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Sample records for residual depressive symptoms

  1. Characteristics of Residual Symptoms in Korean Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Validation Study for the Korean Version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sol A; Jeon, Sang Won; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Yoon, Seo Young; Shin, Cheolmin; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Residual symptoms of depression are related to more severe and chronic course of functional impairment with higher risk of relapse. The objective of this study was to validate, and determine psychometric properties of the Korean version of Depression Residual Symptom Scale (KDRSS). A total of 203 outpatients with recent episode of major depression based on DSM-IV criteria were enrolled in this study. They had been treated with antidepressants and assessed by KDRSS, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 (HDRS-24), and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MARDS). The validity and reliability of KDRSS were assessed, including internal consistency reliability, concurrent validity, temporal stability, factorial validity, and discriminative validity. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.961), concurrent validity (MADRS: r=0.731, pdepressive symptoms. Since some depressive symptoms including 'lack of energy' and 'increased emotionalism' in patients with full remission might be persistent during psychiatric intervention, these symptoms need to be focused on in clinical practice.

  2. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2017-02-01

    Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale [CES-D]), and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome and race by gender as the groups. Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (standardized adjusted B = .135, P  .05). Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender.

  3. Residual Effects of Restless Sleep over Depressive Symptoms on Chronic Medical Conditions: Race by Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Sonnega, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Leggett, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep and depression are comorbid problems that contribute to the development of chronic medical conditions (CMC) over time. Although racial and gender differences in the bidirectional associations between sleep, depression, and CMC are known, very limited information exists on heterogeneity of the residual effects of sleep problems over depressive symptoms on CMC across race by gender groups. Aim Using a life-course perspective, the present study compared race by gender groups for residual effects of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC. Methods We used data from waves 1 (year 1986), 4 (year 2001), and 5 (year 2011) of the Americans’ Changing Lives Study (ACL). The study followed 294 White men, 108 Black men, 490 White women, and 237 Black women for 25 years. Restless sleep, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale [CES-D]) and number of chronic medical conditions (hypertension, diabetes, chronic lung disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and arthritis) were measured in 1986, 2001, and 2011. We employed multi-group cross-lagged modeling, with chronic medical conditions as the outcome, and race by gender as the groups. Results Major group differences were found in the residual effect of restless sleep on CMC over depressive symptoms across race by gender groups. Restless sleep in 2001 predicted CMC 10 years later in 2011 among Black women (Standardized Adjusted B=.135, P 0.05). Conclusion Race by gender heterogeneity in the residual effect of restless sleep over depressive symptoms on CMC over 25 years suggests that comorbid poor sleep and depressive symptoms differently contribute to development of multi-morbidity among subpopulations based on the intersection of race and gender. Thus, interventions that try to prevent comorbid sleep problems and depression as a strategy to prevent medical conditions may benefit from tailoring based on the intersection of race and gender. PMID:26823066

  4. Clinical relevance of fatigue as a residual symptom in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Maurizio; Ball, Susan; Nelson, J Craig; Sparks, Jondavid; Konechnik, Thomas; Classi, Peter; Dube, Sanjay; Thase, Michael E

    2014-03-01

    Residual symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) following treatment are increasingly recognized as having a negative impact on the patient because of their association with lack of remission, poorer psychosocial functioning, and a more chronic course of depression. Although the effects of specific residual symptoms have not been as systematically studied, several symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, and concentration difficulties, commonly occur as part of the residual state in MDD. In particular, the relatively high prevalence of residual fatigue suggests that this symptom is not being adequately addressed by standard antidepressant therapies. A review of the clinical relevance of residual fatigue was undertaken, using the published literature with respect to its assessment, neurobiology, and treatment implications. The findings of this review suggest that fatigue is highly prevalent as a residual symptom; its response to treatment is relatively poor or delayed; and the presence of residual fatigue is highly predictive of inability to achieve remission with treatment as well as impaired psychosocial functioning. Recognition of the significant consequences of residual fatigue should reinforce the need for further therapeutic interventions to help reduce the impact of this symptom of MDD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mindful Mood Balance: A Case Report of Web-Based Treatment of Residual Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer; Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Boggs, Jennifer M; Segal, Zindel

    2014-01-01

    Residual depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for relapse and impaired functioning. Although there is no definitive treatment for residual depressive symptoms, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective, but access is limited. Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), a Web-based adaptation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, was designed to address this care gap. In this case study, we describe a composite case that is representative of the course of intervention with MMB and its implementation in a large integrated delivery system. Specifically, we describe the content of each of eight weekly sessions, and the self-management skills developed by participating in this program. MMB may be a cost-effective and scalable option in primary care for increasing access to treatments for patients with residual depressive symptoms. PMID:25141988

  6. Mindful mood balance: a case report of Web-based treatment of residual depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer; Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Boggs, Jennifer M; Segal, Zindel

    2014-01-01

    Residual depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for relapse and impaired functioning. Although there is no definitive treatment for residual depressive symptoms, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective, but access is limited. Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), a Web-based adaptation of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, was designed to address this care gap. In this case study, we describe a composite case that is representative of the course of intervention with MMB and its implementation in a large integrated delivery system. Specifically, we describe the content of each of eight weekly sessions, and the self-management skills developed by participating in this program. MMB may be a cost-effective and scalable option in primary care for increasing access to treatments for patients with residual depressive symptoms.

  7. Trait Mindfulness as a Limiting Factor for Residual Depressive Symptoms: An Explorative Study Using Quantile Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Sholto; Eames, Catrin; Brennan, Kate; Lambert, Gwladys; Crane, Catherine; Williams, J. Mark G.; Duggan, Danielle S.; Barnhofer, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness has been suggested to be an important protective factor for emotional health. However, this effect might vary with regard to context. This study applied a novel statistical approach, quantile regression, in order to investigate the relation between trait mindfulness and residual depressive symptoms in individuals with a history of recurrent depression, while taking into account symptom severity and number of episodes as contextual factors. Rather than fitting to a single indicator of central tendency, quantile regression allows exploration of relations across the entire range of the response variable. Analysis of self-report data from 274 participants with a history of three or more previous episodes of depression showed that relatively higher levels of mindfulness were associated with relatively lower levels of residual depressive symptoms. This relationship was most pronounced near the upper end of the response distribution and moderated by the number of previous episodes of depression at the higher quantiles. The findings suggest that with lower levels of mindfulness, residual symptoms are less constrained and more likely to be influenced by other factors. Further, the limiting effect of mindfulness on residual symptoms is most salient in those with higher numbers of episodes. PMID:24988072

  8. Residual symptoms in patients with partial versus complete remission of a major depressive disorder episode: patterns of painful physical symptoms in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Harada,1 Yoichi Satoi,2 Toshiaki Kikuchi,3 Koichiro Watanabe,3 Levent Alev,1 Masaru Mimura4 1Medical Science, Medicines Development Unit-Japan, 2Statistical Science, Medicines Development Unit-Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Hyogo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The patterns of residual painful physical symptoms (PPS and emotional symptoms among patients with partial remission (PR or complete remission (CR of a major depressive disorder (MDD episode were compared. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study. Patients who had originally been diagnosed with MDD, were treated with an antidepressant for 12 weeks for that episode, and achieved either PR or CR at study entry were enrolled in the study. Using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17, PR was defined as a score of ≥8 and ≤18 and CR as a score of ≤7. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF and the HAM-D17.Results: A total of 323 patients (CR =158, PR =165 were included in the study. Patients in the PR group had a higher mean (standard deviation score in the HAM-D17 than those in the CR group (11.8 [3.1] and 4.4 [2.0], respectively. BPI-SF results showed that “at least moderate PPS” (score ≥3 on BPI-SF question 5 was significantly more prevalent among patients with PR than those with CR (37.0% vs 16.5%, respectively; odds ratio =3.04; P<0.001. Presence of pain (any severity was also more prevalent among patients with PR than those with CR (54.5% vs 35.4%, respectively. The HAM-D17 results for individual items indicated that impaired work and activities, depressed mood, psychological and somatic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms were observed in at least 75% of patients with PR.Conclusion: PR was associated with a higher prevalence of at least moderate PPS

  9. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

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    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Web-based Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy for reducing residual depressive symptoms: An open trial and quasi-experimental comparison to propensity score matched controls.

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    Dimidjian, Sona; Beck, Arne; Felder, Jennifer N; Boggs, Jennifer M; Gallop, Robert; Segal, Zindel V

    2014-12-01

    Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) has been shown to effectively prevent relapse and reduce residual depressive symptoms (RDS), yet it faces barriers to dissemination. The present study examined Mindful Mood Balance (MMB), the first web-based approach to deliver the core content of MBCT. Of the 107 recurrently depressed individuals screened, 100 elected to enroll in the study and received MMB in an 8-session open trial with 6-month follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptom severity, rumination and mindful awareness, and program engagement. A quasi-experimental comparison between MMB participants and propensity matched case-controls receiving usual depression care (UDC) (N = 100) also was conducted. The full sample and the subgroup with residual depressive symptoms (N = 42) showed significantly reduced depressive severity, which was sustained over six months, and improvement on rumination and mindfulness. Examination of acceptability of MMB indicated that 42% of participants within the full sample and 36% of the RDS subgroup completed all 8 sessions and 53% within the full sample and 50% within the RDS subgroup completed at least 4 sessions, and that participants engaged with daily mindfulness practice. MMB also was associated with significant reduction in RDS severity as compared to quasi-experimental propensity matched controls. Although the use of a non-randomized design, with potential unmeasured differences between groups, and short interval of clinical follow-up were limitations, findings from this study support the web-based delivery of MBCT and suggest clinical benefits for participants with histories of depression and with RDS, relative to those receiving usual care alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Traumatic Events (3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People ... is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... few days. It is a serious illness that affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 3 items) Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression ... why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective ...

  14. Default mode and task-positive networks connectivity during the N-Back task in remitted depressed patients with or without emotional residual symptoms.

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    Delaveau, Pauline; Arruda Sanchez, Tiago; Steffen, Ricardo; Deschet, Karine; Jabourian, Maritza; Perlbarg, Vincent; Gasparetto, Emerson Leandro; Dubal, Stéphanie; Costa E Silva, Jorge; Fossati, Philippe

    2017-04-08

    Clinical remission of depression may be associated with emotional residual symptoms. We studied the association of emotional blunting, rumination with neural networks dynamics in remitted depressed patients and cognitive performance during an N-Back task. Twenty-six outpatients in remission of depression (Hamilton Depressive rating scale score task during fMRI assessment. All patients had been treated by paroxetine for a minimum of 4 months. Two subgroups of patients [Nonemotionally blunted (NEB) = 14 and emotionally blunted (EB) = 12] were determined. To identify functional network maps across participants, the Network Detection using Independent Component Analysis approach was employed. Within and between Task Positive Network (TPN) and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed and related to variability of performance on the N-Back task and rumination. EB and NEB patients were not different for the level of accurate responses at the N-Back. However over the entire working memory task, the negative correlation between DMN and TPN was significantly lower in the EB than NEB group and was differently related to cognitive performance and rumination. The stronger the negative correlation between DMN and TPN was, the less variable the reaction time during 3-Back task in NEB patients. Moreover the greater the negative correlation between DMN and TPN was, the lower the rumination score in EB patients. Emotional blunting may be associated with compromised monitoring of rumination and cognitive functioning in remitted depressed patients through altered cooperation between DMN and TPN. The study suggests clinical remission in depression is associated with biological heterogeneity. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Institute Announcements (24 items) Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms and Treatment of Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. & ... I felt like I was such an awful person that there was no real reason for me ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... affects many people. Symptoms can vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, ... hours a day even. NARRATOR : People who are depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. ...

  18. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate as augmentation therapy in adults with residual symptoms of major depressive disorder after treatment with escitalopram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H; Cutler, Andrew J; Richards, Cynthia; Lasser, Robert; Geibel, Brooke B; Gao, Joseph; Sambunaris, Angelo; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2013-08-01

    Evaluate the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation for major depressive disorder (MDD) in escitalopram nonremitters. In this proof-of-concept study (conducted from July 2009-August 2010) with a prespecified critical α = .10, adults with nonpsychotic MDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) and residual depressive symptoms (17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥ 4) after 8 weeks of open-label escitalopram were randomized to 6 weeks of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (20-50 mg/d) or placebo augmentation. The primary endpoint, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score change in escitalopram nonremitters (MADRS total score > 10) from week 8 (augmentation baseline) to week 14/end of study, was assessed using analysis of covariance, with last observation carried forward. For nonremitters (placebo, n = 64; lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, n = 65), the least squares (LS) mean (90% CI) treatment difference for MADRS total score reduction at week 14/end of study (-2.3 [-4.5 to -0.1]; P = .0902) met the prespecified criterion for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate superiority (adjusted effect size, -0.3); the number needed to treat for MADRS remission (MADRS total score ≤ 10) was 6.7. The LS mean treatment difference in remitters was not statistically significant (1.2 [-1.6 to 4.0]; P = .4726). Among randomized participants, 49.4% (42/85) receiving placebo and 60.2% (53/88) receiving lisdexamfetamine dimesylate had ≥ 1 treatment-emergent adverse event, the most frequent with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate being dry mouth and headache (both 11.4%). Mean (SD) vital sign and electrocardiogram changes (placebo vs lisdexamfetamine dimesylate) were 0.5 (8.98) versus 2.3 (9.04) mm Hg (systolic blood pressure), -1.0 (7.19) versus 0.9 (6.61) mm Hg (diastolic blood pressure), -0.4 (7.39) versus 4.8 (8.64) beats per minute (heart rate), and -1.6 (11.23) versus -4.9 (11.84) milliseconds (Fridericia-adjusted QTc). Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate augmentation

  19. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery......OBJECTIVE: Analyses of data from 4 relapse-prevention studies with escitalopram were conducted in order to compare patients with and without residual symptoms with regard to relapse rates and global illness during double-blind, 24-week continuation periods. METHOD: Clinical Global Impressions...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  20. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Analyses of data from 4 relapse-prevention studies with escitalopram were conducted in order to compare patients with and without residual symptoms with regard to relapse rates and global illness during double-blind, 24-week continuation periods. METHOD: Clinical Global Impressions......-Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...... > 0) and without residual symptoms (MADRS score = 0) at the start of continuation treatment were defined by how patients scored on 3 core items of the MADRS: depressed mood (observed), inner or psychic tension, and lassitude. At randomization, patients with a residual symptom were globally more ill...

  1. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients

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    Gozdzik-Zelazny A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinction between true negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia is difficult. In the present study we seek to establish the psychological profile of depression-prone schizophrenic patients. We addressed the issue by comparing the expression of psychological indices, such as the feelings of being in control of events, anxiety, mood, and the style of coping with stress in depressive and non-depressive schizophrenics. We also analyzed the strength of the association of these indices with the presence of depressive symptoms. A total of 49 patients (18 women and 31 men, aged 23-59 were enrolled into the study, consisting of a self-reported psychometric survey. We found that the prevalence of clinically significant depression in schizophrenic patients was 61%. The factors which contributed to the intensification of depressive symptoms were the external locus of control, anxiety, gloomy mood, and the emotion-oriented coping with stress. We conclude that psychological testing may discern those schizophrenic patients who would be at risk of depression development and may help separate the blurred boundaries between depressive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

  2. Relapse prevention and residual symptoms: a closer analysis of placebo-controlled continuation studies with escitalopram in major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lönn, Sara L; Overø, Kerstin F

    2010-01-01

    -Severity of Illness scores and relapse status in 4 studies published from 2005 to 2007, 1 each in major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), were analyzed using mixed-effects model repeated measures as a function of Montgomery...... picture emerged regarding whether patients with residual symptoms had a higher relapse rate. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of residual symptoms is associated with significantly worse overall illness severity in all 4 diagnostic groups and with a higher (although not significantly) risk of relapse for patients...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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  7. Perfectionism, Shame, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Rice, Kenneth G.; Martin, James L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between depression, maladaptive perfectionism, and shame. Regression analyses were used to replicate a model in which maladaptive perfectionism was negatively associated with self-esteem and positively associated with symptoms of depression, with self-esteem mediating the effects of maladaptive perfectionism…

  8. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

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    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  9. Symptoms of postpartum depression and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C; Harrison-Hohner, Jane; Coste, Sarah; Dorato, Veronica; Curet, Luis B; McCarron, David A

    2005-11-01

    Despite important health benefits, the presence of depressive symptoms may decrease the prevalence of breastfeeding. The current study assessed the relationship between depressive symptoms and breastfeeding at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum. Participants were recruited from a cohort completing a clinical trial of calcium for prevention of preeclampsia. At 6 weeks postpartum, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was completed by mail. At 12 weeks postpartum, the EPDS was completed at an outpatient visit. There was an inverse relationship between depressive symptoms and breastfeeding at 6 weeks postpartum (Pdepression, increased life stress, and current psychoactive medication. The results suggest that depressive symptoms early in the postpartum period may lower the prevalence of breastfeeding.

  10. Sleep disorders as core symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Links between sleep and depression are strong. About three quarters of depressed patients have insomnia symptoms, and hypersomnia is present in about 40% of young depressed adults and 10% of older patients, with a preponderance in females. The symptoms cause huge distress, have a major impact on quality of life, and are a strong risk factor for suicide. As well as the subjective experience of sleep symptoms, there are well-documented changes in objective sleep architecture in depression. Mechanisms of sleep regulation and how they might be disturbed in depression are discussed. The sleep symptoms are often unresolved by treatment, and confer a greater risk of relapse and recurrence. Epidemiological studies have pointed out that insomnia in nondepressed subjects is a risk factor for later development of depression. There is therefore a need for more successful management of sleep disturbance in depression, in order to improve quality of life in these patients and reduce an important factor in depressive relapse and recurrence.

  11. Depressive symptoms in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sönmez, Nasrettin; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Evensen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The present study examined if any patient characteristics at baseline predicted depressive symptoms at 10 years and whether patients prone to depressive symptoms in the first year of treatment had a different prognosis in the following years. METHOD: A total of 299 first-episode psychosis...

  12. Associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaanse, M C; Dekker, J M; Nijpels, G

    2006-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The association between depression and insulin resistance has been investigated in only a few studies, with contradictory results reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between symptoms of depression and insulin resistance varies across glucose...... established type 2 diabetes mellitus. Main outcome measures were insulin resistance defined by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and symptoms of depression using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). RESULTS: In the total sample, we found a weak.......942). The association between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was similar for men and women. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We found only weak associations between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance, which did not differ among different glucose metabolism subgroups or between men and women....

  13. Overweight status and depressive symptoms during adolescence.

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    Needham, Belinda L; Crosnoe, Robert

    2005-01-01

    To: (a) extend previous research on the association between overweight status and depressive symptoms among adults to adolescents, (b) consider whether this association varies across social structural contexts and school context, and (c) explore additional mechanisms linking overweight status to depressive symptoms. We used survey regression procedures to analyze data from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Degree of overweight was indicated by body mass index (BMI), which we calculated using self-reported height and weight information, whereas depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Data were analyzed to determine (a) the social groups in which being overweight was least common, (b) the association between overweight status and depressive symptoms, and (c) potential mediators of the association between relative weight and symptoms of depression, including dieting and self-rated health. The analytic sample contained 18,924 adolescents aged 11 to 21 years (mean age was 15.68). Approximately half the sample consisted of females (n = 9634). Adjusting for exercise and sociodemographic characteristics, we found that relative weight was associated with depressive symptoms for girls but not boys. For both, the association between overweight status and symptoms of depression was stronger among adolescents in lower grades. Dieting explained the positive association between relative weight and depressive symptoms for girls, whereas self-rated health mediated the association between relative weight and symptoms of depression for adolescents in lower grades. To fully understand both the physical and mental health consequences of adolescent obesity, the social dimension of weight must be examined.

  14. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishola Rawatlal

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may increase risk for depressive symptoms or may reduce such risk. Adolescent-parent attachment, adolescent-perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female from each family. Adolescents were in Grade 7 (n=175 or Grade 10 (n=31. Data were collected through home interviews. The Self-Report of Family Inventory (SFI, Experiences of Close Relationships Scale (ECR, Network of Relationships Inventory (NRI, Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.  Results. Two models were examined: one with adolescent report of depressive symptoms as the outcome and a second with parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms as the outcome. The model predicting adolescent-reported depressive symptoms was significant with older age, higher levels of avoidant attachment, and higher levels of youth-reported dysfunctional family interaction associated with more depressive symptomatology. In the model predicting parent report of adolescent internalising symptoms only higher levels of dysfunctional family interaction, as reported by the parent, were associated with higher levels of internalising symptoms. Conclusion. Positive family communication, cohesion and support predictive of a secure parent-adolescent attachment relationship reduced the risk of a depressive symptom outcome. Secure adolescents were able to regulate their emotions, knowing that they could seek out secure base attachment relations

  15. Obesity and Onset of Significant Depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Brenes, Gretchen A; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although several cross-sectional studies have linked obesity and depression, less is known about their longitudinal association and about the relative influence of obesity subtypes. We prospectively examined whether (abdominal) obesity increased the risk of onset of depression in a population-based sample of older persons. Method Participants were 2540 non-depressed well-functioning white and black persons, aged 70–79 years, enrolled in the Health ABC Study, an ongoing prospective community-based cohort study. Overall obesity was assessed by body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), whereas abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computer tomography). Onset of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression 10-item score ≥ 10 at any annual follow-up over 5 years and/or new antidepressant medication use. Persistent depression was defined as depression at two consecutive follow-up visits. Results Over 5 years, significant depressive symptoms emerged in 23.7% of initially non-depressed persons. In men, both overall (BMI: HR per SD increase=1.20, 95%CI=1.03–1.40) and abdominal obesity (visceral fat: HR per SD increase=1.19, 95%CI=1.07–1.33) predicted onset of depressive symptoms after adjustment for sociodemographics. When BMI and visceral fat were adjusted for each other, only visceral fat was significantly associated with depression onset (HR=1.18, 95%CI=1.04–1.34). Stronger associations were found for persistent depressive symptoms. No associations were found in women. Conclusion This study shows that obesity, in particular visceral fat, increases the risk of onset of significant depressive symptoms in men. These results suggest that specific mechanisms might relate visceral fat to the onset of depression. PMID:20021992

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can be developed. RODOLFO : With ... shed light on causes of postpartum depression using new research model More News From the Field... Contact ...

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  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ... Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better ... are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so ...

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    Full Text Available ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ... Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression ( ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I ... many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be successfully ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Depression February 1, 2010 People with depression discuss how they got help. &#160; Watch on ... researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... be the best choice. Depression can be successfully treated in many people, but sometimes treatments fall short. For this reason, NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT ... For many people, a combination of medication and psychotherapy may be the best choice. Depression can be ...

  9. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  10. Maternal depressive symptoms following autism spectrum diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms regarding the week following their child's ASD diagnosis, with some 37.3% continuing to report clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up. Depressive symptoms immediately following diagnosis were not related to initial global characteristics of child functioning, but were related to reported child problem behaviors and financial barriers at follow-up. Results of this study underscore the importance of attention to caregiver distress and depression within models of autism detection and intervention.

  11. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  12. Symptoms of depression in adolescents with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, D W; Austin, J K; Huster, G A

    1999-09-01

    To identify factors related to symptoms of depression in a sample of adolescents with epilepsy. Cross-sectional data were collected on 115 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years who had epilepsy. Demographic (age, gender), seizure (severity, age of onset), family (stress, resources, relationships), mother (perceptions of stigma, depression), and child (attitude toward epilepsy, satisfaction with family relationships, coping, perceptions of control) variables were assessed by questionnaire and standardized scales. Depression was measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Anxiety/Depression subscale of the Youth Self-Report. Data were analyzed by using multiple regression with depression as the dependent variable. In this sample, 23% of subjects had symptoms of depression. Significant predictors of depression as measured by the Children's Depression Inventory (R2 = 0.53) were youth's attitude toward epilepsy, youth satisfaction with family relationships, and unknown locus of control or external locus of control for socially powerful others. Adolescents' attitudes, attributions, and satisfaction with family relationships are related to depression and should be assessed in the clinical setting. The relationship between locus of control and depression fits the learned helplessness model of depression and suggests the need for interventions to promote an internal locus of control in adolescents with epilepsy.

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... at NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social ... (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  14. Developmental Links Between Gaming and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuška, Jakub; Vazsonyi, Alexander T

    2017-11-15

    The current longitudinal study tested the reciprocal relationships between video game play and depressive symptoms among 9,421 adolescents from the Add Health (M age  = 16.15 years, SD = 1.64, 55% female), over 11 years (Waves 2, 3, and 4), ages 16 to 27. Based on structural equation modeling as well as latent growth models, findings indicated that (1) excessive gaming was largely transient over time, from adolescence to early adulthood; (2) excessive gaming predicted increases in depressive symptoms; and (3) in turn, depressive symptoms predicted decreases in gaming over time. Multigroup model tests by sex provided additional evidence that longitudinal relationships from excessive gaming to depressive symptoms were supported for male, but not for female youth. © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ... items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) ... items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a doctor or therapist are the first steps on the road to recovery. Depression treatment can take time to work, so don't give up. Read ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ... Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia ( ...

  1. [Depression in schizophrenia: Relationship with other symptoms, differential diagnosis, prognosis,treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamouli, S

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between depressive symptoms and other symptom categories in schizophrenia have been studied by many authors. According to the existing studies depression in schizophrenic patients is related to the presense of positive symptoms, especifically delusions and hallucinations.As far as negative symptoms concerns it seems that there coexist with the depressive symptoms in any phase of the disease at least in a subgroup of schizophrenic patients. In addition, according to the pyramidal model of Kay, when positive and depressive symptoms coexist, they create theclinical picture of the paranoid subtype of schizophrenia. The same holds for the combination of negative and depressive symptoms, which most frequently describe the residual subtype of the disease. Extrapyramidal symptoms are side effects of antipsychotic drugs (especially the classicalones). According to the existing literature it seems that antipyramidal side effects appear more often in schizophrenic patients with depressive symptoms. The differential diagnosis of depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients should start with the evaluation of possible presence of organiccauses like somatic disease, medication induced extrapyramidal symptoms, substance abuse. Yet, symptoms of depression need to be differentiated from the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychiatric syndromes like schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder and depression with psychotic features need to be also considered. In this case is very important to identify accurately the duration of depressive symptoms as well as the succession of appearance of the depressive vs. psychotic symptoms. Depressive symptoms appear to be bad prognostic sign for the long-term outcome of schizophrenia, because of the increased risk for suicide but also because of the worsening of the quality of life and the general wellbeing of the schizophrenic patient. Depressive symptoms during the acute phase of the disease usually respond to

  2. Characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David G; Learned, Nicole; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05-2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18-7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50-4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12-10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems.

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders ( ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 ... Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... such an awful person that there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. ... fighting, fighting, fighting, fighting. NARRATOR : Depression is a real and complex illness that is not yet completely ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... psychotherapy is called cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute to depression. RODOLFO : I had one really good therapist and ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... go to classes at all. I gained a lot of weight. NARRATOR : A person with depression can ... became easier. I totally think it is a lot easier when people know. I think that was ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... good therapist and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications ...

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH continues to study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and ... 443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov Press Resources Mental Health Information Summaries of Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH ...

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    Full Text Available ... thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... all alone. NARRATOR : If you have depression, telling friends, family, or someone you trust, and finding a ... Scientific Meetings Information about NIMH RePORTER : Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool Expenditures and Results Recommendations for Reporting ...

  12. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... with depression are different from those without the illness, but we aren't sure why. Scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health are studying brain images of people who ...

  13. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ... closer to figuring out exactly how these medications work, who benefits from them the most, and how ...

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... for Research Progress Coalition for Research Progress Legislative Activities Research Priorities Research Priorities Home Research Areas Policies ... vary, but many depressed people lose interest in activities they normally enjoyed, have feelings of sadness, guilt, ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depression can feel irritable and restless, and have sleep problems. RODOLFO : Sometimes I would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then but most of the ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... of people who suffer from depression trying to learn why it affects some people but not others. ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... anyone. I didn't really want to do anything for myself because I felt so, I felt ... was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... NIMH News & Events Science News Events Multimedia Social Media Press ... Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... feeling of being down in the dumps or blue for a few days. It is a serious ... focused psychotherapy does not affect effectiveness Neuroscientists shed light on causes of postpartum depression using new research ...

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  1. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications called antidepressants can also help. NIMH researchers are getting closer ... the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Certain antidepressants more effective in treating youth anxiety disorder, analysis ...

  2. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... CBT. CBT can help you change ways of thinking and behaving that may be damaging or contribute ... and through her I think I started really thinking about that I did have depression. NARRATOR : Medications ...

  3. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... would sleep only 3 hours a night or cause I couldn't sleep for weeks. And then ... does not affect effectiveness Neuroscientists shed light on causes of postpartum depression using new research model More ...

  4. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... a minute really to do anything that took deep concentration. I tried a journal and I tried ... people but not others. Treatments for depression do work. One type of effective psychotherapy is called cognitive ...

  5. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Principal Investigators Administrative Oversight & Support Collaborations & Partnerships Join A Study News & Events News & Events Home Science News ... for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or ...

  6. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... to anyone. I didn't really want to do anything for myself because I felt so, I ... there was no real reason for me to do anything for myself. NARRATOR : Depression is more than ...

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... study the genetic, biological and environmental factors that influence depression so that new and better treatments can ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

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    Full Text Available ... for weeks. And then but most of the time the opposite happened, where I would sleep 10, ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to ...

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    Full Text Available ... fighting, fighting. NARRATOR : Depression is a real and complex illness that is not yet completely understood. We ... antidepressants more effective in treating youth anxiety disorder, analysis shows 'Filter' hones GWAS results to help researchers ...

  11. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  12. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  14. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... 2012 2011 2010 2009 Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder ( ...

  15. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  16. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... not yet completely understood. We do know that the brains of people with depression are different from those ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Brain's insular cortex mediates approach and avoidance responses to ...

  17. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... depressed can feel numb and tired all the time. In some cases it can even lead to thoughts of suicide. RODOLFO : It was like I had big huge weights on my legs and I was trying to swim and just kept sinking. And I'd get a little ...

  18. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Multimedia by Topic Disorders Anxiety Disorders (5 items) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (3 items) Autism (13 items) Bipolar Disorder (2 items) Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post- ...

  19. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Borderline Personality Disorder (3 items) Depression (32 items) Eating Disorders (9 items) Panic Disorder (1 item) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 items) Schizophrenia (3 items) Social Phobia (2 items) Populations Children and Adolescents (26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) ...

  20. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

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    Full Text Available ... Share More Video and Audio about Depression Contact the Press Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov ... on Suicide News from the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Certain antidepressants ...

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Alcohol Use: The Mediating Role of Youth Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Stahl, Mindy; Saavedra, Lissette M.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Novak, Scott P.; Warner, Tara D.; Fishbein, Diana H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of maternal depressive symptoms on adolescent alcohol use among a sample of Latino/Latina youth aged 10 to 16 years from a high-risk community. Direct and mediating effects of youth depressive symptoms, controlling for levels of concurrent emotion dysregulation, on alcohol use were examined.…

  2. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2  = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2  = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  3. Mindful parenting and adolescent depressive symptoms: The few associations are moderated by adolescent gender and parental depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Y.R.; Zundert, R.M.P. van; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing depressive symptoms during adolescence is associated with various detrimental outcomes during this developmental stage and with future depression in adulthood. This finding highlights the importance to identify risk and protective factors in the development of depressive symptoms during

  4. Depressive symptoms and web user experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The

  5. Depressive symptoms and web user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielsch, Meinald T; Thielsch, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. In this two-part online study ( N total  = 721) we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics). Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine whether depression severity affects users' perception of and performance in using information websites. We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and aesthetics. The user experience of a website is

  6. Depressive symptoms and web user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meinald T. Thielsch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Depression, as one of the most prevalent mental disorders, is expected to become a leading cause of disability. While evidence-based treatments are not always easily accessible, Internet-based information and self-help appears as a promising approach to improve the strained supply situation by avoiding barriers of traditional offline treatment. User experience in the domain of mental problems therefore emerges as an important research topic. The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of depressive symptoms on subjective and objective measures of web user experience. Method In this two-part online study (Ntotal = 721 we investigate the relationship between depressive symptoms of web users and basic website characteristics (i.e., content, subjective and objective usability, aesthetics. Participants completed search and memory tasks on different fully-functional websites. In addition, they were asked to evaluate the given websites with standardized measures and were screened for symptoms of depression using the PHQ-9. We used structural equation modeling (SEM to determine whether depression severity affects users’ perception of and performance in using information websites. Results We found significant associations between depressive symptoms and subjective user experience, specifically of website content, usability, and aesthetics, as well as an effect of content perception on the overall appraisal of a website in terms of the intention to visit it again. Small yet significant negative effects of depression severity on all named subjective website evaluations were revealed, leading to an indirect negative effect on the intention to revisit a website via impaired content perceptions. However, objective task performance was not influenced by depressiveness of users. Discussion Depression emerges as capable of altering the subjective perception of a website to some extend with respect to the main features content, usability, and

  7. Residual symptoms and specific functional impairments in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, Ludovic; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Vieta, Eduard; Bellivier, Frank; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to confirm the impact of residual symptoms on overall functioning in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder in real-life conditions and to explore the relationship between residual symptoms and specific areas of functional impairment. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study of euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. The Functioning Assessment Short Test was used to assess overall and specific domains of functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time). Various residual symptoms were assessed (residual mood symptoms, emotional dysregulation, sleep and sexual disorders, stigma, and perceived cognitive impairment). Logistic regression was used to determine the best model of association between functional domains and residual symptoms. Almost half of the 468 patients included (42%) had poor overall functioning. Residual depressive symptoms appeared to have an impact on overall functioning and in nearly all areas of functioning. In addition, specific residual symptoms had significantly more negative effects on some domains of functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (residual manic symptoms and occupational stigma on autonomy, emotional inhibition on occupational functioning, residual manic symptoms on financial issues, family stigma on interpersonal relationships, and sexual function and occupational stigma on leisure time). Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating overall functioning in clinical practice as well as functional domains. They also indicate that some residuals symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder should be targeted in personalized treatment plans, in order to improve functioning in the domains in which the patient is most impaired. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Methylene blue treatment for residual symptoms of bipolar disorder: randomised crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Martin; McKinnon, Margaret; Blagdon, Ryan; Garnham, Julie; MacLellan, Susan; O'Donovan, Claire; Hajek, Tomas; Nair, Cynthia; Dursun, Serdar; MacQueen, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    Residual symptoms and cognitive impairment are among important sources of disability in patients with bipolar disorder. Methylene blue could improve such symptoms because of its potential neuroprotective effects. We conducted a double-blind crossover study of a low dose (15 mg, 'placebo') and an active dose (195 mg) of methylene blue in patients with bipolar disorder treated with lamotrigine. Thirty-seven participants were enrolled in a 6-month trial (trial registration: NCT00214877). The outcome measures included severity of depression, mania and anxiety, and cognitive functioning. The active dose of methylene blue significantly improved symptoms of depression both on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (P = 0.02 and 0.05 in last-observation-carried-forward analysis). It also reduced the symptoms of anxiety measured by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (P = 0.02). The symptoms of mania remained low and stable throughout the study. The effects of methylene blue on cognitive symptoms were not significant. The medication was well tolerated with transient and mild side-effects. Methylene blue used as an adjunctive medication improved residual symptoms of depression and anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  9. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perceived support from parents and family functioning were examined as correlates of depressive symptom presentation within this age group. Methods. ..... sadness, feelings of tearfulness, worrying about bad things); social ..... middle childhood and early adolescence: Testing the validity of the emotion regulation model of ...

