and leach tested. Variations have included experiments to evaluate the leach rate under temperature influence and to acid wash prior to immobilization

  14. Understanding the impact of prior depression on stress generation: examining the roles of current depressive symptoms and interpersonal behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Josephine H; Eberhart, Nicole K

    2008-08-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals contribute to stressful life events. While research has supported an association between current depression and stress generation, it has been noted that individuals with prior depression tend to contribute to stressors even when they are no longer experiencing a depressive episode. The aim of the study is to elucidate the pathways through which prior major depression predicts interpersonal stress generation in women. Specifically, we examined current subsyndromal depressive symptoms and problematic interpersonal behaviours as potential mediators. Fifty-one college women were followed prospectively for 6 weeks. Participants were interviewed to assess current and past depression as well as stressful life events they experienced over the 6-week period. The findings suggest that prior major depression continues to have an impact even after the episode has ended, as the disorder continues to contribute to stress generation through residual depressive symptoms.

  15. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  16. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  17. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo

    1991-01-01

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord

  18. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  19. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  20. The Role of Prior Knowledge in International Franchise Partner Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Catherine; Altinay, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the role of prior knowledge in the international franchise partner recruitment process and to evaluate how cultural distance influences the role of prior knowledge in this process. Design/Methodology/Approach A single embedded case study of an international hotel firm was the focus of the enquiry. Interviews, observations and document analysis were used as the data collection techniques. Findings Findings reveal that prior knowledge of the franchisor enab...

  1. Spectrally Consistent Satellite Image Fusion with Improved Image Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Aanæs, Henrik; Jensen, Thomas B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Here an improvement to our previous framework for satellite image fusion is presented. A framework purely based on the sensor physics and on prior assumptions on the fused image. The contributions of this paper are two fold. Firstly, a method for ensuring 100% spectrally consistency is proposed......, even when more sophisticated image priors are applied. Secondly, a better image prior is introduced, via data-dependent image smoothing....

  2. Acquisition of multiple prior distributions in tactile temporal order judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito eNagai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bayesian estimation theory proposes that the brain acquires the prior distribution of a task and integrates it with sensory signals to minimize the effect of sensory noise. Psychophysical studies have demonstrated that our brain actually implements Bayesian estimation in a variety of sensory-motor tasks. However, these studies only imposed one prior distribution on participants within a task period. In this study, we investigated the conditions that enable the acquisition of multiple prior distributions in temporal order judgment (TOJ of two tactile stimuli across the hands. In Experiment 1, stimulation intervals were randomly selected from one of two prior distributions (biased to right hand earlier and biased to left hand earlier in association with color cues (green and red, respectively. Although the acquisition of the two priors was not enabled by the color cues alone, it was significant when participants shifted their gaze (above or below in response to the color cues. However, the acquisition of multiple priors was not significant when participants moved their mouths (opened or closed. In Experiment 2, the spatial cues (above and below were used to identify which eye position or retinal cue position was crucial for the eye-movement-dependent acquisition of multiple priors in Experiment 1. The acquisition of the two priors was significant when participants moved their gaze to the cues (i.e., the cue positions on the retina were constant across the priors, as well as when participants did not shift their gazes (i.e., the cue positions on the retina changed according to the priors. Thus, both eye and retinal cue positions were effective in acquiring multiple priors. Based on previous neurophysiological reports, we discuss possible neural correlates that contribute to the acquisition of multiple priors.

  3. Training shortest-path tractography: Automatic learning of spatial priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Liptrot, Matthew George; Reislev, Nina Linde

    2016-01-01

    Tractography is the standard tool for automatic delineation of white matter tracts from diffusion weighted images. However, the output of tractography often requires post-processing to remove false positives and ensure a robust delineation of the studied tract, and this demands expert prior...... knowledge. Here we demonstrate how such prior knowledge, or indeed any prior spatial information, can be automatically incorporated into a shortest-path tractography approach to produce more robust results. We describe how such a prior can be automatically generated (learned) from a population, and we...

  4. Crowdsourcing prior information to improve study design and data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Chrabaszcz

    Full Text Available Though Bayesian methods are being used more frequently, many still struggle with the best method for setting priors with novel measures or task environments. We propose a method for setting priors by eliciting continuous probability distributions from naive participants. This allows us to include any relevant information participants have for a given effect. Even when prior means are near-zero, this method provides a principle way to estimate dispersion and produce shrinkage, reducing the occurrence of overestimated effect sizes. We demonstrate this method with a number of published studies and compare the effect of different prior estimation and aggregation methods.

  5. Prior knowledge in recalling arguments in bioethical dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemke Katharina Schmidt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior knowledge is known to facilitate learning new information. Normally in studies confirming this outcome the relationship between prior knowledge and the topic to be learned is obvious: the information to be acquired is part of the domain or topic to which the prior knowledge belongs. This raises the question as to whether prior knowledge of various domains facilitates recalling information. In this study 79 eleventh-grade students completed a questionnaire on their prior knowledge of seven different domains related to the bioethical dilemma of prenatal diagnostics. The students read a text containing arguments for and arguments against prenatal diagnostics. After one week and again 12 weeks later they were asked to write down all the arguments they remembered. Prior knowledge helped them recall the arguments one week (r = .350 and 12 weeks (r = .316 later. Prior knowledge of three of the seven domains significantly helped them recall the arguments one week later (correlations between r = .194 to r = .394. Partial correlations with interest as a control item revealed that interest did not explain the relationship between prior knowledge and recall. Prior knowledge of different domains jointly supports the recall of arguments related to bioethical topics.

  6. Chromosomal differences between acute nonlymphocytic leukemia in patients with prior solid tumors and prior hematologic malignancies. A study of 14 cases with prior breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuris, Z.; Dumont, J.; Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A.

    1989-01-01

    A cytogenetic study of 14 patients with secondary acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (S-ANLL) with prior treatment for breast cancer is reported. The chromosomes recurrently involved in numerical or structural anomalies are chromosomes 7, 5, 17, and 11, in decreasing order of frequency. The distribution of the anomalies detected in this sample of patients is similar to that observed in published cases with prior breast or other solid tumors, though anomalies of chromosome 11 were not pointed out, but it significantly differs from that of the S-ANLL with prior hematologic malignancies. This difference is principally due to a higher involvement of chromosome 7 in patients with prior hematologic malignancies and of chromosomes 11 and 17 in patients with prior solid tumors. A genetic determinism involving abnormal recessive alleles located on chromosomes 5, 7, 11, and 17 uncovered by deletions of the normal homologs may be a cause of S-ANLL. The difference between patients with prior hematologic malignancies or solid tumors may be explained by different constitutional mutations of recessive genes in the two groups of patients

  7. Application of a radiometric enzymic method for monitoring organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide residues in water of the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, L.; Volford, J.; Bursics, L.; Forster, T.

    1983-01-01

    Pesticide residue analyses are conventionally based on gas chromatography. These analytic procedures include tedious extraction and clear-up manipulations prior to the actual gas chromatographic determinations. Radioenzymatic method was recently applied in a residue monitoring programme on the Danube River. The programme has demonstrated that the radioenzymatic method has many advantages as a monitoring procedure in aquatic environment. Quick information can be gained without tedious sample clear-up procedure. The anticholinesteratic pesticides and the anticholinesteratic activities can be detected

  8. Residual Stresses In 3013 Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J.; Dunn, K.

    2009-01-01

    The DOE Complex is packaging plutonium-bearing materials for storage and eventual disposition or disposal. The materials are handled according to the DOE-STD-3013 which outlines general requirements for stabilization, packaging and long-term storage. The storage vessels for the plutonium-bearing materials are termed 3013 containers. Stress corrosion cracking has been identified as a potential container degradation mode and this work determined that the residual stresses in the containers are sufficient to support such cracking. Sections of the 3013 outer, inner, and convenience containers, in both the as-fabricated condition and the closure welded condition, were evaluated per ASTM standard G-36. The standard requires exposure to a boiling magnesium chloride solution, which is an aggressive testing solution. Tests in a less aggressive 40% calcium chloride solution were also conducted. These tests were used to reveal the relative stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of the as fabricated 3013 containers. Significant cracking was observed in all containers in areas near welds and transitions in the container diameter. Stress corrosion cracks developed in both the lid and the body of gas tungsten arc welded and laser closure welded containers. The development of stress corrosion cracks in the as-fabricated and in the closure welded container samples demonstrates that the residual stresses in the 3013 containers are sufficient to support stress corrosion cracking if the environmental conditions inside the containers do not preclude the cracking process.

  9. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  10. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  11. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  12. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  13. Turning wood residues into wood revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.G.; Kravetz, Don

    1996-01-01

    Ensyn is a profitable commercial company which derives its revenues from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel and chemicals. The technology, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP (TM) )is based on extremely fast ''cracking'' of biomass which results in light liquid yields exceeding 70% by weight, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuel, the RTP plant is configured identically and operated essentially in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). Ensyn has developed the commercialisation of RTP TM from bench to industrial scale in 10 years. A variety of crative funding initiatives in the early years allowed for capital to be raised for R and D without the loss of intellectual property (IP). The transition years of technology demonstration, prior to full commercialisation, were funded by a blend of revenues from venture capital and public sources, and by quickly tapping into a niche market for RTP TM . The utilisation of the technology at the niche market scale opened the doors to the larger fuel and commodity markets. Once, again, both IP and control of the company were maintained during these years. Flexibility, creativity and expertise are necessary to understand the significance of various financing options (private investments, commercial banking and bond issues) and to integrate these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives. Understanding these options with various renewable energy, recycling and tax incentives is necessary. Understanding both the core and peripheral needs of the customer are essential in successfully advancing a commercial wood energy venture. Ensyn's experience in these areas is the focus of the paper. (Author)

  14. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  15. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  16. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR and fault isolation rate (FIR, which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testability demonstration test data (TDTD such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a testability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF, and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  17. Testability evaluation using prior information of multiple sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chao; Qiu Jing; Liu Guanjun; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    Testability plays an important role in improving the readiness and decreasing the life-cycle cost of equipment. Testability demonstration and evaluation is of significance in measuring such testability indexes as fault detection rate (FDR) and fault isolation rate (FIR), which is useful to the producer in mastering the testability level and improving the testability design, and helpful to the consumer in making purchase decisions. Aiming at the problems with a small sample of testabil-ity demonstration test data (TDTD) such as low evaluation confidence and inaccurate result, a test-ability evaluation method is proposed based on the prior information of multiple sources and Bayes theory. Firstly, the types of prior information are analyzed. The maximum entropy method is applied to the prior information with the mean and interval estimate forms on the testability index to obtain the parameters of prior probability density function (PDF), and the empirical Bayesian method is used to get the parameters for the prior information with a success-fail form. Then, a parametrical data consistency check method is used to check the compatibility between all the sources of prior information and TDTD. For the prior information to pass the check, the prior credibility is calculated. A mixed prior distribution is formed based on the prior PDFs and the corresponding credibility. The Bayesian posterior distribution model is acquired with the mixed prior distribution and TDTD, based on which the point and interval estimates are calculated. Finally, examples of a flying control system are used to verify the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective.