  10. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study further suggests gender differences in that for women, depressive symptoms were associated with intimate partner violence and lower perceptions of community cohesion, while for men the associations were with a mother's death and relationship conflict. Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2013, ...

  12. Fatigue and Depressive Symptoms in Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna; Rantanen, Taina; Era, Pertti

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is considered an important indicator of aging-related declines in health and functional abilities. Previous studies have indicated strong associations between fatigue and depressive symptoms among younger populations and in patient groups with specific diseases. However, it is not known h...

  13. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescence is characterised by change in various developmental domains including cognitive, social, affective and biological areas. These simultaneous changes can increase the vulnerability for developing symptoms of depression, known to be prevalent during mid-teens,[1] increasing the risk for negative outcomes, ...

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Academic Achievement, and Intelligence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preiss, M.; Fráňová, Lenka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2006), s. 57-67 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/05/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : academic achievement * depressive symptoms * intelligence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.410, year: 2006

  15. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  16. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph R; Northstone, Kate; Evans, Jonathan; Golding, Jean

    2018-01-01

    Vegetarian diets are associate with cardiovascular and other health benefits, but little is known about mental health benefits or risks. To determine whether self-identification of vegetarian dietary habits is associated with significant depressive symptoms in men. Self-report data from 9668 adult male partners of pregnant women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) included identification as vegetarian or vegan, dietary frequency data and the Edinburgh Post Natal Depression Scale (EPDS). Continuous and binary outcomes were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression taking account of potential confounding variables including: age, marital status, employment status, housing tenure, number of children in the household, religion, family history of depression previous childhood psychiatric contact, cigarette and alcohol consumption. Vegetarians [n = 350 (3.6% of sample)], had higher depression scores on average than non-vegetarians (mean difference 0.96 points [95%CI + 0.53, + 1.40]) and a greater risk for EPDS scores above 10 (adjusted OR = 1.67 [95% CI: 1.14,2.44]) than non-vegetarians after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Vegetarian men have more depressive symptoms after adjustment for socio-demographic factors. Nutritional deficiencies (e.g. in cobalamin or iron) are a possible explanation for these findings, however reverse causation cannot be ruled out. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Prevalence of restless legs symptoms according to depressive symptoms and depression type: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Piritta; Mäntyselkä, Pekka; Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Korniloff, Katariina; Ahonen, Tiina; Vanhala, Mauno

    2018-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor disorder and it is associated with several other diseases especially mental illnesses. To analyze the relationship between the symptoms of restless legs syndrome and the severity of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of restless legs symptoms in depression subtypes. A cross-sectional study of primary care patients in the Central Finland Hospital District. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was studied in 706 patients with increased depressive symptoms and 426 controls without a psychiatric diagnosis by using a structured questionnaire. The depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the psychiatric diagnosis was confirmed by means of a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The subjects with increased depressive symptoms were divided into three groups (subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis, melancholic depression and non-melancholic depression). In the whole study population, the prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with the severity of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms was highest in the melancholic and non-melancholic depressive patients (52 and 46%, respectively) and then in subjects with depressive symptoms without a depression diagnosis (43.4%), but the prevalence was also substantial (24.6%) in subjects without a psychiatric diagnosis. Restless legs symptoms are very common in primary care among subjects with depression, regardless of the depression type. The prevalence of restless legs symptoms increased with increasing severity of depressive symptoms, regardless of the diagnosis. These findings should be considered in clinical evaluation and treatment of patients visiting their physician due to restless legs or depressive symptoms.

  18. Association between burnout and depressive symptoms among Turkish dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Huri

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Dentists may face burnout and depressive symptoms during their professional life. Increased burnout level can give an idea on depressive symptoms, and may provide an opportunity to identify depression earlier. Creating and raising awareness about burnout are important to avoid and prevent depression among dentists. Further longitudinal studies analyzing the effects of interdisciplinary client-centered self-management programs for dentists on depressive symptoms and burnout must be planned.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of Postoperative Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patrick J; Attix, Deborah K; Weldon, B Craig; Monk, Terri G

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that elevated depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of postoperative delirium. However, to our knowledge no previous studies have examined whether different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium. One thousand twenty patients were screened for postoperative delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method and through retrospective chart review. Patients underwent cognitive, psychosocial, and medical assessments preoperatively. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form. Thirty-eight patients developed delirium (3.7%). Using a factor structure previously validated among geriatric medical patients, the authors examined three components of depression as predictors of postoperative delirium: negative affect, cognitive distress, and behavioral inactivity. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, comorbidities, and cognitive function, the authors found that greater behavioral inactivity was associated with increased risk of delirium (OR: 1.95 [1.11, 3.42]), whereas negative affect (OR: 0.65 [0.31, 1.36]) and cognitive distress (OR: 0.95 [0.63, 1.43]) were not. Different components of depression are differentially predictive of postoperative delirium among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emotion work within eldercare and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise M.; Jorgensen, Anette F. B.; Thomsen, Birthe L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Danish professional caregivers have high rates of depressive symptoms. One proposed cause is exposure to emotion work. However, emotion work is usually measured by self-report which may bias results. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of emotion work......, externally observed at the workplace, with self-reported depressive symptoms of professional caregivers. Design and data sources: The study was a cross-sectional observational study. Data was collected by 9 observers who assessed emotion work stressors and emotion work resources in 124 individual...... professional caregivers working in 56 work units across 10 eldercare homes. Emotion work stressors were defined as i) barriers for empathetic care, ii) taxing aggressive events, and iii) taxing non-aggressive events. Emotion work resources were defined as i) meaningful events, and ii) social interactions...

  1. Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...... no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: The association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms differed for employees harassed by clients or customers and those...

  2. Shyness Predicts Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents : A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murberg, Terje A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relation between shyness, social support and depressive symptoms in a sample of 259 students (aged 14-16 years) in two secondary schools. Results at both time-points showed positive associations of depressive symptoms with shyness and with being female and negative associations of depressive symptoms with social support and…

  3. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  4. Race, Depressive Symptoms, and All-Cause Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Micol-Foster, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the U.S. Data were obtained from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow-up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks and Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender), SES (education and income), and health [chronic medical conditions (CMCs), self-rated health (SRH), and body mass index (BMI)] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White) was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH, and BMI). Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all-cause mortality among Blacks. Although the effect of

  5. Changes in Depressive Self-Schemata and Depressive Symptoms Following Cognitive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Terry M.; Dixon, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of 6-8 sessions of Beck's cognitive therapy on mildly and moderately depressed college students' (n=31) depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata compared to no-treatment controls (n=43). Results supported efficacy of cognitive therapy in reducing depressive symptoms and depressive self-schemata, as measured by…

  6. Depressive symptoms and early retirement intentions among Danish eldercare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, Mette Andersen; Borg, Vilhelm; Sejbaek, Camilla Sandal

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression increases the risk of disability pension and represents a health related strain that pushes people out of the labour market. Although early voluntary retirement is an important alternative to disability pension, few studies have examined whether depressive symptoms incur...... early voluntary retirement. This study examined whether depressive symptoms and changes in depressive symptoms over time were associated with early retirement intentions. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional (n = 4041) and a prospective (n = 2444) population from a longitudinal study on employees...... of the Danish eldercare sector. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Major Depression Inventory and the impact of different levels of depressive symptoms (severe, moderately severe, moderate, mild and none) and changes in depressive symptoms (worsened, improved, unaffected) on early retirement intentions...

  7. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  8. Depressive symptoms and childhood sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Antonio Pascotto,1 Michele Roccella21Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children.Methods: The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms.Results: The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ≥ 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (≥19 was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our

  9. Race, depressive symptoms, and all-cause mortality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the well-established association between baseline depressive symptoms and risk of all cause-mortality, limited information exists on racial differences in the residual effects of baseline depressive symptoms above and beyond socio-economic status (SES and physical health on this link. The current study compared Blacks and Whites for the residual effects of depressive symptoms over SES and health on risk of long-term all-cause mortality in the United States. Methods: Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives Study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults with up to 25 years of follow up. The study followed 3,361 Blacks or Whites for all-cause mortality between 1986 and 2011. The main predictor of interest was baseline depressive symptoms measured at 1986 using an 11- item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D. Covariates included baseline demographics (age and gender, SES (education and income, and health [chronic medical conditions (CMC, self-rated health, and body mass index (BMI] measured at 1986. Race (Black versus White was the focal moderator. We ran a series of Cox proportional hazard models, in the pooled sample and also stratified by race. Results: In the pooled sample, higher depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality except when the CMC, SRH, and BMI were added to the model. In this later model, race interacted with baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a larger effect of depressive symptoms on mortality among Whites compared to Blacks. Among Whites, depressive symptoms were associated with increased risk of mortality, after controlling for SES, but not after controlling for health (CMC, SRH and BMI as well. Among Blacks, depressive symptoms were not associated with mortality before that health was introduced to the model. After controlling for health, baseline depressive symptoms showed an inverse association with all

  10. Seeing the signs: Using the course of residual depressive symptomatology to predict patterns of relapse and recurrence of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Floor E A; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Ruhé, Henricus G Eric; Conradi, Henk Jan; de Jonge, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by high relapse/recurrence rates. Predicting individual patients' relapse/recurrence risk has proven hard, possibly due to course heterogeneity among patients. This study aimed to (1) identify homogeneous data-driven subgroups with different patterns of relapse/recurrence and (2) identify associated predictors. For a year, we collected weekly depressive symptom ratings in 213 primary care MDD patients. Latent class growth analyses (LCGA), based on symptom-severity during the 24 weeks after no longer fulfilling criteria for the initial major depressive episode (MDE), were used to identify groups with different patterns of relapse/recurrence. Associations of baseline predictors with these groups were investigated, as were the groups' associations with 3- and 11-year follow-up depression outcomes. LCGA showed that heterogeneity in relapse/recurrence after no longer fulfilling criteria for the initial MDE was best described by four classes: "quick symptom decline" (14.0%), "slow symptom decline" (23.3%), "steady residual symptoms" (38.7%), and "high residual symptoms" (24.1%). The latter two classes showed lower self-esteem at baseline, and more recurrences and higher severity at 3-year follow-up than the first two classes. Moreover, the high residual symptom class scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion and self-esteem at baseline. Interestingly, the steady residual symptoms and high residual symptoms classes still showed higher severity of depressive symptoms after 11 years. Some measures were associated with specific patterns of relapse/recurrence. Moreover, the data-driven relapse/recurrence groups were predictive of long-term outcomes, suggesting that patterns of residual symptoms could be of prognostic value in clinical practice. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... by both cognitive and somatic features.The somatic characteristics of depression are very similar to the symptoms of uraemia, such as anorexia, sleep disturbances, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders.[1-3] These similarities make the recognition of a depressive disorder difficult. Symptoms suggestive of depression include:.

  12. Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in men with erectile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social phobia were rated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, while the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was used to rate depressive symptoms. Results. Thirty-three per cent of respondents had depressive symptoms, ...

  13. Longitudinal pattern of depressive symptoms around natural menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Sammel, Mary D; Boorman, David W; Zhang, Rongmei

    2014-01-01

    An increased risk of depressive symptoms has been associated with the transition to menopause, but the risk of depressive symptoms in the early postmenopausal years has not been well characterized. To identify within-woman changes in depressive symptoms during a 14-year period around menopause, determine associations of a history of depression with the pattern of depressive symptoms, and evaluate the rate of change in reproductive hormones as predictors of depressive symptoms following menopause. A randomly identified, population-based sample in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, of 203 late-reproductive-age women who were premenopausal at baseline and reached natural menopause. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The prevalence of high scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale decreased from 10 years before to 8 years after the final menstrual period (FMP), with a decrease of approximately 15% of baseline per year (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.89; P menopause compared with women with no depression history. Among women who first experienced depressive symptoms approaching menopause, the risk of depressive symptoms declined after the FMP, with a significantly lower risk the second year after menopause. The risk of depressive symptoms after menopause decreased by 35% for each unit (SD) increase before the FMP in the log rate of change of follicle-stimulating hormone (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.91; P = .01). The FMP was pivotal in the overall pattern of decreasing depressive symptoms in midlife women, with higher risk before and lower risk after the FMP. A history of depression strongly increased the risk both before and after menopause. Women who had no history of depression before the menopause transition had a low risk of depressive symptoms 2 or more years after the FMP.

  14. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Weight Gain Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many studies have linked depression and obesity; few have more than two assessments of depressive symptoms and adiposity to address the potential bi-directional relation between adiposity and depressive symptoms from young adulthood through old age. We test whether baseline depressive symptoms are associated with changes in weight, whether baseline adiposity is associated with changes in depressive symptoms, and whether these associations vary by sex. Methods Participants (N=2,251; 47% female) were from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling on 30 years of data, the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms over adulthood was estimated from >10,000 observations (M=4.5 assessments per participant) of body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), waist circumference, and hip circumference and >10,000 observations (M=4.5 assessments per participant) of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Baseline depressive symptoms and adiposity were then tested as predictors of the trajectory of adiposity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Additional analyses tested for sex-specific associations. Results Sex moderated the association between depressive symptoms and weight gain such that women who experienced depressed affect had greater increases in BMI (binteraction=.12, SE=.04), waist (binteraction=.22, SE=.10) and hip circumference (binteraction=.20, SE=.07) across adulthood, controlling for relevant demographic and behavioral covariates. Baseline adiposity was unrelated to the trajectory of depressive symptoms (Median b=.00) for both sexes. Conclusions Women who experience symptoms of depression tend to gain more weight across adulthood than men who experience such symptoms. Whether an individual was normal weight or overweight was unrelated to changes in depressive symptoms across adulthood. PMID:22475128

  15. Getting out of Depression: Teens' Self-Help Interventions to Relieve Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Barker, Ellen C.

    2006-01-01

    Most depressed adolescents do not access medical care for symptoms, yet many improve without professional intervention. While several self-help interventions have empirical support, teens' non-directed efforts to reduce symptoms are not documented. We reviewed 14 depressed adolescents' reports of attempts to reduce depressive symptoms. Results…

  16. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  17. [Depression symptoms among Chinese students in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, S; Murase, S; Kitabatake, M

    1996-05-01

    The mental health of foreigners in Japan, which shows a prominent increase in number recently was studied. A major group of these foreigners are Korean and Chinese, as their countries and Japan historically had a close relationship. The Chinese population has shown large increases, quadrupling over a period of 10 years. This population is characterized by purpose of residence; with most of them visiting Japan to study. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) self rating scale, we examined depression symptoms among two groups of Chinese students studying in Japan; 71 students of Mie university (MU) and 90 students of Japanese language schools (JLS) in Mie prefecture. BDI examination revealed that 28.9% (mild; 22.2%, moderate; 3.3%, severe; 3.3%) of Chinese JLS students and 23.9% (mild; 22.5%, severe; 1.4%) of Chinese MU students were depressed. Chinese JLS students showed significantly higher total BDI scores than Chinese MU students (p < 0.05). BDI scores of item D (lack of satisfaction), J (crying spells) and S (weight loss) were also significantly elevated in Chinese JLS students (D: p < 0.01, J: p < 0.05, S: p < 0.01). These results suggest that Chinese JLS students experience more stress than Chinese MU students.

  18. Depression symptoms across cultures: an IRT analysis of standard depression symptoms using data from eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, E E; Bolton, P; Gross, A; Chan, K S; Michalopoulos, L; Bass, J

    2016-07-01

    Prevalence estimates of depression vary between countries, possibly due to differential functioning of items between settings. This study compared the performance of the widely used Hopkins symptom checklist 15-item depression scale (HSCL-15) across multiple settings using item response theory analyses. Data came from adult populations in the low and middle income countries (LMIC) of Colombia, Indonesia, Kurdistan Iraq, Rwanda, Iraq, Thailand (Burmese refugees), and Uganda (N = 4732). Item parameters based on a graded response model were compared across LMIC settings. Differential item functioning (DIF) by setting was evaluated using multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) models. Most items performed well across settings except items related to suicidal ideation and "loss of sexual interest or pleasure," which had low discrimination parameters (suicide: a = 0.31 in Thailand to a = 2.49 in Indonesia; sexual interest: a = 0.74 in Rwanda to a = 1.26 in one region of Kurdistan). Most items showed some degree of DIF, but DIF only impacted aggregate scale-level scores in Indonesia. Thirteen of the 15 HSCL depression items performed well across diverse settings, with most items showing a strong relationship to the underlying trait of depression. The results support the cross-cultural applicability of most of these depression symptoms across LMIC settings. DIF impacted aggregate depression scores in one setting illustrating a possible source of measurement invariance in prevalence estimates.

  19. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hek, Karin; Demirkan, Ayse; Lahti, Jari; Terracciano, Antonio; Teumer, Alexander; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Amin, Najaf; Bakshis, Erin; Baumert, Jens; Ding, Jingzhong; Liu, Yongmei; Marciante, Kristin; Meirelles, Osorio; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Yu, Lei; Bandinelli, Stefania; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Bennett, David A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Cannas, Alessandra; Coker, Laura H.; de Geus, Eco; De Jager, Philip L.; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Purcell, Shaun; Hu, Frank B.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Curhan, Gary; Rice, Kenneth; Penman, Alan D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Emeny, Rebecca; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Illig, Thomas; Kardia, Sharon; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Koenen, Karestan; Kraft, Peter; Kuningas, Maris; Massaro, Joseph M.; Melzer, David; Mulas, Antonella; Mulder, Cornelis L.; Murray, Anna; Oostra, Ben A.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Petersmann, Astrid; Pilling, Luke C.; Psaty, Bruce; Rawal, Rajesh; Reiman, Eric M.; Schulz, Andrea; Shulman, Joshua M.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Albert V.; Sutin, Angelina R.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Voelzke, Henry; Widen, Elisabeth; Yaffe, Kristine; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cucca, Francesco; Harris, Tamara; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Llewellyn, David J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Tanaka, Toshiko; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Grabe, Hans J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Newman, Anne B.; Tiemeier, Henning; Murabito, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. Methods: In

  20. A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hek (Karin); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); J. Lahti (Jari); A. Terracciano; A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Cornelis (Marilyn); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Bakshis (Erin); J. Baumert (Jens); J. Ding (Jingzhong); Y. Liu (YongMei); K. Marciante (Kristin); O. Meirelles; M.A. Nalls (Michael); Y.V. Sun (Yan); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); L. Yu (Lei); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); D.A. Bennett (David); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); A. Cannas; L.H. Coker (Laura); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A.V. Diez-Roux (Ana); S. Purcell (Shaun); F.B. Hu (Frank); E. Rimm; D.J. Hunter (David); M.K. Jensen (Majken); G.C. Curhan (Gary); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); A.D. Penman (Alan); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); R. Emeny (Rebecca); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); D.A. Evans (Denis); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Fornage (Myriam); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Hofman (Albert); T. Illig (Thomas); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); M. Kelly-Hayes (Margaret); M.E. Koenen (Marjorie); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Kuningas (Maris); J. Massaro (Joseph); D. Melzer (David); A. Mulas (Antonella); C.L. Mulder (Niels); A. Murray (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Palotie (Aarno); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Petersmann (Astrid); L.C. Pilling (Luke); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R. Rawal (R.); E.M. Reiman (Eric); A. Schulz (Ansgar); L. Shulman (Lee); A.B. Singleton (Andrew); G.D. Smith; A.R. Sutin; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Widen (Elisabeth); K. Yaffe (Kristine); A.B. Zonderman (Alan); F. Cucca (Francesco); T.B. Harris (Tamara); K.-H. Ladwig (Karl-Heinz); D.J. Llewellyn (David); K. Räikkönen (Katri); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); A.B. Newman (Anne); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); J. Murabito (Joanne)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms.

  1. Inferential Style, School Teachers, and Depressive Symptoms in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittard, Caroline M.; Pössel, Patrick; Lau, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms affect around half of students at some point during college. According to the hopelessness theory of depression, making negative inferences about stressful events is a vulnerability for developing depression. Negative and socio-emotional teaching behavior can be stressors that are associated with depression in school students.…

  2. Depressive symptoms and concussions in aging retired NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John

    2013-08-01

    We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression).

  3. Burnout and depressive symptoms in intensive care nurses: relationship analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Motta de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the existence of a relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms among intensive care unit nursing staff. Method: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study with 91 intensive care nurses. Data collection used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory - Human Services Survey, and the Beck Depression Inventory - I. The Pearson test verified the correlation between the burnout dimension score and the total score from the Beck Depression Inventory. Fisher's exact test was used to analyze whether there is an association between the diseases. Results: Burnout was presented by 14.29% of the nurses and 10.98% had symptoms of depression. The higher the level of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the lower professional accomplishment, the greater the depressive symptoms. The association was significant between burnout and depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Nurses with burnout have a greater possibility of triggering depressive symptoms.

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents' Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Rose, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents' friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes.

  5. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    S?nchez-Vida?a, Dalinda Isabel; Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms...

  6. Association between religiosity and depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleima Cogollo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Several studies report a significant association between religiosity and depressive symptoms among adolescents; but, other researches do not. Up to date, this relation has not investigated in adolescent students who live in a violent and low-income country. Objective: To establish the correlation between religiosity and depressive symptoms among students in Cartagena, Colombia. Method: A cross-sectional study was done with participation of adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old. Students completed two scales: the five-item form of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (Francis-5, which asked about God, Jesus and prayer (higher scores suggest higher religiosity; and the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5 inquired depressive symptoms last two weeks (lower scores suggest higher depressive symptoms. It was accepted as a significant Pearson correlation (rho, r a coefficient value higher than 0.20. A total of 1,730 students answered the questionnaires. The mean age was 14.7 (SD = 1.2. According to gender, 912 (52.7% students were girls; and 818 (47.3%, boys. Francis-5 showed high internal consistency, coefficient alpha of 0.909; and coefficient omega of 0.910. WHO-5 presented coefficient alpha of 0.757; and omega of 0.759. The Francis-5 scores were between zero and twenty (Mean = 18.2, SD = 3.0, median = 20, mode = 20; and WHO-5 scores, between zero and fifteen (Mean = 10.2, SD = 3.1, median = 10, mode = 10. Religiosity had not significant correlation with depressive symptoms (r = 0.080. Conclusions: Religiosity is not associated with depressive symptoms among adolescent students in Cartagena, Colombia. (DUAZARY 2013 No. 1, 15 - 19Keywords: Depressive symptoms; religiosity; adolescents; students; cross-sectional studyResumenIntroducción: varios estudios informan asociación significativa entre religiosidad y síntomas depresivos en adolescentes; sin embargo, otras investigaciones no. Hasta la fecha, esta relación no se

  7. Relationship of neurotransmitters to the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J

    2008-01-01

    A relationship appears to exist between the 3 main monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) and specific symptoms of major depressive disorder. Specific symptoms are associated with the increase or decrease of specific neurotransmitters, which suggests that specific symptoms of depression could be assigned to specific neurochemical mechanisms, and subsequently specific antidepressant drugs could target symptom-specific neurotransmitters. Research on electroconvulsive therapy has supported a correlation between neurotransmitters and depression symptoms. A 2-dimensional model of neurotransmitter functions is discussed that describes depression as a mixture of 2 separate components--negative affect and the loss of positive affect--that can be considered in relation to the 3 amine neurotransmitters. Owing to the different methods of action of available antidepressant agents and the depression symptoms thought to be associated with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, current treatments can be targeted toward patients' specific symptoms.

  8. Additive genetic contribution to symptom dimensions in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Rahel; Palmer, Rohan H C; Brick, Leslie A; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S; Beevers, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder with a complex genetic architecture. In this study, genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum-likelihood analysis (GREML) was used to investigate the extent to which variance in depression symptoms/symptom dimensions can be explained by variation in common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample of individuals with MDD (N = 1,558) who participated in the National Institute of Mental Health Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. A principal components analysis of items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) obtained prior to treatment revealed 4 depression symptom components: (a) appetite, (b) core depression symptoms (e.g., depressed mood, anhedonia), (c) insomnia, and (d) anxiety. These symptom dimensions were associated with SNP-based heritability (hSNP2) estimates of 30%, 14%, 30%, and 5%, respectively. Results indicated that the genetic contribution of common SNPs to depression symptom dimensions were not uniform. Appetite and insomnia symptoms in MDD had a relatively strong genetic contribution whereas the genetic contribution was relatively small for core depression and anxiety symptoms. While in need of replication, these results suggest that future gene discovery efforts may strongly benefit from parsing depression into its constituent parts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms among Swedish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospective associations between working conditions and depressive symptoms in Swedish men and women. METHODS: The study was based on SLOSH (N = 5,985), a follow-up of a representative sample of gainfully employed Swedes 16-64 years of age from the Swedish Work Environment...... authority, support and conflicts at work are predictive of depressive symptoms in the general Swedish working population....... Survey 2003. Work demands, decision authority, support and conflicts at work were measured in 2003. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 2006 by a short version of the depression subscale of the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: After adjusting...

  10. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  11. Comparing depressive symptoms in teenage boys and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Fallahi Khesht-Masjedi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Symptoms of depression vary between the males and females. Depressed men show behaviors such as irritability, restlessness, difficulty in concentrating, and instead of the usual behaviors. Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in depressed men. Men are less likely to go to doctors and unconsciously show other behaviors such as anger instead of the sadness. It seems that considering depression as “feminine” is a great injustice toward male patients whom their illness will not be diagnosed nor treated. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 191 depressed adolescents, 108 males and 83 females aged 13–19 years old. Data collected for 10 years from 2005 to 2015 and their depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition. Results: Depressed girls felt sadness, guilt, punishment, worthlessness, low energy and fatigue, or more asthenia, whereas depressed boys have symptoms such as irritability, depression, suicidal thoughts, or desires to reduce their pleasure. The results of t-test showed that the difference between the total scores of boys and girls with depressive disorder (16.93 is significant at 0.001. F values for feeling sad (58.13, hatred of self (12.38, suicidal thoughts or desires (12.97, restlessness (17.35, and irritability (46. 41 were significant in the 0.001. Conclusion: Experiencing depression in boys and girls according to the role of gender was different. Gender can have an effective role in showing depression symptoms in adolescents.

  12. Obsessive-Compulsive and Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Depressive Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ashley M; Carbonella, Julia Y; Arditte Hall, Kimberly A; Timpano, Kiara R

    2017-08-18

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) commonly co-occurs with depression, resulting in heightened severity and poorer treatment response. Research on the associations between specific obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms has utilized measures that have not fully considered the relationship across OCS dimensions. Little is known about which factors explain the overlap between OCS and depressive symptoms. OCS and depressive symptoms may be related via depressive cognitive styles, such as rumination or dampening (i.e., down-regulating positive emotions). We evaluated the associations of OCS dimensions with depressive symptoms and cognitive styles. We also examined the indirect effects of rumination and dampening in the relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms. Participants (N = 250) completed questionnaires online. Greater depressive symptoms, rumination, and dampening were associated with greater levels of all OCS dimensions. Path analysis was utilized to examine a model including the direct effect of depressive symptoms on overall OCS and two indirect effects (through rumination and dampening). There was a significant indirect effect of depressive cognitive styles on the relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms, through rumination and dampening. Replication in a clinical sample and experimental manipulations may bear important implications for targeting depressive cognitive styles in treatments for OCD and depression.

  13. The infertility trap: how defeat and entrapment affect depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, A; Moura-Ramos, M; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J

    2016-02-01

    Does the perception of failure without a solution or way forward of infertile couples have a mediator role between the importance couples attribute to parenthood and depressive symptoms? The perception of failure without a solution or way forward, assessed by feelings of entrapment and defeat, mediates the effect of the importance of parenthood on depressive symptoms of infertile men and women. Research has documented that the heightened importance of parenthood affects infertile couples' adjustment to infertility and medical treatments. However, it remains unclear which psychological mechanisms and perceptions may underlie the association between having parenthood as a nuclear aspect of life and presenting depressive symptoms related to difficulties in accomplishing that important life goal. Although these links have been scantly addressed in infertility, previous studies have pointed to the role that perceptions of defeat and entrapment have in several psychopathological conditions. The study was cross-sectional. Couples pursuing medical treatment for their fertility problems were invited to participate by their doctors in several public and private clinics. Data collection took place between July 2009 and 2011. One hundred forty-seven infertile couples consented to participate in the study. Both couple members (147 women and 147 men) completed a set of self-report instruments for the assessment of depressive symptoms, perceptions of defeat and entrapment, importance of parenthood and rejection of a childfree lifestyle. Analyses were conducted through Structural Equation Modeling and followed a dyadic analysis strategy, allowing for controlling the interdependence of the data. The hypothesized tested model showed a very good fit to the data [(χ(2) = 68.45, P = 0.014, comparative fit index = 0.98, standardized root-mean-square residual = 0.06 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.06] and explained 67 and 58% of the variability in depressive symptoms in

  14. [An evaluation of anxiety and depression symptoms in fibromyalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Emanuella Barros; Quintans Junior, Lucindo José; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, José Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms was, respectively, 50% and 86% for individuals with fibromyalgia, and the mean trait-anxiety score was 59.38. An association was observed between trait and state anxiety. Anxiety and depression were frequent symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia. However, anxiety appeared as a secondary symptom to depression, appearing in a more severe form, and, therefore, this comorbidity should be more valued and studied.

  15. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency...... in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...... and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed....

  16. [The effects of rumination on automatic thoughts and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Daiji; Matsunaga, Miki; Furutani, Kaichiro

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumination (reflective pondering and brooding) on automatic thoughts (both negative and positive) and depressive symptoms. University students (N=183; 96 men) completed the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R), and Response Style Scale (RSS). We conducted a path analysis which included gender as a factor. The results revealed that brooding was associated with negative automatic thoughts. Negative automatic thoughts contributed to the aggravation of depressive symptoms. In contrast, reflective pondering was associated with positive automatic thoughts. Positive automatic thoughts contributed to the reduction of depressive symptoms. These results indicate that rumination does not affect depressive symptoms directly. We suggest that rumination affects depressive symptoms indirectly through automatic thoughts, and that there are gender differences in the influence process.

  17. A Prospective Study of Fitness, Fatness, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becofsky, Katie M.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; Wilcox, Sara; Zhang, Jiajia; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Being overweight or obese might be a risk factor for developing depression. It is also possible that low cardiorespiratory fitness, rather than overweight or obesity, is the better predictor of depressive symptom onset. Adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) underwent fitness and fatness assessments between 1979 and 1998 and later completed a questionnaire about depressive symptoms in 1990, 1995, or 1999. Separate logistic regression models were used to test the associations between 3 fatness measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage of body fat) and the onset of depressive symptoms. Analyses were repeated using fitness as the predictor variable. Additional analyses were performed to study the joint association of fatness and fitness with the onset of depressive symptoms. After controlling for fitness, no measure of fatness was associated with the onset of depressive symptoms. In joint analyses, low fitness was more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than was fatness, regardless of the measure of fatness used. Overall, results from the present study suggest that low fitness is more strongly associated with the onset of elevated depressive symptoms than is fatness. To reduce the risk of developing depression, individuals should be encouraged to improve their fitness regardless of body fatness. PMID:25693775

  18. Predicting outcome of internet-based treatment for depressive symptoms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, E.H.; van Straten, A.; Twisk, J.; Cuijpers, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explored predictors and moderators of response to Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and Internet-based problem-solving therapy (PST) for depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 263 participants with moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Of those, 88 were

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  20. Depressive Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Disordered Eating among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…

  1. Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms following termination of pregnancy in South African women: A longitudinal study measuring the effects of ... The relationship between demographic characteristics, resilience and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression before, 1 month after and 3 ...

  2. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  3. Substance Use, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kenneth S.; Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Troiano, Peter F.; Obiaka, Uzoma; Bonhomme, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Research on college substance use and mental illness is limited and inconsistent. Measures of substance use, and anxiety and depressive symptoms, were completed by 1,316 undergraduates within a major drug transportation corridor. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to test associations between anxious and depressive symptoms and substance…

  4. The association of depression status with menopause symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The majority of Chinese rural midlife women do not experience depression. The relationship between depression, VMS and sleep disturbances tends to change with menopausal status in Chinese rural midlife women. Keywords: depression, poor sleep, vasomotor symptoms, menopause, rural women ...

  5. Prevalence of symptoms of depression among patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression is the most common psychiatric illness in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Depression has been shown to affect mortality in end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of depressive symptoms among CKD patients. Materials and Methods: A ...

  6. Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coronary artery disease and symptoms of depression in a Kenyan population. ... death. Little is known about the co-morbidity of heart disease and depression in Africa. Objective: To describe the prevalence of depression in Black Africans with and without. Coronary Artery Disease as documented on coronary angiography ...

  7. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler's Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother-father-infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents' depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child's life.

  8. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators Between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Tissot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life.

  9. Transformational leadership and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Fehmidah; Nielsen, Karina; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between transformational leadership and depressive symptoms in employees working within healthcare. 447 employees completed a baseline survey and 274 completed a follow-up survey 18 months later. 188 completed both baseline and follow-up survey. Transformational leadership was measured using the Global Transformational Leadership Scale and depression was measured using with the Major Depression Inventory. Transformational leadership was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at baseline (beta=-0.31, ptransformational leadership style may help toward protecting employees from developing major depression.

  10. The depressive personality disorder inventory and current depressive symptoms: implications for the assessment of depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Jude; Huprich, Steven K

    2011-10-01

    The Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996; see Appendix) was created to assess Depressive Personality Disorder in clinical and nonclinical samples. Since its creation, the DPDI has been used in multiple studies, and the psychometric properties of the measure have generally supported its reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity; however, evidence for the measure's discriminant validity has been mixed. Specifically, the DPDI tends to correlate highly with measures of current depressive symptoms, which limits its efficacy in differentiating current depressive symptoms from a depressive personality structure. A principal components analysis of 362 individuals who completed both the DPDI and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) found that 49% of the variance was accounted for in two components. Seven items from the DPDI loaded more strongly on the first component composed of many BDI-II items. These items were removed in order to create a measure believed to assess DPD without the confounding influence of current depressive symptomology. Principal components analysis of the revised measure yielded three components, accounting for 46% of the variance. The revised DPDI was used to calculate convergent, discriminant, and construct validity coefficients from measures used in former studies. Virtually no improvement in the validity coefficients was observed. It is concluded that assessing DPD via self-report is limited in its utility.