  18. Construction and test of the PRIOR proton microscope; Aufbau und Test des Protonenmikroskops PRIOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Philipp-Michael

    2015-01-15

    The study of High Energy Density Matter (HEDM) in the laboratory makes great demands on the diagnostics because these states can usually only be created for a short time and usual diagnostic techniques with visible light or X-rays come to their limit because of the high density. The high energy proton radiography technique that was developed in the 1990s at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is a very promising possibility to overcome those limits so that one can measure the density of HEDM with high spatial and time resolution. For this purpose the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Radiography for FAIR) was set up at GSI, which not only reproduces the image, but also magnifies it by a factor of 4.2 and thereby penetrates matter with a density up to 20 g/cm{sup 2}. Straightaway a spatial resolution of less than 30 μm and a time resolution on the nanosecond scale was achieved. This work describes details to the principle, design and construction of the proton microscope as well as first measurements and simulations of essential components like magnetic lenses, a collimator and a scintillator screen. For the latter one it was possible to show that plastic scintillators can be used as converter as an alternative to the slower but more radiation resistant crystals, so that it is possible to reach a time resolution of 10 ns. Moreover the characteristics were investigated for the system at the commissioning in April 2014. Also the changes in the magnetic field due to radiation damage were studied. Besides that an overview about future applications is given. First experiments with Warm Dense Matter created by using a Pulsed Power Setup have already been performed. Furthermore the promising concept of combining proton radiography with particle therapy has been investigated in context of the PaNTERA project. An outlook on the possibilities with future experiments at the FAIR accelerator facility is given as well. Because of higher beam intensity an energy one can expect even

  19. Adaptive nonparametric Bayesian inference using location-scale mixture priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.

    2010-01-01

    We study location-scale mixture priors for nonparametric statistical problems, including multivariate regression, density estimation and classification. We show that a rate-adaptive procedure can be obtained if the prior is properly constructed. In particular, we show that adaptation is achieved if

  20. Nudging toward Inquiry: Awakening and Building upon Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontichiaro, Kristin, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Prior knowledge" (sometimes called schema or background knowledge) is information one already knows that helps him/her make sense of new information. New learning builds on existing prior knowledge. In traditional reporting-style research projects, students bypass this crucial step and plow right into answer-finding. It's no wonder that many…

  1. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  2. Personality, depressive symptoms and prior trauma exposure of new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Police officers are predisposed to trauma exposure. The development of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by personality style, prior exposure to traumatic events and prior depression. Objectives. To describe the personality profiles of new Metropolitan Police Service ...

  3. 34 CFR 303.403 - Prior notice; native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prior notice; native language. 303.403 Section 303.403... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards General § 303.403 Prior notice; native language. (a... file a complaint and the timelines under those procedures. (c) Native language. (1) The notice must be...

  4. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  5. Bayesian Inference for Structured Spike and Slab Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Riis; Winther, Ole; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    Sparse signal recovery addresses the problem of solving underdetermined linear inverse problems subject to a sparsity constraint. We propose a novel prior formulation, the structured spike and slab prior, which allows to incorporate a priori knowledge of the sparsity pattern by imposing a spatial...

  6. 5 CFR 6201.103 - Prior approval for outside employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prior approval for outside employment. 6201.103 Section 6201.103 Administrative Personnel EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 6201.103 Prior...

  7. Prior authorisation schemes: trade barriers in need of scientific justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Case C-333/08 Commission v. French Republic ‘processing aids’ [2010] ECR-0000 French prior authorisation scheme for processing aids in food production infringes upon Article 34 TFEU** 1. A prior authorisation scheme not complying with the principle of proportionality, infringes upon Article 34 TFEU.

  8. Variational segmentation problems using prior knowledge in imaging and vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fundana, Ketut

    This dissertation addresses variational formulation of segmentation problems using prior knowledge. Variational models are among the most successful approaches for solving many Computer Vision and Image Processing problems. The models aim at finding the solution to a given energy functional defined......, prior knowledge is needed to obtain the desired solution. The introduction of shape priors in particular, has proven to be an effective way to segment objects of interests. Firstly, we propose a prior-based variational segmentation model to segment objects of interest in image sequences, that can deal....... Many objects have high variability in shape and orientation. This often leads to unsatisfactory results, when using a segmentation model with single shape template. One way to solve this is by using more sophisticated shape models. We propose to incorporate shape priors from a shape sub...

  9. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuanghui; Liu, Yongxiang; Li, Xiang; Bi, Guoan

    2016-04-28

    This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR) algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  10. Total Variability Modeling using Source-specific Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepstone, Sven Ewan; Lee, Kong Aik; Li, Haizhou

    2016-01-01

    sequence of an utterance. In both cases the prior for the latent variable is assumed to be non-informative, since for homogeneous datasets there is no gain in generality in using an informative prior. This work shows in the heterogeneous case, that using informative priors for com- puting the posterior......, can lead to favorable results. We focus on modeling the priors using minimum divergence criterion or fac- tor analysis techniques. Tests on the NIST 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation (SRE) dataset show that our proposed method beats four baselines: For i-vector extraction using an already...... trained matrix, for the short2-short3 task in SRE’08, five out of eight female and four out of eight male common conditions, were improved. For the core-extended task in SRE’10, four out of nine female and six out of nine male common conditions were improved. When incorporating prior information...

  11. Example-driven manifold priors for image deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jie; Turaga, Pavan; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama

    2011-11-01

    Image restoration methods that exploit prior information about images to be estimated have been extensively studied, typically using the Bayesian framework. In this paper, we consider the role of prior knowledge of the object class in the form of a patch manifold to address the deconvolution problem. Specifically, we incorporate unlabeled image data of the object class, say natural images, in the form of a patch-manifold prior for the object class. The manifold prior is implicitly estimated from the given unlabeled data. We show how the patch-manifold prior effectively exploits the available sample class data for regularizing the deblurring problem. Furthermore, we derive a generalized cross-validation (GCV) function to automatically determine the regularization parameter at each iteration without explicitly knowing the noise variance. Extensive experiments show that this method performs better than many competitive image deconvolution methods.

  12. Residual stress in deuterium implanted nominal copper coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inal, M. Y.; Alam, M.; Peascoe, R. A.; Watkins, T. R.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of deuterium (D) implantation on the residual stresses in Cu and CuAl 2 phases present in nominal Cu coatings (containing Al) deposited on Al-alloy (Al-6061) substrates were measured using an x-ray diffraction technique. The coatings were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a pure Cu target under identical conditions and Al was incorporated in the coatings during growth by diffusion from the substrate. Deuterium was implanted in the coatings at energies of 40 or 40+120 keV with fluences of 1x10 21 , 2x10 21 , or 3x10 21 D + /m 2 . Pole figures of the Cu phase in the coatings prior to and after implantation indicated no effect of implantation on the fibrous texture. Triaxial stress analysis indicated the surface normal stress component to be negligible in Cu and slightly tensile in CuAl 2 under all conditions. Furthermore, under all conditions, the in-plane residual stresses in both phases were found to be compressive and nearly isotropic. The magnitude of the isotropic compressive stress was always higher in CuAl 2 as compared to Cu. The compressive residual stresses in the Cu phase changed only mildly with increasing coating weight, ion energy, and fluence. However, in the CuAl 2 phase the compressive residual stresses changed markedly with increasing ion energy (initial decrease followed by leveling off) and increasing ion fluence (initial decrease followed by an increase), but remained unaffected by increasing coating weight. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Canova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  14. MORTAR WITH UNSERVICEABLE TIRE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of unserviceable tire residues on rendering mortar using lime and washed sand at a volumetric proportion of 1:6. The ripened composite was dried in an oven and combined with both cement at a volumetric proportion of 1:1.5:9 and rubber powder in proportional aggregate volumes of 6, 8, 10, and 12%. Water exudation was evaluated in the plastic state. Water absorption by capillarity, fresh shrinkage and mass loss, restrained shrinkage and mass loss, void content, flexural strength, and deformation energy under compression were evaluated in the hardened state. There was an improvement in the water exudation and water absorption by capillarity and drying shrinkage, as well as a reduction of the void content and flexural strength. The product studied significantly aided the water exudation from mortar and, capillary elevation in rendering.