  11. A Twin Study on Perceived Stress, Depressive Symptoms, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R.; Dinescu, Diana; Emery, Robert E.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Marriage is associated with reductions in both perceived stress and depressive symptoms, two constructs found to be influenced by common genetic effects. A study of sibling twins was used to test whether marriage decreases the proportion of variance in depressive symptoms accounted for by genetic and environmental effects underlying perceived stress. The sample consisted of 1,612 male and female twin pairs from the University of Washington Twin Registry. The stress-buffering role of marriage was tested relative to two unmarried groups: the never married and the divorced. Multivariate twin models showed that marriage reduced genetic effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms, but did not reduce environmental effects. The findings suggest a potential marital trade-off for women: Access to a spouse may decrease genetic effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms, although marital and family demands may increase environmental effects of perceived stress on depressive symptoms. PMID:28661771

  12. Unique contributions of metacognition and cognition to depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Adviye Esin; Gençöz, Tülin; Wells, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the unique contributions of "cognitions" or "metacognitions" to depressive symptoms while controlling for their intercorrelations and comorbid anxiety. Two-hundred-and-fifty-one university students participated in the study. Two complementary hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed, in which symptoms of depression were regressed on the dysfunctional attitudes (DAS-24 subscales) and metacognition scales (Negative Beliefs about Rumination Scale [NBRS] and Positive Beliefs about Rumination Scale [PBRS]). Results showed that both NBRS and PBRS individually explained a significant amount of variance in depressive symptoms above and beyond dysfunctional schemata while controlling for anxiety. Although dysfunctional attitudes as a set significantly predicted depressive symptoms after anxiety and metacognitions were controlled for, they were weaker than metacognitive variables and none of the DAS-24 subscales contributed individually. Metacognitive beliefs about ruminations appeared to contribute more to depressive symptoms than dysfunctional beliefs in the "cognitive" domain.

  13. AN EVALUATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION SYMPTOMS IN FIBROMYALGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Emanuella Barros dos; Quintans Junior, Lucindo Jose; Fraga, Byanka Porto; Macieira, Jose Caetano; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms by verifying the association between anxiety traits, current depression and anxiety symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. Interviews were performed with 60 subjects diagnosed with fibromyalgia at the Rheumatology Outpatient Clinic at Universidade Federal de Sergipe between August 2007 and March 2008, in which two questionnaires were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the S...

  14. Negative Experiences on Facebook and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Clinical neuroprediction: Amygdala reactivity predicts depressive symptoms 2 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Whitney I; Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Monk, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    Depression is linked to increased amygdala activation to neutral and negatively valenced facial expressions. Amygdala activation may be predictive of changes in depressive symptoms over time. However, most studies in this area have focused on small, predominantly female and homogenous clinical samples. Studies are needed to examine how amygdala reactivity relates to the course of depressive symptoms dimensionally, prospectively and in populations diverse in gender, race and socioeconomic status. A total of 156 men from predominately low-income backgrounds completed an fMRI task where they viewed emotional facial expressions. Left and right amygdala reactivity to neutral, but not angry or fearful, facial expressions relative to a non-face baseline at age 20 predicted greater depressive symptoms 2 years later, controlling for age 20 depressive symptoms. Heightened bilateral amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions predicted increases in depressive symptoms 2 years later in a large community sample. Neutral facial expressions are affectively ambiguous and a tendency to interpret these stimuli negatively may reflect to cognitive biases that lead to increases in depressive symptoms over time. Individual differences in amygdala reactivity to neutral facial expressions appear to identify those at most risk for a more problematic course of depressive symptoms across time. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Zocca, Jaclyn M.; Field, Sara E.; Drinkard, Bart; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Adolescent depressive symptoms have been associated with reduced physical activity. However, existing studies have relied on questionnaire measures of physical activity, which may not necessarily reflect actual energy expenditures. We sought to evaluate the relationship between depressive symptoms and objectively-measured cardiorespiratoryfitness among severely obese adolescents. Methods One hundred thirty-four obese (body mass index [BMI; kg/m2] ≥ 95th percentile) adolescent girls and boys (ages 12–17 years) reported their depressive symptoms on the Children’s Depression Inventory. Adolescents also participated in a maximal cycle ergometry exercise test to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. Results Among the 103 adolescents who reached maximal exertion, those with elevated depressive symptoms (16%) displayed poorer cardiorespiratory fitness than those without elevated depressive symptoms (VO2max 1873.2 ± 63.6 vs. 2012.9 ± 28.6 mL/min, p Symptoms of anhedonia also were related to lower fitness (p obese adolescents, elevated depressive symptoms are associated with poorer objectively-measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Future experimental tests should investigate whether cardiorespiratory fitness acts as a mediator of adolescent depressive symptoms’ impact on obesity or obesity-related health co-morbidities. PMID:22188839

  17. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  18. Enhancing depression screening to identify college students at risk for persistent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2015-03-15

    Depressive symptoms in college students are prevalent and are associated with considerable academic impairment. Many universities have implemented depressive symptom screening programs and the number of students identified as in need of services following screening greatly exceeds available mental health resources. The present study sought to refine depressive symptom screening programs by identifying predictors of a persistent course of depressive symptoms and developing cut-scores for accurately identifying students who will experience a persistent symptom course. Students (n=262) who reported elevated depressive symptoms both an initial screening and baseline assessment (n=150) were invited to participate in telephone-based follow-up assessments 4, 8, and 12 months post-baseline. Two depressive symptom courses were identified: a persistently elevated depressive symptoms course and a decreasing depressive symptoms course. Baseline social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking both significantly predicted membership in the persistently elevated depressive symptoms course. Cut-scores that robustly discriminated between the two symptom courses were identified. The present sample was predominantly female and Hispanic; the four-month spacing of assessments may have resulted in a failure to identify individuals who experience brief, yet impairing, recurrent depressive episodes. These findings can inform approaches to identifying college students most in need of mental health services for depressive symptoms based on the presence of social disconnection and/or negative feedback-seeking. Screening cut-points on social disconnection and negative feedback-seeking measures can reduce the number of cases identified as needing mental health services while retaining the majority of cases who will experience a persistent depressive symptom course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic and inflammatory markers: associations with individual depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, F; Milaneschi, Y; de Jonge, P; Giltay, E J; Penninx, B W J H

    2017-09-11

    Literature has shown that obesity, metabolic syndrome and inflammation are associated with depression, however, evidence suggests that these associations are specific to atypical depression. Which of the atypical symptoms are driving associations with obesity-related outcomes and inflammation is unknown. We evaluated associations between individual symptoms of depression (both atypical and non-atypical) and body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome components and inflammatory markers. We included 808 persons with a current diagnosis of depression participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (67% female, mean age 41.6 years). Depressive symptoms were derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Univariable and multivariable regression analyses adjusting for sex, age, educational level, depression severity, current smoking, physical activity, anti-inflammatory medication use, and statin use were performed. Increased appetite was positively associated with BMI, number of metabolic syndrome components, waist circumference, C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α. Decreased appetite was negatively associated with BMI and waist circumference. Psychomotor retardation was positively associated with BMI, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and insomnia with number of metabolic syndrome components. Increased appetite - in the context of a depressive episode - was the only symptom that was associated with both metabolic as well as inflammatory markers, and could be a key feature of an immuno-metabolic form of depression. This immuno-metabolic depression should be considered in clinical trials evaluating effectiveness of compounds targeting metabolic and inflammatory pathways or lifestyle interventions.

  20. Associations Between Sleep Characteristics, Seasonal Depressive Symptoms, Lifestyle, and ADHD Symptoms in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlenga, D.; van der Heijden, K.B.; Breuk, M.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Lie, M.E.H.; Boonstra, A. M.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Kooij, J.J.S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations between ADHD symptoms, seasonal depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and health. Method: Adult ADHD patients (n = 202) and controls (n = 189) completed the ASESA questionnaire involving lifestyle, eating pattern, and physical and psychological health, and

  1. The effect of sleep pattern changes on postpartum depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Beth A.; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Schuver, Katie; Avery, Melissa; Marcus, Bess H.

    2018-01-01

    Background Research indicates that poor sleep is associated with postpartum depression; however, little is known regarding this relationship among postpartum women who are at high for postpartum depression. This study examined the relationship between changes in self-reported sleep patterns (from six weeks to seven months postpartum) and depressive symptoms at seven months postpartum among women who were at high risk for postpartum depression. Methods Participants (n = 122) were postpartum wo...

  2. Correlates of irritability in college students with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrelli, Paola; Nyer, Maren; Holt, Daphne; Bakow, Brianna R; Fava, Maurizio; Baer, Lee; Cassiello, Clair; Mulligan, Maura; Cusin, Cristina; Farabaugh, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Depression is a prevalent psychiatric disorder associated with significant personal and societal burden. There is accumulating evidence for the presence of a subtype of depression characterized by the presence of irritability that is associated with increased morbidity, risk for suicidal ideation, and functional impairments in adults. Little is known about the features of depressive symptoms with and without irritability among young adults in college. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the presentation of college students with depressive symptoms and irritability. Two-hundred eighty-seven undergraduate college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability were compared across several psychiatric and functional outcome variables. Independent samples t-tests or logistic regressions were conducted for each outcome variable using the irritability item of the Beck Depression Inventory as a dichotomous grouping variable. Analyses were conducted separately for the men and the women. Both male and female students with depressive symptoms and severe irritability reported a greater severity of depressive symptoms compared with their peers with no or mild irritability. In the women, the presence of irritability was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety, whereas in the men, it was associated with increased likelihood of engaging in risky behaviors, including compulsive use of alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. The male and female college students with depressive symptoms with and without irritability did not differ on severity of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, or cognitive functioning. The findings from this study suggest that depressive symptoms and irritability may characterize a subtype of college students who have a greater symptom burden and with the potential need for more aggressive and prompt treatment.

  3. Do depressive symptoms explain associations between binge eating symptoms and later psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Heron, Kristin E

    2016-12-01

    Prospective associations between binge eating symptoms (i.e., objective overeating [OOE] and loss of control [LOC] eating) and psychosocial functioning during emerging adulthood were examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We examined associations between OOE and LOC eating and psychosocial functioning variables with and without adjusting for concurrent depressive symptoms. Analyses revealed that OOE at Wave 3 (ages 18-28) was associated with depressive symptoms, social isolation, weight perception, and perceived attractiveness seven years later at Wave 4 (ages 25-35) and LOC eating at Wave 3 was associated with later depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, weight perception, social isolation, number of close friends, and sleep difficulty. Analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms at Wave 3 revealed that OOE at Wave 3 was associated with social isolation and perceived attractiveness at Wave 4 and LOC eating at Wave 3 was associated with later depressive symptoms, isolation, number of close friends, and sleep difficulty. Results show that binge eating symptoms are prospectively associated with psychosocial impairment during emerging adulthood even after controlling for depressive symptoms. Rather than simply screening for depressive symptoms, results highlight the utility of screening for binge eating symptoms as these symptoms are independently associated with psychosocial impairment in emerging adults. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Adjunctive pregabalin in partial responders with major depressive disorder and residual anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Mario; Tedeschini, Enrico; Mistretta, Martino; Fehling, Kiki; Aceti, Franca; Ceccanti, Mauro; Fava, Maurizio

    2013-02-01

    Anxiety symptoms in depression result often in treatment resistance, residual symptoms, and persistent functional impairment. To assess the effectiveness and safety of adjunctive pregabalin to antidepressants for residual anxiety in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify partial responders among patients with MDD with residual anxiety. Twenty such patients (age, 58.4 ± 11.2 years; 15 women; baseline Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], 17.1 ± 3.5) who received adjunctive pregabalin for residual anxiety were included. Antidepressants augmented were the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (n = 12), mirtazapine (n = 2), and selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (n = 6). Twenty patients received at least 4 weeks of pregabalin treatment after 8 weeks of antidepressant therapy. At week 1 (9 weeks after initiating treatment), pregabalin was prescribed at a mean ± SD dose of 71.2 ± 31.7 mg, and the mean maximum pregabalin dose prescribed was 156.2 ± 76.5 mg (range, 75-300 mg). At week 8, there were 13 responders (13/20 [65%]), and 7 of these 13 patients achieved remission (HDRS17 anxiety/somatization subscale scores (6.3 ± 2 to 3.6 ± 1.7, P anxiety in MDD.

  5. Optimal Levothyroxine Replacement Adequately Improves Symptoms of Hypothyroidism; Residual Symptoms Need Further Evaluation for Other than Hypothyroidism Causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rekha; Tandon, Ashwani; Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Saroja, K

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with hypothyroidism complain of persistent residual symptoms, despite optimal treatment, although the similar prevalence is seen in patients with documented absence of thyroid disorder in primary health-care setup. We aimed to investigate symptomatic relief in new cases of primary hypothyroidism and compare with controls with other chronic conditions. This prospective case-control follow-up study enrolled patients from July 2014 to May 2015 in an endocrine outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital. Controls were age- and gender-matched ambulatory individuals with well-controlled other chronic diseases and no major comorbidity. Thyroid symptom questionnaire (TSQ) was administered at pretreatment to all the cases and then they were started on levothyroxine (LT). At euthyroidism, TSQ was readministered. For controls, TSQ was administered only once. TSQ was measured on Likert scale 1-4 for lack of energy, dry skin, constipation, aches and pains, cold intolerance, poor memory, depression, weight gain, tiredness after walking, and difficulty in getting up (DGU). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 194 cases (147 females and 47 males) and 259 controls (187 females and 72 males) were analyzed. A significant difference in the symptoms prevalence was seen between controls and pretreatment cases, except for DGU, and between subclinical and overt hypothyroidism. Pretreatment serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in cases correlated significantly with all their pretreatment symptoms score. All symptoms prevalence decreased significantly posttreatment. At euthyroidism, the mean symptoms score in posttreatment cases was similar or lower than the controls. LT effectively improves the symptoms of hypothyroidism in newly diagnosed cases of primary hypothyroidism. The residual symptoms need an alternation explanation other than hypothyroidism.

  6. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Depressive Symptoms among Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Manuel R; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Virgini, Vanessa S

    2016-01-01

    adults aged 70-82 years with pre-existing cardiovascular disease or known cardiovascular risk factors, TSH and free T4 levels were measured at baseline and repeated after 6 months to define persistent thyroid function status. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, assessed with the Geriatric...... on the association of persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depression, subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased depressive symptoms among older adults at high cardiovascular risk. Persistent subclinical hyperthyroidism might be associated with increased depressive symptoms, which......BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with depressive symptoms in cross-sectional studies, but prospective data and data on subclinical hyperthyroidism are scarce. METHODS: In the Leiden sub-study of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among...

  7. Identification of depressive symptoms during postpartum in adolescent mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Agustinho Cardillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms in adolescent mothers and to characterize them regarding sociodemographic, behavioral and mental health aspects. An observational study, descriptive and cross-sectional, developed in health units with 72 adolescent mothers through the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D. Within the participants, 20.8% presented depressive symptoms by the EPDS. The most frequent questions referred to the feelings of guilt, anxiety, and ideas to self-harm. We highlighted the feelings of guilt (60% and feelings of not being worth living (40%. Most participants (73.3% did not recognize to be depressed. The results show the importance to have an individualized prenatal, when is possible to know vulnerabilities, psychosocial and family aspects, to include tracking of depressive symptoms in the anamnesis and, to use it the attention network, the reference and the counter-reference.

  8. Prenatal Maternal Depressive Symptoms Predict Early Infant Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, S S; Luecken, L J; Rystad, I A; Lin, B; Crnic, K A; Gonzales, N A

    2018-02-09

    Recent research suggests that health disparities among low-SES and ethnic minority populations may originate from prenatal and early life exposures. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms have been linked to poorer infant physical health, yet prenatal depressive symptoms not been thoroughly examined in relation to infant health. In a prospective study of low-income Mexican American mothers and their infants, women (N = 322, median age 27.23, IQR = 22.01-32.54) completed surveys during pregnancy (median gestation 39.50, IQR = 38.71-40.14 weeks) and 12 weeks after birth. We investigated (1) if prenatal depressive symptoms predicted infant physical health concerns at 12 weeks of age, (2) whether these associations occurred above and beyond concurrent depressive symptoms, and (3) if birth weight, gestational age, and breastfeeding were mediators of prenatal depression predicting subsequent infant health. Higher prenatal depressive symptoms were associated with more infant physical health concerns at 12 weeks (p prenatal depressive symptoms and an elevated risk of poor health evident shortly after birth. These findings underscore the importance of the prenatal period as a possible sensitive period for infants' health, and the need for effective interventions for depression during pregnancy to mitigate potentially teratogenic effects on the developing fetus and reduce risks for later health concerns.

  9. Depressive symptoms and gait dysfunction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Tamar C; Wang, Cuiling; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Holtzer, Roee; Verghese, Joe

    2012-05-01

    Assess the association between depressive symptoms (not meeting the criteria for major depression) and gait dysfunction in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Einstein Aging Study, a community-based longitudinal aging study. Six hundred ten nondemented and nondepressed community-residing adults age 70 and older. Depressive symptoms measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. To obtain a comprehensive assessment of gait, eight individual quantitative gait parameters were assessed: velocity (cm/s), stride length (cm), cadence (steps/min), swing phase (seconds), stance phase (seconds), double support phase (seconds), stride length variability (SD of stride length), and swing time variability (SD of swing time). Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to study the association of depressive symptoms with gait, adjusting for potential confounders including demographic variables, medical illnesses, and clinical gait abnormalities. Increased level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse velocity, stride, and swing time variability. The relationship of the remaining five gait variables with depressive symptoms was not significant in the fully adjusted models. Higher levels of depressive symptoms are associated with worse performance in specific quantitative gait variables in community-residing older adults.

  10. The relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağ, Begüm; Kutlu, Fatma Yasemin

    2017-06-12

    While poor sleep quality and sleep problems are signs of depression in adolescents, depressive symptoms among this age group further deteriorate sleep quality. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptoms in adolescents of 14 to 20 years of age. This study was conducted with a descriptive and cross-sectional research design. The sample group consisted of 313 adolescents in İstanbul, Turkey. The data were collected using a questionnaire form, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The mean BDI score of the adolescents was 12.99 ± 8.94 (range: 0-53) and 4.8% had severe depressive symptoms. The global PSQI score of the adolescents was 4.69 ± 2.87 (range: 0-16) and 63.6% had good sleep quality, whereas the remaining 36.4% had poor sleep quality. There was a moderate positive correlation between BDI and PSQI scores. The factors affecting the quality of sleep of adolescents were mild and moderate-severe depressive symptom level, smoking, and the presence of sleep problems in a family member. This study shows a relationship between sleep quality and depressive symptom levels of adolescents. The findings of the current research will contribute to the development of school wellbeing programs that will be prepared with the aim of improving sleep quality and reducing depressive symptoms.

  11. Depressive symptoms and cognitive decline in elderly people. Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterniti, Sabrina; Verdier-Taillefer, Marie-Hélène; Dufouil, Carole; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2002-11-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with cognitive decline in elderly people, but the nature of their temporal relationship remains equivocal. To test whether depressive symptoms predict cognitive decline in elderly people with normal cognition. The Center for Epidemiologic Study depression scale (CES-D) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were used to evaluate depressive symptomatology and cognitive functioning, respectively. A sample of 1003 persons aged 59-71 years and with a MMSE score of 26 or over was selected. Cognitive decline was defined as a drop of at least 3 points on the MMSE at 4-year follow-up. Baseline high levels of depressive symptoms predicted a higher risk of cognitive decline at 4-year follow-up. The MMSE score of participants with depression was more likely to fall below 26 at 2-year follow-up and to remain below at 4-year follow-up than the MMSE score of those without depressive symptoms. Persistent but not episodic depressive episodes were associated with cognitive decline. High levels of depressive symptoms, when persistent, are associated with cognitive decline in a sample of elderly people.

  12. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES. The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education, physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients’ ethnocultural backgrounds.

  13. Depression Symptom Patterns and Social Correlates among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin

    2018-01-16

    The aim of this study is to examine and compare the depression symptoms pattern and social correlates in three groups: foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. This study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). The study sample consists of 599 Chinese Americans (468 for the foreign-born and 121 for the US-born) and 4032 non-Hispanic whites. Factor analysis was used to examine the depression symptom patterns by each subgroup. Four depression symptoms dimensions were examined: negative affect, somatic symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and suicidality. Logistic regression was used to investigate the effects of sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, and education), physical health condition, and social relational factors (supports from and conflict with family and friends) on specific types of depression symptoms separately for the three subgroups. The findings showed little differences in depression symptom patterns but clear variation in the social correlates to the four depression dimensions across the three ethnocultural groups, foreign-born Chinese Americans, US-born Chinese Americans, and non-Hispanic whites. Clinicians should take into account the sociocultural factors of patients when making diagnosis and suggesting treatments. In addition, psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health service providers should offer treatment and coping suggestions based on the specific symptom dimensions of patients, and patients' ethnocultural backgrounds.

  14. Distribution of Total Depressive Symptoms Scores and Each Depressive Symptom Item in a Sample of Japanese Employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees.We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group.The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale.The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.

  15. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  16. Vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder: efficacy across symptoms and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif; Sambunaris, Angelo; Edwards, John; Ruth, Adam; Robinson, Donald S

    2014-03-01

    Vilazodone is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. To assess the efficacy of vilazodone across a range of symptoms and severities of depression, data from two phase III, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were pooled for analysis. Overall improvement in depressive symptoms measured using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was statistically significant (Pdepression subgroups, with no consistent pattern associated with depression severity. These findings support the efficacy of vilazodone across a broad range of depressive symptoms and severities for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

  17. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  18. Longitudinal change instead of baseline testosterone predicts depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kische, Hanna; Pieper, Lars; Venz, John; Klotsche, Jens; März, Winfried; Koch-Gromus, Uwe; Pittrow, David; Lehnert, Hendrik; Silber, Sigmund; Stalla, G K; Zeiher, Andreas M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Haring, Robin

    2018-03-01

    The association between total testosterone (T) and depression mostly relies on single sex hormone assessment and remains inconclusive. Thus, we investigated the comparative predictive performance of baseline T and change in T with development of depressive symptoms and incident depressive episodes. We used data from 6493 primary care patients (2653 men and 3840 women) of the DETECT study (Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment), including four-year follow-up, repeated immunoassay-based measurement of serum T and depressive symptoms assessed by the Depression Screening Questionnaire (DSQ). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline T and one-year change in T with prevalent and incident depression were investigated using age- and multivariable-adjusted regression models. Baseline T showed no association with prevalent or incident depressive symptoms and episodes in both sexes. In men, a positive change in T (higher T at one-year follow-up compared to baseline) was associated with a lower burden of depressive symptoms (β-coefficient per unit change in T: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.31 to -0.04) and lower risk of incident depressive symptoms (odds ratio per unit change in T: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.98) at four-year follow-up. In women, the association of T change with incident depressive episodes was rendered non-significant after multivariable adjustment. The present study observed a sex-specific inverse association of T change, but not baseline T, with increased depressive symptom burden in men. Future studies should assess longitudinal changes in sex hormone status as predictor of adverse health outcomes related to low T. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of depressive symptoms and sleep alterations in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Estrella, Jesús; Pérez-Benítez, Hugo; Solís-Rodríguez, Francisco; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that sleep alterations could favor subsequent depression development. In order to identify the simultaneous occurrence of these parameters in young people, in this work we evaluated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, sleep habits, and possible sleep disturbances in college students. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a Sleep Habits Questionnaire were applied to students registered at the Autonomous University of Yucatan, Merida (mean age 20.2 +/- 2.6 years). The final sample was composed of 340 (53%) women and 298 (47%) men. Reliability of the BDI and ESS was assessed by Cronbach's alpha method. Taking 10 as ESS cut-off point, it was found that 31.6% of the students had a high level of sleepiness. Students with depressive symptoms had a greater number of days with somnolence during class (p students without symptoms. In comparison to subjects without depressive symptoms, students with those symptoms rated their sleep quality as poor (p sleep after going to bed (p sleep alterations in a large proportion of the studied subjects, which were more severe in those who showed depressive symptoms. Educating students for appropriate sleep hygiene and encouraging them to seek professional advice to treat sleep disturbances may be useful to prevent depression.

  20. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Anxiety and depression symptoms in recurrent painful renal lithiasis colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H.M.P. Diniz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.

  2. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Gorter, Jan Willem; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-11-01

    We identified courses of depressive symptoms in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults. We used latent class growth modeling to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during a 14-year follow-up of 2825 Canadian youths aged 10 to 25 years enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth between 1994 and 2009. After adjustment for youth, parent, and family factors, the 3 distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms were minimal (55%; CES-D  18). All trajectories exhibited a parallel course, with peak symptoms at 15 to 17 years of age. Subclinical and clinical symptoms were more common than minimal symptoms in female youths and in respondents with lower self-concept, lower socioeconomic status, poorer interpersonal relations, and chronic health conditions (P < .01). Among emerging adults, trajectories of depressive symptoms do not trend upward or downward, and variables associated with identified trajectories demonstrated dose-response effects that agreed with vulnerability-stress theories of depression.

  3. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Canadian Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Boyle, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We identified courses of depressive symptoms in an epidemiological sample of emerging adults. Methods. We used latent class growth modeling to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms measured by the 12-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during a 14-year follow-up of 2825 Canadian youths aged 10 to 25 years enrolled in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth between 1994 and 2009. Results. After adjustment for youth, parent, and family factors, the 3 distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms were minimal (55%; CES-D  18). All trajectories exhibited a parallel course, with peak symptoms at 15 to 17 years of age. Subclinical and clinical symptoms were more common than minimal symptoms in female youths and in respondents with lower self-concept, lower socioeconomic status, poorer interpersonal relations, and chronic health conditions (P < .01). Conclusions. Among emerging adults, trajectories of depressive symptoms do not trend upward or downward, and variables associated with identified trajectories demonstrated dose–response effects that agreed with vulnerability–stress theories of depression. PMID:26378840

  4. Cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline: potential role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Deschênes, Sonya S; Burns, Rachel J; Danna, Sofia M; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Tiemeier, Henning

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have examined associations of cardiometabolic factors with depression and cognition separately. Aims To determine if depressive symptoms mediate the association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline in two community studies. Data for the analyses were drawn from the Rotterdam Study, the Netherlands (n = 2940) and the Whitehall II study, UK (n = 4469). Mediation analyses suggested a direct association between cardiometabolic factors and cognitive decline and an indirect association through depression: poorer cardiometabolic status at time 1 was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms at time 2 (standardised regression coefficient 0.07 and 0.06, respectively), which, in turn, was associated with greater cognitive decline between time 2 and time 3 (standardised regression coefficient of -0.15 and -0.41, respectively). Evidence from two independent cohort studies suggest an association between cardiometabolic dysregulation and cognitive decline and that depressive symptoms tend to precede this decline. Declaration of interest None.

  5. Development of health and depressive symptoms among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    with poorer SRH and more depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Self-rated health and depressive symptoms changed to the worse among Danish adolescents from age 15 to 18 years. Negative changes in several lifestyle factors were found to accompany the deterioration of health. This result stresses the intrinsic......While the existence of social inequality in health in childhood as well as among adults is well established, research of mechanisms underlying this inequality is still sparse. The study aim was to report on the development of self-rated health and depressive symptoms from age 15 to18 years......) deteriorated slightly in adolescents (-0.24; 95% CI = -0.28 to -0.19) across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups and depressive symptoms increased (0.64; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.75). High household income was protective for decrease in SRH (0.62; 0.43 - 0.91). Negative life-style changes were associated...

  6. Subclinical depressive symptoms during late midlife and structural brain alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Lauge; Rozing, Maarten

    2018-01-01

    at age 51, 56, and 59 years, magnetic resonance imaging was performed at age 59. All data processing was performed using the Freesurfer software package except for the texture-scores that were computed using in-house software. Structural brain alterations and associations between depressive symptoms......We explored whether depressive symptoms measured three times during midlife were associated with structural brain alterations quantified using magnetic resonance imaging measurements of volume, cortical thickness, and intensity texture. In 192 men born in 1953 with depressive symptoms measured...... and brain structure outcomes were tested using Pearson's correlation, t test, and linear regression. Depressive symptoms at age 51 showed clear inverse correlations with total gray matter, pallidum, and hippocampal volume with the strongest estimate for hippocampal volume (r = -.22, p 

  7. Immediate postpartum mood assessment and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle L; Kroska, Emily B; Grekin, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA) in the early postpartum period have been associated with postpartum depressive symptoms, but the exact relationship is not well understood. This study aimed to determine if NA and PA in the immediate postpartum period predicted postpartum depressive symptoms over and above well-established predictors (previous trauma, history of depression). Participants were prospectively recruited from a Mother-Baby Unit at a large Midwestern academic medical center in the United States from April 2011 to April 2014. Participants (N=526) completed the Daily Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), a self-report measure which assessed NA and PA, within three days post-delivery. Participants then reported their depressive symptoms at two weeks (n=364) and twelve weeks postpartum (n=271). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low PA and high NA after birth significantly predicted depressive symptoms early (at 2 weeks) and later (at 12 weeks) in the postpartum period, over and above previous traumatic experiences and history of depression. The sample was relatively homogenous, and data were from self-report instruments. The current study found NA and PA in the days immediately after birth predicted depressive symptoms at multiple time points in the postpartum period. Because the perinatal period places women at a higher risk for depressive symptomatology, prevention and early intervention are critical. Measuring affect in hospitals immediately after birth may provide a more normalized set of items that is predictive of later depression, which will allow physicians to identify those at highest risk for developing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academ...

  9. The associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lä hteenmä ki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  10. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; Strien, T. van; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Visser, M.; Lähteenmäki, L.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite - with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. Methods: Data were collected in Denmark

  11. Associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkens, L.H.H.; van Strien, T.; Brouwer, I.A.; Penninx, Brenda; Visser, Marjolein; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of mindful eating domains with depressive symptoms and depression in three European countries. Moderation by change in appetite-with increased appetite as marker for depression with atypical features - was also tested. METHODS: Data were collected in Denmark (n =

  12. The Effectiveness of Aromatherapy for Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Shirley Pui-Ching; He, Wanjia; Chow, Jason Ka-Wing; Tsang, Hector Wing-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the greatest health concerns affecting 350 million people globally. Aromatherapy is a popular CAM intervention chosen by people with depression. Due to the growing popularity of aromatherapy for alleviating depressive symptoms, in-depth evaluation of the evidence-based clinical efficacy of aromatherapy is urgently needed. Purpose. This systematic review aims to provide an analysis of the clinical evidence on the efficacy of aromatherapy for depressive symptoms on any type of patients. Methods. A systematic database search was carried out using predefined search terms in 5 databases: AMED, CINHAL, CCRCT, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO. Outcome measures included scales measuring depressive symptoms levels. Results. Twelve randomized controlled trials were included and two administration methods for the aromatherapy intervention including inhaled aromatherapy (5 studies) and massage aromatherapy (7 studies) were identified. Seven studies showed improvement in depressive symptoms. Limitations. The quality of half of the studies included is low, and the administration protocols among the studies varied considerably. Different assessment tools were also employed among the studies. Conclusions. Aromatherapy showed potential to be used as an effective therapeutic option for the relief of depressive symptoms in a wide variety of subjects. Particularly, aromatherapy massage showed to have more beneficial effects than inhalation aromatherapy. PMID:28133489

  13. Driving in mild cognitive impairment: The role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.

  14. Association between hearing loss and depressive symptoms in elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Andréa Krüger; Freitas, Cíntia de La Rocha; Soldera, Cristina Loureiro Chaves; Bós, Angelo José Gonçalves; Santos, Ana Maria Pujol Vieira dos; Dornelles, Sílvia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Hearing loss causes difficulties in speech understanding, which leads away from the family and social environment. This isolation may be associated with depressive disorders. Type of study: clinical prospective. Objective: To determine the association between hearing loss and depression in a group of non-institutionalized elderly. Method: The sample consisted of individuals aged over 60 years, undergoing complete audiological evaluation and screening for depressive symptoms with...

  15. Depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Andersen, Christina M; Denollet, Johan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and co-morbid depression are at greater risk of poor quality of life and premature death. We examined if treatment expectations predict depressive symptoms 12months post implant. METHODS: First-time implant patients from...

  16. Prevalence of Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents of South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, Rani; Subbaiah, Karunanidhi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to find the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents studying in schools in Chennai. Settings and Design: The study was a school based cross-sectional survey in which data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire from adolescents studying in classes X, XI and XII. Material: Beck Depression Inventory…

  17. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factor associations were tested using Pearson's χ2 tests and logistic regression. Results. There were 1 008 respondents (mean (standard deviation) age 68.9 (7.4) years), of whom 503 (49.1%) did not meet criteria for depressive symptoms. Of the 505 (50.1%) respondents who met the CES-D 10 criteria for depressive ...

  18. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Depression in adolescents is a matter of concern because of its high prevalence, potential recurrence and impairment of functioning in the affected individual. The study sought to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Nairobi (Kenya) public secondary schools; make a ...

  19. Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: Do Learning Difficulties Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Leskinen, Esko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Salmela-Aro, Katariina

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether learning difficulties play a role in depressive symptoms, 658 Finnish adolescents were asked to complete scales for depression three times during the transition to post-comprehensive education. They also reported on their learning difficulties and feelings of inadequacy as a student. The results showed that learning difficulties…

  20. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Anxiety and the Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luppino, Floriana S.; Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Wardenaar, Klaas J.; Bouvy, Paul F.; Giltay, Erik J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the association between depression and anxiety symptoms and the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn), using a dimensional approach. The association between depression and anxiety, on the one hand, and the MetSyn as a cluster or its individual components, on the other hand, is

  1. Factors associated with depressive symptoms among Filipino university students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B Lee

    Full Text Available Depression can be prevented if its symptoms are addressed early and effectively. Prevention against depression among university students is rare in the Philippines, but is urgent because of the rising rates of suicide among the group. Evidence is needed to systematically identify and assist students with higher levels of depressive symptoms. We carried out a survey to determine the social and demographic factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among 2,436 Filipino university students. The University Students Depression Inventory with measures on lethargy, cognition-emotion, and academic motivation, was used. Six of the 11 factors analyzed were found to be statistically significantly associated with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: frequency of smoking, frequency of drinking, not living with biological parents, dissatisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. Sex, age category, course category, year level and religion were not significantly related. In identifying students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to lifestyle, financial condition, parents and peers are crucial. There is a need to carry out more surveys to develop the pool of local knowledge on student depression.