  15. Upgraded wood residue fuels 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Swedish market for upgraded residue fuels, i.e. briquettes, pellets and wood powder, has developed considerably during the nineties. The additional costs for the upgrading processes are regained and create a surplus in other parts of the system, e.g. in the form of higher combustion efficiencies, lower investment costs for burning equipment, lower operation costs and a diminished environmental impact. All these factors put together have resulted in a rapid growth of this part of the energy sector. In 1994 the production was 1.9 TWh, an increase of 37 % compared to the previous year. In the forthcoming heating season 1995/96 the production may reach 4 TWh. 57 refs, 11 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The ruminants are capable of converting low-quality food, when they are complementes with high-energy source. Through the use of regional agricultural residues is possible to conduct more economical production systems, since energetic foods have high cost in animal production. There is very abundant availability of residues in agroforestry activities worldwide, so that if a small fraction of them were used with appropriate technical criteria they could largely meet the needs of existing herds in the world and thus meet the demands of consumption of protein of animal origin. The Southwest Region of São Paulo State has large area occupied by reforestation and wide availability of non-timber forest residues, which may represent more concentrated energetic food for ruminant production. This experiment aimed to evaluate the acceptability of ground pine (20, 30 and 40%, replacing part of the energetic food (corn, present in the composition of the concentrate and was performed at the Experimental Station of Itapetininga - Forest Institute / SMA, in the dry season of 2011. It were used four crossbred steers, mean 18 months old, average body weight of 250 kg, housed in a paddock provided with water ad libitum and covered troughs for supplementation with the experimental diet. The adjustment period of the animals was of 07 days and the measurement of the levels of consumption, physiological changes, acceptability and physiological parameters were observed during the following 25 days. The concentrate supplement was formulated based on corn (76.2%, Soybean Meal (20%, urea (2%, Ammonium sulfate (0.4%, calcite (1.4%, Mineral Core (1% and finely ground Pine Cone, replacing corn. In preparing food, the formulas were prepared to make them isoproteic/energetic, containing the following nutrient levels: 22% Crude Protein (CP and 79% of Total Nutrients (TDN. The animals received the supplement in three steps for each level of cone replaced, being offered in the

  17. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...... from the landfills and size fractionated in order to recover potential resources such as metal and energy and to reduce the amounts of SR left for re-landfilling. Based on the results it is estimated that 60-70% of the SR excavated could be recovered in terms of materials or energy. Only a fraction...... with particle size less than 5 mm needs to be re-landfilled at least until suitable techniques are available for recovery of materials with small particle sizes....

  18. Impact damage and residual strength analysis of composite panels with bonded stiffeners. [for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ram C.; Shuart, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Blade-stiffened, compression-loaded cover panels were designed, manufactured, analyzed, and tested. All panels were fabricated from IM6/1808I interleafed graphite-epoxy. An orthotropic blade stiffener and an orthotropic skin were selected to satisfy the design requirements for an advanced aircraft configuration. All specimens were impact damaged prior to testing. Experimental results were obtained for three- and five-stiffener panels. Analytical results described interlaminar forces caused by impact and predicted specimen residual strength. The analytical results compared reasonably with the experimental results for residual strength of the specimens.

  19. The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzels, Sandra; Kester, Liesbeth; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Broers, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Wetzels, S. A. J., Kester, L., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Broers, N. J. (2011). The influence of prior knowledge on the retrieval-directed function of note taking in prior knowledge activation. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(2), 274-291. doi: 10.1348/000709910X517425

  20. A coupled creep plasticity model for residual stress relaxation of a shot-peened nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Dennis J.; John, Reji; Brockman, Robert A.; Rosenberger, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Shot peening is a commonly used surface treatment process that imparts compressive residual stresses into the surface of metal components. Compressive residual stresses retard initiation and growth of fatigue cracks. During component loading history, shot-peened residual stresses may change due to thermal exposure, creep, and cyclic loading. In these instances, taking full credit for compressive residual stresses would result in a nonconservative life prediction. This article describes a methodical approach for characterizing and modeling residual stress relaxation under elevated temperature loading, near and above the monotonic yield strength of INI 00. The model incorporates the dominant creep deformation mechanism, coupling between the creep and plasticity models, and effects of prior plastic strain to simulate surface treatment deformation.

  1. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Residues and duality for projective algebraic varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Ernst; Dickenstein, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    This book, which grew out of lectures by E. Kunz for students with a background in algebra and algebraic geometry, develops local and global duality theory in the special case of (possibly singular) algebraic varieties over algebraically closed base fields. It describes duality and residue theorems in terms of K�hler differential forms and their residues. The properties of residues are introduced via local cohomology. Special emphasis is given to the relation between residues to classical results of algebraic geometry and their generalizations. The contribution by A. Dickenstein gives applications of residues and duality to polynomial solutions of constant coefficient partial differential equations and to problems in interpolation and ideal membership. D. A. Cox explains toric residues and relates them to the earlier text. The book is intended as an introduction to more advanced treatments and further applications of the subject, to which numerous bibliographical hints are given.

  3. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  4. Two-stage catalytic up-grading of vacuum residue of a Wandoan coal liquid. [Vacuum residue of coal liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochida, I.; Sakanishi, K.; Korai, Y.; Fujitsu, H.

    1986-08-01

    A successive two-stage hydrotreatment using a commercial Ni-Mo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst (HDN-30) was applied to the vacuum residue of a Wandoan coal liquid to achieve high levels of hydrocracking, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation. Two-stage hydrotreatment in 1-methylnaphthalene containing 20wt% fluoranthene as a solvent at solvent/coal liquid ratio of unity removed 83% (overall) of nitrogen and 90% (overall) of oxygen in the asphaltene (benzene-soluble fraction) at 380/sup 0/C for 3 h and at 420/sup 0/C for 3h under hydrogen pressure of 15 MPa and 14 MPa, respectively, while the single stage treatment at 420/sup 0/C for 3 h removed only 41% and 46%, respectively. The same two-stage treatment allowed the overall denitrogenation of 51% and the overall deoxygenation of 67% from a mixture of asphaltene and preasphaltene (THF-soluble fraction). Addition of the catalyst prior to the second stage reaction increased the removal of nitrogen and oxygen to 75 and 82%, respectively, indicating significant catalyst deactivation by the preasphaltene fraction in the first stage. Increasing the solvent/coal liquid ratio to 2 or addition of tetrahydrofluoranthene as a component of the solvent increased the removal of nitrogen and oxygen to 70 and 80%, respectively. Such two-stage hydrotreatment was also effective in refining the whole residue, allowing denitrogenations and deoxygenations of 68 and 75% respectively using tetrahydrofluoranthene. The coke, unreacted coal and minerals in the residue may not cause acute catalyst deactivation. High dissolving ability of the reaction solvents is very effective to decrease catalyst deactivation by carbon deposition. The successive two-stage hydrotreatment also enhanced hydrocracking of polar and resin fractions in the residue into oils (conversion, 65%). (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Learning priors for Bayesian computations in the nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Berniker

    Full Text Available Our nervous system continuously combines new information from our senses with information it has acquired throughout life. Numerous studies have found that human subjects manage this by integrating their observations with their previous experience (priors in a way that is close to the statistical optimum. However, little is known about the way the nervous system acquires or learns priors. Here we present results from experiments where the underlying distribution of target locations in an estimation task was switched, manipulating the prior subjects should use. Our experimental design allowed us to measure a subject's evolving prior while they learned. We confirm that through extensive practice subjects learn the correct prior for the task. We found that subjects can rapidly learn the mean of a new prior while the variance is learned more slowly and with a variable learning rate. In addition, we found that a Bayesian inference model could predict the time course of the observed learning while offering an intuitive explanation for the findings. The evidence suggests the nervous system continuously updates its priors to enable efficient behavior.

  6. Implicit Priors in Galaxy Cluster Mass and Scaling Relation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2011-01-01

    Deriving the total masses of galaxy clusters from observations of the intracluster medium (ICM) generally requires some prior information, in addition to the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium and spherical symmetry. Often, this information takes the form of particular parametrized functions used to describe the cluster gas density and temperature profiles. In this paper, we investigate the implicit priors on hydrostatic masses that result from this fully parametric approach, and the implications of such priors for scaling relations formed from those masses. We show that the application of such fully parametric models of the ICM naturally imposes a prior on the slopes of the derived scaling relations, favoring the self-similar model, and argue that this prior may be influential in practice. In contrast, this bias does not exist for techniques which adopt an explicit prior on the form of the mass profile but describe the ICM non-parametrically. Constraints on the slope of the cluster mass-temperature relation in the literature show a separation based the approach employed, with the results from fully parametric ICM modeling clustering nearer the self-similar value. Given that a primary goal of scaling relation analyses is to test the self-similar model, the application of methods subject to strong, implicit priors should be avoided. Alternative methods and best practices are discussed.

  7. Distribution of residues and primitive roots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Replacing the function f by g, we get the required estimate for N(p, N). D. Proof of Theorem 1.1. When p = 7, we clearly see that (1, 2) is a consecutive pair of quadratic residue modulo 7. Assume that p ≥ 11. If 10 is a quadratic residue modulo p, then we have (9, 10) as a consecutive pair of quadratic residues modulo p, ...

  8. Residual analysis for spatial point processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baddeley, A.; Turner, R.; Møller, Jesper

    We define residuals for point process models fitted to spatial point pattern data, and propose diagnostic plots based on these residuals. The techniques apply to any Gibbs point process model, which may exhibit spatial heterogeneity, interpoint interaction and dependence on spatial covariates. Ou...... or covariate effects. Q-Q plots of the residuals are effective in diagnosing interpoint interaction. Some existing ad hoc statistics of point patterns (quadrat counts, scan statistic, kernel smoothed intensity, Berman's diagnostic) are recovered as special cases....

  9. To spray or not to spray? Understanding participation in an indoor residual spray campaign in Arequipa, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldán, Valerie A; Bauer, Karin M; Hunter, Gabrielle C; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Arriola, Vanessa D; Rivera-Lanas, Daniel; Rodriguez, Geoffrey H; Toledo Vizcarra, Amparo M; Mollesaca Riveros, Lina M; Levy, Michael Z; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2018-01-01

    Current low participation rates in vector control programmes in Arequipa, Peru complicate the control of Chagas disease. Using focus groups (n = 17 participants) and semi-structured interviews (n = 71) conducted in March and May 2013, respectively, we examined barriers to and motivators of household participation in an indoor residual spray (IRS) campaign that had taken place one year prior in Arequipa. The most common reported barriers to participation were inconvenient spray times due to work obligations, not considering the campaign to be necessary, concerns about secondary health impacts (e.g. allergic reactions to insecticides), and difficulties preparing the home for spraying (e.g. moving heavy furniture). There was also a low perception of risk for contracting Chagas disease that might affect participation. The main motivator to participate was to ensure personal health and well-being. Future IRS campaigns should incorporate more flexible hours, including weekends; provide appropriate educational messages to counter concerns about secondary health effects; incorporate peer educators to increase perceived risk to Chagas in community; obtain support from community members and leaders to build community trust and support for the campaign; and assist individuals in preparing their homes. Enhancing community trust in both the need for the campaign and its operations is key.

  10. Cytokine and gene therapy of minimal residual tumour disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan; Šímová, Jana; Mikyšková, Romana; Mendoza, Luis; Jandlová, Táňa

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 4, Suppl. 1 (1999), s. S10 ISSN 1107-3756. [World Congress on Advances in Oncology /4./, International Symposium on Molecular Medicine /2./. 07.10.1999-09.10.1999, Vouliagmeni, Atény] Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  11. Prediction of retained residual stresses in laboratory fracture mechanics specimens extracted from welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurlston, R.G.; Sherry, A.H.; James, P.; Sharples, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of weld material fracture toughness properties is important for the structural integrity assessment of engineering components. However, welds can contain high levels of residual stress and these can be retained in fracture mechanics specimens, particularly when machined from non-stress relieved welds. Retained residual stresses can make the measurement of valid fracture toughness properties difficult. This paper describes the results of analytical work undertaken to investigate factors that can influence the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from as-welded ferritic and austenitic stainless steel plates. The results indicate that significant levels of residual stress can be retained in specimen blanks prior to notching, and that the magnitude and distribution of stress is dependent upon material properties, specimen geometry and size, and extraction location through the thickness of the weld. Finite element modelling is shown to provide a useful approach for estimating the level and distributions of retained residual stresses. A new stress partitioning approach has been developed to estimate retained stress levels and results compare favourably with FE analysis and available experimental data. The approach can help guide the selection of specimen geometry and machining strategies to minimise the level of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from non stress-relieved welds and thus improve the measurement of weld fracture toughness properties. - Highlights: • A simplified method for generating realistic weld residual stresses has been developed. • It has been shown that significant levels of residual stress can be retained within laboratory fracture mechanics specimens. • The level and distribution is dependant upon material, specimen type, specimen size and extraction location. • A method has been developed to allow estimates of the

  12. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  13. Estimating Functions with Prior Knowledge, (EFPK) for diffusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolsøe, Kim; Kessler, Mathieu; Madsen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction of a...... of an estimating function. It may be useful when the full Bayesian analysis is difficult to carry out for computational reasons. This is almost always the case for diffusions, which is the focus of this paper, though the method applies in other settings.......In this paper a method is formulated in an estimating function setting for parameter estimation, which allows the use of prior information. The main idea is to use prior knowledge of the parameters, either specified as moments restrictions or as a distribution, and use it in the construction...

  14. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  15. Form of prior for constrained thermodynamic processes with uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Preety; Johal, Ramandeep S.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the quasi-static thermodynamic processes with constraints, but with additional uncertainty about the control parameters. Motivated by inductive reasoning, we assign prior distribution that provides a rational guess about likely values of the uncertain parameters. The priors are derived explicitly for both the entropy-conserving and the energy-conserving processes. The proposed form is useful when the constraint equation cannot be treated analytically. The inference is performed using spin-1/2 systems as models for heat reservoirs. Analytical results are derived in the high-temperatures limit. An agreement beyond linear response is found between the estimates of thermal quantities and their optimal values obtained from extremum principles. We also seek an intuitive interpretation for the prior and the estimated value of temperature obtained therefrom. We find that the prior over temperature becomes uniform over the quantity kept conserved in the process.

  16. On the prior probabilities for two-stage Bayesian estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1992-01-01

    The method of Bayesian inference is reexamined for its applicability and for the required underlying assumptions in obtaining and using prior probability estimates. Two different approaches are suggested to determine the first-stage priors in the two-stage Bayesian analysis which avoid certain assumptions required for other techniques. In the first scheme, the prior is obtained through a true frequency based distribution generated at selected intervals utilizing actual sampling of the failure rate distributions. The population variability distribution is generated as the weighed average of the frequency distributions. The second method is based on a non-parametric Bayesian approach using the Maximum Entropy Principle. Specific features such as integral properties or selected parameters of prior distributions may be obtained with minimal assumptions. It is indicated how various quantiles may also be generated with a least square technique

  17. Prior Expectations Bias Sensory Representations in Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, P.; Brouwer, G.J.; Gerven, M.A.J. van; Lange, F.P. de

    2013-01-01

    Perception is strongly influenced by expectations. Accordingly, perception has sometimes been cast as a process of inference, whereby sensory inputs are combined with prior knowledge. However, despite a wealth of behavioral literature supporting an account of perception as probabilistic inference,

  18. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate

  19. What good are actions? Accelerating learning using learned action priors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of learning in sequential decision problems grows exponentially with the number of actions available to the agent at each state. We present a method for accelerating this process by learning action priors that express...

  20. Assessment of prior learning in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    ’ knowledge, skills and competences during the students’ performances and the methods that the teachers apply in order to assess the students’ prior learning in relation to the regulations of the current VET-program. In particular the study focuses on how to assess not only the students’ explicated knowledge......The article deals about the results of a study of the assessment of prior learning among adult workers who want to obtain formal qualifications as skilled workers. The study contributes to developing methods for assessing prior learning including both the teachers’ ways of eliciting the students...... and skills but also their competences, i.e. the way the students use their skills and knowledge to perform in practice. Based on a description of the assessment procedures the article discusses central issues in relation to the assessment of prior learning. The empirical data have been obtained in the VET...

  1. Process for measuring residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfinger, F.X.; Peiter, A.; Theiner, W.A.; Stuecker, E.

    1982-01-01

    No single process can at present solve all problems. The complete destructive processes only have a limited field of application, as the component cannot be reused. However, they are essential for the basic determination of stress distributions in the field of research and development. Destructive and non-destructive processes are mainly used if investigations have to be carried out on original components. With increasing component size, the part of destructive tests becomes smaller. The main applications are: quality assurance, testing of manufactured parts and characteristics of components. Among the non-destructive test procedures, X-raying has been developed most. It gives residual stresses on the surface and on surface layers near the edges. Further development is desirable - in assessment - in measuring techniques. Ultrasonic and magnetic crack detection processes are at present mainly used in research and development, and also in quality assurance. Because of the variable depth of penetration and the possibility of automation they are gaining in importance. (orig./RW) [de

  2. Valid MR imaging predictors of prior knee arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discepola, Federico; Le, Huy B.Q.; Park, John S.; Clopton, Paul; Knoll, Andrew N.; Austin, Matthew J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether fibrosis of the medial patellar reticulum (MPR), lateral patellar reticulum (LPR), deep medial aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (MDH), or deep lateral aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (LDH) is a valid predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPPA-compliant study. Initially, fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH in MR imaging studies of 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 100 patients without was recorded. Subsequently, two additional radiologists, blinded to clinical data, retrospectively and independently recorded the presence of fibrosis of the MPR in 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 50 without. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detecting the presence of fibrosis in the MPR were calculated. κ statistics were used to analyze inter-observer agreement. Fibrosis of each of the regions examined during the first portion of the study showed a significant association with prior knee arthroscopy (p < 0.005 for each). A patient with fibrosis of the MPR, LDH, or LPR was 45.5, 9, or 3.7 times more likely, respectively, to have had a prior knee arthroscopy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fibrosis of the MPR supplanted the diagnostic utility of identifying fibrosis of the LPR, LDH, or MDH, or combinations of these (p ≥ 0.09 for all combinations). In the second portion of the study, fibrosis of the MPR demonstrated a mean sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 81%, and accuracy of 77% for predicting prior knee arthroscopy. Analysis of MR images can be used to determine if a patient has had prior knee arthroscopy by identifying fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH. Fibrosis of the MPR was the strongest predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. (orig.)

  3. Valid MR imaging predictors of prior knee arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Discepola, Federico; Le, Huy B.Q. [McGill University Health Center, Jewsih General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Park, John S. [Annapolis Radiology Associates, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Annapolis, MD (United States); Clopton, Paul; Knoll, Andrew N.; Austin, Matthew J.; Resnick, Donald L. [University of California San Diego (UCSD), Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    To determine whether fibrosis of the medial patellar reticulum (MPR), lateral patellar reticulum (LPR), deep medial aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (MDH), or deep lateral aspect of Hoffa's fat pad (LDH) is a valid predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. Institutional review board approval and waiver of informed consent were obtained for this HIPPA-compliant study. Initially, fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH in MR imaging studies of 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 100 patients without was recorded. Subsequently, two additional radiologists, blinded to clinical data, retrospectively and independently recorded the presence of fibrosis of the MPR in 50 patients with prior knee arthroscopy and 50 without. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy for detecting the presence of fibrosis in the MPR were calculated. {kappa} statistics were used to analyze inter-observer agreement. Fibrosis of each of the regions examined during the first portion of the study showed a significant association with prior knee arthroscopy (p < 0.005 for each). A patient with fibrosis of the MPR, LDH, or LPR was 45.5, 9, or 3.7 times more likely, respectively, to have had a prior knee arthroscopy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that fibrosis of the MPR supplanted the diagnostic utility of identifying fibrosis of the LPR, LDH, or MDH, or combinations of these (p {>=} 0.09 for all combinations). In the second portion of the study, fibrosis of the MPR demonstrated a mean sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 72%, PPV of 75%, NPV of 81%, and accuracy of 77% for predicting prior knee arthroscopy. Analysis of MR images can be used to determine if a patient has had prior knee arthroscopy by identifying fibrosis of the MPR, LPR, MDH, or LDH. Fibrosis of the MPR was the strongest predictor of prior knee arthroscopy. (orig.)

  4. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS)

  5. Contaminant Leach Testing of Hanford Tank 241-C-104 Residual Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M.V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Leach testing of Tank C-104 residual waste was completed using batch and column experiments. Tank C-104 residual waste contains exceptionally high concentrations of uranium (i.e., as high as 115 mg/g or 11.5 wt.%). This study was conducted to provide data to develop contaminant release models for Tank C-104 residual waste and Tank C-104 residual waste that has been treated with lime to transform uranium in the waste to a highly insoluble calcium uranate (CaUO4) or similar phase. Three column leaching cases were investigated. In the first case, C-104 residual waste was leached with deionized water. In the second case, crushed grout was added to the column so that deionized water contacted the grout prior to contacting the waste. In the third case, lime was mixed in with the grout. Results of the column experiments demonstrate that addition of lime dramatically reduces the leachability of uranium from Tank C-104 residual waste. Initial indications suggest that CaUO4 or a similar highly insoluble calcium rich uranium phase forms as a result of the lime addition. Additional work is needed to definitively identify the uranium phases that occur in the as received waste and the waste after the lime treatment.