  2. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  3. Depressive Symptoms Before, During, and After Delirium: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott; Rustad, James K; Catalano, Glenn; Stern, Theodore A; Kozel, F Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Delirium and depression are often thought of as mutually exclusive conditions. However, several studies cite depression as a risk factor for delirium whereas others note that patients with delirium often manifest depressive symptoms. Whether these depressive symptoms persist after delirium resolves remains unclear. This article reviews published studies that have investigated the relationship between depression and delirium. Literature searches on PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo were conducted using search criteria "delirium" AND "depress⁎" as keywords or MeSH terms. Of 722 search results, 10 prospective cohort studies were identified for inclusion. These studies were categorized regarding the time of assessment for depressive symptoms. Included studies varied greatly (regarding their index population, their methods of assessment, and their timing of assessments). Of the studies, 3 involved patients undergoing hip fracture repair. They demonstrated more severe depressive symptoms both during delirium and after delirium ended. Conversely, the other studies did not find any statistically significant correlations between the 2 conditions. The literature suggests a correlation between depression and delirium in patients with hip fracture. Whether other specific populations have higher comorbidity is unclear. Unfortunately, studies varied widely in their methods, precluding a meta-analysis. Nonetheless, our review provides a foundation for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescents’ Friendships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A.; Rose, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study considered the interplay among depressive symptoms, aversive interpersonal behavior, and interpersonal rejection in early and middle adolescents’ friendships. In particular, the study examined a newly identified interpersonal process, conversational self-focus (i.e., the tendency to redirect conversations about problems to focus on the self). Traditional interpersonal theories of depression suggest that individuals with depressive symptoms engage in aversive behaviors (such as conversational self-focus) and are rejected by others. However, in the current study, not all adolescents with depressive symptoms engaged in conversational self-focus and were rejected by friends. Instead, conversational self-focus moderated prospective relations of depressive symptoms and later friendship problems such that only adolescents with depressive symptoms who engaged in conversational self-focus were rejected by friends. These findings are consistent with current conceptualizations of the development of psychopathology that highlight heterogeneity among youth who share similar symptoms and the possibility of multifinality of outcomes. PMID:25640911

  5. Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence Predict Adulthood Obesity Among Black Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2017-08-24

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent changes in obesity in a sample of urban Black youth in the USA. The current study followed 681 Black youth (335 male and 346 female) for up to 18 years from 1994 to 2012. All youth were selected from an economically disadvantaged urban area in MI, USA. The main independent variable was baseline depressive symptoms measured in 1994. The main outcome was change in body mass index (BMI) from 1999 to 2012, calculated based on self-reported height and weight. Scio-demographics (age, number of parents in the household, and parental employment) were covariates. Gender was the focal moderator. We used linear regressions to test the predictive role of baseline depressive symptoms on change in BMI (from 1999 to 2012) in the pooled sample, and also based on gender. Among Black females, but not Black males, baseline depressive symptoms predicted the BMI change from 1999 to 2012. The association remained significant for Black females after controlling for covariates. High depressive symptoms at baseline better predict BMI change over the next decade for female than male Black youth. As a result, detection and reduction of depressive symptoms may be a vital element of obesity prevention programs for Black females. Policies and programs that address determinants of psychological distress as a strategy to prevent obesity among female Black youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods may be especially useful.

  6. Depressive symptoms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mónica Yicette Sánchez; Vargas, Paula Alejandra Osorio; Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Velandia, Rafael Alarcón

    The authors describe a family group studied by the Centro de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, and the Clínica de la Memoria, las Demencias y el Envejecimiento (Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia), and evaluate the association of depressive symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This family presented a hereditary pattern for AD characterized by an early onset of dementia symptoms, a long preclinical depressive course, and, once the first symptoms of dementia appeared, a rapid progression to severe cognitive function impairment. The authors found a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in this family and propose that the symptoms could be an important risk factor for developing AD in the presence of other risk factors such as the APOE E4 allele.

  7. Attributional style and depressive symptoms in a male prison sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Sullivan, Danny J.; O’Sullivan, Maura E.; O’Connell, Brendan D.; O’Reilly, Ken; Sarma, Kiran M.

    2018-01-01

    The reformulated learned helplessness model proposes that people who tend to make internal, stable, and global attributions in response to uncontrollable aversive events are more likely to develop depression. The present study sought to investigate the nature of the relationship between attributional style and depression in a male prison sample. One hundred and one adult male prisoners from four medium security prisons in Ireland completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire and measures of depression (BDI-II) and anxiety (BAI). Severity of self-reported depressive symptoms in the present sample was comparable to other prison and clinical samples, but higher than community samples. Participants were more severely affected by depressive symptoms than anxiety. The original attributional dimensions (i.e. internal, stable, and global) predicted a significant amount of variance in depression, but the model was not significant after controlling for anxiety. A subsequent regression model, comprising attributional dimensions for both negative events and positive events including a measure of ‘uncontrollability’, accounted for 35% of the variance in depression and the model retained significance while controlling for anxiety. An attributional model of depression may be relevant to the prison population and could provide a valid insight into the development and treatment of depressive symptoms in prisoners. The findings are interpreted in relation to previous research and implications for theory, clinical practice, and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:29444084

  8. Freqency of depressive symptoms among grammar school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Vesel

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 180 pupils (90 boys, 90 girls of Grammar school Kočevje a frequency of depressive symptoms among adolescents has been researched as well as the impact of gender, learning achievements and age on a depressive reaction phenomenon. A Depressive Moods Scale (Vesel, 1999 has been used, which is very reliable (0,93. A factor analysis has shown that it measures one common factor - depressive reactions, which illustrate 31 % variance. It has been established that one third of pupils are experiencing depressive symptoms frequently or very frequently. Disappointment with oneself because of one's own mistakes is the most frequent, then concentration difficulties and rambling of thoughts, which have been frequently or very frequently experienced by 40 % of pupils. Among five groups of depressive symptoms, cognitive and emotional ones are the most frequent. A high score on the Depressive Moods Scale has been achieved by 10 % of boys and 32 % of girls included in our sample, which shows that girls have more difficulties in experiencing depressive reactions, while learning achievements as well as age do not seem to have any impact on differences in experiencing depressive reactions.

  9. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  10. Genetic Predictors of Depressive Symptoms in the Look AHEAD Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Jeanne M; Papandonatos, George D; Faulconbridge, Lucy F; Erar, Bahar; Peter, Inga; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Anderson, Andrea; Wadden, Thomas A; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have found elevated depressive symptoms among individuals with Type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether genetic loci previously associated with depressive symptoms predict depressive symptoms among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes or change in depressive symptoms during behavioral weight loss. The Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip and Cardiometabochip were characterized in 2118 overweight or obese participants with Type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes), a randomized trial to determine the effects of intensive life-style intervention and diabetes support and education on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Primary analyses focused on baseline Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores and depressive symptom change at 1 year. Of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six loci, three a priori SNPs in two loci (chromosome 5: rs60271; LBR: rs2230419, rs1011319) were associated with baseline BDI scores, but in the opposite direction of prior research. In joint analysis of 90,003 IBC and Cardiometabochip SNPs, rs1543654 in the region of KCNE1 predicted change in BDI scores at Year 1 in diabetes support and education (β = -1.05, standard error [SE] = 0.21, p = 6.9 × 10(-7)) at the level of chip-wide significance, while also showing a nominal association with baseline BDI (β = 0.35, SE = 0.16, p = .026). Adjustment for antidepressant medication and/or limiting analyses to non-Hispanic white individuals did not meaningfully alter results. Previously reported genetic associations with depressive symptoms did not replicate in this cohort of overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. We identified KCNE1 as a potential novel locus associated with depressive symptoms.

  11. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipps, Garth; Lowe, Gillian A; Gibson, Roger C; Halliday, Sharon; Morris, Amrie; Clarke, Nelson; Wilson, Rosemarie N

    2012-09-21

    The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  12. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipps Garth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs. Nearly half (52.1% of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p  Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Vincent.

  13. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the islands of Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis and St

  14. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescence represents a challenging transitional period where changes in biological, emotional, cognitive and social domains can increase the risk of developing internalised problems including subthreshold depression. Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family functioning may ...

  15. The effect of sleep pattern changes on postpartum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Beth A; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Schuver, Katie; Avery, Melissa; Marcus, Bess H

    2018-01-09

    Research indicates that poor sleep is associated with postpartum depression; however, little is known regarding this relationship among postpartum women who are at high for postpartum depression. This study examined the relationship between changes in self-reported sleep patterns (from six weeks to seven months postpartum) and depressive symptoms at seven months postpartum among women who were at high risk for postpartum depression. Participants (n = 122) were postpartum women who were at an increased risk for postpartum depression (personal or maternal history of depression) and had participated in a randomized exercise intervention trial. For the current trial, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9; assessed depression) at six weeks and seven months postpartum. Overall, sleep problems significantly improved from six weeks to seven months postpartum. However, linear regression analyses indicated that worsening or minimal improvement of sleep problems were associated with higher depressive symptoms at seven month postpartum. Regarding the specific types of sleep problems, self-reported changes in sleep latency (i.e., how long it takes to fall asleep at night), daytime dysfunction (i.e., difficulty staying awake during the day), and sleep quality (i.e., subjective rating of sleep quality) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Sleep problems typically improve during the postpartum phase. However, postpartum women who are at high risk for postpartum depression are at an increased risk for depressive symptoms later in the postpartum phase if sleep problems worsen or show only minimal improvement over time. Therefore, at the six-week postpartum clinic visit, women should receive education regarding potential worsening of sleep patterns and strategies for preventing sleep-related problems. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00961402 ) on August 18, 2009 prior to the start of the

  16. Pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)

  17. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  19. BMI and depressive symptoms: the role of media pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Snipes, Daniel J; Benotsch, Eric G

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals experience higher risk for depression and emotional distress. One factor that may contribute to depression in obese or overweight individuals is exposure to unrealistic images in the media. Indeed, overall media consumption is associated with body image dissatisfaction in adolescents and young adults. Despite these compelling links, prior work has not examined the mediating effect of media pressures on the link between BMI and depression. In the present study, young adults (N = 743) completed an online survey assessing demographic information, perceived pressure from the media to conform to a certain body standard, and symptoms of depression. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated a direct effect of BMI on media pressure, a direct effect of media pressure on depressive symptoms, and an indirect effect of BMI on depressive symptoms mediated by media pressures. Findings indicate that higher BMI levels are associated with greater depressive symptoms when there is greater perceived media pressure on body image. Results suggest the need for clinicians to assess media consumption and perceived pressure to conform to physical appearance standards in individuals who are obese or overweight as well as individuals at risk for eating disorders. © 2013.

  20. Informational coping style and depressive symptoms in family decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Ronald L; Daly, Barbara J; Douglas, Sara L; Clochesy, John M

    2010-09-01

    Overwhelmed family decision makers of chronically critically ill patients must comprehend vital information to make complex treatment decisions that are consistent with patients' preferences. Exploration of informational coping styles of family decision makers may yield evidence for tailored communication practices supporting the psychological and informational needs of family decision makers. To describe patterns in the demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers; to assess differences in informational satisfaction, role stress, and depressive symptoms between family decision makers classified as monitors and as blunters; and to describe the predictive associations between informational coping styles, informational satisfaction, and role stress on depressive symptoms in family decision makers. A secondary data analysis of 210 family decision makers of cognitively impaired patients who required 3 days or more of mechanical ventilation. On enrollment, decision makers completed the abbreviated Miller Behavioral Style Scale to assess informational coping styles, the Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey's informational subscale to assess informational satisfaction, a single-item measure of role stress, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale to assess depressive symptoms. No associations emerged between demographic characteristics and informational coping styles of family decision makers. Monitors had higher depression scores than did blunters. Both information coping style and informational satisfaction influenced depressive symptoms; however, role stress was the most significant predictor. Family decision makers classified as monitors were at higher risk for depression than were those who seem to avoid information. Targeting monitors with additional psychological and informational support may mitigate their psychological impairment.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marita McCabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to determine the percentage of children “at-risk” of depression or evidencing clinical levels of depression. In addition, the study examined how the “at-risk” and the clinical groups differed from children who demonstrated no depressive symptoms on positive and negative affect, four aspects of self-concept, and peer ratings of popularity. Respondents were 510 children (270 boys 240 girls who ranged in age from 7 to 13 years (mean = 9.39. The results demonstrated that 23% of children were either in the “at-risk” or clinical range of depression. Children in both the clinical and the “at-risk” range demonstrated higher negative affect but lower positive affect and lower self-concepts than children in the normal range. However, children's peers only differentiated between the “clinical” and “normal” groups. It is harder for peers, and other informants such as teachers and parents, to detect the problems of children with elevated depressive symptoms but who do not meet the diagnostic criteria. It is important to implement intervention programs for children who evidence depression symptoms, as well as “at-risk” children. “At-risk” children with elevated levels of depressive symptoms may be more disadvantaged, as their problems are less likely to be detected and treated.

  2. Job stress and depressive symptoms among Japanese fire fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Yasuaki; Ueno, Takeji; Hashimoto, Yoshihiro

    2007-06-01

    Associations between job stresses, as assessed by theoretical job stress model and depressive symptoms among fire fighters have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to clarify the factors of job stress that influence the depressive symptoms in Japanese fire fighters. The subjects involved 1,672 fire fighters from a local government. The questionnaire comprised age, gender, job type, job class, martial status, smoking, and drinking habit, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) generic job questionnaire. A group showing depressive symptoms (CES-D > or = 16) included 373 subjects (22.3%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, high variance in workload, high intergroup conflict, high role conflict, and low self-esteem had significantly higher odds ratio for depressive symptoms. High variance in workload, high intergroup conflict, high role conflict, and low self-esteem were significantly related to depressive symptoms among Japanese fire fighters. Further prospective studies are needed to clarify the influence of these stress factors on other health outcomes, and to elucidate whether alleviation of these stress factors improve the mental health among fire fighters.

  3. Longitudinal analyses of adoptive parents' expectations and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foli, Karen J; Lim, Eunjung; South, Susan C

    2017-12-01

    Grounded in a theoretical model specific to adoptive parents, we examined the relationship between parental expectations and depressive symptoms across time. Assessments of 129 adoptive parents of 64 children were performed at three time points before and after placement of an adopted child with the family: 4-6 weeks pre-placement and 4-6 weeks and 5-6 months post-placement. Expectations were assessed in four dimensions: expectations of self as parents, of the child, of family and friends, and of society. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Associations between parental expectations and depressive symptoms were analyzed, and longitudinal multilevel modeling was conducted to explore influences on expectations over time. Parental expectations changed from pre- to post-placement. With the exception of expectations of self as parent, adoptive parents' pre-adoption expectations were affirmed in the post-adoption time periods. In each expectation dimension, higher affirmation of expectations was correlated with decreased depressive symptoms before and after placement of a child. While parental expectations are not unique to adoptive parents, the essence and characteristics of certain expectations are unique to these parents. When working with adoptive parents, nurses who care for families should assess expectations both pre- and post-placement with awareness of their relationship to depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorela Flores-Cornejo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9. Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Conclusions: Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  5. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A; Alvarado, German F

    2017-01-01

    To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family history of depression were also obtained. To identify associated factors, Poisson regression with robust variance was used. Prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Of the 875 adolescents, 55.8% were male. The mean age was 14.1±1.5 years. Depressive symptoms were observed in 19.9% of participants. An association between BID and depressive symptoms was found. Alcohol and tobacco use were also associated with the outcome of interest. Teens who had BID were 3.7 times more likely to report depressive symptoms. Additionally, those who used tobacco or alcohol were 1.5 and 1.4 times more likely to have depressive symptoms, respectively. Further studies targeting other populations and using longitudinal designs are recommended.

  6. Sexual orientation identity change and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany

    2015-03-01

    Several new studies have documented high rates of sexual identity mobility among young adults, but little work has investigated the links between identity change and mental health. This study uses the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 11,727) and employs multivariate regression and propensity score matching to investigate the impact of identity change on depressive symptoms. The results reveal that only changes in sexual identity toward more same-sex-oriented identities are associated with increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, the negative impacts of identity change are concentrated among individuals who at baseline identified as heterosexual or had not reported same-sex romantic attraction or relationships. No differences in depressive symptoms by sexual orientation identity were found among respondents who reported stable identities. Future research should continue to investigate the factors that contribute to the relationship between identity change and depression, such as stigma surrounding sexual fluidity. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  7. Apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms: Points of convergence and divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Rebecca E; Mather, Molly A; Santorelli, Gennarina D; Santospago, Breanna P

    2016-10-30

    This study determined convergence and divergence in the constructs of alexithymia, apathy, and depressive symptoms. Understanding of similarities and differences between these constructs will improve diagnostic accuracy for clinical and research purposes. Community-dwelling participants (N=622, M age=35.6 years, SD=13.1) completed online measures of alexithymia, depression, and apathy; 12.2% were alexithymic, 37.8% reported significant depressive symptoms, and 24.9% reported significant apathy. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFAs) determined the best factor structure for the apathy, alexithymia, and depressive symptoms was comprised of three factors and accounted for 45.1% of item variance. The Depression, Apathy, and Alexithymia factors were defined most strongly by item content that is at the core of each construct. Depression was defined most highly by items assessing sadness, low self-esteem, and loneliness. The strongest item loadings for Alexithymia were difficulty identifying and describing feelings. Apathy was characterized by poor motivation, low interest, and lack of initiative. However, each of these core and defining features had significant cross-loadings on one of the other two factors. Negative affect shared variance with Apathy, low motivation shared variance with Depression, and difficulty describing and identify feelings shared variance with Depression and Apathy. Clinical and research implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Depressive symptoms among Jordanian youth: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Hmoud, Olimat; Alkhasawneh, Esra; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2013-02-01

    This study examines level of depression and factors associated with depression among female and male youth in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among a national sample of 14-25 year old youth attending educational institutions in Jordan (N = 8,129). On average, respondents reported frequently experiencing feelings of sadness (66 %), loss of joy (49 %) and loss of hope in living (43 %). Regression models demonstrated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among females and among youth exposed to violence. Better parent-child relationships were associated with lower depression score. Among males depressive symptoms were associated with poor economic status, low assertiveness and a higher likelihood of alcohol use and smoking. There is a need for mental health prevention programs for youth in Jordan that enhance youth's social and emotional skills, strengthen parent-child relationships, and reduce violence in school, home and in the community.

  9. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Depressive Symptoms among Dementia Caregivers: The Role of Mediating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Jane L; Mezzacappa, Catherine; Heeren, Timothy; Yaffe, Kristine; Fredman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare depressive symptoms between caregivers to persons with dementia and other illnesses, and determine whether caregiver role captivity and care recipient disruptive behaviors mediate this association. Design Prospective cohort study of older women in four U.S. communities followed from 1999 to 2009. Setting Home-based interviews. Participants 345 caregiving participants from the Caregiver-Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Measurements Caregiver status based on self-report of performing one or more instrumental or basic activities of daily living for care recipient. Depressive symptoms measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Scores of 16 or greater represented high depressive symptoms. Caregiver role captivity and care recipient problematic behaviors measured using validated instruments. Results Approximately one-third of the caregivers cared for a person with dementia. High depressive symptoms were more common among dementia caregivers (22.8% vs. 11.2%, p caregiver role captivity and care recipient problematic behaviors. In adjusted results, high depressive symptoms was associated with middle and highest tertiles of role captivity (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 5.01, 95% CI 2.31-11.05 and 9.41, 95% CI 3.95-22.40 for the middle and highest tertiles, respectively) and care recipient problematic behaviors (AOR 2.52 95% CI 1.02-6.19 and 5.26, 95% CI 2.00-13.8 for each tertile, respectively). Conclusions Older caregivers to persons with dementia are at increased risk of high depressive symptoms. Targeting problematic behaviors among dementia patients and addressing aspects of dementia care that result in role captivity may ameliorate caregiver depression. PMID:23567432

  11. Acculturation and Depressive Symptoms among Turkish Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the impact of acculturation on depressive symptoms among Turkish immigrants in Germany, taking into account different dimensions of cultural orientation. A total of 471 patients from two selected samples (254 primary care patients and 217 outpatients of a psychosomatic department participated. Levels of acculturation were measured as orientation towards culture of origin (CO, and orientation towards the host culture (HC. Acculturation strategies (integration, assimilation, separation, and marginalization were also assessed as well as their association with depressive symptoms (BDI. Furthermore, gender- and migration-related differences in terms of acculturation and levels of depressive symptomatology were analyzed. Integration was the acculturation strategy associated with the lowest level of depressive symptoms (M = 14.6, SD = 11.9, while marginalization was associated with the highest (M = 23.5, SD = 14.7. Gender was not found to have a significant impact on acculturation but influenced depressive symptoms, with women (M = 21.8, SD = 13.3 reporting higher levels of depressive symptomatology than men (M = 15.1, SD = 14.0; p < 0.001. In first generation immigrants, significantly higher CO (M = 46.6, SD = 8.3; p < 0.001, lower HC (M = 31.0, SD = 9.6; p < 0.001, and higher levels of depressive symptoms (M = 20.2, SD = 14.1; p < 0.001 were found in comparison to second generation immigrants (CO: M = 41.3, SD = 7.4; HC: M = 36.2, SD = 8.8; depressive symptoms: M = 14.0, SD = 12.9. Our results suggest that orientation towards both the heritage and the host culture has a positive effect on the mental health status of immigrants. Future research needs to include representative samples of migrants from different cultures to further explore the association between acculturation and mental health.

  12. Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Douglas A; Ramos, Marco A; Bansal, Narinder; Khan, Rida; Guille, Constance; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Sen, Srijan

    2015-12-08

    Physicians in training are at high risk for depression. However, the estimated prevalence of this disorder varies substantially between studies. To provide a summary estimate of depression or depressive symptom prevalence among resident physicians. Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO for studies with information on the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians published between January 1963 and September 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were published in the peer-reviewed literature and used a validated method to assess for depression or depressive symptoms. Information on study characteristics and depression or depressive symptom prevalence was extracted independently by 2 trained investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using meta-regression. Point or period prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms as assessed by structured interview or validated questionnaire. Data were extracted from 31 cross-sectional studies (9447 individuals) and 23 longitudinal studies (8113 individuals). Three studies used clinical interviews and 51 used self-report instruments. The overall pooled prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms was 28.8% (4969/17,560 individuals, 95% CI, 25.3%-32.5%), with high between-study heterogeneity (Q = 1247, τ2 = 0.39, I2 = 95.8%, P depressive symptoms with the onset of residency training was 15.8% (range, 0.3%-26.3%; relative risk, 4.5). No statistically significant differences were observed between cross-sectional vs longitudinal studies, studies of only interns vs only upper-level residents, or studies of nonsurgical vs both nonsurgical and surgical residents. In this systematic review, the summary estimate of the prevalence of depression or depressive symptoms among resident physicians was 28.8%, ranging from 20.9% to 43.2% depending on the instrument used, and

  13. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    The degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. Data came from the National Survey of American Life, 2001-2003. We included 3570 Black (African-Americans) and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Outcomes were lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD), lifetime major depressive episode (MDE), 12-month MDE, 30-day MDE, and 30-day major depressive disorder with hierarchy (MDDH) based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample as well as Blacks and Whites. Regarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12-month MDE, and 30-day MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal problems domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. The CES-D total score and CES-D positive affect domain did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI-based depressive diagnoses. Stronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical depression may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the CIDI criteria for the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as

  14. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and dopamine and serotonin gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Vjekoslav; Štefanović, Mario; Karlović, Dalibor

    2017-07-03

    Although depressive symptoms seem to be frequent in schizophrenia they have received significantly less attention than other symptom domains. As impaired serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and schizophrenia this study sought to investigate the putative association between several functional gene polymorphisms (SERT 5-HTTLPR, MAO-A VNTR, COMT Val158Met and DAT VNTR) and schizophrenia. Other objectives of this study were to closely examine schizophrenia symptom domains by performing factor analysis of the two most used instruments in this setting (Positive and negative syndrome scale - PANSS and Calgary depression rating scale - CDSS) and to examine the influence of investigated gene polymorphisms on the schizophrenia symptom domains, focusing on depressive scores. A total of 591 participants were included in the study (300 schizophrenic patients and 291 healthy volunteers). 192 (64%) of schizophrenic patients had significant depressive symptoms. Genotype distribution revealed no significant differences regarding all investigated polymorphisms except the separate gender analysis for MAO-A gene polymorphism which revealed significantly more allele 3 carriers in schizophrenic males. Factor analysis of the PANSS scale revealed the existence of five separate factors (symptom domains), while the CDSS scale revealed two distinct factors. Several investigated gene polymorphisms (mostly SERT and MAO-A, but also COMT) significantly influenced two factors from the PANSS (aggressive/impulsive and negative symptoms) and one from the CDSS scale (suicidality), respectively. Depressive symptoms in schizophrenic patients may be influenced by functional gene polymorphisms, especially those implicated in serotonergic neurotransmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The therapeutic or prophylactic effect of exogenous melatonin against depression and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Danielsen, A K; Hageman, I

    2014-01-01

    Circadian- and sleep disturbances may be central for understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. The effect of melatonin on depression/depressive symptoms has been investigated previously. This systematic review assesses the current evidence of a therapeutic- and prophylactic...... effect of melatonin in adult patients against depression or depressive symptoms. A search was performed in The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO for published trials on November 14th 2013. Inclusion criteria were English language, RCTs or crossover trials. Our outcome was measurement...... meta-analyses. Melatonin doses varied from 0.5-6 mg daily and the length of follow-up varied from 2 weeks to 3.5 years. Three studies were done on patients without depression at inclusion, two studies in patients with depression and five studies included a mixture. Six studies showed an improvement...

  17. Relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating; A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, S.T.P.; Stice, E.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Strien, T. van; Croon, M.A.; Heck, G.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Temporal relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating are tested through three competing models that demonstrate the relationship between future binge eating, dietary restraint and depressive symptoms. The pattern of relations and effect sizes suggest that depressive

  18. Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Leever, Brooke A.; Noggle, Chad A.; Lapsley, Daniel K.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale" (AMPS; K.G. Rice & K.J. Preusser, 2002) was developed on samples of 9- to 11-year-old children. A primary purpose of the current research was to examine whether the AMPS could be useful in studies of adolescents, and in particular, studies of adolescent depression. This study of 145 early adolescents…

  19. Prevalence of Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and Associated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is one of the common problems during pregnancy with a magnitude of 20% to 30% globally. It can negatively endanger women's and off springs lives. As there are scarce reports on this area in Northern Ethiopia, it is important to carry out different studies ...

  20. Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antenatal depression is one of the common problems during pregnancy with a magnitude of 20% to 30% globally. It can negatively endanger women's and off springs lives. As there are scarce reports on this area in Northern Ethiopia, it is important to carry out different studies that explore the magnitude of the ...

  1. Poor Dissociation of Patient-Evaluated Apathy and Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Progress Njomboro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apathy has traditionally been conceptualised as part of depression. The appropriateness of this conceptualisation has now been questioned, with the realization that apathy constitutes a distinct neuropsychiatric condition, with separate rehabilitation and patient-care implications to depression. Research on the relationship between apathy and depression has, however, produced mixed results. One reason for this inconsistency may lie behind who does the apathy evaluation. In this study we investigated whether the relationship between apathy and depression would differ when apathy was evaluated by the patients or an informant. A total of 49 brain damaged patients were assessed on self- and informant-rated Apathy Evaluation Scales. The relationship between the apathy scores and depressive symptoms was then investigated. Patient-rated, and not informant-rated apathy significantly correlated with depression. We discuss the implication of these results on the relationship between the two neuropsychiatric conditions and also in relation to the utility of patient self-evaluations in apathy.

  2. Generalized atherosclerosis, cognitive decline, and depressive symptoms in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkers, D J; Stek, M L; van der Mast, R C; de Craen, A J M; Le Cessie, S; Jolles, J; Westendorp, R G J; Gussekloo, J

    2005-07-12

    Atherosclerosis may be linked to cognitive decline and depression in old age. The Leiden 85-Plus Study is a prospective population-based study of 599 subjects from age 85 onward. The generalized atherosclerotic burden was rated by the number of cardiovascular pathologies at baseline, as assessed by history taking from treating physicians and EKG. Cardiovascular pathologies included myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or myocardial ischemia, claudicatio intermittens, and arterial surgery. Global cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), attention (Stroop Test), processing speed (Letter Digit Coding Test), immediate recall memory (Word Learning Test-Immediate Recall), delayed recall memory (Word Learning Test-Delayed Recall), and depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale) were assessed each year from ages 85 through 90. The prospective associations between both the generalized atherosclerosis rating and stroke with cognitive function and depressive symptoms were analyzed by linear mixed models adjusted for sex and level of education. During follow-up, there was a significant cognitive decline and a significant increase of depressive symptoms. At baseline, a history of stroke was correlated with lower global cognitive function, slower processing speed, impaired immediate and delayed recall memory, and more depressive symptoms. In addition, a higher generalized atherosclerosis rating was correlated with impaired global cognitive function, lower attention, and a slower processing speed at baseline. During follow-up, a higher generalized atherosclerosis rating was associated with an accelerated decline of immediate recall memory and delayed recall memory. In contrast, there was no relation between the generalized atherosclerosis rating and depressive symptoms, either in the cross-sectional analysis or in the prospective analysis. In the population at large, generalized atherosclerosis contributes to cognitive decline in old age but not to

  3. Social protection spending and inequalities in depressive symptoms across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K; Pearce, Jamie R

    2016-07-01

    Common mental disorders are an increasing global public health concern. The least advantaged in society experience a greater burden of mental illness, but inequalities in mental health vary by social, political, and economic contexts. This study investigates whether spending on different types of social protection alters the extent of social inequality in depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2012 cross-sectional waves of the European Social Survey, which included 48,397 individuals from 18 European countries. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 8). Statistical interactions between country-level social protection spending and individuals' education level, employment and family status were explored using multilevel regression models. Higher spending on active labour market programmes was related to narrower inequality in depressive symptoms by education level. Compared to men with high education, the marginal effect of having low education was 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.46-1.87) among men in countries with lower spending and 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.66-1.03) in higher spending countries. Single parents exhibited fewer depressive symptoms, as spending on family policies increased. Little evidence was found for an overall association between spending on unemployment benefits and employment-related inequalities in depressive symptoms, but in 2012, unemployment spending appeared beneficial to mental health among the unemployed. Greater investment in social protection may act to reduce inequalities in depressive symptoms. Reductions in spending levels or increased conditionality may adversely affect the mental health of disadvantaged social groups.

  4. Impact of depressive symptoms on outcome of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita de Paula Eduardo Garavello

    Full Text Available Abstract There is no consensus in the medical literature about the impact of depressive symptoms on the evolution of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Objective: To compare the evolution of AD patients, with and without depressive symptoms, in terms of cognition, functionality and caregiver stress. Methods: The study entailed 2 stages: an initial retrospective stage involving review of medical charts of patients with mild and moderate AD. Patients were divided according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms, defined by medical interview and questions on depressed mood from the CAMDEX (Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI. Twenty-nine patients were evaluated, 37.9% with depression (Group D+ and 62.1% without depression (Group D-. The groups were compared regarding demographic and medical characteristics, cognitive and functional performance, presence of apathy as a separate symptom, and caregiver stress, using standardized tests and questionnaires. In the second transversal step, the same tools were reapplied after 2 to 4 years of follow-up, and evolution for the two groups was compared. Results: The two groups were highly homogeneous in demographic and clinic characteristics, as well as in length of follow-up, and presented no significant difference in cognitive or functional evaluation at the time of diagnoses or after follow-up. Only caregiver stress was greater in Group D+ at the two time points (p<0.001. Conclusions: No differences in the evolution of AD patients with or without depressive symptoms were evident. Nevertheless, these symptoms were associated to emotional burden of caregivers.

  5. Depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Mendonça da Cunha

    Full Text Available Objective.To assess the presence of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease in the preoperative period for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. A cross-sectional study with 63 hospitalized patients prior to CABG. Two instruments were used for data collection; one for the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and the other to evaluate the presence of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results. The mean age was 58 years; most were male (60.3%; with a partner (81% low educational level (71.4% attended school through elementary school. Among the patients, 36.5% were classified with dysphoria, and 25.4% had some degree of depression (6.3% mild, 17.5% moderate, and 1.6% severe. The group of patients with lower educational level presented higher depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Six of every ten patients with coronary artery disease showed dysphoria or some degree of depression. The results of this study can support the planning of nursing care for patients before and after CABG, as well as the development of public health policies to ensure complete, quality care for these patients, understanding depression as a variable that can interfere with recovery after cardiac surgery.

  6. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms among Chinese older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianrong; Wang, Dahua; Li, Chunhua; Miller, Richard B

    2014-01-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental disorders among older people. Consistent with the Marital Discord Model of Depression (MDMD), research in Western cultures has found that marital distress is one of the risk factors for depression among older adults. However, the effect of marital distress on depression among older adults has not been examined in a collectivistic society, such as China. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in a sample of Chinese older adults. Considering the dyadic nature of the data, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to test for the actor and partner effects. The study investigated 139 older couples who were recruited from communities in Beijing, the capital of China. The Lock-Wallace Marital Adjustment and the CES-D scales were administered to the participants. The results indicated that neither of the actor effects was significant. One of the partner effects was significant, with the husbands' marital satisfaction predicting their wives' depressive symptoms. The MDMD was only partially supported among older couples in China. An asymmetrical pattern of cross-spouse effects was found, suggesting that the husbands' perception of marital dissatisfaction could significantly predict their wives' depressive symptoms.