  6. Neutron diffraction measurements for the determination of residual stresses in MMC tensile and fatigue specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiori, F.; Girardin, E.; Giuliani, A.

    2000-01-01

    have been performed at RISO (Roskilde, DK) and HMI-BENSC (Berlin, D), for the determination of residual stress in AA2124 + 17% SiCp and AA359 + 20% SiCp specimens, submitted to tensile and fatigue tests. For each of the investigated samples, the macrostress has been separated from the elastic......, residual stresses are present in both the matrix and the particles microstructure, prior to any macroscopic loading. They vary with the temperature and with the type and level of loading imposed to the material, having a strong influence on the mechanical behaviour of MMCs. Neutron diffraction measurements...... and thermal mismatch microstresses. The results show that, in general, the main contribution to the stress state of both matrix and reinforcement is given by the thermal microstresses, already existing due to heat treatment prior to mechanical tests. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in five daily fractions for post-operative surgical cavities in brain metastases patients with and without prior whole brain radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omair, Ameen; Soliman, Hany; Xu, Wei; Karotki, Aliaksandr; Mainprize, Todd; Phan, Nicolas; Das, Sunit; Keith, Julia; Yeung, Robert; Perry, James; Tsao, May; Sahgal, Arjun

    2013-12-01

    Our purpose was to report efficacy of hypofractionated cavity stereotactic radiotherapy (HCSRT) in patients with and without prior whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT). 32 surgical cavities in 30 patients (20 patients/21 cavities had no prior WBRT and 10 patients/11 cavities had prior WBRT) were treated with image-guided linac stereotactic radiotherapy. 7 of the 10 prior WBRT patients had "resistant" local disease given prior surgery, post-operative WBRT and a re-operation, followed by salvage HCSRT. The clinical target volume was the post-surgical cavity, and a 2-mm margin applied as planning target volume. The median total dose was 30 Gy (range: 25-37.5 Gy) in 5 fractions. In the no prior and prior WBRT cohorts, the median follow-up was 9.7 months (range: 3.0-23.6) and 15.3 months (range: 2.9-39.7), the median survival was 23.6 months and 39.7 months, and the 1-year cavity local recurrence progression- free survival (LRFS) was 79 and 100%, respectively. At 18 months the LRFS dropped to 29% in the prior WBRT cohort. Grade 3 radiation necrosis occurred in 3 prior WBRT patients. We report favorable outcomes with HCSRT, and well selected patients with prior WBRT and "resistant" disease may have an extended survival favoring aggressive salvage HCSRT at a moderate risk of radiation necrosis.

  8. Generalized multiple kernel learning with data-dependent priors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi; Tsang, Ivor W; Gao, Shenghua; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    Multiple kernel learning (MKL) and classifier ensemble are two mainstream methods for solving learning problems in which some sets of features/views are more informative than others, or the features/views within a given set are inconsistent. In this paper, we first present a novel probabilistic interpretation of MKL such that maximum entropy discrimination with a noninformative prior over multiple views is equivalent to the formulation of MKL. Instead of using the noninformative prior, we introduce a novel data-dependent prior based on an ensemble of kernel predictors, which enhances the prediction performance of MKL by leveraging the merits of the classifier ensemble. With the proposed probabilistic framework of MKL, we propose a hierarchical Bayesian model to learn the proposed data-dependent prior and classification model simultaneously. The resultant problem is convex and other information (e.g., instances with either missing views or missing labels) can be seamlessly incorporated into the data-dependent priors. Furthermore, a variety of existing MKL models can be recovered under the proposed MKL framework and can be readily extended to incorporate these priors. Extensive experiments demonstrate the benefits of our proposed framework in supervised and semisupervised settings, as well as in tasks with partial correspondence among multiple views.

  9. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sø rbye, Sigrunn Holbek; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  10. Fractional Gaussian noise: Prior specification and model comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Sørbye, Sigrunn Holbek

    2017-07-07

    Fractional Gaussian noise (fGn) is a stationary stochastic process used to model antipersistent or persistent dependency structures in observed time series. Properties of the autocovariance function of fGn are characterised by the Hurst exponent (H), which, in Bayesian contexts, typically has been assigned a uniform prior on the unit interval. This paper argues why a uniform prior is unreasonable and introduces the use of a penalised complexity (PC) prior for H. The PC prior is computed to penalise divergence from the special case of white noise and is invariant to reparameterisations. An immediate advantage is that the exact same prior can be used for the autocorrelation coefficient ϕ(symbol) of a first-order autoregressive process AR(1), as this model also reflects a flexible version of white noise. Within the general setting of latent Gaussian models, this allows us to compare an fGn model component with AR(1) using Bayes factors, avoiding the confounding effects of prior choices for the two hyperparameters H and ϕ(symbol). Among others, this is useful in climate regression models where inference for underlying linear or smooth trends depends heavily on the assumed noise model.

  11. SUSPENSION OF THE PRIOR DISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION ACCORDING TO LABOR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae, GRADINARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct the prior disciplinary investigation, the employee shall be convoked in writing by the person authorized by the employer to carry out the research, specifying the subject, date, time and place of the meeting. For this purpose the employer shall appoint a committee charged with conducting the prior disciplinary investigation. Prior disciplinary research cannot be done without the possibility of the accused person to defend himself. It would be an abuse of the employer to violate these provisions. Since the employee is entitled to formulate and sustain defence in proving innocence or lesser degree of guilt than imputed, it needs between the moment were disclosed to the employee and the one of performing the prior disciplinary investigation to be a reasonable term for the employee to be able to prepare a defence in this regard. The employee's failure to present at the convocation, without an objective reason entitles the employer to dispose the sanctioning without making the prior disciplinary investigation. The objective reason which makes the employee, that is subject to prior disciplinary investigation, unable to present to the preliminary disciplinary investigation, should be at the time of the investigation in question.

  12. Identification of subsurface structures using electromagnetic data and shape priors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveit, Svenn, E-mail: svenn.tveit@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Bakr, Shaaban A., E-mail: shaaban.bakr1@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Lien, Martha, E-mail: martha.lien@octio.com [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Octio AS, Bøhmergaten 44, Bergen 5057 (Norway); Mannseth, Trond, E-mail: trond.mannseth@uni.no [Uni CIPR, Uni Research, Bergen 5020 (Norway); Department of Mathematics, University of Bergen, Bergen 5020 (Norway)

    2015-03-01

    We consider the inverse problem of identifying large-scale subsurface structures using the controlled source electromagnetic method. To identify structures in the subsurface where the contrast in electric conductivity can be small, regularization is needed to bias the solution towards preserving structural information. We propose to combine two approaches for regularization of the inverse problem. In the first approach we utilize a model-based, reduced, composite representation of the electric conductivity that is highly flexible, even for a moderate number of degrees of freedom. With a low number of parameters, the inverse problem is efficiently solved using a standard, second-order gradient-based optimization algorithm. Further regularization is obtained using structural prior information, available, e.g., from interpreted seismic data. The reduced conductivity representation is suitable for incorporation of structural prior information. Such prior information cannot, however, be accurately modeled with a gaussian distribution. To alleviate this, we incorporate the structural information using shape priors. The shape prior technique requires the choice of kernel function, which is application dependent. We argue for using the conditionally positive definite kernel which is shown to have computational advantages over the commonly applied gaussian kernel for our problem. Numerical experiments on various test cases show that the methodology is able to identify fairly complex subsurface electric conductivity distributions while preserving structural prior information during the inversion.

  13. Residuals Management and Water Pollution Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Public Affairs.

    This pamphlet addresses the problems associated with residuals and water quality especially as it relates to the National Water Pollution Control Program. The types of residuals and appropriate management systems are discussed. Additionally, one section is devoted to the role of citizen participation in developing management programs. (CS)

  14. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  15. Densification of FL Chains via Residuated Frames

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldi, Paolo; Terui, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-195 ISSN 0002-5240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Keywords : densifiability * standard completeness * residuated lattices * residuated frames * fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016

  16. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  17. Semantic Tagging with Deep Residual Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjerva, Johannes; Plank, Barbara; Bos, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel semantic tagging task, semtagging, tailored for the purpose of multilingual semantic parsing, and present the first tagger using deep residual networks (ResNets). Our tagger uses both word and character representations and includes a novel residual bypass architecture. We evaluate

  18. Cement production from coal conversion residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.D.; Clavenna, L.R.; Eakman, J.M.; Nahas, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Cement is produced by feeding residue solids containing carbonaceous material and ash constituents obtained from converting a carbonaceous feed material into liquids and/or gases into a cement-making zone and burning the carbon in the residue solids to supply at least a portion of the energy required to convert the solids into cement

  19. Residual stress concerns in containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, F.; Kulak, R. F.; Pfeiffer, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing of steel containment vessels starts with the forming of flat plates into curved plates. A steel containment structure is made by welding individual plates together to form the sections that make up the complex shaped vessels. The metal forming and welding process leaves residual stresses in the vessel walls. Generally, the effect of metal forming residual stresses can be reduced or virtually eliminated by thermally stress relieving the vesseL In large containment vessels this may not be practical and thus the residual stresses due to manufacturing may become important. The residual stresses could possibly tiect the response of the vessel to internal pressurization. When the level of residual stresses is significant it will affect the vessel's response, for instance the yielding pressure and possibly the failure pressure. The paper will address the effect of metal forming residual stresses on the response of a generic pressure vessel to internal pressurization. A scoping analysis investigated the effect of residual forming stresses on the response of an internally pressurized vessel. A simple model was developed to gain understanding of the mechanics of the problem. Residual stresses due to the welding process were not considered in this investigation

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  1. Recolonization of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women with prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Teresa; Bilinski, Ewa; Lombard, Emily

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of women with prior GBS genital colonization who have recolonization in subsequent pregnancies. This is a retrospective, cohort study of patients with a prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy and a subsequent pregnancy with a recorded GBS culture result, from January 2000 through June 2007. Documentation of GBS status was through GBS culture performed between 35 to 37 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria included pregnancies with unknown GBS status, patients with GBS bacteriuria, women with a previous neonate with GBS disease and GBS finding prior to 35 weeks. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The sample proportion of subjects with GBS genital colonization and its confidence interval were computed to estimate the incidence rate. Logistic regression was performed to assess potential determinants of GBS colonization. Regression coefficients, odds ratios and associated confidence intervals, and p-values were reported, with significant results reported. There were 371 pregnancies that met the test criteria. There were 151 subsequent pregnancies with GBS genital colonization and 220 without GBS recolonization. The incidence of GBS recolonization on patients with prior GBS genital colonization was 40.7% (95% confidence interval 35.7-45.69%). The incidence rate for the sample was significantly larger than 30% (p recolonization in subsequent pregnancies.