  7. Reasons for tubal sterilisation, regret and depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreffler, Karina M.; Greil, Arthur L.; McQuillan, Julia; Gallus, Kami L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between sterilisation reasons, regret, and depressive symptoms. Study Design Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White US women ages 25–45 who participated in the National Survey of Fertility Barriers (NSFB) and reported a tubal sterilisation surgery were included in the sample for this study (n=837). Logistic regression was used to examine how characteristics of the sterilisation surgery (reasons for sterilisation, time since sterilisation, and new relationship since sterilisation) are associated with the odds of sterilisation regret, and linear regression was used to examine associations between sterilisation regret, sociodemographic factors, and depressive symptoms. Results Findings revealed that 28 percent of U.S. women who have undergone tubal sterilisation report regret. Time since sterilisation and having a reason for sterilisation other than simply not wanting (more) children (e.g., situational factors, health problems, encouragement by others, and other reasons) are associated with significantly higher odds of sterilisation regret. Finally, sterilisation regret is significantly associated with depressive symptoms after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusion Sterilisation regret is relatively common among women who have undergone tubal sterilisation, and regret is linked to elevated, but not necessarily clinical depressive symptoms. The reasons for sterilisation can have important implications for women’s sterilisation regret and associated depressive symptoms. PMID:28133405

  8. Symptoms of depression as possible markers of bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-05-01

    Underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of bipolar-II disorder (BP-II) as a major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequently reported. The study aim was to find which symptoms of depression could be possible cross-sectional markers of BP-II, in order to reduce underdiagnosing BP-II. Consecutive 379 BP-II and 271 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide, and the Family History Screen, by a senior psychiatrist in a private practice. Inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem always absent by definition) were systematically assessed. Mixed depression was defined as an MDE plus 3 or more inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms, a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. The MDE symptoms significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD were weight gain, increased eating, hypersomnia, psychomotor agitation, worthlessness, and diminished ability to concentrate. The inside-MDE hypomanic symptoms significantly more common in BP-II were distractibility, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, psychomotor agitation, more talkativeness, increased risky and goal-directed activities. Multiple logistic regression showed that hypersomnia, racing/crowded thoughts, irritability, and psychomotor agitation were independent predictors of BP-II. Irritability had the most balanced combination of sensitivity and specificity predicting BP-II. Psychomotor agitation had the highest specificity but the lowest sensitivity. Racing/crowded thoughts had the highest sensitivity but the lowest specificity. These symptoms had a similar positive predictive value (PPV) for BP-II, which was around 70% (PPV is more clinically useful than sensitivity and specificity), which in turn was similar to the PPV of mixed depression and atypical depression (two diagnostic clinical markers of BP-II). All possible combinations of these symptoms had a PPV similar to that of the individual symptoms. The

  9. Association between obesity and depressive symptoms in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; Kolovos, Spyros; Chiarotto, Alessandro; Bosmans, Judith E; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga P

    2018-04-19

    Obesity and depression are among the leading causes of disability in Mexico, but their association has not been explored yet. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between obesity and depression in Mexican population. We used data from the health and nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2012), which is representative of the Mexican population. Obesity was determined using the body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference. Depressive symptoms were reported using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Short-Form (CES-D-SF, scale 0-21). Regression analyses were performed between obesity and depression, adjusting for gender, age, living with a partner, education, and diabetes history. Obese women had 1.28 (95% CI 1.07-1.53) times the odds of having depression in comparison with normal-weight women, whereas no association was found for men (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.74-1.19). A significant association between BMI and depressive symptoms score (β = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) was present in women, but no association was found for men (β = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.05 to 0.00). There was a statistically significant association between waist circumference and depression scores again for women (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.04) but not for men (β = 0.00, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.01). No associations were found between abdominal obesity and depression for both genders. No association was found between different obesity severity levels and depression for both genders. Obesity was associated with depression in Mexican women, whereas no association was found between obesity and depression in men.

  10. [Depressive symptoms and personality characteristics: phenomenology of affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Cristina; Fioravanti, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the relationship between different patterns of symptoms and personality characteristics in a group of 100 patients diagnosed with depression. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was used as the personality descriptor by the adoption of a multiaxial interpretative technique (Diamond's Axes). These descriptive variables were correlated with the symptoms referred to by the patients and subsequently underwent factor analysis, the method used for the principal components. Four "types" of patients were identified as "different" for symptoms and personality descriptors. In particular, the most important correlations were: anxiety and development of somatic symptoms; low self confidence and autistic behaviour; anger and impulsive behaviour; aggressive behaviour. Our results show the relevance of underlying personality characteristics in the presence of depressive symptoms. This relationship seems relevant also for the prediction of likely complications.

  11. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p < 0.001). This study documented important similarities and differences in the structure of depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  12. Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de; Brummen, H.J. van; Bruinse, H.W.; Heintz, A.P.M.; Vaart, C.H. van der

    2007-01-01

    Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we

  13. Fathers' mental health as a protective factor in the relationship between maternal and child depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Hagen, Kristine A; Villabø, Marianne A; Arnberg, Kasper; Neumer, Simon-Peter; Torgersen, Svenn

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between parental and child depressive symptoms has been found to be stronger for mothers than for fathers. Does this mean that fathers' mental health is less important in the context of child depressive symptoms? The goal of the current study is to test whether the degree of fathers' depressive symptoms moderate the relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms. Our knowledge about such interaction effects between mothers' and fathers' symptoms is limited. We examined depressive symptoms in 190 children (age 7-13, 118 boys) referred to child community clinics and their parents. Mothers and fathers reported on their own and their child's depressive symptoms, whereas children only reported on their own symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed significant interaction effects of mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms on mother- and father-reported child depressive symptoms, while no effects were found for child reports. When fathers reported few depressive symptoms for themselves, no relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms was observed. The more depressive symptoms in fathers, the stronger the relationship between mothers' and children's symptoms. Fathers' mental health may be a protective factor in the relationship between mothers' and children's depressive symptoms. Thus, researchers and practitioners would benefit from considering not only depressive symptoms in mothers, but also in fathers, when examining and working with child depressive symptoms. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Pedro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD. Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated from logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2–4.4, while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1–9.6 increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  15. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunfang; Sanchez, Sixto E; Lam, Nelly; Garcia, Pedro; Williams, Michelle A

    2007-09-27

    Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotensive controls. Depression and depressive symptoms during pregnancy were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from logistic regression models. The prevalence of moderate depression was 11.5% among cases and 5.3% among controls. The corresponding figures for moderate-severe depression were 3.5% for cases and 2.1% for controls. Compared with non-depressed women, those with moderate depression had a 2.3-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (95% CI: 1.2-4.4), while moderate-severe depression was associated with a 3.2-fold (95% CI: 1.1-9.6) increased risk of preeclampsia. Associations of each of the 9-items of the PHQ-9 depression screening module with preeclampsia risk were also observed. Our findings are consistent with the only other published report on this topic. Collectively, available data support recent calls for expanded efforts to study and address depression among pregnant women.

  16. Depressive Symptoms and Change in Abdominal Obesity Among Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Context Depression has been hypothesized to result in abdominal obesity through the accumulation of visceral fat. No large study has tested this hypothesis longitudinally. Objective To examine whether depressive symptoms predict an increase in abdominal obesity in a large population-based sample of well-functioning older persons. Design The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, with 5 years of follow-up. Setting Community-dwelling older persons residing in the areas surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Participants 2088 well-functioning white and black persons aged 70–79 years. Main Outcome Measures Baseline depression was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) score of ≥ 16. At baseline and after 5 years, overall obesity measures included body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry). Abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computed tomography). Results After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle, diseases and overall obesity, baseline depression was associated with a 5-year increase in sagittal diameter (β=.054, p=.01) and visceral fat (β=.080, p=.001). Conclusions This study shows that depressive symptoms result in an increase in abdominal obesity, independent of overall obesity, suggesting that there may be specific pathophysiological mechanisms which link depression with visceral fat accumulation. These results might also help explain why depression increases risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19047525

  17. Depression symptoms are persistent in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitworth, Stephanie; Bruce, David; Starkstein, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    was associated with consistently higher BMI over time, but not with changes in HbA1c or self‐monitoring of blood glucose. Conclusions A subset of individuals with Type 2 diabetes is at risk of depression symptoms that remain elevated over time. Younger, overweight individuals with a history of depression may......Aims To describe the long‐term trajectories of depression symptom severity in people with Type 2 diabetes, and to identify predictors and associates of these trajectories. Methods A community‐dwelling cohort of 1201 individuals with Type 2 diabetes from the Fremantle Diabetes Study Phase II...... benefit from early and intensive depression management and ongoing follow‐up as part of routine Type 2 diabetes care....

  18. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aims We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower...... for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Methods Non-diabetic participants (n = 7662) of the “English Longitudinal Study...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  19. Depressive symptoms in mothers of prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Margaret Shandor; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Schwartz, Todd A; Scher, Mark

    2007-02-01

    This longitudinal, descriptive study described the level of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants from birth through 27 months corrected age and examined factors associated with depressive symptoms. The framework for the study was guided by an ecological developmental systems perspective and an adaptation of the Preterm Parental Distress Model. In this model, we hypothesize that a mother's emotional distress to the birth and parenting of a prematurely born child is influenced by personal and family factors, severity of the infant's health status, and illness-related stress and worry. Participants were 102 mothers of preterm infants who were off the ventilator and not otherwise dependent on major technology at enrollment. Mean depressive symptoms scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) during hospitalization were high and more than half the mothers (63%) had scores of > or =16 indicating risk of depression. Depressive scores declined over time until 6 months and then were fairly stable. Unmarried mothers, mothers of infants who were rehospitalized, and mothers who reported more maternal role alteration stress during hospitalization and worry about the child's health had more depressive symptoms through the first year. Mothers who reported more parental role alteration stress during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 1.570, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.171-2.104) and more worry about the child's health (OR = 2.350, 95% CI: 1.842-2.998) were more likely to experience elevated CES-D scores that put them at risk of depression. Also, mothers of rehospitalized infants had decreasing odds of elevated CES-D scores over time (OR = 0.982 per week, 95% CI: 0.968-0.996). Findings have implications for the support of mothers during hospitalization and in the early years of parenting a preterm infant.

  20. Childhood Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: Trajectories, Relationship, and Association with Subsequent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, James; Bullard, Lisa; Wagener, Alexandra; Leong, Pek Kuan; Snyder, John; Jenkins, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The development of child anxiety and depressive symptoms from mean ages 5.3 to 9.3 years was examined in a community sample of 133 girls and 134 boys, using parent and teacher ratings. Reliable individual differences in anxiety and depressive symptoms at mean age 5.3 and in their change to mean age 9.3 were observed, with significant correlations…

  1. CBT for children with depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, Alexandra; Ost, Lars-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric depression entails a higher risk for psychiatric disorders, somatic complaints, suicide, and functional impairment later in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is recommended for the treatment of depression in children, yet research is based primarily on adolescents. The present meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of CBT in children aged 8-12 years with regard to depressive symptoms. We included randomized controlled trials of CBT with participants who had an average age of  ≤ 12 years and were diagnosed with either depression or reported elevated depressive symptoms. The search resulted in 10 randomized controlled trials with 267 participants in intervention and 256 in comparison groups. The mean age of participants was 10.5 years. The weighted between-group effect size for CBT was moderate, Cohen's d = 0.66. CBT outperformed both attention placebo and wait-list, although there was a significant heterogeneity among studies with regard to effect sizes. The weighted within-group effect size for CBT was large, d = 1.02. Earlier publication year, older participants, and more treatment sessions were associated with a larger effect size. In conclusion, the efficacy of CBT in the treatment of pediatric depression symptoms was supported. Differences in efficacy, methodological shortcomings, and lack of follow-up data limit the present study and indicate areas in need of improvement.

  2. Symptom Dimensions of Anxiety Following Myocardial Infarction : Associations With Depressive Symptoms and Prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Annelieke M.; Heideveld, Anne; Martens, Elisabeth J.; de Jonge, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Differential associations of symptom dimensions with prognosis in myocardial infarction (MI) patients have been shown for depression, but no studies have focused on anxiety dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the association between somatic and psychological symptoms of

  3. Associations of depression and depressive symptoms with preeclampsia: results from a Peruvian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Pedro; Lam Nelly; Sanchez Sixto E; Qiu Chunfang; Williams Michelle A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia involves endothelial dysfunction, platelet dysfunction/activation and sympathetic over-activity similar to cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Depression, an independent risk factor for progression of CVD, was found to be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia among Finnish women. We examined the relation between depression/depressive symptoms and preeclampsia risk among Peruvian women. Methods The study included 339 preeclamptic cases and 337 normotens...

  4. Testing specificity among parents' depressive symptoms, parenting, and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhn, Meredith A; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Cole, David A; Compas, Bruce E

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the specificity in relations between observed withdrawn and intrusive parenting behaviors and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms in an at-risk sample of children (ages 9 to 15 years old) of parents with a history of depression (N = 180). Given past findings that parental depression and parenting behaviors may differentially impact boys and girls, gender was examined as a moderator of the relations between these factors and child adjustment. Correlation and linear regression analyses showed that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys and girls and to intrusive parenting for parents of boys only. When controlling for intrusive parenting, preliminary analyses demonstrated that parental depressive symptoms were significantly related to withdrawn parenting for parents of boys, and this association approached significance for parents of girls. Specificity analyses yielded that, when controlling for the other type of problem (i.e., internalizing or externalizing), withdrawn parenting specifically predicted externalizing problems but not internalizing problems in girls. No evidence of specificity was found for boys in this sample, suggesting that impaired parenting behaviors are diffusely related to both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for boys. Overall, results highlight the importance of accounting for child gender and suggest that targeting improvement in parenting behaviors and the reduction of depressive symptoms in interventions with parents with a history of depression may have potential to reduce internalizing and externalizing problems in this high-risk population. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Association between hearing loss and depressive symptoms in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss causes difficulties in speech understanding, which leads away from the family and social environment. This isolation may be associated with depressive disorders. Type of study: clinical prospective. Objective: To determine the association between hearing loss and depression in a group of non-institutionalized elderly. Method: The sample consisted of individuals aged over 60 years, undergoing complete audiological evaluation and screening for depressive symptoms with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Results: We evaluated 54 elderly, 26 (48.1% were female and 28 (51.9% males. It was found that 39 (72.2% had hearing thresholds change, and 17 (31.5% with mild hearing loss and 22 (40.7% with moderate hearing loss. Were evident signs of depression in 25 elderly (46.3%, and 22 (40.7% had hearing loss. Data analysis showed an association between hearing loss and depression (p = 0.016. Although not significant (p = 0.18, the association between the degree of hearing loss was positive in relation to the severity of the signs of depression. Conclusion: In elderly people surveyed, there was a strong association between hearing loss and signs of depression and tendency to be an association between the degree of hearing loss and the severity of the signs of depression.

  6. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  7. Depressive symptoms and academic performance of North Carolina college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P; Thompson, Michael E; Huber, Larissa R Brunner; Arif, Ahmed A

    2012-01-01

    Depression negatively affects cognitive functioning and, consequently, academic performance. Studies of this association have yielded conflicting results and have not fully considered other factors that may play a role in academic performance. This study examines the relation between depression and academic performance in students at a large urban university in North Carolina. We analyzed data from student responses to the 2008 cross-sectional National College Health Assessment to create categories of depressive symptomatology. E-mail invitations to participate in the assessment were sent to 8,000 students at the university in an effort to obtain at least 900 responses, the minimum number considered valid for a campus of its size. We analyzed the responses of the 1,280 undergraduates who completed the survey. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between depressive symptoms and academic performance in this group. Students in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of depressive symptomatology had increased, though statistically non-significant, odds of having a lower cumulative grade average, even after adjustment for age, sex, year in school, race/ethnicity, substance use, and level of credit-card debt. This difference was most pronounced among students in the second quartile of depressive symptomatology. This cross-sectional study did not allow for evaluation of causality. In addition, the self-report nature of this questionnaire could have led to some inaccuracy in reporting. Students reporting even a small number of depressive symptoms may be at increased risk for academic problems.

  8. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.

  9. Adolescent Romance and Depressive Symptoms: The Moderating Effects of Positive Coping and Perceived Friendship Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedo, David E.; Chango, Joanna M.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Method Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-white) assessed at ages 15-19 and 21, as well as a sub-sample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and non-replacement of their romantic relationship. Conclusions Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877

  10. Self-help interventions for depressive disorders and depressive symptoms: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that depressive disorders exist on a continuum, with subthreshold symptoms causing considerable population burden and increasing individual risk of developing major depressive disorder. An alternative strategy to professional treatment of subthreshold depression is population promotion of effective self-help interventions that can be easily applied by an individual without professional guidance. The evidence for self-help interventions for depressive symptoms is reviewed in the present work, with the aim of identifying promising interventions that could inform future health promotion campaigns or stimulate further research. Methods A literature search for randomised controlled trials investigating self-help interventions for depressive disorders or depressive symptoms was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Reference lists and citations of included studies were also checked. Studies were grouped into those involving participants with depressive disorders or a high level of depressive symptoms, or non-clinically depressed participants not selected for depression. A number of exclusion criteria were applied, including trials with small sample sizes and where the intervention was adjunctive to antidepressants or psychotherapy. Results The majority of interventions searched had no relevant evidence to review. Of the 38 interventions reviewed, the ones with the best evidence of efficacy in depressive disorders were S-adenosylmethionine, St John's wort, bibliotherapy, computerised interventions, distraction, relaxation training, exercise, pleasant activities, sleep deprivation, and light therapy. A number of other interventions showed promise but had received less research attention. Research in non-clinical samples indicated immediate beneficial effects on depressed mood for distraction, exercise, humour, music, negative air ionisation, and singing; while potential

  11. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Toddler Emotion Regulation, and Subsequent Emotion Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between...

  12. Weight, gender, and depressive symptoms in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewis, Alexandra A; Han, Seung Yong; SturtzSreetharan, Cindi L

    2017-07-08

    Obesity consistently predicts depression risk, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Body concerns are proposed as key. South Korean society is characterized by extremely high levels of explicit weight stigma, possibly the highest globally. Using cross-sectional Korean 2014 National Health Examination Survey (KNHANES) data, we test this proposition in a nationally representative sample of South Korean adults (N = 5,632). Depressive symptoms (outcome variable), was based on the PHQ-9. Weight status (predictor variable), was based on direct measures of height and weight converted to BMI. Weight concern was self-reported. Mediation analyses tested how weight concern mediated the influence of weight status on depressive symptoms for women and men. Current weight status influenced depressive symptoms in Korean adults, but not always directly. Concerns of being "fat" mediated that relationship. The effect increased significantly as BMI increased within "normal" and overweight/obese categories for women, and in overweight/obese categories for men. Even though women classified as underweight were significantly more depressed than those in other weight categories, there was no similar mediation effect related to weight concerns. For South Koreans, the stress of adhering to social norms and avoiding stigma related to body weight seems to explain the relationship between higher body weight and more depressive symptoms. Women are more vulnerable overall, but men are not immune. This study demonstrates that body concerns help explain why weight predicts depression, and more broadly supports the proposition that widespread weight-related stigma is a potentially major, if unrecognized, driver of population-level health disparities. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Body image and depressive symptoms in person suffering from psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosińska, Monika; Rzepa, Teresa; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard

    2017-12-30

    The purpose of the research study was specifying the relationship between severity of psoriasis and body image and self-reported depressive symptoms, taking into account the differences between the sexes. The research study involved 54 psoriasis patients, including 30 men and 24 women aged from 19 to 82. The level of depressive symptoms was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory, and body image - using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. The disease severity was objectively assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. The female psoriasis patients were more critical of their appearance than the men (p< 0.01), and at the same time they were more appearance-oriented (p< 0.05). The men rated their fitness level (p< 0.01) and care for good physical condition (p< 0.01) higher than the women. The women showed less satisfaction with their body parts than the men (p< 0.01) and more fear of obesity (p< 0.05) and overweight (p< 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between men and women with regard to general evaluation of body image and self-reported depressive symptoms. Moreover, it was established that in the case of both women and men there was a correlation between lowered mood and psoriasis severity (R = 0.416), as well as body image (R = - 0.282). In relation to individual scales, there was a statistically significant relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and appearance evaluation (R = - 0.519), health evaluation (R = - 0.585), satisfaction with body parts (R = - 0.462), as well as appearance orientation (R = 0.425). Distortion of body image is correlated with self-reported depressive symptoms in psoriasis patients.

  14. Acute Pain and Depressive Symptoms: Independent Predictors of Insomnia Symptoms among Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn; Kozachik, Sharon; Smith, Michael T; Budhathoki, Chakra; Haywood, Carlton

    2016-02-01

    No studies to date have systematically investigated insomnia symptoms among adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and (2) identify biopsychosocial predictors in community-dwelling adults with SCD. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 263 African American adults with SCD (aged 18 years or older). Measures included the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies in Depression scale, Urban Life Stress Scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and a chronic pain item. SCD genotype was extracted from the medical record. A slight majority (55%) of the sample reported clinically significant insomnia symptomatology (ISI ≥ 10), which suggests that insomnia symptoms are prevalent among community-dwelling African American adults with SCD. While insomnia symptoms were associated with a number of biopsychosocial characteristics, depressive symptoms and acute pain were the only independent predictors. Given the high number of participants reporting clinically significant insomnia symptoms, nurses should screen for insomnia symptoms and explore interventions to promote better sleep among adults with SCD, with an emphasis on recommending treatment for pain and depression. In addition, current pain and depression interventions in this population could add insomnia measures and assess the effect of the intervention on insomnia symptomatology as a secondary outcome. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and their influence on postnatal depression in Spanish pregnant Spanish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Marín-Morales

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of personality factors and antenatal depressive symptomatology in postnatal depression. A prospective ex post facto design was carried out. The sample consisted of 116 women, recruited in their first trimester of pregnancy and followed up until four months postpartum. The measurement instruments used were the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS to assess postpartum depression, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI to analyse personality traits and the depression subscale of the Symptoms Check List 90 (SCL-90-R to assess depressive symptomatology in the first half of pregnancy. Socio-demographic variables (age, parity, educational level, employment status, and planned pregnancy and clinical variables (neonatal Apgar score and mode of delivery were also taken into account. A positive correlation was found between postpartum depression and depressive symptomatology in the first trimester; however after the regression analysis neuroticism was the only factor that predicted postpartum depressive symptoms, explaining 24.8% of the variance. Neuroticism significantly influences psychological health during life events such as motherhood. Due to its stable condition, personality could be assessed from the beginning of pregnancy, contributing to the care of pregnant women with high scores in neuroticism, to prevent, detect and treat early postnatal depression.

  16. The Impact of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with ADHD Symptoms on Family Function and ADHD Symptoms of Their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Jae-Won; Chun, Duk Hee; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2014-01-01

    Objective People with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit considerable impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The present study aimed to examine the patterns of associations between ADHD symptoms, depression, and family functioning. Methods The sample consisted of 1,022 adults randomly selected from a district in Seoul, South Korea. Several self-assessment scales were utilized to rate ADHD symptoms (both past and current), current symptoms of depressi...

  17. Do better executive functions buffer the effect of current parental depression on adolescent depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Shiri; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Ajay K; Harold, Gordon; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-15

    Offspring of parents with a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) and especially those exposed to a current episode of parental depression have been found to be at increased risk for developing depression themselves. Exposure to a current parental depressive episode also reduces the efficacy of interventions in high risk or depressed adolescents. This highlights the need to identify protective factors for adolescents exposed to a current parental depressive episode. Executive functions serve as an important cognitive resource, involved in the ability to regulate mood and thoughts and cope with stressful events. This study examined the buffering role of two components of executive functioning, inhibitory control and mental flexibility, in the association between a current parental episode of MDD and adolescent depressive symptoms. A high-risk sample of 288 adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent major depressive disorder completed an Affective Go/No Go and a Verbal Fluency task. Parents and adolescents underwent psychiatric interviews. In the presence of a current parental depressive episode in the parent, adolescents with better inhibitory control and mental flexibility had fewer depressive symptoms after controlling for age, gender and IQ. Participants were the offspring of depressed parents and it is not clear whether the protective effects of executive functioning observed here would generalise to other populations. Executive functions may protect against adolescent depression in the presence of a parental depressive episode. It may be beneficial to target executive functions in preventive programs for individuals at high-risk for depression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Depressive Symptoms in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogon, Amy J; Matheson, Matthew B; Flynn, Joseph T; Gerson, Arlene C; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Hooper, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    To assess depression in children with chronic kidney disease and to determine associations with patient characteristics, intellectual and educational levels, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Subjects aged 6-17 years from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children cohort study completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence, Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II-Abbreviated, and the Pediatric Inventory of Quality of Life Core Scales 4.0. Regression analyses determined associations of CDI score and depression status with subject characteristics, intellectual and educational levels, and HRQoL. A joint linear mixed model and Weibull model were used to determine the effects of CDI score on longitudinal changes in glomerular filtration rate and time to renal replacement therapy. A total of 344 subjects completed the CDI. Eighteen (5%) had elevated depressive symptoms, and another 7 (2%) were being treated for depression. In adjusted analyses, maternal education beyond high school was associated with 5% lower CDI scores (estimate, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99). Depression status was associated with lower IQ (99 vs 88; P = .053), lower achievement (95 vs 77.5; P Children with depression had lower psychoeducational skills and worse HRQoL. Identifying and treating depression should be evaluated as a means of improving the academic performance and HRQoL of children with chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  1. Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in menopausal arab women: Shedding more light on a complex relationship. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  2. Depressive symptoms among children whose parents have serious ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children's physical development is particularly pertinent in LAMICs, where environmental threats to child wellbeing such as malnutrition and poor sanitation are more common.[8]. Depressive symptoms among children whose parents have serious mental illness: Association with children's threat- related beliefs about mental ...

  3. Serotonin Transporter Gene, Depressive Symptoms, and Interleukin-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Zhao, Jinying; Bremner, J. Douglas; Miller, Andrew H.; Tang, Weining; Bouzyk, Mark; Snieder, Harold; Novik, Olga; Afzal, Nadeem; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola

    2009-01-01

    Background-We explored the relationship of genetic variants of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, a key regulator of the serotonergic neurotransmission, with both depressive symptoms and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Methods and Results-We genotyped 20 polymorphisms in 360 male twins (mean

  4. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  5. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  6. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  7. Depression, anxiety symptoms and substance use amongst sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sex work is a high-risk occupation for mental health problems as sex workers are vulnerable to high rates of violence, sexual coercion, stigma and HIV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use in sex workers.Method: A crosssectional questionnaire survey of all ...

  8. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  9. Physical exercises, functional capacity and depressive symptoms in Brazilian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Manuela Crispim Nascimento

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of 16 weeks of multimodal exercise on functional capacity components, general functional fitness and depressive symptoms in the elderly. Fifty-five elderly (67.3 ± 5.8 years participated inthe study. The groups were distributed according to the participation on the proposed protocol: a trained group (TG composed of 27 participants who attended at least 75% of the total generalized physical exercise sessions for16 weeks; and b control group (CG, participants who did not attend any regular physical activity program. Functional capacity was assessed using theAAHPERD battery of motor tests for elderly, which consists of five tests: coordination, flexibility, muscular resistance, agility/dynamic balance, and overall aerobic endurance. Depressive symptoms were measured using the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15. The results showed that elderly on TG had better performance on motor tests. Depressive symptoms did not change for both groups. Thus, our results indicate that 16 weeks is sufficient to improve general functional fitness in elderly, while those who remain sedentary tend to decrease their overall physical fitness. The proposed program could not induce significant changes in the elderly with low levels ofdepressive symptoms reported for this variable. The evidence of this study allows the prediction that a generalized program can help prevent chronic diseases, reduce functional decline and produce positive effects on quality oflife.

  10. Self-Esteem, Depressive Symptoms, and Adolescents' Sexual Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Rudolph, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    We examine whether self-esteem and depressive symptoms influence sexual onset when important controls such as age, dating, race, and income are examined. Analyses are based on the first two waves of the restricted-use sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We examine adolescents who reported at wave 1 that they had not had…

  11. Shame, Guilt, and Depressive Symptoms: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmoon; Thibodeau, Ryan; Jorgensen, Randall S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical work has facilitated the drawing of sharp conceptual distinctions between shame and guilt. A clear view of these distinctions has permitted development of a research literature aimed at evaluating the differential associations of shame and guilt with depressive symptoms. This study quantitatively summarized the…

  12. Racial Socialization Experiences and Symptoms of Depression among Black Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gwendolyn Y.; Stevenson, Howard C.

    2006-01-01

    Ecological barriers like racism and discrimination can weigh heavily on the shifting emotions of adolescents. We investigated the relationship of racial socialization experiences to the depression symptoms of 160 Black adolescents, including lethargy, low self-esteem, cognitive difficulties, social introversion, irritability, guilt, pessimism, sad…

  13. Depressive symptoms after a sexual assault among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: 84.3% (95% CI: 78.1-90.3) women were found to have high levels of depressive symptoms, but lower levels were found among women raped in circumstances in which there was a lesser likelihood of blame such as those raped by strangers rather than intimate partners (Odds Ratio: (OR) 0.28 (95% Confidence ...

  14. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  15. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  16. The association between depressive symptoms, cognitive function, and inflammation in major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Benros, Michael E; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association between IL-6 and CRP with depressive items and cognitive function. We included 112 outpatients with major depression from an exercise trial and 57 healthy controls. IL-6, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), and cognitive function were assessed in all...... subjects. After baseline assessment, patients were randomised to either a 3months exercise intervention or an exercise control group. Post-intervention IL-6, hsCRP, depressive symptoms, and cognitive function were reassessed in the patient group. IL-6 and hsCRP were significantly increased in depressed...... patients compared to healthy controls (p=0.02 and 0.04). These differences were no longer significant after adjustment for lifestyle associated variables. We found no association between immune markers and specific depressive symptoms at baseline or as change over time. Regarding the cognitive tests, IL-6...

  17. The association between workplace bullying and depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Eszter; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the depressive symptoms of the bullied respondents differed according to who the perpetrator was. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from two representative cohorts: the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study...... (DWECS 2010) and the Work and Health Study (WH 2012). After excluding respondents not having a leader, or being self-employed, assisting spouses, and those reporting multiple perpetrators in WH 2012, the statistical analysis included 2478 bullied individuals. We compared respondents reporting being...... bullied by their (1) leader, (2) subordinates, (3) clients / customers / patients / students, or (4) colleagues, respectively. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was measured by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI). RESULTS: The most frequent perpetrator of bullying was clients (41.5 %) in DWECS 2010...

  18. Ethnic Variation in the Cross-sectional Association between Domains of Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe degree by which depressive symptoms and clinical depression reflect each other may vary across populations. The present study compared Blacks and Whites for the magnitude of the cross-sectional associations between various domains of depressive symptoms and endorsement of clinical disorders of depression. MethodsData came from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2001–2003. We included 3,570 Black (African Americans, and 891 Non-Hispanic Whites. Predictors were positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems measured using the 12-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Outcomes were lifetime MDD, lifetime MDE, 12 month MDE, 30 days MDE, and 30 days MDDH based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Logistic regression models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites.ResultsRegarding CES-D, Blacks had lower total scores, positive affect, negative affect, and interpersonal problems compared to Whites (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. Blacks also had lower odds of meeting criteria for lifetime MDD and MDE, 12 month MDE, and 30 days MDE and MDDH (p < 0.05 for all comparisons. For most depressive diagnoses, ethnicity showed a positive and significant interaction with the negative affect and interpersonal domains, suggesting stronger associations for Blacks compared to Whites. CES-D total and CES-D positive affect did not interact with ethnicity on CIDI based diagnoses.ConclusionStronger associations between multiple domains of depressive symptoms and clinical MDD may be due to higher severity of depression among Blacks, when they endorse the disorder. This finding may explain some of previously observed ethnic differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and clinical depression in the general population as well as clinical settings.

  19. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Paul O; Croudace, Tim J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2013-10-08

    A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression.

  20. Rumination, anxiety, depressive symptoms and subsequent depression in adolescents at risk for psychopathology: a longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A ruminative style of responding to low mood is associated with subsequent high depressive symptoms and depressive disorder in children, adolescents and adults. Scores on self-report rumination scales correlate strongly with scores on anxiety and depression symptom scales. This may confound any associations between rumination and subsequent depression. Methods Our sample comprised 658 healthy adolescents at elevated risk for psychopathology. This study applied ordinal item (non-linear) factor analysis to pooled items from three self-report questionnaires to explore whether there were separate, but correlated, constructs of rumination, depression and anxiety. It then tested whether rumination independently predicted depressive disorder and depressive symptoms over the subsequent 12 months, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results We identified a single rumination factor, which was correlated with factors representing cognitive symptoms of depression, somatic symptoms of depression and anxiety symptoms; and one factor representing adaptive responses to low mood. Elevated rumination scores predicted onset of depressive disorders over the subsequent year (p = 0.035), and levels of depressive symptoms 12 months later (p depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion High rumination predicts onset of depressive disorder in healthy adolescents. Therapy that reduces rumination and increases distraction/problem-solving may reduce onset and relapse rates of depression. PMID:24103296

  1. Growth Mixture Modeling of Depression Symptoms Following Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapson Gomez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth Mixture Modeling (GMM was used to investigate the longitudinal trajectory of groups (classes of depression symptoms, and how these groups were predicted by the covariates of age, sex, severity, and length of hospitalization following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI in a group of 1074 individuals (696 males, and 378 females from the Royal Hobart Hospital, who sustained a TBI. The study began in late December 2003 and recruitment continued until early 2007. Ages ranged from 14 to 90 years, with a mean of 35.96 years (SD = 16.61. The study also examined the associations between the groups and causes of TBI. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale within 3 weeks of injury, and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months post-injury. The results revealed three groups: low, high, and delayed depression. In the low group depression scores remained below the clinical cut-off at all assessment points during the 24-months post-TBI, and in the high group, depression scores were above the clinical cut-off at all assessment points. The delayed group showed an increase in depression symptoms to 12 months after injury, followed by a return to initial assessment level during the following 12 months. Covariates were found to be differentially associated with the three groups. For example, relative to the low group, the high depression group was associated with more severe TBI, being female, and a shorter period of hospitalization. The delayed group also had a shorter period of hospitalization, were younger, and sustained less severe TBI. Our findings show considerable fluctuation of depression over time, and that a non-clinical level of depression at any one point in time does not necessarily mean that the person will continue to have non-clinical levels in the future. As we used GMM, we were able to show new findings and also bring clarity to contradictory past findings on depression and TBI. Consequently, we recommend the use

  2. TEMPORARY WORK AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A PROPENSITY SCORE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies nonstandard employment, namely temporary workers, and examine the consequences of this type of employment on depressive symptoms. This study aims to estimate the effect of being a temporary worker on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 (95% CI 0.552; 3.055) additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. PMID:20371142

  3. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Karina L; Crosby, Ross D; Oddy, Wendy H; Byrne, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in males. Prevention

  4. Eating disorder symptom trajectories in adolescence: effects of time, participant sex, and early adolescent depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period of developmental risk for eating disorders and eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and trajectory of five core eating disorder behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, following strict dietary rules, and hard exercise for weight control) and a continuous index of dietary restraint and eating, weight and shape concerns, in a cohort of male and female adolescents followed from 14 to 20 years. It also aimed to determine the effect of early adolescent depressive symptoms on the prevalence and trajectory of these different eating disorder symptoms. Participants (N = 1,383; 49% male) were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective cohort study that has followed participants from pre-birth to age 20 years. An adapted version of the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorder symptoms at ages 14, 17 and 20 years. The Beck Depression Inventory for Youth was used to assess depressive symptoms at age 14. Longitudinal changes in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms were tested using generalised estimating equations and linear mixed models. Results Symptom trajectories varied according to the eating disorder symptom studied, participant sex, and the presence of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. For males, eating disorder symptoms tended to be stable (for purging, fasting and hard exercise) or decreasing (for binge eating and global symptom scores) from 14 to 17 years, and then stable to 20 years. For females, fasting and global symptom scores increased from age 14 to peak in prevalence at age 17. Rates of binge eating in females were stable from age 14 to age 17 and increased significantly thereafter, whilst rates of purging and hard exercise increased from age 14 to age 17, and then remained elevated through to age 20. Depressive symptoms at age 14 impacted on eating disorder symptom trajectories in females, but not in

  5. Differences in depressive symptoms between Korean and American outpatients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Walker, Rosemary S; Inamori, Aya; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Baer, Lee; Clain, Alisabet; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies have revealed that East-Asian populations experience fewer depressive symptoms than American populations do. However, it is unclear whether this difference applies to clinical patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This present study included 1592 Korean and 3744 American outpatients who were 18 years of age or older and met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for single or recurrent episodes of nonpsychotic MDD, and evaluated their symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form. Korean patients scored significantly lower for guilt and depressed mood items, and higher for hypochondriasis and suicidality items than American patients did, after adjusting for total Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores. Conversely, no significant differences were found in quality and function of daily life between groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Korean patients experienced less frequent depressed mood and guilt, including verbal and nonverbal expression of depressed mood [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.23] and feelings of punishment (AOR = 0.036, 95% CI 0.025-0.054) when compared with Americans after adjusting for age and sex. Conversely, Korean patients experienced more frequent suicidality and hypochondriasis, including suicidal ideas or gestures (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI 1.60-2.76) and self-absorption of hypochondriasis (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.70-2.20). In conclusion, decreased expression of depressed mood and guilt may cause underdiagnosis of MDD in Korean patients. Early diagnosis of and intervention for depression and suicide may be delayed because of this specific cross-cultural difference in depression symptoms.

  6. The relationship between depressive symptoms and obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Elif; Sedky, Karim; Bennett, David S

    2013-11-15

    A higher incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms has been suggested among children suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Yet, the extent to which OSA is related to increased depression is unclear. To evaluate (a) the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA in pediatric populations, and (b) the efficacy of adenotonsillectomy (AT) for decreasing depressive symptoms among children with OSA. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between depressive symptoms and OSA, and the efficacy of AT for decreasing depressive symptoms. Studies reporting depressive symptoms of children with OSA through January 2013 were included. Eleven studies assessed depressive symptoms in both children diagnosed with OSA (n = 894) and a comparison group (n = 1,096). A medium relationship was found between depressive symptoms and OSA (Hedges' g = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.22-0.64; p = 0.0005). Addressing the second question, 9 studies (n = 379 children) examined depressive symptoms pre- and post-AT. A medium improvement in depressive symptoms was found at follow-up (Hedge's g = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.62; p ≤ 0.001). Our findings suggest that depressive symptoms are higher among children with OSA. Therefore, patients with depressive symptomatology should receive screening for sleep disordered breathing. Treatment of OSA with AT might decrease clinical symptoms of depression, reduce pharmacotherapy, improve sleep patterns, and promote better health.

  7. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for depression and depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania S. Grigoriou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a mental disorder with a high prevalence among patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD. It is reported that depression afflicts approximately 20-30% of this patient population, being associated, amongst other, with high mortality rate, low adherence to medication and low perceived quality of life. There is a variety of medications known to be effective for the treatment of depression but due to poor adherence to treatment as well as due to the high need for medications addressing other ESRD comorbidities, depression often remains untreated. According to the literature, depression is under-diagnosed and undertreated in the majority of the patients with chronic kidney disease. In the current review the main pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches and research outcomes for the management of depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients are discussed.

  8. Synchrony of change in depressive symptoms, health status, and quality of life in persons with clinical depression

    OpenAIRE

    Diehr, Paula H; Derleth, Ann M; McKenna, Stephen P; Martin, Mona L; Bushnell, Donald M; Simon, Gregory; Patrick, Donald L

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about longitudinal associations among measures of depression, mental and physical health, and quality of life (QOL). We followed 982 clinically depressed persons to determine which measures changed and whether the change was synchronous with change in depressive symptoms. Methods Data were from the Longitudinal Investigation of Depression Outcomes (LIDO). Depressive symptoms, physical and mental health, and quality of life were measured at baseline, 6 weeks...

  9. Black- White Differences in Predictive Validity of Depressive Symptoms for Subsequent Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan eMoazen Zadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBlack- White differences are shown in psychosocial and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD. The current longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD 15 years later. MethodsData came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL Study that followed 3,361 individuals (2,205 Whites and 1,156 Blacks from 1986 to 2001. Predictor was baseline depressive symptoms measured using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D in 1986. Outcome was 12 month MDD measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI at 2001. Covariates included baseline socio-demographics, financial difficulty, chronic medical conditions, and self-rated health (SRH measured at 1986. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between baseline CES-D score and CIDI-based MDD 15 years later net of demographics, SES, CMCs and SRH. The models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as Blacks and Whites. We also reported data on reliability and factor structure of CES-D based on ethnicity. ResultsAccording to the logistic regression models, baseline CES-D scores were predictive of subsequent CIDI- based 12 month MDD 15 years later among Whites but not Blacks. Ethnic differences in predictive validity of CES-D scores on MDD could not be attributed to the ethnic differences in reliability of the CES-D which was even higher for Blacks than Whites. ConclusionBlack–White differences exist in the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD over 15 years. Ethnic differences in the longitudinal link between baseline CES-D and subsequent risk of MDD among Blacks may explain some of the Black - White differences in social, psychological, and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and depression. Future research is still needed to compare Blacks and Whites for confirmatory

  10. Differential association of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms with cognitive decline in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Resnick, Susan M; Zonderman, Alan B

    2008-04-01

    The impact of depressive symptoms on cognitive decline in older adults remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. It is also unclear whether effects of depressive symptoms on cognitive decline vary with age. This study investigated the effect of concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning and decline, and examined the interactive effect of age and depressive symptoms on cognition. Prospective observational design with examination of cognitive performance and depressive symptoms at 1- to 2-year intervals for up to 26 years. Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, National Institute on Aging. One thousand five hundred eighty-six dementia-free adults 50 years of age and older. Scores over time on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and measures of learning and memory, attention and executive functions, verbal and language abilities, visuospatial functioning, and general cognitive status. Increased depressive symptoms were associated with poor cognitive functioning and cognitive decline in multiple domains. Concurrent, baseline, and average depressive symptoms had differential associations with cognition. Average depressive symptoms, a measure of chronic symptoms, seemed to show the most widespread effects on cognitive abilities. Effects of depressive symptoms on some frontal functions were greater with advancing age. Depressive symptoms are associated with poor cognitive functioning and cognitive decline, particularly with advancing age. The widespread impact of average depressive symptoms on cognition suggests that clinicians should consider the chronicity of depressive symptoms when evaluating cognitive functioning in older adults.

  11. Correlations between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chiao-Fan; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Wen, Jung-Kwang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hung, Ching-I

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of correlation between sexual dysfunction and depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to identify the dimension most predictive of sexual dysfunction. One-hundred and thirty-five outpatients with MDD were enrolled and were treated with open-label venlafaxine 75 mg daily for one month. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale-Chinese Version (ASEX-CV), Depression and Somatic Symptoms Scale (DSSS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered at baseline and at one-month follow-up and the improvement percentage (IP) of each scale posttreatment was calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the dimension most predictive of the total ASEX-CV score. Seventy subjects (20 men, 50 women) completed the one-month pharmacotherapy and the four scales. The depression subscale of the HADS was most strongly correlated with the ASEX-CV scale and was the only subscale to independently predict the total ASEX-CV score at the two points. However, the somatic subscale of the DSSS was not correlated with any ASEX-CV item. At the endpoint, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms were significantly improved (IP 48.5% to 26.0%); however, very little improvement was observed in the total ASEX-CV score (IP -1.6%). The severity of sexual dysfunction among patients with MDD was most correlated with the severity of the depressive dimension, but not the severity of the somatic dimension. Further studies are indicated to explore the relationships between sexual dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms.

  12. Depressive symptoms in Chinese factory workers in Nagasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Ye, Zhaojia; Takamura, Noboru; Tomita, Masato; Osaki, Makoto; Honda, Sumihisa

    2009-08-01

    The number of foreign workers in Japan, especially temporary workers, has been increasing recently. However, little is known about the mental health status of the foreign workers working temporarily in Japan. We examined the depressive symptoms in 81 Chinese factory workers and attempted to identify the determining factors. The subjects were requested to complete individual questionnaires on sociodemographic variables (sex, age group, and residence period in Japan), working condition variables (number of working days per week and working hours per day), health administration variables (health checkups and health education), a social support variable (interpreters at workplace), and health behavior variables (alcohol consumption, current smoking, and regular exercise). The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was used to measure the depressive symptoms. Of all the subjects, 95% and 84% received health checkups and health education, respectively, at their workplaces. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that long working hours per day were significantly associated with high CES-D score. Further, we found that older age (30-49 yr) was marginally associated with high CES-D score. Health administration considering working time and age would be important for decreasing depressive symptoms among foreign workers.

  13. Lower Serum Zinc and Higher CRP Strongly Predict Prenatal Depression and Physio-somatic Symptoms, Which All Together Predict Postnatal Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Mahieu, Boris; Nowak, Gabriel; Maes, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Pregnancy and delivery are associated with activation of immune-inflammatory pathways which may prime parturients to develop postnatal depression. There are, however, few data on the associations between immune-inflammatory pathways and prenatal depression and physio-somatic symptoms. This study examined the associations between serum zinc, C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin at the end of term and prenatal physio-somatic symptoms (fatigue, back pain, muscle pain, dyspepsia, obstipation) and prenatal and postnatal depressive and anxiety symptoms as measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Zinc and haptoglobin were significantly lower and CRP increased at the end of term as compared with non-pregnant women. Prenatal depression was predicted by lower zinc and lifetime history of depression, anxiety, and premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS). The latter histories were also significantly and inversely related to lower zinc. The severity of prenatal EDPS, HAMD, BDI, STAI, and physio-somatic symptoms was predicted by fatigue in the first and second trimesters, a positive life history of depression, anxiety, and PMS, and lower zinc and higher CRP. Postnatal depressive symptoms are predicted by prenatal depression, physio-somatic symptoms, zinc and CRP. Prenatal depressive and physio-somatic symptoms have an immune-inflammatory pathophysiology, while postnatal depressive symptoms are highly predicted by prenatal immune activation, prenatal depression, and a lifetime history of depression and PMS. Previous episodes of depression, anxiety disorders, and PMS may prime pregnant females to develop prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms via activated immune pathways.

  14. Stress, Sleep and Depressive Symptoms in Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Han-Wei; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    The military is a unique occupational group and, because of this, military personnel face different kinds of stress than civilian populations. Sleep problems are an example. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep problems, depression level and coping strategies among military personnel. In this cross-sectional study, military personnel completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. An evaluation of the test scores showed that officers had better sleep quality and fewer depressive symptoms than enlisted personnel. Military personnel with higher educational levels and less physical illness also had fewer depressive symptoms. Officers and noncommissioned officers preferred problem-focused strategies. Those with higher Beck Depression Inventory and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores and those who drank alcohol frequently preferred affective-focused strategies. Our results revealed that sleep quality, physical illness and alcohol consumption were associated with the mental health of military personnel. Treating these factors may improve the mental health of military personnel and enhance effective coping strategies. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Temporary work and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Kim, T-H; Lee, T-H; Ju, Y J; Chun, S Y; Park, E-C

    2017-08-01

    In many countries, including South Korea, labour market changes have led to an increase in unstable, temporary jobs. There is evidence that workers in such jobs may experience poorer mental health than those in more stable employment. To investigate the association between temporary employment and depressive symptoms in South Korean workers. We analysed data from the 2010-2014 Korean Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS). Employment type was categorized into workers paid per day of labour (day labourers), those on short-term contracts (fixed-term workers) and permanent workers. The association between employment type and depressive symptoms, measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D 11), was examined using the generalized estimating equation model. A total of 3756 workers aged 20-59 were included in the 2010 baseline population. Day labourers had the highest mean CES-D 11 score, followed by fixed-term workers and permanent workers. With the day labourer group as reference, fixed-term workers (β: -1.5027, P < 0.001) and permanent workers (β: -2.1848, P < 0.001) showed statistically significant decreases in depression scores. Compared with day labourers, fixed-term workers and permanent workers had progressively lower depression scores. The findings of this study suggest that mental health inequalities based on employment type exist in South Korea. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Exercise Reduces Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Arthritis: Evidential Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A.; Kelley, Kristi S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Determine whether evidential value exists that exercise reduces depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. METHODS Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 29 published studies that included 2449 participants (1470 exercise, 979 control) with fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus, a novel, recently developed method, p-curve, was used to assess for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of statistically significant findings regarding exercise and depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Using the method of Stouffer, z-scores were used to test for selective-reporting bias with alpha (p) values ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. In addition, average power of the tests included in p-curve, adjusted for publication bias, was calculated. RESULTS Fifteen of 29 studies (51.7%) with exercise and depression results were statistically significant (p < 0.05) while 73.3% had p-values < 0.025. None of the results were statistically significant with respect to exercise increasing depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. Statistically significant right-skew to rule out selective reporting was found (z = −5.28, p = 0.99). The relative frequencies of p-values were 66.7% at 0.01, 6.7% each at 0.02 and 0.03, 13.3% at 0.04 and 6.7% at 0.05. The average power of the tests included in p-curve, corrected for publication bias, was 69%. Diagnostic plot results revealed that the observed power estimate was a better fit than the alternatives. CONCLUSION Evidential value results provide additional support that exercise improves depressive symptoms in adults with arthritis and other rheumatic diseases. PMID:26587845

  17. Depressive symptoms, vascular risk factors, and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchsinger, José A; Honig, Lawrence S; Tang, Ming-Xin; Devanand, Devangere P

    2008-09-01

    Depressive symptoms in the elderly are associated with an increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We sought to determine whether the association between depressive symptoms and AD is explained by a history of vascular risk factors and stroke. Five hundred and twenty-six elderly persons from New York City without dementia at baseline were followed for a mean of 5 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM). Incident AD was ascertained using standard criteria. Diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, current smoking and stroke were ascertained by self-report. Proportional hazards regression was used to relate HAM scores to incident AD. HAM scores were higher in persons with hypertension, heart disease, and stroke, which in turn were related to higher AD risk. AD risk increased with increasing HAM scores as a continuous logarithmically transformed variable (HR for one point increase=1.4; 95% CI=1.1,1.8) and as a categorical variable (HR for HAM >or= 10=3.4; 95% CI=1.5,8.1; p for trend=0.004 with HAM=0 as the reference). These results were virtually unchanged after adjustment for vascular risk factors and stroke, individually (HR for HAM >or= 10=3.4; 95% CI=1.5,8.1; p for trend = 0.004), and in a composite measure (HR for HAM >or= 10=3.0; 95% CI=1.2,7.8; p for trend=0.02). The prospective relation between depressive symptoms and AD is not explained by a history of vascular risk factors and stroke, suggesting that other mechanisms may account for this association.

  18. Depressive Symptoms Predict Major Depressive Disorder after 15 Years among Whites but Not Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazen-Zadeh, Ehsan; Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Black-White differences are shown in psychosocial and medical correlates of depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder (MDD). The current longitudinal study compared Blacks and Whites for the association between baseline depressive symptoms and subsequent risk of MDD after 15 years. Data were obtained from the Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study that included 3,361 individuals (2,205 Whites and 1,156 Blacks) from 1986 to 2001. Baseline depressive symptoms measured using an 11-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) in 1986 were predictors. The outcome of 12-month MDD was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in 2001. Covariates such as baseline socio-demographics (SES), financial difficulty, chronic medical conditions (CMC), and self-rated health (SRH) were measured in 1986. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline CES-D score and CIDI-based MDD after 15 years net of demographics, SES, CMC, and SRH. The models were applied in the pooled sample, as well as in Blacks and Whites. Data on reliability and factor structure of CES-D based on ethnicity were also reported. In the pooled sample, we found an interaction between race and baseline depressive symptoms, suggesting a stronger effect of baseline depressive symptoms on the subsequent risk of MDD for Whites compared with that of Blacks. Such an interaction was significant net of socioeconomic and health status. Based on our ethnic-specific models, among Whites but not Blacks, baseline CES-D score was predictive of the subsequent risk of MDD after 15 years, net of SES and health at baseline. Black-White differences in the predictive role of CES-D scores on MDD could not be attributed to the ethnic differences in the reliability of the CES-D, which was even higher for Blacks compared with those of Whites. Loadings of the CES-D positive affect items were reverse among Blacks compared to Whites. Black

  19. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  20. Infidelity and separations precipitate major depressive episodes and symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, A; O'Leary, K D

    2000-10-01

    This study examined whether humiliating marital events (HMEs; husbands' infidelity, threats of marital dissolution) precipitated Major Depressive Episodes (MDEs) when controlling for marital discord. Participants were 25 women who recently experienced an HME and 25 control women who did not experience an HME. Both groups reported similar levels of marital discord. Results indicated that HME participants were 6 times more likely to be diagnosed with an MDE than control participants. These results remained even after controlling for family and lifetime histories of depression. HME participants also reported significantly more symptoms of nonspecific depression and anxiety than control participants. However, HME and control participants did not report significantly different numbers of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal symptoms. The research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Depressive symptoms, chronic pain, and falls in older community-dwelling adults: The MOBILIZE Boston Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, L.H.P.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Jones, R.N.; Leveille, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether overall depressive symptoms and symptom clusters are associated with fall risk and to determine whether chronic pain mediates the relationship between depression and fall risk in aging. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Boston, Massachusetts, and surrounding

  2. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type and adolescent functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieh, D.S.; Visser-Meily, J.M.A.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship

  3. Does Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Predict Levels of Depressive Symptoms during Emerging Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Michael C; Pettit, Jeremy W; Waxmonsky, James G; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the development and course of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood among individuals with a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine if a history of ADHD in childhood significantly predicted depressive symptoms during emerging adulthood (i.e., ages 18-25 years), including the initial level of depressive symptoms, continued levels of depressive symptoms at each age year, and the rate of change in depressive symptoms over time. 394 participants (205 with ADHD and 189 without ADHD; 348 males and 46 females) drawn from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) completed annual self-ratings of depressive symptoms between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Childhood history of ADHD significantly predicted a higher initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18, and higher levels of depressive symptoms at every age year during emerging adulthood. ADHD did not significantly predict the rate of change in depressive symptoms from age 18 to age 25. Childhood history of ADHD remained a significant predictor of initial level of depressive symptoms at age 18 after controlling for comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, but not after controlling for concurrent ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. Participants with childhood histories of ADHD experienced significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms than non-ADHD comparison participants by age 18 and continued to experience higher, although not increasing, levels of depressive symptoms through emerging adulthood. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  4. Residual symptoms after surgery for unilateral congenital superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, Ihsan; Sahin, Alparslan; Cingu, Abdullah; Ari, Seyhmus; Akbas, Umut

    2012-01-01

    To establish the surgical results and residual symptoms in 48 cases with unilateral congenital superior oblique muscle palsy that had surgical intervention to the vertical muscles alone. Myectomy and concomitant disinsertion of the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was performed in 38 cases and myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion and recession of the superior rectus muscle in the ipsilateral eye was performed in 10 cases. The preoperative and postoperative vertical deviation values and surgical results were compared. Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant IO disinsertion, 74% achieved an "excellent" result, 21% a "good" result, and 5% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Of the patients who had myectomy and concomitant inferior oblique disinsertion and ipsilateral superior rectus recession, 50% achieved an "excellent" result, 20% a "good" result, and 30% a "poor" result postoperatively. The difference in deviation between preoperative and postoperative values was statistically significant (P < .001). Both procedures are effective and successful in patients with superior oblique muscle palsy, but a secondary surgery may be required. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Associations of Parent-Child Anxious and Depressive Symptoms when a Caregiver Has a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Christina J. M.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily; McKee, Laura; Potts, Jennifer; Haker, Kelly; Champion, Jennifer; Compas, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between parent and child anxious and depressive symptoms controlling for co-occurring symptoms in both. One hundred and four families participated, including 131 9-15 year old children considered at risk for anxiety and/or depression due to a history of depression in a parent. Parents and children completed…

  6. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  7. Cross-cultural and social diversity of prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbreich, Uriel; Karkun, Sandhya

    2006-04-01

    The prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) is currently considered to be 10-15%. Most studies were performed with a brief unidimensional instruments (mostly the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-EPDS) with focus on depression and not on other symptoms and disorders. Most cited studies were conducted in Western economically developed countries. We reviewed the literature on prevalence of postpartum depression and depressive symptoms in a wide range of countries. 143 studies were identified reporting prevalence in 40 countries. It is demonstrated that there is a wide range of reported prevalence of PPD ranging from almost 0% to almost 60%. In some countries like Singapore, Malta, Malaysia, Austria and Denmark there are very few reports of PPD or postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas in other countries (e.g. Brazil, Guyana, Costa Rica, Italy, Chile, South Africa, Taiwan and Korea) reported postpartum depressive symptoms are very prevalent. We believe that the widely cited mean prevalence of PPD-10-15% is not representative of the actual global prevalence and magnitude of the problem, due to the wide range of reports. The variability in reported PPD might be due to cross-cultural variables, reporting style, differences in perception of mental health and its stigma, differences in socio-economic environments (e.g. poverty, levels of social support or its perception, nutrition, stress), and biological vulnerability factors. The elucidation of the underlying processes of this variability as well as the diversity of postpartum normal versus abnormal expressions of symptoms may contribute to better understanding of the diversified ante, peri- and postpartum phenomena.

  8. Baseline Depressive Symptoms Predict Subsequent Heart Disease; A 20-Year Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Moghani Lankarani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is common among patients with heart disease. Depression is also associated with worse outcomes among patients with heart disease. Fewer studies have shown whether or not baseline depressive symptoms predict subsequent heart disease in general population.

  9. Differential reporting of depressive symptoms across distinct clinical subpopulations: What DIFference does it make?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R.B.; Wardenaar, K.J.; Kessler, R.C.; Penninx, B.W.; Meijer, R.R.; de Jonge, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of differences in depressive symptom reporting across clinical groups (healthcare setting, chronic illness, depression diagnosis and anxiety diagnosis) on clinical interpretability and comparability of depression scores. Methods: Participants from the Netherlands

  10. Differential Associations Between Specific Depressive Symptoms and Cardiovascular Prognosis in Patients With Stable Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Petra W.; Whooley, Mary A.; Martens, Elisabeth J.; Na, Beeya; van Melle, Joost P.; de Jonge, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this research was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms and cardiovascular prognosis. Background Depression in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) is associated with poor cardiac prognosis. Whether certain depressive

  11. Anxiety and depression symptoms and migraine: a symptom-based approach research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Mario Fernando Prieto; Mercante, Juliane P P; Tobo, Patricia R; Kamei, Helder; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have been shown to be the most relevant psychiatric comorbidities associated with migraine, influencing its clinical course, treatment response, and clinical outcomes. Limited information is available on how specific anxiety and depression symptoms are related to migraine. Symptoms-based approach, a current trend in mental health research, may improve our understanding in migraine comorbidity. The purpose of this study was to analyze how anxiety and depression aspects are related to migraine through a symptom-based approach. We studied 782 patients from the general population who completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics, headache features, anxiety and depression symptoms. A binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between all four ratings in GAD-7 (anxiety) and PHQ-9 (depression) scales subitems as covariates, and migraine vs no headache as the outcome. The leading Odd Ratios (OR) observed in individuals with migraine relative to those without migraine were anxiety related, "Not being able to stop or control worrying" on a daily basis [OR (CI 95%)] 49.2 (13.6-178.2), "trouble relaxing" 25.7 (7.1-92.6), "Feeling nervous, anxious or on edge" on a daily basis 25.4 (6.9-93.8), and "worrying too much about different things" 24.4 (7.7-77.6). Although the hallmark symptoms of depression are emotional (hopelessness and sadness), the highest scores found were physical: apetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. Irritability had a significant increase in migraine risk [OR 3.8 (1.9-7.8) if experienced some days, 7.5 (2.7-20.7) more than half the days, and 22.0 (5.7-84.9) when experienced nearly every day]. Anxiety was more robustly associated with increase in migraine risk than depression. Lack of ability to properly control worrying and to relax are the most prominent issues in migraine psychiatric comorbidity. Physical symptoms in depression are more linked to migraine than emotional symptoms. A

  12. The Role of Body Image in the Link Between ADHD and Depression Symptoms Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eck, Kathryn; Morse, Melanie; Flory, Kate

    2018-03-01

    Given the link between negative body image and depression symptoms, body image may affect the association between ADHD and depression symptoms. We evaluated the degree to which a variety of body image constructs mediated the association between ADHD and depression symptoms. Participants were undergraduate psychology students ( N = 627, age: M = 20.23, SD = 1.40, 60% female, 47% European American) who completed an online assessment. Results indicated that ADHD symptoms were indirectly associated with increased depression symptoms, and that negative evaluation of physical appearance, overweight preoccupation, and body dissatisfaction mediated the association between ADHD and depression symptoms. ADHD symptoms were also directly associated with increased depression symptoms. Body image appears to play a role in the association between ADHD and depression symptoms for college students. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. Differences in the association of inflammation and tryptophan with depressive symptoms between white and non-white chronic dialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, Gertrud L; Loosman, Wim L; Schouten, Robbert W; Franssen, Casper F; Kema, Ido P; van Diepen, Merel; Dekker, Friedo W; Siegert, Carl E; Honig, Adriaan

    Objective: Possibly, different biochemical parameters are involved in the development of depressive symptoms in white and non-white dialysis patients. We examined whether the association between inflammation and depressive symptoms and between tryptophan and depressive symptoms differs between white

  14. Enhanced Depression Care for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Persistent Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Karina W.; Rieckmann, Nina; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Medina, Vivian; Albanese, Gabrielle; Kronish, Ian; Hegel, Mark; Burg, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are an established predictor of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or hospitalization for unstable angina or urgent/emergency revascularizations) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study was conducted to determine the acceptability and efficacy of enhanced depression treatment in patients with ACS. Methods A 3-month observation period to identify patients with ACS and persistent depressive symptoms was followed by a 6-month randomized controlled trial. From January 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008, 237 patients with ACS from 5 hospitals were enrolled, including 157 persistently depressed patients randomized to intervention (initial patient preference for problem-solving therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, then a stepped-care approach; 80 patients) or usual care (77 patients) and 80 nondepressed patients who underwent observational evaluation. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with depression care. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptom changes (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory), major adverse cardiac events, and death. Results At the end of the trial, the proportion of patients who were satisfied with their depression care was higher in the intervention group (54% of 80) than in the usual care group (19% of 77) (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–12.9 [P<.001]). The Beck Depression Inventory score decreased significantly more (t155=2.85 [P=.005]) for intervention patients (change, −5.7; 95% CI, −7.6 to −3.8; df=155) than for usual care patients (change, −1.9; 95% CI, −3.8 to −0.1; df=155); the depression effect size was 0.59 of the standard deviation. At the end of the trial, 3 intervention patients and 10 usual care patients had experienced major adverse cardiac events (4% and 13%, respectively; log-rank test, χ12=3.93 [P=.047]), as well as 5 nondepressed patients (6%) (for the intervention vs nondepressed

  15. Elevated Social Stress Levels and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Hyperhidrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Katharina M.; Schote, Andrea B.; Schneider, Katja Kerstin; Schulz, André; Meyer, Jobst

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is defined as excessive sweating of certain body areas without physiological reasons. Hyperhidrotic individuals report a high psychological strain and an impairment of their quality of life. Thus, the aim of the study is to investigate the relation between hyperhidrosis and different psychological as well as physiological aspects of chronic stress as a co-factor for the etiology of depression. In this study, forty hyperhidrotic subjects were compared to forty age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. The Trier Inventory of Chronic Stress (‘Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress’: TICS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and the Screening for Somatoform Disorders (SOMS-2) were used to examine the correlation between primary hyperhidrosis and stress as well as accompanying depressive and somatic symptoms. The cortisol awakening response of each subject was analyzed as a physiological stress correlate. In hyperhidrotics, we found a significant lack of social recognition as well as significantly more depressive symptoms compared to the control subjects. A subgroup of patients with axillary hyperhidrosis had the highest impact on these increased issues of chronic stress, pointing to a higher embarrassment in these subjects. Especially in social situations, hyperhidrotics showed higher stress levels, whereby a vicious circle of stress and sweating is triggered. However, the cortisol awakening response did not significantly differ between hyperhidrotics and controls. Moreover, affected persons suffer from more depressive symptoms, which may be caused by feelings of shame and a lack of self-confidence. This initial study provides an impetus for further investigation to reveal a causative relationship between hyperhidrosis and its psychological concomitants. PMID:24647796

  16. Anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue fever and their correlation with symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Ali M; Butt, Zeeshan; Idrees, Zaidan; Niazi, Mehreen; Yousaf, Zohaib; Haider, Syed Furqan; Bhatti, Muhammad R

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with dengue and to examine their correlation with symptom severity. In this cross sectional study, 531 consecutive patients who met the World Health Organization criteria for dengue fever admitted to Mayo Hospital, Lahore between September and November 2011 were administered the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In addition to the HADS, the severity of their symptoms, like headache, myalgias/arthralgias, fever, and retro/periorbital pain, was assessed on a 3-point scale (mild, moderate, and severe). About 60% of the patients in our study met the criteria for anxiety and 62.2% of the patients met criteria for depression. Severity of fever, headache, myalgias and arthralgias, and retro/periorbital pain was positively correlated with both anxiety (Correlation coefficients: 0.148, 0.247, 0.184, 0.184 respectively and P dengue have anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychiatric evaluation should be done in all Dengue patients so timely treatment can be initiated.

  17. Are Sensory Processing Features Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Boys with an ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.; Mills, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The association between Sensory Processing Features (SPF) and depressive symptoms was investigated at two levels in 150 young males (6-18 years) with an ASD. First, a significant correlation was found between SPF and total depressive symptom scores. Second, different aspects of SPF significantly predicted different depressive symptom factors, with…

  18. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Mothers with Infants or Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Pin Chang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Depressive symptoms were common among mothers of young children. Family function and neurotic personality were highly correlated with depressive symptoms in mothers caring for young children. Pediatric health care providers are suggested to screen for maternal depressive symptoms and provide family-oriented support in Taiwan.

  19. Trajectories of Individual Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: Gender and Family Relationships as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Depressive syndrome and disorders increase substantially during adolescence. Little is known, however, about how "individual" symptoms of depression change over the course of this developmental period. The present study examined within-person changes in symptom severity of each individual symptom of depression, utilizing longitudinal…

  20. Stress in romantic relationships and adolescent depressive symptoms: Influence of parental support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samantha F; Salk, Rachel H; Hyde, Janet S

    2015-06-01

    It is well known that stressful life events can play a role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms; however, there has been little research on romantic stress specifically. The relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms is particularly salient in adolescence, as adolescence often involves the onset of dating. This and other stressors are often dealt with in the context of the family. The present study examined the relationship between romantic stress and depressive symptoms both concurrently and prospectively, controlling for preexisting depressive symptoms. We then explored whether support from parents buffers the negative effects of romantic stress on depressive symptoms. In addition, the study sought to determine whether the benefits of support vary by parent and child gender. A community sample of 375 adolescents completed self-report measures of parental support (both maternal and paternal), romantic stress, and depressive symptoms. A behavioral measure of maternal support was also obtained. For boys and girls, romantic stress at age 15 predicted depressive symptoms at ages 15 and 18, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Perceived maternal support buffered the stress-depressive symptom relationship for both genders at age 15, even when controlling for age 13 depressive symptoms. Higher perceived paternal support was associated with lower adolescent depressive symptoms; however, it did not have a buffering effect. These results have implications for the development of effective family-centered methods to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in adolescents. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-01-01

    disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent...... is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we...... in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients...

  2. Depressive Symptoms in Bariatric Surgery Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carolyn J; Heinberg, Leslie J; Lapin, Brittany; Aminian, Ali; Sullivan, Amy B

    2018-04-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective intervention for patients with comorbid obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS); however, this sub-population may be at heightened risk for pre- and postoperative depressive symptoms. This current exploratory study aims to describe the prevalence and nature of depressive symptoms in a sample of patients with MS who undergo bariatric surgery. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who received bariatric surgery and had a diagnosis of MS (n = 31) and a control sample of non-surgical MS patients with severe obesity (n = 828). Longitudinal outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Multiple Sclerosis Performance Scale (MSPS). There were no significant differences in PHQ-9 total and item scores between groups at baseline. PHQ-9 scores significantly improved at years 1 (p bariatric surgery when compared to non-surgical controls. Higher BMI (p = 0.03) and worse overall quality of life (p bariatric group. When compared to controls, the bariatric group demonstrated improved MSPS scores on a trend level 1 year post-surgery (p = 0.08). Consistent with the literature on more general bariatric surgery populations, current findings highlight the possible early benefits of bariatric surgery for reducing depressive symptoms in this population when compared to controls. Importantly, results should be viewed as preliminary and additional research is needed to examine bariatric surgery and associations with depressive symptoms and performance in the MS population.

  3. Association between body image dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Cornejo, Fiorela; Kamego-Tome, Mayumi; Zapata-Pachas, Mariana A.; Alvarado, German F.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and depressive symptoms in adolescents from a school in Lima, Peru. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through a census of 875 high-school students, aged 13 to 17 years, from a school in Lima. Participants completed a survey containing the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Data regarding demographics, alcohol and tobacco use, self-esteem, and family histor...

  4. Depressive symptoms predict cancer caregivers' physical health decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kelly M; Kim, Youngmee; Carver, Charles S; Cannady, Rachel S

    2017-11-01

    Cancer caregiving has been associated with worsening health among caregivers themselves, yet demographic and psychosocial predictors of their long-term health decline are less known. This study examines changes in caregivers' physical health 2 to 8 years after their family members' cancer diagnosis and prospective predictors of that change. Caregivers (n = 664; mean age, 53.2 years) participated in a nationwide study at 2 (T1), 5 (T2), and 8 (T3) years after their family members' cancer diagnosis. Physical health (12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Physical Component Scale) was assessed T1 through T3 as outcome. Predictors were self-reported at T1, including caregiver demographics (age, sex, education, income, relationship to patient, and employment status), patient cancer severity (from medical records), and caregiver psychosocial factors (caregiving stress, caregiving esteem, social support, and depressive symptoms). Latent growth modeling tested predictors of caregivers' initial physical health and their physical health change across time. At T1, caregivers reported slightly better physical health than the US population (M = 51.22, P = .002), which declined over the following 6 years (M slope = -0.27, P < .001). All demographic factors, patient cancer severity, and T1 caregiving stress were related to caregivers' initial physical health (P ≤ .03). Higher depressive symptoms were unrelated to caregivers' initial physical health, but were the only significant predictor of caregivers' more rapid physical health decline (B = -0.02, P = .004). Findings highlight the unique contribution of caregivers' depressive symptoms to their physical health decline. Assessing and addressing depressive symptoms among caregivers early in the cancer survivorship trajectory may help to prevent premature health decline among this important yet vulnerable population. Cancer 2017;123:4277-4285. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Symptom Similarities and Differences in Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Sirvanli Ozen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.