  2. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  3. Methods of conditioning waste fuel decladding hulls and dissolver residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Regge, P.; Loida, A.; Schmidt-Hansberg, T.; Sombret, C.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for conditioning spent fuel decladding hulls or dissolver residues have been considered in various countries of the European Community. Five of these methods used embedding technique with or without prior compaction: they are based on incorporation in metallic alloys, glass, ceramics, cements and metals or graphite compounds. A sixth one consists in melting the decladding materials. The corresponding research programmes have been pursued to varying states of progress with regard to demonstrating their feasibility on an industrial scale and the use of genuine wastes in bench scale experiments. The properties of the conditioned wastes have been investigated. Special attention has been paid to the corrosion resistance to various aqueous media as tap water, brine or clayey water. Although no categorical conclusion can be drawn from the initial results, the available findings provide a basis for assessing the different processes

  4. Transient and residual stresses in a pressable glass-ceramic before and after resin-cement coating determined using profilometry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The effect of heat-pressing and subsequent pre-cementation (acid-etching) and resin-cementation operative techniques on the development of transient and residual stresses in different thicknesses of a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were characterised using profilometry prior to biaxial flexure strength (BFS) determination.

  5. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  6. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  7. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  8. Residual stresses in zircaloy welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R.; Fernandez, L; Vizcaino, P.; Banchik, A.D.; Samper, R; Martinez, R. L; Almer, J; Motta, A.T.; Colas, K.B; Kerr, M.; Daymond, M.R

    2009-01-01

    Welds in Zirconium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement, as H enters the material due to dissociation of water. The yield strain for hydride cracking has a complex dependence on H concentration, stress state and texture. The large thermal gradients produced by the applied heat; drastically changes the texture of the material in the heat affected zone, enhancing the susceptibility to delayed hydride cracking. Normally hydrides tend to form as platelets that are parallel to the normal direction, but when welding plates, hydride platelets may form on cooling with their planes parallel to the weld and through the thickness of the plates. If, in addition to this there are significant tensile stresses, the susceptibility of the heat affected zone to delayed hydride cracking will be increased. Here we have measured the macroscopic and microscopic residual stressed that appear after PLASMA welding of two 6mm thick Zircaloy-4 plates. The measurements were based on neutron and synchrotron diffraction experiments performed at the Isis Facility, UK, and at Advanced Photon Source, USA, respectively. The experiments allowed assessing the effect of a post-weld heat treatment consisting of a steady increase in temperature from room temperature to 450oC over a period of 4.5 hours; followed by cooling with an equivalent cooling rate. Peak tensile stresses of (175± 10) MPa along the longitudinal direction were found in the as-welded specimen, which were moderately reduced to (150±10) MPa after the heat-treatment. The parent material showed intergranular stresses of (56±4) MPa, which disappeared on entering the heat-affected zone. In-situ experiments during themal cyclong of the material showed that these intergranular stresses result from the anisotropy of the thermal expansion coefficient of the hexagonal crystal lattice. [es

  9. Radiation therapy rather than prior surgery reduces extent of resection during endonasal endoscopic reoperation for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Iyan; Forbes, Jonathan A; Ordóñez-Rubiano, Edgar G; Avendano-Pradel, Rafael; La Corte, Emanuele; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2018-07-01

    Radiation therapy is often advocated for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma following surgical resection to prevent local recurrence. However, radiation therapy is not always effective and may render tumors more difficult to remove. If this is the case, patients may benefit more from reoperation if gross total resection can be achieved. Nevertheless, there is little data on the impact of radiation on reoperations for craniopharyngioma. In this study, we sought to analyze whether a history of previous radiation therapy (RT) affected extent of resection in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas subsequently treated with reoperation via endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EEA reoperations of craniopharyngiomas over 13 years at Weill Cornell, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. All procedures were performed by the senior author. The operations were separated into two groups based on whether the patient had surgery alone (group A) or surgery and RT (group B) prior to recurrence. A total of 24 patients (16 male, 8 female) who underwent surgery for recurrent craniopharyngioma were identified. The average time to recurrence was 7.64 ± 4.34 months (range 3-16 months) for group A and 16.62 ± 12.1 months (range 6-45 months) for group B (p < 0.05). The average tumor size at recurrence was smaller in group A (1.85 ± 0.72 cm; range 0.5-3.2) than group B (2.59 ± 0.91 cm; range 1.5-4.6; p = 0.00017). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 91% (10/11) of patients in group A and 54% (7/13) of patients in group B (p = 0.047). There was a near significant trend for higher average Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score at last follow-up for group A (83 ± 10.6) compared with group B (70 ± 16.3, p = 0.056). While RT for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma may delay time to recurrence, ability to achieve GTR with additional surgery is reduced. In the case of

  10. Experimental analysis of residual stresses in pre-straightened SAE 1045 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Carla Adriana Theis Soares; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva, E-mail: carla.adriana@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Formacao de Metais; Epp, Jérémy; Zoch, Hans-Werner [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik IWT, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of the roller pre-straightening of wire-rods on residual stress distributions in SAE 1045 steel bars. The combined drawing process is used in industrial production of bars in order to obtain a good surface quality and improved mechanical properties complying with specifications of the final products. In this process, prior to the drawing step, a roller straightening of the steel wire-rod is essential, because it provides the minimum straightness necessary for drawing. Metallographic analysis and hardness test were done for selected samples after different processing steps. Also, residual stress analysis of pre-straightened wire-rods by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction were carried out. The hardness tests show higher values near the surface and lower in the center of the wire-rod. Besides, the residual stresses results show a big inhomogeneity from one peripheral position to another and also in the evaluated cross section. (author)

  11. Experimental analysis of residual stresses in pre-straightened SAE 1045 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Carla Adriana Theis Soares; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of the roller pre-straightening of wire-rods on residual stress distributions in SAE 1045 steel bars. The combined drawing process is used in industrial production of bars in order to obtain a good surface quality and improved mechanical properties complying with specifications of the final products. In this process, prior to the drawing step, a roller straightening of the steel wire-rod is essential, because it provides the minimum straightness necessary for drawing. Metallographic analysis and hardness test were done for selected samples after different processing steps. Also, residual stress analysis of pre-straightened wire-rods by X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction were carried out. The hardness tests show higher values near the surface and lower in the center of the wire-rod. Besides, the residual stresses results show a big inhomogeneity from one peripheral position to another and also in the evaluated cross section. (author)

  12. [Interlaboratory Study on Evaporation Residue Test for Food Contact Products (Report 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Abe, Tomoyuki; Abe, Yutaka; Amano, Homare; Ishihara, Kinuyo; Ohsaka, Ikue; Ohno, Haruka; Ohno, Yuichiro; Ozaki, Asako; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Sakuragi, Hiroshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Shirono, Katsuhiro; Sekido, Haruko; Takasaka, Noriko; Takenaka, Yu; Tajima, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Aoi; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Tonooka, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Toru; Nomura, Chie; Haneishi, Nahoko; Hayakawa, Masato; Miura, Toshihiko; Yamaguchi, Miku; Watanabe, Kazunari; Sato, Kyoko

    2018-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the equivalence between an official method and a modified method of evaporation residue test using three food-simulating solvents (water, 4% acetic acid and 20% ethanol), based on the Japanese Food Sanitation Law for food contact products. Twenty-three laboratories participated, and tested the evaporation residues of nine test solutions as blind duplicates. For evaporation, a water bath was used in the official method, and a hot plate in the modified method. In most laboratories, the test solutions were heated until just prior to evaporation to dryness, and then allowed to dry under residual heat. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two methods, regardless of the heating equipment used. Accordingly, the modified method provides performance equal to the official method, and is available as an alternative method.

  13. Neutrino masses and their ordering: global data, priors and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, S.; Archidiacono, M.; de Salas, P. F.; Mena, O.; Ternes, C. A.; Tórtola, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present a full Bayesian analysis of the combination of current neutrino oscillation, neutrinoless double beta decay and Cosmic Microwave Background observations. Our major goal is to carefully investigate the possibility to single out one neutrino mass ordering, namely Normal Ordering or Inverted Ordering, with current data. Two possible parametrizations (three neutrino masses versus the lightest neutrino mass plus the two oscillation mass splittings) and priors (linear versus logarithmic) are exhaustively examined. We find that the preference for NO is only driven by neutrino oscillation data. Moreover, the values of the Bayes factor indicate that the evidence for NO is strong only when the scan is performed over the three neutrino masses with logarithmic priors; for every other combination of parameterization and prior, the preference for NO is only weak. As a by-product of our Bayesian analyses, we are able to (a) compare the Bayesian bounds on the neutrino mixing parameters to those obtained by means of frequentist approaches, finding a very good agreement; (b) determine that the lightest neutrino mass plus the two mass splittings parametrization, motivated by the physical observables, is strongly preferred over the three neutrino mass eigenstates scan and (c) find that logarithmic priors guarantee a weakly-to-moderately more efficient sampling of the parameter space. These results establish the optimal strategy to successfully explore the neutrino parameter space, based on the use of the oscillation mass splittings and a logarithmic prior on the lightest neutrino mass, when combining neutrino oscillation data with cosmology and neutrinoless double beta decay. We also show that the limits on the total neutrino mass ∑ mν can change dramatically when moving from one prior to the other. These results have profound implications for future studies on the neutrino mass ordering, as they crucially state the need for self-consistent analyses which explore the