  6. Religious Involvement, Gratitude, and Change in Depressive Symptoms Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    Three hypotheses are evaluated in this study. The first predicts that feelings of gratitude will offset (i.e., moderate) the deleterious effects of chronic financial strain on depressive symptoms over time. The second hypothesis specifies that people who go to church more often will be more likely to feel grateful. The third hypothesis predicts that individuals with a strong sense of God-mediated control will also feel more grateful. Data from a nationwide longitudinal study of older adults in the United States (N = 818) provide support for all three hypotheses. The data suggest that the effects of ongoing economic difficulty on depressive symptoms are especially pronounced for older people who are less grateful. But in contrast, persistent financial difficulties fail to exert a statistically significant effect on depressive symptoms over time for older individuals who are especially grateful. The results further reveal that more frequent church attendance and stronger God-mediated control beliefs are associated with positive changes in gratitude over time. PMID:20333271

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhong, Ning; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction.

  8. Cognitive Behavioral Performance of Untreated Depressed Patients with Mild Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhong, Ning; Lu, Shengfu; Wang, Gang; Feng, Lei; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the working memory performance of 18 patients experiencing their first onset of mild depression without treatment and 18 healthy matched controls. The results demonstrated that working memory impairment in patients with mild depression occurred when memorizing the position of a picture but not when memorizing the pictures themselves. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the emotional impact on the working memory, indicating that the attenuation of spatial working memory was not affected by negative emotion; however, cognitive control selectively affected spatial working memory. In addition, the accuracy of spatial working memory in the depressed patients was not significantly reduced, but the reaction time was significantly extended compared with the healthy controls. This finding indicated that there was no damage to memory encoding and function maintenance in the patients but rather only impaired memory retrieval, suggesting that the extent of damage to the working memory system and cognitive control abilities was associated with the corresponding depressive symptoms. The development of mild to severe depressive symptoms may be accompanied by spatial working memory damage from the impaired memory retrieval function extending to memory encoding and memory retention impairments. In addition, the impaired cognitive control began with an inadequate capacity to automatically process internal negative emotions and further extended to impairment of the ability to regulate and suppress external emotions. The results of the mood-congruent study showed that the memory of patients with mild symptoms of depression was associated with a mood-congruent memory effect, demonstrating that mood-congruent memory was a typical feature of depression, regardless of the severity of depression. This study provided important information for understanding the development of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26730597

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Relationship Between Genders: Differences in Young Adults in a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Ricardo Acosta Lopez Molina

    Full Text Available Abstract: Depression has a high prevalence in the general population, especially among women. There is no consensus in the scientific literature about differences between men and women in the manifestations of depressive symptoms, nor about psychotherapy indications according to gender. This research aimed to verify differences in depressive symptoms and symptoms improvement between young adult men and women with current Major Depressive Disorder and to identify differences between two brief Cognitive Psychotherapy models. Randomized clinical trial in which participants were randomized between: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Narrative Cognitive Therapy. Depressive symptoms pre and post-intervention were evaluated using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The sample was composed of 25 men and 95 women. Genital symptoms and insight were significantly different between genders. Concerning improvement in symptoms according to the psychotherapy model, CBT presented a trend toward being more effective in men. Therefore, the symptoms and improvement in depressive symptoms are manifested differently between genders.

  10. Loneliness Mediates the Relationship Between Pain During Intercourse and Depressive Symptoms Among Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Madison E; Meints, Samantha M; Hirsh, Adam T

    2018-03-06

    Previous research suggests that women who experience pain during intercourse also experience higher rates of depressive symptoms. Loneliness might be one factor that contributes to this relationship. We hypothesized that women who experience more severe and interfering pain during intercourse would report higher rates of loneliness and higher rates of depressive symptoms. Further, we hypothesized that loneliness would mediate the relationship between pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms. A total of 104 female participants (85.6% white, 74.03% partnered, 20.9 [3.01] years old) completed an online survey including demographic information, PROMIS Vaginal Discomfort Measure, PROMIS Depression Measure, and Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. Pearson correlations and bootstrapped mediation analysis examined the relationships among pain during intercourse, loneliness, and depressive symptoms. Pain during intercourse, loneliness, and depressive symptoms were all significantly correlated (p pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms (indirect effect = 0.077; 95% CI 0.05-0.19). After accounting for loneliness, pain during intercourse was not significantly related to depressive symptoms, suggesting that loneliness fully mediated the relationship between pain during intercourse and depressive symptoms. These findings are consistent with previous studies highlighting that pain during intercourse is related to depressive symptoms. The current study adds to that literature and suggests that more frequent and severe pain during intercourse leads to more loneliness, which then leads to increased depressive symptoms. This line of work has important implications for treating women who experience depressive symptoms and pain during intercourse.

  11. [Internet dependency as a symptom of depressive mood disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wildt, Bert T; Putzig, Inken; Zedler, Markus; Ohlmeier, Martin D

    2007-09-01

    In psychiatric contexts, the quick distribution of virtual techniques in private and professional everyday life gives rise to the question, if these can evoke a psychological addiction. Yet, the diagnostic assessment of internet or computer game dependency remains problematic. Within a study with 23 internet-dependent patients with significant psychological strain, 18 (77.8%) were diagnosed with a depressive mood disorder by thorough clinical examination and structured interviews. The presented work compares psychometric test results of the depressed subpopulation with healthy controls matched for age, sex and school education. In the Barrat Impulsiveness Scale patients with internet dependency scored significantly higher than the control group (p Internet Addiction Scale. Becks Depression Inventory and the Symptom-Checklist subscale for depression revealed significantly higher scores within the patient group as compared to controls (p internet dependent subjects showed significantly more pathological scores than the healthy subjects (p internet dependency can be understood as a novel psychopathology of well known psychiatric conditions, every psychiatrist should be able to detect and treat it adequately, as long as there is a willingness to deal with the contents and impacts of cyberspace. Especially with depressed patients, it seems to be crucial to include questions about media usage in psychiatric examination taking.

  12. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Subthreshold depression based on functional impairment better defined by symptom severity than by number of DSM-IV symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, J.; Hartman, C. A.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Depression with fewer symptoms than required for a DSM-IV diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has consistently been found to be associated with functional impairment. In this study, we aim to define clinically significant depression below the DSM-IV threshold for Major Depressive Disorder (MOD) by means of functional impairment. Methods: Data used are from 2157 respondents of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite International Diagnostic I...

  14. Factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females: the effect of bipolarity on depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park CM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chul Min Park,1 Hye-Jin Seo,2 Young-Eun Jung,3 Moon-Doo Kim,3 Seong-Chul Hong,4 Won-Myong Bahk,5 Bo-Hyun Yoon,6 Min Hee Hur,7 Jae Min Song31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 2Department of Psychiatry, Yeonkang Hospital, Jeju, 3Department of Psychiatry, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, 5Department of Psychiatry, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 6Department of Psychiatry, Naju National Hospital, Naju, 7School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju, KoreaBackground: This cross-sectional study sought to identify factors associated with antenatal depression in pregnant Korean females, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, and bipolarity.Methods: Eighty-four pregnant women were recruited to complete questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms, and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire.Results: Nineteen participants (22.6% had positive Mood Disorder Questionnaire scores, suggesting the presence of bipolarity, and were significantly more likely to score high on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Antenatal depression was associated with bad marital communication and marital dissatisfaction.Conclusion: These results suggest that spousal interactions play a significant role in antenatal depression, and pregnant women with bipolarity may be more depressed than those without bipolarity.Keywords: antenatal depression, bipolarity, pregnancy, Korea

  15. Avatar-based depression self-management technology: promising approach to improve depressive symptoms among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Melissa D; Hickman, Ronald L; Clochesy, John; Buchner, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is prevalent among American young adults and predisposes young adults to serious impairments in psychosocial functioning. Without intervention, young adults with depressive symptoms are at high risk for worsening of depressive symptoms and developing major depressive disorder. Young adults are not routinely taught effective depression self management skills to reduce depressive symptoms and preempt future illness. This study reports initial results of a randomized controlled trial among young adults (18-25 years of age) with depressive symptoms who were exposed to an avatar-based depression self-management intervention, eSMART-MH. Participants completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks follow-up. Participants who received eSMART-MH had a significant reduction in depressive symptoms over 3 months, while individuals in the attention-control condition had no change in symptoms. In this study, eSMART-MH demonstrated initial efficacy and is a promising developmentally appropriate depression self-management intervention for young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of maternal depressive symptoms among urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2010-04-01

    Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of chronic physical illness, maternal depressive symptoms, family functioning, and self-esteem on symptoms of anxiety and depression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Mark A; Boyle, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    The present study extends earlier research identifying an increased risk of anxiety among children with chronic physical illness (CwCPI) by examining a more complete model that explains how physical illness leads to increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. We tested a stress-generation model linking chronic physical illness to symptoms of anxiety and depression in a population-based sample of children aged 10 to 15 years. We hypothesized that having a chronic physical illness would be associated with more symptoms of anxiety and depression, increased levels of maternal depressive symptoms, more family dysfunction, and lower self-esteem; and, that maternal depressive symptoms, family dysfunction, and child self-esteem would mediate the influence of chronic physical illness on symptoms of anxiety and depression. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (N = 10,646). Mediating processes were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Childhood chronic physical illness was associated with increases in symptoms of anxiety and depression, β = 0.20, p anxiety and depression. CwCPI are at-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Some of this elevated risk appears to work through family processes and child self-esteem. This study supports the use of family-centered care approaches among CwCPI to minimize burden on families and promote healthy psychological development for children.

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression among Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Frazier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms and the self reported somatic depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II among patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and explored the impact of gender on both. A convenience sample of 789 adults (248 women and 541 men was recruited for the study during hospital admission for ACS and participants were screened for self-reported depressive symptoms. BDI-II scores of ≥14 indicate a moderate level of depressive symptoms and this cut-off score was used to categorize patients into depressed and non-depressed groups. Pearson chi-square tests for independence (categorical variables and t tests for independent samples (continuous variables were used for gender comparisons. Results showed that depressive symptoms during ACS episodes were different between women and men. Women reported greater overall depressive symptoms (BDI-II mean = 11.89, S.D. = 9.68 than men (BDI-II mean = 9.00, S.D. = 7.93 (P<0.000. Significantly more women (7.66% were identified positive for somatic depressive symptoms (sleep and appetite disturbances and fatigue than men (2.22% (P=0.0003. Findings support that there are gender differences in depressive symptoms experienced by patients hospitalized for ACS. Somatic symptoms of depression may be important indicators of depression especially among female ACS patients.

  19. Depressive symptoms after trauma: is self-esteem a mediating factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Melissa; Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël; Van der Linden, Martial

    2008-10-01

    Traumatic events have predicted depressive symptoms. Despite this consensus, it remains unclear as to whether the relationship between trauma and depression is consistently mediated by a negative cognitive schema, such as low self-esteem, or whether trauma influences mood independently of low self-esteem. This study tested these relationships while considering depressive symptom types. One hundred thirty-two students reported the number of traumatic events experienced and self-esteem and depression levels. Results indicated 2 depressive symptom types: "cognitive-affective" and "somatic." Structural Equation Modeling tested an unmediated path from trauma to depressive symptoms and a path mediated by self-esteem. Results supported the unmediated relationship between trauma and "cognitive-affective" depressive symptoms, and did not support mediation by self-esteem. Findings are discussed in view of a dimensional rather than categorical approach to depression, and in consideration of alternative symptom clusters resulting from trauma in addition to those captured by posttraumatic stress disorder.

  20. Is there an association between depressive and urinary symptoms during and after pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, G; van Brummen, H J; Bruinse, H W; Heintz, A P M; van der Vaart, C H

    2007-12-01

    Depressive symptoms and urinary symptoms are both highly prevalent in pregnancy. In the general population, an association is reported between urinary symptoms and depressive symptoms. The association of depressive and urinary symptoms has not yet been assessed in pregnancy. In this study, we assessed (1) the prevalence of depressive symptoms, over-active bladder (OAB) syndrome, urge urinary incontinence (UUI) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during and after pregnancy using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) and (2) the association of depressive symptoms with urinary incontinence and over-active bladder syndrome during and after pregnancy, controlling for confounding socioeconomic, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors in a cohort of healthy nulliparous women. Our data show a significant increase in prevalence of depressive symptoms, UUI, SUI and OAB during pregnancy and a significant reduction in prevalence of depressive symptoms, SUI and OAB after childbirth. UUI prevalence did not significantly decrease after childbirth. In univariate analysis, urinary incontinence and the OAB syndrome were significantly associated with a CES-D score indicative of a possible clinical depression at 36 weeks gestation. However, after adjusting for possible confounding factors, only the OAB syndrome remained significantly associated (OR 4.4 [1.8-10.5]). No association was found between depressive and urinary symptoms at 1 year post-partum. Only OAB was independently associated with depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Possible explanations for this association are discussed.

  1. FKBP5 moderation of depressive symptoms in peer victimized, post-institutionalized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A; Pitula, Clio E; Koss, Kalsea J; Thomas, Kathleen; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether FKBP5 rs1360780 moderates relations between different forms of life stress/adversity (early institutional rearing and peer victimization) and depressive symptoms in adolescents. As reported previously, PI youth were at risk for being victimized by peers. Here, victimization was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. While FKBP5 did not moderate the association between early life adversity and depressive symptoms for either sex, it moderated the association between current adversity and depressive symptoms for victimized girls carrying the minor allele. Consistent with a differential susceptibility model, girls with the minor allele exhibited more depressive symptoms at higher levels of victimization, but fewer depressive symptoms at lower levels of victimization. Interestingly, boys with the CC genotype had higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to girls with the CC genotype in the context of heightened victimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Term Depressive Symptoms and Acculturative Stress Issues Among Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cathy J

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies regarding depressive symptoms and acculturative stress among immigrants have been limited to the initial period after immigration. The relationships between depressive symptoms, acculturation, and acculturative stress among immigrants from the former Soviet Union were examined in this descriptive study. Eighty immigrants from the former Soviet Union who had immigrated within the past 20 years were recruited in various community locations. Participants (N = 80), including recent and longer residing immigrants, reported elevated depressive symptoms and acculturative stress. Acculturative stress predicted depressive symptoms, controlling for dominant culture (American) immersion. However, length of time in the United States was not associated with depressive symptoms, ethnic culture immersion, or acculturative stress. Our results suggest that elevated depressive symptoms are related to acculturative stress but are not confined to the initial adjustment period. Steps to decrease acculturative stress might help decrease depressive symptoms in immigrants regardless of the number of years lived in the United States. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Prediction from Clique Isolation, Loneliness, and Perceived Social Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; Brendgen, Mara; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Vitaro, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether clique isolation predicted an increase in depressive symptoms and whether this association was mediated by loneliness and perceived social acceptance in 310 children followed from age 11–14 years. Clique isolation was identified through social network analysis, whereas depressive symptoms, loneliness, and perceived social acceptance were assessed using self ratings. While accounting for initial levels of depressive symptoms, peer rejection, and friendlessness at age 11 years, a high probability of being isolated from cliques from age 11 to 13 years predicted depressive symptoms at age 14 years. The link between clique isolation and depressive symptoms was mediated by loneliness, but not by perceived social acceptance. No sex differences were found in the associations between clique isolation and depressive symptoms. These results suggest that clique isolation is a social risk factor for the escalation of depressive symptoms in early adolescence. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. PMID:20499155

  4. Obesity and depressive symptoms among Chinese people aged 45 and over

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Jiahui; Li, Ningxiu; Ren, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    We examined the controversial relationship between obesity and depression among Chinese people aged 45 and over using data from the 2013 follow-up survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the CES-D 10; overweight and obesity were defined using WHO, Asian and Chinese criteria. The proportion of depressive symptoms was 19.9% and 33.2% in men and women, respectively. Depressive symptoms decreased as BMI increased in both men a...

  5. Trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Stroo, Marissa; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms are common postpartum, few studies have followed women beyond 12 months postpartum to investigate changes in the number and severity of these symptoms over time, especially in overweight and obese women. Using two complementary analytical methods, this study aims to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese mothers, and assess the demographic, socio-economic , and health covariates for these trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal data from two behavioral intervention studies (KAN-DO and AMP; N = 844), we used latent growth modeling to identify the overall trajectory of depressive symptoms and how it was related to key covariates. Next, we used latent class growth analysis to assess the heterogeneity in the depressive symptom trajectories over time, and thereby, identify subgroups of women with distinct trajectories. Findings The overall trajectory of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum was relatively stable in our sample. However, the presence of three distinct latent class trajectories [stable-low (82.5%), decreasing symptoms (7.3%) and increasing symptoms (10.2%)], identified based on trajectory shape and mean depressive symptom score, supported heterogeneity in depressive symptom trajectories over time. Lower maternal education was related to a higher symptom score, and poorer subjective health status at baseline predicted inclusion in the increasing symptoms trajectory. Conclusions In some overweight or obese mothers postpartum depressive symptoms do not resolve quickly. Practitioners should be aware of this phenomenon and continue to screen for depression for longer periods of time postpartum. PMID:25213748

  6. Is postpartum depression a homogenous disorder: time of onset, severity, symptoms and hopelessness in relation to the course of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Pirjo; Koistinen, Eeva; Hintikka, Jukka

    2014-12-10

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common illness, but due to the underlying processes and the diversity of symptoms, some variability is exhibited. The risk of postpartum depression is great if the mother has previously suffered from depression, but there is some evidence that a certain subgroup of women only experience depression during the postpartum period. The study group consisted of 104 mothers with postpartum major depression and a control group of 104 postpartum mothers without depression. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) was used for data collection. The severity of depression and other mental symptoms were assessed using several validated rating scales. A history of past depression (82%), including depression during pregnancy (42%) and during the postpartum period (53%), was very common in those with current PPD. Eighteen per cent of mothers with current PPD had previously not had any depressive episodes and four per cent had experienced depression only during the postpartum period. Therefore, pure PPD was rare. The onset of PPD was usually (84%) within six weeks of childbirth. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, depressed mood, diminished pleasure/interest, decreased energy, and psychomotor agitation/retardation were common with all kinds of depression histories. Pure PPD was the most similar to the first depressive episode. Nevertheless, the severity of depression, the level of hopelessness, somatisation, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, psychoticism, sleep disturbance, and suicidal ideation were lower, appetite changed less, and concentration was better than in other recurrent depressions. According to this study, PPD is not a homogenous disorder. The time of onset, severity, symptoms, level of hopelessness, and the course of depression vary. Recurrent depression is common. All mothers must be screened during the sixth week postpartum at the latest. Screening alone is not

  7. Perinatal nutrition interventions and post-partum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Best, Karen; Makrides, Maria

    2017-12-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mood disorder associated with childbirth. No single cause of PPD has been identified, however the increased risk of nutritional deficiencies incurred through the high nutritional requirements of pregnancy may play a role in the pathology of depressive symptoms. Three nutritional interventions have drawn particular interest as possible non-invasive and cost-effective prevention and/or treatment strategies for PPD; omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), vitamin D and overall diet. We searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) of nutritional interventions during the perinatal period with PPD as an outcome, and checked for any trials published subsequently to the meta-analyses. Fish oil: Eleven RCT's of prenatal fish oil supplementation RCT's show null and positive effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D: no relevant RCT's were identified, however seven observational studies of maternal vitamin D levels with PPD outcomes showed inconsistent associations. Diet: Two Australian RCT's with dietary advice interventions in pregnancy had a positive and null result on PPD. With the exception of fish oil, few RCT's with nutritional interventions during pregnancy assess PPD. Further research is needed to determine whether nutritional intervention strategies during pregnancy can protect against symptoms of PPD. Given the prevalence of PPD and ease of administering PPD measures, we recommend future prenatal nutritional RCT's include PPD as an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postpartum Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    National survey data suggest that new mothers have high prevalences of alcohol and illicit drug use. Depression correlates with substance use, and new mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) may be at high risk for substance use. Understanding postpartum substance use and its relationship to PPD can inform future research and intervention. A literature search was conducted resulting in 12 studies published from 1999–2012 examining postpartum alcohol use, drug use, or combined postpartum depression and substance use. Postpartum alcohol (prevalence range 30.1%−49%) and drug use (4.5%–8.5%) were lower than use among not pregnant, not postpartum women (41.5%–57.5%; 7.6%–10.6%, respectively) but higher than use among pregnant women (5.4%–11.6%; 3.7%–4.3%, respectively). Correlates of postpartum problem drinking were being unemployed, unmarried, and a cigarette smoker. Prevalence of drug use was highest among white new mothers, followed by Blacks and Hispanics, but Black new mothers appeared at greater risk of drug use. No identified studies examined correlates of postpartum drug use beyond race/ethnicity. Postpartum depressive symptoms were prevalent among postpartum substance users and those with a substance use history (19.7%–46%). The postpartum period is a critical time. Prevalent substance use and the scarcity of studies warrant research to identify means to reduce maternal substance use. PMID:23879459

  9. Specificity in the relationship between depressive and eating disorder symptoms in remitted and nonremitted women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop, N A; Serpell, L; Treasure, J L

    2001-11-01

    There is a strong association between eating disorders and depression. However, because both eating disorder symptoms and depression are multifactorial, this study explored the relationship between these two disorders in women with eating disorders and women in remission. Two hundred and eight (mostly female) volunteers with a history of eating disorders participated. They completed a self-report questionnaire of eating disorder symptoms, the Short Evaluation for Eating Disorders (SEED), and a questionnaire measuring depression, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). According to the SEED, 57 volunteers were classified as being in remission and 151 were classified as being ill. Those who were in remission were significantly less depressed overall than those who were still ill with 72% of the former falling in the "not depressed" or "mildly depressed" categories and 73% of the latter falling in the "moderately" or "severely depressed" categories. Factor analyses of the SEED and BDI identified three subscales of eating disorder symptoms (dietary restriction, bulimia, and body mass index [BMI]/menstruation) and two subscales of depression (cognitive and somatic/affective). Dietary restriction and bulimia, but not BMI/menstruation, were uniquely associated with the cognitive symptoms of depression. However, none of the eating disorder symptoms were uniquely associated with the somatic/affective symptoms of depression. Although eating disorders and depression share considerable comorbidity, a specific association is restricted to that between the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of eating disorders and the cognitive symptoms of depression. Copyright 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Big Five personality characteristics are associated with depression subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koorevaar, A M L; Hegeman, J M; Lamers, F; Dhondt, A D F; van der Mast, R C; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the associations of personality characteristics with both subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression in older adults. Three hundred and seventy-eight depressed older adults participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons. Personality characteristics were assessed by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Subtypes and symptom dimensions of depression were determined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS). Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between personality and atypical, melancholic, and unspecified subtypes of major depression. Linear regression analyses examined the associations between personality and the IDS mood, somatic, and motivation symptom dimensions. The analyses were adjusted for confounders and additionally adjusted for depression severity. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness were associated with specified (atypical or melancholic) major depression compared with unspecified major depression in the bivariate analyses but lost their significance after adjustments for functional limitations and severity of depression. Neuroticism was positively associated with the IDS mood and motivation symptom dimensions, also in the adjusted models. Further, Extraversion and Agreeableness were negatively associated with the IDS mood symptom dimension, and Extraversion and Conscientiousness were negatively associated with the IDS motivation symptom dimension. None was associated with the IDS somatic symptom dimension. This study demonstrated the association of personality characteristics with mood and motivational symptoms of late-life depression. The lacking ability of personality to differentiate between melancholic and atypical depression seems to be largely explained by severity of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Investigation of the relationship between chronic diseases and residual symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjie; Fu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Ye; Ge, Ying

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prognosis-related influence factors of the residual symptoms after the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the second affiliated hospital of dalian medical university. Among patients who were diagnosed with BPPV and treated by CRP, the one that still show residual symptoms were enrolled in our study, then make a follow-up irregularly about the tendency of their residual symptoms' self-healing,and respectively record in their gender, age and chronic diseases and so on. Single-factor analysis and multi-factors analysis was utilized to investigate the residual symptoms' related influencing factors. In this study, 149 cases of patients were in record, for the residual symptoms, 71 patients can go to self-healing, 78 patients can not; age is 23-88, 30 cases in the young group, 46 cases in the middle aged group, 47 cases in the young elderly group, 26 cases in the elderly group; patients suffering from high blood pressure are 76 cases, 76 cases had diabetes, 47 cases had hyperlipidemia, 110 cases had heart disease, 43 cases had ischemic encephalopathy. The residual symptoms in the elderly females patients and patients suffering from the hypertension, diabetes, heart disease patients and ischemic encephalopathy are not easy to heal by itself, in which, the older and the fact suffering from the hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors influencing the prognosis of the residual symptoms.

  12. Effects of Pre-Fracture Depressive Illness and Post-Fracture Depressive Symptoms on Physical Performance Following Hip Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathbun, Alan M.; Shardell, Michelle; Orwig, Denise; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Ostir, Glenn; Hicks, Gregory E.; Miller, Ram R.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Magaziner, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the impact of pre-fracture depressive illness and post-fracture depressive symptoms on changes in physical performance after hip fracture. Design Longitudinal observational cohort. Setting Baltimore metropolitan area. Participants Older adults (n=255) with hip fracture who underwent Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) assessments at two, six, or twelve months post fracture. Measurements Pre-fracture depressive illness (from medical records) at baseline and post-fracture depressive symptoms at two months (using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale) were measured. Physical performance was measured using the SPPB, a composite metric of functional status with a score ranging from zero to twelve. Weighted estimating equations assessed mean SPPB over time comparing participants with and without pre-fracture depressive illness and subjects with and without post-fracture depressive symptoms. Results Participants with pre-fracture depressive illness had an SPPB increase of 0.4 units (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.5, 1.3) from two to six months, smaller than the increase of 1.0 SPPB unit (95% CI: 0.4, 1.6) in those without pre-fracture depressive illness. Participants with post-fracture depressive symptoms had an SPPB increase of 0.2 units (95% CI: −1.0, 1.5) from two to twelve months, while subjects without post-fracture depressive symptoms had a larger increase of 1.2 units (95% CI: 0.6, 1.8) over the same time period. However, pre-fracture depressive illness and post-fracture depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with SPPB. Conclusions Neither pre-fracture depressive illness nor post-fracture depressive symptoms were significantly associated with changes in physical performance after hip fracture, but the magnitude of estimates suggested possible clinically meaningful effects on functional recovery. PMID:27673273

  13. Trajectories of depressive symptoms among high risk African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Paula B; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2004-12-01

    To examine the trajectories of depressive symptoms among African-American youth and the psychosocial factors associated with these trajectories. The sample included 579 African-American adolescents who were at risk of dropping out of school, interviewed annually starting from ninth grade for 4 years. The measures included depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-esteem, stress, and active coping; all self-reported. We used cluster analysis to develop longitudinal trajectories of depression in our sample. Four different trajectories of depressive symptoms were found that represented the changes in depressive symptoms among the participants. These trajectories are: consistently high (15.9%), consistently low (21.1%), decreasing (41.8%), and increasing (21.2%) depressive symptoms. The results from the comparisons of the trajectories indicated that adolescents who presented consistently high levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to be female, reported more anxiety symptoms, lower self-esteem, higher stress, and lower grade point average (GPA) compared with adolescent members of the other trajectories. Depressive symptoms may be manifested in different ways according to the patterns of change. Different correlates are associated with these trajectories of depressive symptoms and provide insights about the antecedents and consequences of the patterns of change in depressive symptoms.

  14. Differential association of insulin resistance with cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A W; Gordon, J L; Lavoie, K L; Arsenault, A; Dasgupta, K; Bacon, S L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the associations of depressive symptoms with insulin resistance, evaluating somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms separately. A total of 328 individuals (mean age 60 years) referred for exercise stress testing, taking part in the Mechanisms and Outcomes of Silent Myocardial Ischemia study, completed the Beck Depression Inventory II. A fasting venous blood sample was collected for assessments of insulin and glucose level; the HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance) was calculated. In principal component analysis, Beck Depression Inventory II items were forced to load onto two components (somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms). Adjusting for age, sex, BMI, medication use, smoking, physical activity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, general linear model analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the components and log HOMA-IR . Principal component analysis showed that nine items loaded onto a cognitive depressive symptoms component and 10 items loaded onto a somatic depressive symptoms component. When examined separately, both components were significantly associated with log HOMA-IR however, when including both components simultaneously in the model, only somatic depressive symptoms remained significantly associated with log HOMA-IR. Back-transformed, a one-unit change in somatic depressive symptoms was associated with a 1.07 (95% CI 1.002, 1.14) change in HOMA-IR and a one-unit change in cognitive depressive symptoms was associated with a 1.03 (95% CI 0.97, 1.14) change in HOMA-IR. Somatic depressive symptoms seem to be more strongly associated with insulin resistance than do cognitive depressive symptoms. Monitoring somatic depressive symptoms may be more appropriate than monitoring cognitive depressive symptoms among depressed individuals with high insulin resistance. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  15. Relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms: A study using the person-centred approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ahola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We applied a person-centred approach to study the relationship between burnout and depressive symptoms at baseline and over seven years. We examined how the symptom clusters and trajectories are related to the baseline sociodemographic and psychosocial work characteristics. At baseline, burnout and depressive symptoms clustered into three groups: low, intermediate, and high level of symptoms. Four developmental trajectories – low, high, increasing and decreasing symptoms – emerged in the longitudinal analysis. The psychosocial work characteristics were reflected in the level and development of the symptoms. The results support the conceptual similarity between burnout and depressive symptoms in the work context.

  16. [Effect of mindfulness on symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjorback, Lone Overby; Rasmussen, Benita Holt; Preuss, Tua

    2014-04-14

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a manualised group intervention using mindfulness training as a means of reducing the suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric illness. A review of the literature includes 31 randomised studies. Results indicate that MBSR may improve mental health and reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Implementation in the health-care system is recommended to take place over time to secure sufficient education of MBSR teachers in Denmark.

  17. Symptom profile of depression in elderly: Is assessment with geriatric depression rating scale enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem Mehra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: This study aimed to evaluate the symptom profile, including somatic symptoms among elderly patients with first episode depression using the Geriatric depression scale (GDS-30 and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15 items version scale. Additional aims were to carry out the factor analysis of symptoms reported on GDS-30 and PHQ-15 among elderly. Methodology: Seventy-nine elderly patients (age ≥60 years were evaluated on GDS-30 item Hindi version and Hindi version of the PHQ-15. Results: As per GDS-30, the most common symptom noted among elderly was “dropped many of your activities and interests” (91.1%, mind not as clear as it used (88.6%, feeling that life is empty (86.1%, bothered by thoughts you cannot get out of your head (86.1% and hard to get started on new projects (86.1%, prefer to avoid social gatherings (86.1%. All patients reported at least one somatic complaint as per PHQ-15. The most common somatic symptoms were trouble sleeping (97.5%, feeling tired or having little energy (96.2%, feeling that the heart is racing (52.9%, constipation, loose bowels, or diarrhea (49.6%, shortness of breath (46.8%, nausea, gas or indigestion (45.6%, pain in the arms, legs, or joints (43.3%, and back pain (41.8%. The prevalence of somatic symptoms was not influenced to a large extent by the demographic variables, clinical variables and presence or absence of physical comorbidity. However, the severity of somatic symptoms correlated positively with GDS-30 score. Factor analysis of Hindi version of GDS-30 yielded a four-factor solution, which was similar to many studies across the world. The addition of items of PHQ-15 items of factor analysis still yielded a four-factor solution. Factor 1 of combined GDS-30 and PHQ-15 items included items only from GDS-30 and Factor 3 and 4 included items only from PHQ-15. There was some overlap of items on Factor 2. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GDS-30 does not tap all the

  18. Effects of stress, health competence, and social support on depressive symptoms after cardiac hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Pérez, Gabriela; Wallston, Kenneth A; Goggins, Kathryn M; Poppendeck, Heidi M; Kripalani, Sunil

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the role of stress on the psychological well-being of patients after cardiac hospitalization or about factors that protect against or exacerbate the effects of stress. We use prospective data from 1542 patients to investigate the relationship between post-discharge stress and changes in depressive symptoms, and whether the level of prior depressive symptoms, health competence, and perceived social support moderate this relationship. Net of depressive symptoms in the 2 weeks prior to hospitalization, higher levels of post-discharge stress significantly increase depressive symptoms 30 days after discharge. The level of prior depressive symptoms moderates the effect of stress. On the other hand, perceived health competence and social support buffer the negative effects of post-discharge stress. Knowing which patients are particularly vulnerable to experiencing stress and a subsequent increase in depressive symptoms can help trigger interventions prior to discharge and possibly ameliorate the prevalence of depression.

  19. Use of health services in people with multiple sclerosis with and without depressive symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ytterberg, Charlotte; Lundqvist, Sanna; Johansson, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To organize tailored healthcare for people with multiple sclerosis (MS), knowledge about patterns in the use of healthcare among subgroups, such as those with depressive symptoms, is essential. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare the use of health services...... in people with MS and depressive symptoms, and without depressive symptoms over a period of 30 months. METHODS: Data on the use of health services by 71 people with MS and depressive symptoms, and 102 with no depressive symptoms were collected from a computerised register and by interview, then categorized....... CONCLUSIONS: The issues underlying the differences in the use of healthcare need to be explored further, as well as the plausible implications for the organization of healthcare services for people with MS and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, the life situations of caregivers of people with MS and depressive...

  20. Heterogeneity in youth depressive symptom trajectories: social stratification and implications for young adult physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K A S; Wickrama, Thulitha; Lott, Ryan

    2009-10-01

    The first objective of this study was to investigate young adult physical health implications of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories. The second objective was to investigate the social stratification of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories. Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The analysis included the identification of depressive symptom trajectory groups. These four groups were then compared in terms of socioeconomic characteristics and change in physical health problems, from adolescence to young adulthood. Youth in the chronically high, increasing, and decreasing depressive symptoms groups showed significantly higher increases in physical health problems and poorer socioeconomic characteristics than did the consistently low group. The associations of adolescent depressive symptom trajectory groups with changes in physical health provide evidence for the etiological processes through which depression influences physical health. Differing socioeconomic characteristics of depressive symptom trajectory groups suggest social stratification of trajectories.