  14. Finding A Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  15. Prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heußer, Thorsten; Brehm, Marcus; Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Image quality in computed tomography (CT) often suffers from artifacts which may reduce the diagnostic value of the image. In many cases, these artifacts result from missing or corrupt regions in the projection data, e.g., in the case of metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts. The authors propose a generalized correction method for different kinds of artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data by making use of available prior knowledge to perform data completion. Methods: The proposed prior-based artifact correction (PBAC) method requires prior knowledge in form of a planning CT of the same patient or in form of a CT scan of a different patient showing the same body region. In both cases, the prior image is registered to the patient image using a deformable transformation. The registered prior is forward projected and data completion of the patient projections is performed using smooth sinogram inpainting. The obtained projection data are used to reconstruct the corrected image. Results: The authors investigate metal and truncation artifacts in patient data sets acquired with a clinical CT and limited angle artifacts in an anthropomorphic head phantom data set acquired with a gantry-based flat detector CT device. In all cases, the corrected images obtained by PBAC are nearly artifact-free. Compared to conventional correction methods, PBAC achieves better artifact suppression while preserving the patient-specific anatomy at the same time. Further, the authors show that prominent anatomical details in the prior image seem to have only minor impact on the correction result. Conclusions: The results show that PBAC has the potential to effectively correct for metal, truncation, and limited angle artifacts if adequate prior data are available. Since the proposed method makes use of a generalized algorithm, PBAC may also be applicable to other artifacts resulting from missing or corrupt data

  16. Finding a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution using least squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straightforward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson λ, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in the form of a standard distribution (e.g., beta, gamma), and so a beta distribution is used as an approximation in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that are often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  17. Finding a Minimally Informative Dirichlet Prior Distribution Using Least Squares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Dana; Atwood, Corwin

    2011-01-01

    In a Bayesian framework, the Dirichlet distribution is the conjugate distribution to the multinomial likelihood function, and so the analyst is required to develop a Dirichlet prior that incorporates available information. However, as it is a multiparameter distribution, choosing the Dirichlet parameters is less straight-forward than choosing a prior distribution for a single parameter, such as p in the binomial distribution. In particular, one may wish to incorporate limited information into the prior, resulting in a minimally informative prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data. In the case of binomial p or Poisson, the principle of maximum entropy can be employed to obtain a so-called constrained noninformative prior. However, even in the case of p, such a distribution cannot be written down in closed form, and so an approximate beta distribution is used in the case of p. In the case of the multinomial model with parametric constraints, the approach of maximum entropy does not appear tractable. This paper presents an alternative approach, based on constrained minimization of a least-squares objective function, which leads to a minimally informative Dirichlet prior distribution. The alpha-factor model for common-cause failure, which is widely used in the United States, is the motivation for this approach, and is used to illustrate the method. In this approach to modeling common-cause failure, the alpha-factors, which are the parameters in the underlying multinomial aleatory model for common-cause failure, must be estimated from data that is often quite sparse, because common-cause failures tend to be rare, especially failures of more than two or three components, and so a prior distribution that is responsive to updates with sparse data is needed.

  18. Advanced prior modeling for 3D bright field electron tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreehari, Suhas; Venkatakrishnan, S. V.; Drummy, Lawrence F.; Simmons, Jeffrey P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important imaging problems in material science involve reconstruction of images containing repetitive non-local structures. Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) could in principle exploit such redundancies through the selection of a log prior probability term. However, in practice, determining such a log prior term that accounts for the similarity between distant structures in the image is quite challenging. Much progress has been made in the development of denoising algorithms like non-local means and BM3D, and these are known to successfully capture non-local redundancies in images. But the fact that these denoising operations are not explicitly formulated as cost functions makes it unclear as to how to incorporate them in the MBIR framework. In this paper, we formulate a solution to bright field electron tomography by augmenting the existing bright field MBIR method to incorporate any non-local denoising operator as a prior model. We accomplish this using a framework we call plug-and-play priors that decouples the log likelihood and the log prior probability terms in the MBIR cost function. We specifically use 3D non-local means (NLM) as the prior model in the plug-and-play framework, and showcase high quality tomographic reconstructions of a simulated aluminum spheres dataset, and two real datasets of aluminum spheres and ferritin structures. We observe that streak and smear artifacts are visibly suppressed, and that edges are preserved. Also, we report lower RMSE values compared to the conventional MBIR reconstruction using qGGMRF as the prior model.

  19. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®, is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of “ripening” sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent

  20. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases II: Celiac sprue and gluten intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsel, Anthony; Seneff, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Celiac disease, and, more generally, gluten intolerance, is a growing problem worldwide, but especially in North America and Europe, where an estimated 5% of the population now suffers from it. Symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, skin rashes, macrocytic anemia and depression. It is a multifactorial disease associated with numerous nutritional deficiencies as well as reproductive issues and increased risk to thyroid disease, kidney failure and cancer. Here, we propose that glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup(®), is the most important causal factor in this epidemic. Fish exposed to glyphosate develop digestive problems that are reminiscent of celiac disease. Celiac disease is associated with imbalances in gut bacteria that can be fully explained by the known effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria. Characteristics of celiac disease point to impairment in many cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved with detoxifying environmental toxins, activating vitamin D3, catabolizing vitamin A, and maintaining bile acid production and sulfate supplies to the gut. Glyphosate is known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes. Deficiencies in iron, cobalt, molybdenum, copper and other rare metals associated with celiac disease can be attributed to glyphosate's strong ability to chelate these elements. Deficiencies in tryptophan, tyrosine, methionine and selenomethionine associated with celiac disease match glyphosate's known depletion of these amino acids. Celiac disease patients have an increased risk to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which has also been implicated in glyphosate exposure. Reproductive issues associated with celiac disease, such as infertility, miscarriages, and birth defects, can also be explained by glyphosate. Glyphosate residues in wheat and other crops are likely increasing recently due to the growing practice of crop desiccation just prior to the harvest. We argue that the practice of "ripening" sugar cane with glyphosate may explain the recent

  1. Characterization, leachability and valorization through combustion of residual chars from gasification of coals with pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhetas, Margarida; Lopes, Helena; Freire, Márcia; Abelha, Pedro; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the study of the combustion of char residues produced during co-gasification of coal with pine with the aim of characterizing them for their potential use for energy. These residues are generally rich in carbon with the presence of other elements, with particular concern for heavy metals and pollutant precursors, depending on the original fuel used. The evaluation of environmental toxicity of the char residues was performed through application of different leaching tests (EN12457-2, US EPA-1311 TCLP and EA NEN 7371:2004). The results showed that the residues present quite low toxicity for some of pollutants. However, depending on the fuel used, possible presence of other pollutants may bring environmental risks. The utilization of these char residues for energy was in this study evaluated, by burning them as a first step pre-treatment prior to landfilling. The thermo-gravimetric analysis and ash fusibility studies revealed an adequate thermochemical behavior, without presenting any major operational risks. Fluidized bed combustion was applied to char residues. Above 700°C, very high carbon conversion ratios were obtained and it seemed that the thermal oxidation of char residues was easier than that of the coals. It was found that the char tendency for releasing SO(2) during its oxidation was lower than for the parent coal, while for NO(X) emissions, the trend was observed to increase NO(X) formation. However, for both pollutants the same control techniques might be applied during char combustion, as for coal. Furthermore, the leachability of ashes resulting from the combustion of char residues appeared to be lower than those produced from direct coal combustion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy dependence of isotopic spectra from spallation residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouin, L.

    2003-09-01

    Spallation reactions are collisions between heavy nuclei and light particle with an energy of a few hundreds MeV. The y are considered as a suitable way to create high- flux neutrons sources, which may used for example for the transmutation of nuclear wastes (hybrid reactors). The study of the residues from such reactions is both a way to understand the physics of the spallation and to provide information required for the design of industrial targets. The residues from the spallation of lead by proton at 500 MeV have been measured using the inverse kinematics technique in the FRS (fragments recoil separator). spectrometer from GSI (Barmstadt). This low energy required the use of new technique, for the experimental setup as well as during the analysis. The fragments were identified in-flight, prior to β decay. Complete isotopic distributions are obtained with an accuracy ranging between 10 and 30%. Detailed information on the reaction kinematics are also obtained. Data are in excellent agreement with radio-chemical measurements, and bring new insights about the spallation process. The comparison with data measured on the same system with an incident energy of 1 GeV allows to discuss the influence of the projectile energy on the residues formation. It is concluded that the independence of the shape of the isobaric production cross sections regarding mass and energy of the projectile is preserved at low incident energies. The behaviour of Monte-Carlo codes is discussed with respect to those sets of data. The calculations show an improving agreement with decreasing energy, indicating that high-energy phenomena, for which some common assumptions become questionable, are the main reason for the observed discrepancies. (author)

  3. Reproduction, growth, and tissue residues of deer fed dieldrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D.A.; Korschgen, L.J.

    1970-01-01

    Feeding tests were conducted from January, 1966, to January, 1969, to ascertain the effects of daily ingestions of sublethal amounts of dieldrin on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Groups of deer on 0 ppm dieldrin (controls), 5 ppm, and 25 ppm dieldrin were maintained at these respective levels, as were their progeny. Treated food was readily accepted. Dieldrin intoxication was not observed, and 9 of 10 animals of each group survived 3 years of treatment. No differences in conception or in utero mortality were found between groups. Fawns from dieldrin-fed does were smaller at birth and greater post-partum mortality occurred. Fertility of male progeny was not affected. Growth was slower and remained reduced in dieldrin-treated females which were immature when the study began. Hematologic values and serum protein concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05) related to treatment. Liver/body weight ratios were significantly (P brain, liver, and thigh muscle tissues showed no evidence of increasing with length of treatment, but showed definite relationships to levels of dieldrin in daily diets. Nursing fawns had higher residues in brain tissues than did older deer on 5 ppm a d 25 ppm dieldrin. Highest brain residues (12.60 and 12.10 ppm, wet weight) occurred in fawns only a few days of age at death. Equilibrium between ingestion and storage or excretion of dieldrin occurred prior to 200 days and continued until nearly 1,100 days. There was no evidence of a sharp decline in residues after a long period of continued dosage. Daily ingestion of 100 and 200 ppm of dieldrin proved fatal to yearling male deer at 27 and 22 days, respectively.

  4. Assessment of Prior Learning in Adult Vocational Education and Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals about the results of a study of school-based Assessment of Prior Learning of adults who have enrolled as students in a VET college in order to qualify for occupations as skilled workers. Based on examples of VET teachers’ methods for assessing the students’ prior learning in the programs for gastronomes, respectively child care assistants the article discusses two issues in relation to Assessment of Prior Learing: the encounter of practical experience and school-based knowledge and the validity and reliability of the assessment procedures. Through focusing on the students’ knowing that and knowing why the assessment is based on a scholastic perception of the students’ needs for training, reflecting one of the most important challenges in Assessment of Prior Learning: how can practical experience be transformed into credits for the knowledge parts of the programs? The study shows that by combining several Assessment of Prior Learning methods and comparing the teachers’ assessments the teachers respond to the issues of validity and reliability. However, validity and reliability might be even further strengthened, if the competencies are well defined, if the education system is aware of securing a reasonable balance between knowing how, knowing that, and knowing why, and if the teachers are adequately trained for the assessment procedures.

  5. Logarithmic Laplacian Prior Based Bayesian Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging (ISAR algorithm based on a new sparse prior, known as the logarithmic Laplacian prior. The newly proposed logarithmic Laplacian prior has a narrower main lobe with higher tail values than the Laplacian prior, which helps to achieve performance improvement on sparse representation. The logarithmic Laplacian prior is used for ISAR imaging within the Bayesian framework to achieve better focused radar image. In the proposed method of ISAR imaging, the phase errors are jointly estimated based on the minimum entropy criterion to accomplish autofocusing. The maximum a posterior (MAP estimation and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE are utilized to estimate the model parameters to avoid manually tuning process. Additionally, the fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Hadamard product are used to minimize the required computational efficiency. Experimental results based on both simulated and measured data validate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional sparse ISAR imaging algorithms in terms of resolution improvement and noise suppression.

  6. Source Localization by Entropic Inference and Backward Renormalization Group Priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Caticha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A systematic method of transferring information from coarser to finer resolution based on renormalization group (RG transformations is introduced. It permits building informative priors in finer scales from posteriors in coarser scales since, under some conditions, RG transformations in the space of hyperparameters can be inverted. These priors are updated using renormalized data into posteriors by Maximum Entropy. The resulting inference method, backward RG (BRG priors, is tested by doing simulations of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment. Its results are compared with a Bayesian approach working in the finest available resolution. Using BRG priors sources can be partially identified even when signal to noise ratio levels are up to ~ -25dB improving vastly on the single step Bayesian approach. For low levels of noise the BRG prior is not an improvement over the single scale Bayesian method. Analysis of the histograms of hyperparameters can show how to distinguish if the method is failing, due to very high levels of noise, or if the identification of the sources is, at least partially possible.

  7. A Noninformative Prior on a Space of Distribution Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Terenin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In a given problem, the Bayesian statistical paradigm requires the specification of a prior distribution that quantifies relevant information about the unknowns of main interest external to the data. In cases where little such information is available, the problem under study may possess an invariance under a transformation group that encodes a lack of information, leading to a unique prior—this idea was explored at length by E.T. Jaynes. Previous successful examples have included location-scale invariance under linear transformation, multiplicative invariance of the rate at which events in a counting process are observed, and the derivation of the Haldane prior for a Bernoulli success probability. In this paper we show that this method can be extended, by generalizing Jaynes, in two ways: (1 to yield families of approximately invariant priors; and (2 to the infinite-dimensional setting, yielding families of priors on spaces of distribution functions. Our results can be used to describe conditions under which a particular Dirichlet Process posterior arises from an optimal Bayesian analysis, in the sense that invariances in the prior and likelihood lead to one and only one posterior distribution.

  8. On Bayesian reliability analysis with informative priors and censoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the statistical literature many methods have been presented to deal with censored observations, both within the Bayesian and non-Bayesian frameworks, and such methods have been successfully applied to, e.g., reliability problems. Also, in reliability theory it is often emphasized that, through shortage of statistical data and possibilities for experiments, one often needs to rely heavily on judgements of engineers, or other experts, for which means Bayesian methods are attractive. It is therefore important that such judgements can be elicited easily to provide informative prior distributions that reflect the knowledge of the engineers well. In this paper we focus on this aspect, especially on the situation that the judgements of the consulted engineers are based on experiences in environments where censoring has also been present previously. We suggest the use of the attractive interpretation of hyperparameters of conjugate prior distributions when these are available for assumed parametric models for lifetimes, and we show how one may go beyond the standard conjugate priors, using similar interpretations of hyper-parameters, to enable easier elicitation when censoring has been present in the past. This may even lead to more flexibility for modelling prior knowledge than when using standard conjugate priors, whereas the disadvantage of more complicated calculations that may be needed to determine posterior distributions play a minor role due to the advanced mathematical and statistical software that is widely available these days

  9. Residues from waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2009-08-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (author)

  10. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  11. Superposing pure quantum states with partial prior information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Shruti; Thomas, George; Ghosh, Sibasish; Suter, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    The principle of superposition is an intriguing feature of quantum mechanics, which is regularly exploited in many different circumstances. A recent work [M. Oszmaniec et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.110403] shows that the fundamentals of quantum mechanics restrict the process of superimposing two unknown pure states, even though it is possible to superimpose two quantum states with partial prior knowledge. The prior knowledge imposes geometrical constraints on the choice of input states. We discuss an experimentally feasible protocol to superimpose multiple pure states of a d -dimensional quantum system and carry out an explicit experimental realization for two single-qubit pure states with partial prior information on a two-qubit NMR quantum information processor.

  12. The impact of dyslipidaemia on cardiovascular mortality in individuals without a prior history of diabetes in the DECODE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Qiao, Q.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of dyslipidaemia on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in relation to fasting (FPG) and 2-h (2hPG) plasma glucose levels in individuals without a prior history of diabetes. METHODS: Data from 14 European population-based prospective studies of 9132 men and 8631...

  13. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  14. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  15. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neutrino mass priors for cosmology from random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew J.; Raveri, Marco; Hu, Wayne; Dodelson, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Cosmological measurements of structure are placing increasingly strong constraints on the sum of the neutrino masses, Σ mν, through Bayesian inference. Because these constraints depend on the choice for the prior probability π (Σ mν), we argue that this prior should be motivated by fundamental physical principles rather than the ad hoc choices that are common in the literature. The first step in this direction is to specify the prior directly at the level of the neutrino mass matrix Mν, since this is the parameter appearing in the Lagrangian of the particle physics theory. Thus by specifying a probability distribution over Mν, and by including the known squared mass splittings, we predict a theoretical probability distribution over Σ mν that we interpret as a Bayesian prior probability π (Σ mν). Assuming a basis-invariant probability distribution on Mν, also known as the anarchy hypothesis, we find that π (Σ mν) peaks close to the smallest Σ mν allowed by the measured mass splittings, roughly 0.06 eV (0.1 eV) for normal (inverted) ordering, due to the phenomenon of eigenvalue repulsion in random matrices. We consider three models for neutrino mass generation: Dirac, Majorana, and Majorana via the seesaw mechanism; differences in the predicted priors π (Σ mν) allow for the possibility of having indications about the physical origin of neutrino masses once sufficient experimental sensitivity is achieved. We present fitting functions for π (Σ mν), which provide a simple means for applying these priors to cosmological constraints on the neutrino masses or marginalizing over their impact on other cosmological parameters.

  17. Physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraception: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, Naomi K; Curtis, Kathryn M; Steenland, Maria W; Marchbanks, Polly A

    2013-05-01

    Provision of contraception is often linked with physical examination, including clinical breast examination (CBE) and pelvic examination. This review was conducted to evaluate the evidence regarding outcomes among women with and without physical examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The PubMed database was searched from database inception through March 2012 for all peer-reviewed articles in any language concerning CBE and pelvic examination prior to initiating hormonal contraceptives. The quality of each study was assessed using the United States Preventive Services Task Force grading system. The search did not identify any evidence regarding outcomes among women screened versus not screened with CBE prior to initiation of hormonal contraceptives. The search identified two case-control studies of fair quality which compared women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating oral contraceptives (OCs) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). No differences in risk factors for cervical neoplasia, incidence of sexually transmitted infections, incidence of abnormal Pap smears or incidence of abnormal wet mount findings were observed. Although women with breast cancer should not use hormonal contraceptives, there is little utility in screening prior to initiation, due to the low incidence of breast cancer and uncertain value of CBE among women of reproductive age. Two fair quality studies demonstrated no differences between women who did or did not undergo pelvic examination prior to initiating OCs or DMPA with respect to risk factors or clinical outcomes. In addition, pelvic examination is not likely to detect any conditions for which hormonal contraceptives would be unsafe. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Guidelines for selection and presentation of residue values of pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Hoeven-Arentzen PH van; Ossendorp BC; RIVM-SIR

    2004-01-01

    Pesticide residue assessments are executed to establish legal limits, called Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). MRLs are derived from the results of these pesticide residue trials, which are performed according to critical Good Agricultural Practice. Only one residue value per residue trial may be

  19. Compressive Online Robust Principal Component Analysis with Multiple Prior Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Luong, Huynh; Deligiannis, Nikos; Seiler, Jürgen

    -rank components. Unlike conventional batch RPCA, which processes all the data directly, our method considers a small set of measurements taken per data vector (frame). Moreover, our method incorporates multiple prior information signals, namely previous reconstructed frames, to improve these paration...... and thereafter, update the prior information for the next frame. Using experiments on synthetic data, we evaluate the separation performance of the proposed algorithm. In addition, we apply the proposed algorithm to online video foreground and background separation from compressive measurements. The results show...

  20. Prior knowledge processing for initial state of Kalman filter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suzdaleva, Evgenia

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2010), s. 188-202 ISSN 0890-6327 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP201/06/P434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Kalman filtering * prior knowledge * state-space model * initial state distribution Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.729, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/suzdaleva-prior knowledge processing for initial state of kalman filter.pdf