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Initiation Among HIV-infected Russian Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodness, Tracie M.; Palfai, Tibor P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of depressive symptoms on ART initiation among Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers enrolled in a secondary HIV prevention trial (HERMITAGE) was examined. We assessed 133 participants eligible for ART initiation (i.e., CD4 count ART at baseline. Depressive symptom severity and ART use were measured at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Association between depressive symptoms and subsequent ART initiation was evaluated using GEE logistic regression adjusting for gender, past ART use, injection drug use and heavy drinking. Depressive symptom severity was not significantly associated with lower odds of initiating ART. Cognitive depression symptoms were not statistically significant (global p=0.05); however, those with the highest level of severity had an AOR of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.09–0.71) for delayed ART initiation. Although the effect of depression severity was not significant, findings suggest a potential role of cognitive depression symptoms in decisions to initiate ART in this population. PMID:24337725

  2. Stress-Related Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation: The Roles of Rumination and Depressive Symptoms Vary by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1375 young adults, primarily non-White (78 %) females (72 %), recruited from a public university in the Northeastern U.S., who completed measures of stress-related symptoms (as a response to a stressful event), rumination, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. The relation between stress-related symptoms and suicidal ideation was accounted for by the brooding subtype of rumination and depressive symptoms among females. Depressive symptoms, but not rumination, better accounted for suicidal ideation among males. These findings suggest that the role of brooding and depressive symptoms in the relationship between stress-related symptoms and suicidal ideation may vary by gender. PMID:27695146

  3. Moderators of the effects of indicated group and bibliotherapy cognitive behavioral depression prevention programs on adolescents' depressive symptoms and depressive disorder onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M; Stice, Eric

    2015-12-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Moderators of the Effects of Indicated Group and Bibliotherapy Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Programs on Adolescents’ Depressive Symptoms and Depressive Disorder Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of cognitive behavioral group-based (CB group) and bibliotherapy depression prevention programs. Using data from two trials (N = 631) wherein adolescents (M age = 15.5, 62% female, 61% Caucasian) with depressive symptoms were randomized into CB group, CB bibliotherapy, or an educational brochure control condition, we evaluated the moderating effects of individual, demographic, and environmental factors on depressive symptom reductions and major depressive disorder (MDD) onset over 2-year follow-up. CB group and bibliotherapy participants had lower depressive symptoms than controls at posttest but these effects did not persist. No MDD prevention effects were present in the merged data. Relative to controls, elevated depressive symptoms and motivation to reduce depression amplified posttest depressive symptom reduction for CB group, and elevated baseline symptoms amplified posttest symptom reduction effects of CB bibliotherapy. Conversely, elevated substance use mitigated the effectiveness of CB group relative to controls on MDD onset over follow-up. Findings suggest that both CB prevention programs are more beneficial for youth with at least moderate depressive symptoms, and that CB group is more effective for youth motivated to reduce their symptoms. Results also imply that substance use reduces the effectiveness of CB group-based depression prevention. PMID:26480199

  5. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. PMID

  6. Differential associations between depressive symptoms and glycaemic control in outpatients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, M.; Pouwer, F.; de Jonge, P.; Tack, C. J.; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P. H. L. M.; Snoek, F. J.

    Aims Depression is common in people with diabetes, and related to higher HbA1c levels. Depression, however, is a heterogeneous construct that involves a variety of symptoms. As little is known about the associations of individual depressive symptoms with HbA1c, we explored these associations in

  7. Organizational and Individual Conditions Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Nursing Home Residents over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie, Kimberly M.; Cassie, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of organizational culture and climate on depressive symptoms among nursing home residents. Design and Methods: Using a pooled cross-sectional design, this study examines a sample of 23 nursing homes, 1,114 employees, and 5,497 residents. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Minimum Data Set, Depression Rating…

  8. Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Elementary School Children: Child Social-Cognitive Factors and Parenting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui; Oi Poon, Scarlet Fung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined child cognitive-behavioural factors and parenting factors related to childhood depressive symptoms. Results indicate that positive and negative attributional styles were protective and vulnerable factors of depression symptoms, respectively, and the attribution-depression link was mediated by self-esteem and coping responses.…

  9. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Symptoms of Major Depression in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahl, Tonje; Steinsbekk, Silje; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-02-01

    The prospective relation between physical activity and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-defined major depression in middle childhood is unknown, as is the stability of depression. We therefore aimed to (1) determine whether there are reciprocal relations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior, on one hand, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition defined symptoms of major depressive disorder, on the other and (2) assess the extent of stability in depressive symptoms from age 6 to 10 years. A community sample of children living in Trondheim, Norway, comprising a total of 795 6-year-old children was followed up at 8 (n = 699) and 10 (n = 702) years of age. Physical activity was recorded by accelerometry and symptoms of major depression were measured through semistructured clinical interviews of parents and children. Bidirectional relationships between MVPA, sedentary activity, and symptoms of depression were analyzed through autoregressive cross-lagged models, and adjusted for symptoms of comorbid psychiatric disorders and BMI. At both age 6 and 8 years, higher MVPA predicted fewer symptoms of major depressive disorders 2 years later. Sedentary behavior did not predict depression, and depression predicted neither MVPA nor sedentary activity. The number of symptoms of major depression declined from ages 6 to 8 years and evidenced modest continuity. MVPA predicts fewer symptoms of major depression in middle childhood, and increasing MVPA may serve as a complementary method to prevent and treat childhood depression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  11. Depressive Symptoms and Romantic Relationship Qualities from Adolescence through Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Examination of Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujeva, Hana M.; Furman, Wyndol

    2011-01-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated the negative consequences of depression on adolescents' functioning in peer and family relationships, but little work has examined how depressive symptoms affect the quality of adolescents' and emerging adults' romantic relationships. Five waves of data on depressive symptoms, romantic relationship conflict,…

  12. The role of bullying in depressive symptoms from adolescence to emerging adulthood: A growth mixture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M; Mellick, William; Temple, Jeff R; Sharp, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The present study sought to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms in adolescence and emerging adulthood using a school-based sample of adolescents assessed over a five-year period. The study also examined whether bully and cyberbully victimization and perpetration significantly predicted depressive symptom trajectories. Data from a sample of 1042 high school students were examined. The sample had a mean age of 15.09 years (SD=.79), was 56.0% female, and was racially diverse: 31.4% Hispanic, 29.4% White, and 27.9% African American. Data were examined using growth mixture modeling. Four depressive symptoms trajectories were identified, including those with a mild trajectory of depressive symptoms, an increasing trajectory of depressive symptoms, an elevated trajectory of depressive symptoms, and a decreasing trajectory of depressive symptoms. Results indicated that bully victimization and cyberbully victimization differentially predicted depressive symptoms trajectories across adolescence, though bully and cyberbully perpetration did not. Limitations include reliance on self-reports of bully perpetration and a limited consideration of external factors that may impact the course of depression. These findings may inform school personnel in identifying students' likely trajectory of depressive symptoms and determining where depression prevention and treatment services may be needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Whited

    Full Text Available An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02. Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  14. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  15. Distress Related to Individual Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-sectional Study in Thai Patients with Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungpetchwong, T; Likhitsathian, S; Jaranai, S; Srisurapanont, M

    2017-09-01

    To examine the distress related to individual depressive symptoms, the correlation between symptom distress and disability, and the gender difference in distress levels in patients with major depressive disorder. This was a cross-sectional, observational study carried out at a university hospital providing tertiary care in northern Thailand. Participants were patients with major depressive disorder aged between 18 and 65 years. Depression severity was self-rated using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). We expanded the 9 symptom items of the PHQ-9 into 13 individual symptoms. The participants rated their distress for each symptom on a scale of 0 to 4, from 0 indicating 'not at all' to 4 indicating 'extremely'. A total of 130 (92 female and 38 male) patients with major depressive disorder participated in this study. Of the 13 symptoms, the distress level of overeating was lowest. Compared with overeating, the distress levels of feeling depressed / hopeless, feeling guilty, poor concentration, anhedonia, initial insomnia, middle / terminal insomnia, and fatigue were significantly higher and had a large effect size of differences (p difference between men and women on any symptom. Depressive symptoms related to high distress levels and moderately correlated with functional impairment were feeling depressed / hopeless, feeling guilty, poor concentration, and anhedonia.

  16. Comparing cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression in myocardial infarction patients and depressed patients in primary and mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, N.A.; Doornbos, B.; Zuidersma, M.; Vogelzangs, N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Aleman, A.; de Jonge, P.

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  17. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  18. Feasibility and effect of aerobic exercise for lowering depressive symptoms among individuals with traumatic brain injury: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Marika; Harris, Jocelyn E; Thomas, Scott; Keightley, Michelle; Snaiderman, Abe; Colantonio, Angela

    2012-01-01

    : To establish the feasibility and effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on symptoms of depression among individuals with traumatic brain injury. : A pre-post single group. : our community dwelling participants (>11 months postinjury) with residual physical impairment recruited from an outpatient clinic. : 12-week aerobic exercise program. : The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; aerobic capacity (cycle ergometer, heart rate at reference resistance, perceived exertion); Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and program perception (survey). : Descriptive statistics to depict change in outcome measure scores. Answers from the survey were collated and presented as summary statements. : All participants had fewer symptoms of depression, improved aerobic capacity and higher self esteem after the intervention. High satisfaction with the program was reported with no adverse effects. : The aerobic exercise program was feasible and effective for individuals with traumatic brain injury, leading to improved mood, cardiovascular fitness, and self-esteem. Future research is needed to determine the intensity, frequency, and duration required to reach and maintain improvement.

  19. Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Young Athletes Using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Weber

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011, hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences. The survey was carried out within the scope of the study “Resistance Training in Young Athletes” (KINGS-Study. Between August 2015 and September 2016, 326 young athletes aged (mean ± SD 14.3 ± 1.6 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD Scale. Regarding the analysis of age on the anxiety and depression subscales, age groups were classified as follows: late childhood (12–14 years and late adolescence (15–18 years. The participating young athletes were recruited from Olympic weight lifting, handball, judo, track and field athletics, boxing, soccer, gymnastics, ice speed skating, volleyball, and rowing. Anxiety and depression scores were (mean ± SD 4.3 ± 3.0 and 2.8 ± 2.9, respectively. In the subscale anxiety, 22 cases (6.7% showed subclinical scores and 11 cases (3.4% showed clinical relevant score values. When analyzing the depression subscale, 31 cases (9.5% showed subclinical score values and 12 cases (3.7% showed clinically important values. No significant differences were found between male and female athletes (p ≥ 0.05. No statistically significant differences in the HADS scores were found between male athletes of late childhood and late adolescents (p ≥ 0.05. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing questionnaire based indicators of symptoms of anxiety and depression in young

  20. Similarity in depressive symptom profile in a population-based study of migrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, A.C.; de Wit, M.A.S.; Rijmen, F.; Tuinebreijer, W.C.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Kupka, R.W.; Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Depression is a clinical syndrome developed in Western Europe and North-America. The expression of symptoms and the impact of symptoms on functioning may therefore be expected to vary across cultures and languages. Our first aim was to study differences in depressive symptom profile

  1. Temperament, Character, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms: Focusing on Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive (PA and negative affect (NA are two separate systems markers of subjective well-being and measures of the state depression (low PA combined with high NA. The present study investigated differences in temperament, character, locus of control, and depressive symptoms (sleep quality, stress, and lack of energy between affective profiles in an adolescent sample. Participants (=304 were categorized into four affective profiles: “self-fulfilling” (high PA, low NA, “high affective” (high PA, high NA, “low affective” (low PA, low NA, and “self-destructive” (low PA, high NA. Personality was measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory and affective profiles by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. The “self-fulfilling” profile was characterized by, compared to the other affective profiles, higher levels of sleep quality, less stress and more energy and also higher levels of persistence and a mature character (i.e., high scores in self-directedness and cooperativeness. “Self-destructive” adolescents reported higher levels of external locus of control, high scores in harm avoidance and reward dependence combined with less mature character. The results identify the importance of character maturity in well-being and suggest that depressive state can be positively influenced by promoting positive emotions which appears to be achieved by character development.

  2. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among college students and the influence of sport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglesić, Boran; Lasić, Davor; Zuljan-Cvitanović, Marija; Buković, Damir; Karelović, Deni; Delić-Brkljacić, Diana; Buković, Nevia; Radan, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The present study asses the prevalence of depressive symptoms among college students in Split, Croatia, and positive influence of sport activity on decreasing the depression symptoms. Authors screened all 664 college students of the first year of study. All of them were over the 18 years and the mean age was 19.4 +/- 1.2 years. There were 466 females (70.2%) and 178 (26.8%) males. They answered The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and questionnaire about their sport activity (no sport activity, recreational and active in sports). For the purpose of the analysis depressive symptoms were defined as a score of > 11. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. 9.4% of the students had significant depression symptoms (score > 11). No one student had score > 26 (symptoms of major depression). Statistically significant lower score on BDI have students who are active in sports (score median = 3) compared to group of recreational (score median = 4) and in correlation to group who are not active in sports (score median = 5) (Kruskal-Wallis: p depressions symptoms, while in the group of non active in sports (N = 60) are 18 depressive (chi2-test: p = 0,005). Females are statistically more depressed than males (chi2-test: p = 0.01). In the female group 49 (10.5%) are depressed, and in the male group are 9 (5%). Compared to gender in separate analysis we did not find correlation of decreasing depression symptoms and sport activity among males (chi2-test: p = 0.47), while in females we find that sport activity has significant effect (chi2-test: p = 0.026). Our results shoved moderate values of depression symptoms among college population in Split, Croatia. More females than males experienced depressive symptoms. While sport activity did not have significant influence on the depression in male population, it has significant influence in reducing the depression symptoms among females.

  3. Depression symptoms reduce physical activity in COPD patients : a prospective multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duenas-Espin, Ivan; Demeyer, Heleen; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Rabinovich, Roberto A.; Dobbels, Fabienne; Karlsson, Niklas; Troosters, Thierry; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; de Jong, Corina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of anxiety and depression in the physical activity (PA) of patients with COPD is controversial. We prospectively assessed the effect of symptoms of anxiety and depression on PA in COPD patients. Methods: We evaluated anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale

  4. Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Perceived Stress, and Fetal Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Wing, Deborah A; Albert, Paul; Kim, Sungduk; Grewal, Jagteshwar; Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Chien, Edward K; Owen, John; D'Alton, Mary E; Wapner, Ronald; Sciscione, Anthony; Grantz, Katherine L

    2017-08-01

    To determine whether longitudinal fetal growth is altered among pregnant women reporting greater perceived stress or more symptoms of depression. This analysis was based on a multicenter longitudinal study of fetal growth. Women were screened at gestational ages of 8 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days for low-risk status and underwent serial sonographic examinations. At each study visit during pregnancy, women were asked to complete the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Growth curves for estimated fetal weight and individual biometric parameters were created by using linear mixed models with cubic splines and compared on the basis of whether women scored 15 or higher on the PSS or 10 or higher on the EPDS either at the start of or at any time during pregnancy. Of the 2334 women enrolled in the study, 2088 (89%) and 2108 (90%) completed the PSS and EPDS, respectively, at least once in all trimesters. The longitudinal growth curves of estimated fetal weight as well as all individual biometric parameters were similar (P > .05) regardless of whether the participants reported PSS of 15 or higher or EPDS of 10 or higher in the first trimester or whether these scores persisted throughout the pregnancy. Similarly, effect modification by race/ethnicity was not statistically significant for the biometric parameters under study (P > .05 for all race/ethnicity interactions). More depressive symptoms and greater perceived stress, as quantified by the EPDS and the PSS, respectively, are not associated with alterations in fetal growth throughout gestation. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Change in self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms at follow-up after intensive multimodal psychotherapy for major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Ehrenthal, Johannes C; Nikendei, Christoph; Schauenburg, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Reduced self-esteem is a core symptom of depression, but few studies have investigated within-treatment change of self-esteem as a predictor of long-term outcome in depression. This study investigated change in self-esteem during 8 weeks of multimodal, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy for 40 depressed patients and tested whether it would predict outcome 6 months after termination. Data was drawn from a randomized clinical pilot trial on day-clinic versus inpatient psychotherapy for depression. Findings supported the association between change in self-esteem and follow-up depression severity, even when controlling for within-treatment symptom change. Change in self-esteem was not related to overall symptoms and interpersonal problems at follow-up. Thus, change in self-esteem may be an important variable in preventing relapse for depression. Self-esteem is related to depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems. Improvement of self-esteem during psychotherapy correlates with improvements of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Change of self-esteem during psychotherapy predicts depressive symptoms 6 months after termination of therapy. When treating depressed patients, psychotherapists should work towards an improvement of self-esteem in order to prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinseok; Noh, Jin-Won; Park, Jumin; Kwon, Young Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background There are conflicting results about the association between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in older adults. The present study examined the relationship between weight and depressive symptoms over time in older adults in South Korea. Methods We used data from three waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and ran a series of cross-lagged panel models to test the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity in older Korean adults. We assumed a temporally stable relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity and, thus imposed equality constraints over time. Results After controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms two years prior, underweight older adults had a higher depressive symptom score than those of normal weight. When controlling for obesity status from two years prior, older adults with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than normal weight. The same patterns were observed in data from 2006 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions These results show that there is a correlation between depressive symptoms and weight status. In middle-aged and elderly Asian populations, depression can lead to weight loss rather than obesity, and underweight may develop depressive symptoms. PMID:25501372

  7. [Quality of life and depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with uterus cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorag, Leszek; Florkowski, Antoni; Zboralski, Krzysztof; Macander, Marian; Nowacka, Agata; Flinik-Jankowska, Magdalena; Strójwas, Krzysztof; Krajewska, Katarzyna; Przybyszewska, Monika; Wierzbiński, Piotr

    2014-10-01

    In the present study quality of life and depressive symptoms as well as the influence of illness on emotional state in patients with diagnosis of uterus cancer was evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate quality of life and depressive symptoms in women diagnosed with uterus cancer who underwent surgical treatment and complementary therapy. The study has been conducted on randomly chosen group of 100 patients diagnosed with uterus cancer who underwent surgical treatment and adjunctive therapy. Surveys has been conducted 6 months after completed therapy when no recurrence of carcinomatous disease was confirmed. Quality of life was evaluated using quality of life questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 and depressive symptoms were measured by means of Beck's depression self-rating scale. In the conducted study in most cases patients with diagnosis of uterus cancer didn't show symptoms of depression and in 40% of patients there were mild symptoms of depressive disorder. The results show that patients without depressive symptoms had better quality of life compared to those with concomitant depressive symptoms and it was statistically significant. Patients with diagnosed uterus cancer in whom no symptoms of depression were detected presented with better quality of life compared to patients with depressive symptoms. Emotional state of patients with uterus cancer can be an important factor influencing their quality of life.

  8. Parent pain catastrophizing predicts child depressive symptoms in youth with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Leever, Alana; Cohen, Lindsey L; Dampier, Carlton; Sil, Soumitri

    2018-03-07

    Youth with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at risk for recurrent pain and depressive symptoms, both of which contribute to poorer health outcomes. Furthermore, youth and family coping with child pain, including pain catastrophizing, is known to be associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment and greater functional disability among youth with SCD. In particular, child catastrophizing about pain and parent catastrophizing about their child's pain have been linked to increased pain and depressive symptoms in youth with chronic pain conditions. Despite this, the impact of child and parent pain catastrophizing on depressive symptoms remains unexplored in pediatric SCD. The current study evaluated the predictive value of child and parent pain catastrophizing on child depressive symptoms in a sample of 100 youth with SCD. Differences in child and parent pain catastrophizing across youth with and without clinically elevated depressive symptoms were also examined. Pain frequency and parent and child pain catastrophizing accounted for 35.9% of variance in child depressive symptoms, with only pain frequency and parent pain catastrophizing emerging as unique predictors of clinically elevated depressive symptoms. Additionally, parents of youth with clinically elevated depressive symptoms showed increased helplessness relative to parents of youth with minimal to mild depressive symptoms. Findings support the value of depression screening and interventions to promote parent self-efficacy in managing childhood SCD pain. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  10. Early adolescent substance use as a risk factor for developing conduct disorder and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian T; McCarty, Carolyn A; Mason, W Alex; King, Kevin M; Baer, John S; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Conduct disorder and depression symptoms are well-established risk factors for substance use during adolescence. However, few investigations have examined whether early substance use increases adolescents' risk of developing conduct disorder/depression symptoms. Using the Developmental Pathways Project sample of 521 middle school students (51.6% male), we tested whether substance use (indicated by alcohol and marijuana use, and use-related impairment) in 8th and 9th grade increased risk of conduct disorder and depression symptoms in 9th and 12th grade over and above prior symptoms. We examined whether associations between substance use and conduct disorder/depression symptoms were consistent across self- or parent-reported symptoms and whether associations were moderated by gender. Analyses indicated that, over and above prior symptoms, elevated substance use in 8th grade predicted elevated conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade, and substance use in 9th grade predicted conduct disorder symptoms in 12th grade. In contrast, substance use failed to predict later depression symptoms independent of prior symptoms. These findings were consistent across self- and parent-reported conduct disorder/depression symptoms. With one exception (association between substance use in 8th grade and self-reported conduct disorder symptoms in 9th grade), relations between early substance use and later conduct disorder symptoms did not differ between boys and girls. Study findings underscore the unique contribution of substance use during early adolescence to the development of conduct disorder symptoms by late adolescence.

  11. The structure of the symptoms of major depression: exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in depressed Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Aggen, S; Shi, S; Gao, J; Li, Y; Tao, M; Zhang, K; Wang, X; Gao, C; Yang, L; Liu, Y; Li, K; Shi, J; Wang, G; Liu, L; Zhang, J; Du, B; Jiang, G; Shen, J; Zhang, Z; Liang, W; Sun, J; Hu, J; Liu, T; Wang, X; Miao, G; Meng, H; Li, Y; Hu, C; Li, Y; Huang, G; Li, G; Ha, B; Deng, H; Mei, Q; Zhong, H; Gao, S; Sang, H; Zhang, Y; Fang, X; Yu, F; Yang, D; Liu, T; Chen, Y; Hong, X; Wu, W; Chen, G; Cai, M; Song, Y; Pan, J; Dong, J; Pan, R; Zhang, W; Shen, Z; Liu, Z; Gu, D; Wang, X; Liu, X; Zhang, Q; Flint, J; Kendler, K S

    2014-05-01

    The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome? Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples. The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety. MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.

  12. Clinical and Cognitive Correlates of Depressive Symptoms among Youth with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Asarnow, Joan R.; Langley, Audra; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2010-01-01

    Depression is the most common comorbidity among adults with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), yet little is known about depressive symptoms in childhood OCD. This study examined clinical and cognitive variables associated with depressive symptomatology in 71 youths (62% male, mean age= 12.7 years) with primary OCD. Youths presented with a range of depressive symptoms, with 21% scoring at or above the clinical cutoff on the self-report measure of depression. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of cognitive distortions assessed on measures of insight, perceived control, competence, and contingencies. Depressive symptoms were also linked to older age and more severe OCD. Low perceived control and self-competence and high OCD severity independently predicted depression scores. PMID:20706915

  13. The Rise and Fall of Depressive Symptoms and Academic Stress in Two Samples of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Erin T; Howard, Andrea L; Villemaire-Krajden, Rosanne; Galambos, Nancy L

    2018-02-22

    Self-reported depressive experiences are common among university students. However, most studies assessing depression in university students are cross-sectional, limiting our understanding of when in the academic year risk for depression is greatest and when interventions may be most needed. We examined within-person change in depressive symptoms from September to April. Study 1 (N = 198; 57% female; 72% white; Mage = 18.4): Depressive symptoms rose from September, peaked in December, and fell across the second semester. The rise in depressive symptoms was associated with higher perceived stress in December. Study 2 (N = 267; 78.7% female; 67.87% white; Mage = 21.25): Depressive symptoms peaked in December and covaried within persons with perceived stress and academic demands. The results have implications for understanding when and for whom there is increased risk for depressive experiences among university students.

  14. Longitudinal relationship of depressive and anxiety symptoms with dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Reedt Dortland, A.K.B.; Giltay, E.J.; van Veen, T.; Zitman, F. G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  15. Longitudinal Relationship of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms With Dyslipidemia and Abdominal Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: Previous research indicates that patients with severe symptoms of depression or anxiety are prone toward the development of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity. We sought to study these associations longitudinally. Methods: Among 2126 Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

  16. Temperament, parenting, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of preadolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Winter, Andrea F. de; Verhulst, Frank C.

    Background: Depressive symptoms can be triggered by negative social experiences and individuals' processing of these experiences. This study focuses on the interaction between temperament, perceived parenting, and gender in relation to depressive problems in a Dutch population sample of

  17. Negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery accentuate the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Meghan E; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2018-03-01

    When exposed to stressful life events, a significant number of adolescents will experience depressive symptoms. One model of depression suggests that individuals with a negative cognitive style are most vulnerable to depression following life stress. Alternatively, altered activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may explain vulnerability to depression following life stress. Each of these models plausibly explains the emergence of depressive symptoms during adolescence and have been investigated largely independently. The current study recruited a sample of urban adolescents (N = 179) to evaluate whether cortisol response to a laboratory stress induction and negative cognitive style are related and whether they independently interact with exposure to stressful life events to predict symptoms of depression. Negative cognitive style was not associated with cortisol response to the laboratory stressor. Rather, negative cognitive style and cortisol recovery independently interacted with stressful life events to predict current symptoms of depression. Results support a heterogeneous etiology of depression.

  18. Functional communication as a predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J L; Datto, G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  19. Variability in depressive symptoms predicts cognitive decline in age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Leiby, Benjamin E

    2009-07-01

    The measurement of affective symptoms in older persons who decline cognitively is uncertain. The authors investigated whether mood variability predicts dementia in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Three-year observational study after a clinical trial. Community follow-up of outpatients ascertained from retina clinics. One hundred sixty patients with AMD. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) administered every 2 weeks for 6 months to subjects; Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) administered to subjects' knowledgeable informants. Twenty-three subjects (14.4%) declined cognitively. Age, education, baseline GDS score > or =5, and variability in GDS scores (i.e., fluctuations between adjacent time points) were associated with cognitive decline. For GDS variability, each 1 unit increase in the residual standard deviation (SD) of the GDS increased the risk for cognitive decline by 93% (IDR = 1.92; 95% CI [1.27-2.91]). Thus, subjects with a residual SD of 1 were nearly twice as likely to become demented as subjects with no variability in GDS scores. The risk for subjects with SDs of 2 increased more than threefold (IDR = 3.68; 95% CI [1.61-8.47]). A multiple regression analysis showed that GDS variability was a significant risk factor for dementia after controlling for significant covariates. These data suggest a useful approach to conceptualizing and measuring depressive symptoms in older persons. Variability in self-reported mood may be an early sign of dementia and may offer new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms linking depression and cognition

  20. Prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms in Lyme neuroborreliosis after pharmacological treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dersch, R; Sommer, H; Rauer, S; Meerpohl, J J

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists about residual symptoms after pharmacological treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Reports of disabling long-term sequels lead to concerns in patients and health care providers. We systematically reviewed the available evidence from studies reporting treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis to assess the prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms after treatment. A literature search was performed in three databases and three clinical trial registers to find eligible studies reporting on residual symptoms in patients after pharmacological treatment of LNB. Diagnosis must have been performed according to consensus-derived case definitions. No restrictions regarding study design or language were set. Symptom prevalence was pooled using a random-effects model. Forty-four eligible clinical trials and studies were found: 8 RCTs, 17 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 case series. The follow-up period in the eligible studies ranged from 7 days to 20 years. The weighted mean proportion of residual symptoms was 28 % (95 % CI 23-34 %, n = 34 studies) for the latest reported time point. Prevalence of residual symptoms was statistically significantly higher in studies using the "possible" case definition (p = 0.0048). Cranial neuropathy, pain, paresis, cognitive disturbances, headache, and fatigue were statistically significantly lower in studies using the "probable/definite" case definition. LNB patients may experience residual symptoms after treatment with a prevalence of approximately 28 %. The prevalence and spectrum of residual symptoms differ according to the applied case definition. Symptoms like fatigue are not reported in studies using the "probable/definite" case definition. As the "possible" case definition is more unspecific, patients with other conditions may be included. Reports of debilitating fatigue and cognitive impairment after LNB, a "post-Lyme syndrome", could therefore be an artifact of unspecific case definitions in single

  1. SCREENING FOR SYMPTOMS OF DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN ADOLESCENTS AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Avani C.; Driscoll, Kimberly A.; Montag-Leifling, Karen; Acton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Although studies have assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), few have been conducted since the advent of new medical treatments (e.g., nebulized antibiotics, ThAIRpy Vest). Study objectives were to: 1) document symptoms of depression and anxiety for adolescents and young adults with CF and compare with normative values, 2) examine the associations among depressive/anxiety symptoms and gender, age, lung function, and body mass index, and 3) determine the relations between adolescent and caregiver symptoms of depression and anxiety. Methods Patients and caregivers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anytime (e.g. beginning or end) during routine CF clinic appointments. Results Participants included 59 adolescents/young adults with CF (Mage = 15.8 years, 54% female, 98% Caucasian, MFEV1 % predicted = 84.6) and caregivers of 40 adolescents. Although symptom scores were in the normative range for patients with CF (MDepression = 2.27 and MAnxiety = 5.59), 3% and 32% exhibited clinically elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were significantly associated with age (r = 0.28, 0.36). Symptoms of depression and anxiety were also positively correlated (r = 0.48). Females endorsed higher anxiety symptoms than males. While adolescent and caregiver anxiety scores were not related, higher caregiver depressive symptoms were associated with older patient age and worse lung function. Conclusions Data from the current study suggest low levels of depressive symptoms and substantial levels of anxiety symptoms in adolescents and young adults with CF. Consistent with prior literature, depressive symptoms appear higher in older patients and are significantly associated with anxiety symptoms. Caregiver symptomology appears to be more affected by an adolescent’s health status, suggesting a need to screen caregivers when health begins to decline

  2. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048

  3. [Posttraumatic Stress and Depressive Symptoms amongst Asylum Seekers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Frantz, Inga; Friel, Pauline; Heinrichs, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Background and Objectives: Currently, there is a large number of refugees that are coming to Germany from (civil) war zones. The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms amongst asylum seekers in Germany. Methods: In the summer of 2015, 280 adult refugees (88,2% men) were interviewed with the support of translators in the Lower Saxony State Refugee Reception Center, Brunswick. Data was categorized due to country of origin (Balkan States, Middle East, Northern Africa, Rest of Africa). The Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale-8 (PDS-8) and the Patient-Health-Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were employed as screening measures. If the threshold values of 12 in the PDS-8 or 15 in the PHQ are exceeded, respectively, the diagnosis of PTSD or depression is highly likely. Results: Participants reported an overall high number of potentially traumatic experiences (72,5% war experiences; 67,9% violent attacks; 51,4% another very burdensome experience; 50,0% torture; 47,9% imprisonment; 11,1% sexual assault), whereby multiple answers were possible. The prevalence rates for possible PTSD were 16,1% (Balkan States), 20,5% (Middle East), 23,4% (Rest of Africa) and 28,1% (Northern Africa); rates for a possible depression varied between the countries of origin from 17,9, 35,9, 28,1 to 24,0%, respectively. Conclusions: Compared to the German population, the rates of traumatic experiences and the prevalence of a possible PTSD were significantly higher amongst asylum seekers of the present sample; this was not the case for depression. The integration of affected asylum seekers may be considerably complicated due to health impairments, e. g. with regard to learning the German language and admission to educational or occupational services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Stress and Spirituality on the Depressive Symptoms of Older Adults in Assisted Living: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Bolin, Brien L

    2015-01-01

    In this study the authors explore the effects of stress and spirituality on the depressive symptoms of 92 older adult men and 224 older adult women who reside in assisted living facilities. Hierarchical regression reveals that stress was related to increases in depressive symptoms. The stress of women was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than found among men. In contrast, spiritual coping was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms among all older adults in assisted living. The spiritual coping of older adult women was not a significant predictor of decreased depressive symptoms. Through this study the authors support the use of spiritual interventions to alleviate depressive symptoms experienced by older adults in assisted living.

  5. Intimate partner violence and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendi L; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D

    2014-03-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study, we examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and depressive symptoms during adolescence and young adulthood (N = 1,273) while controlling for time-stable and time-varying correlates. Results show temporal changes in depressive symptoms, such that increases in depressive symptoms correspond to IPV exposure. While prior work has theorized that certain populations may be at increased psychological vulnerability from IPV, results indicate that both perpetration and victimization are associated with increases in depressive symptoms for both men and women, and irrespective of whether IPV exposure occurred in adolescence or young adulthood. Cumulative exposure to IPV does not appear to increase depressive symptoms beyond the effect observed for the most recent IPV exposure, but physical maltreatment by a parent does appear to diminish the association between IPV perpetration and depressive symptoms for a small subset of the sample.

  6. Symptom Dimensions of Depression and Apathy and Their Relationship With Cognition in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Dotson, Vonetta M; Jones, Jacob D; Okun, Michael S; Bowers, Dawn

    2018-03-01

    Both depression and apathy, alone and in combination, have been shown to negatively affect cognition in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the influence of specific symptom dimensions of depression and apathy on cognition is not well understood. The current study investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and apathy, based on factors identified in Kirsch-Darrow et al. (2011), and memory and executive function in PD. A sample of 138 non-demented individuals with PD (mean age=64.51±7.43 years) underwent neuropsychological testing and completed the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd Edition, and Apathy Scale. Separate hierarchical regression models examined the relationship between symptom dimensions of depression and apathy ("pure" depressive symptoms, "pure" apathy, loss of interest/pleasure [anhedonia], and somatic symptoms) and three cognitive domain composites: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, and executive function. After adjusting for general cognitive status and the influence of the other symptom dimensions, "pure" depressive symptoms were negatively associated with the delayed verbal memory composite (p<.034) and somatic symptoms were positively associated with the executive function composite (p<.026). No symptom dimensions were significantly related to the immediate verbal memory composite. Findings suggest that specific mood symptoms are associated with delayed verbal memory and executive function performance in non-demented patients with PD. Further research is needed to better understand possible mechanisms through which specific symptom dimensions of depression and apathy are associated with cognition in PD. (JINS, 2018, 24, 269-282).

  7. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms following Interpersonal Stressors during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Potter, Carrie M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1–3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  8. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety.

  9. Depressive symptoms, self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy and self-compassion in people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Voss, J; Chen, W-T; Chaiphibalsarisdi, P; Iipinge, S; Johnson, M O; Portillo, C J; Corless, I B; Sullivan, K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kemppainen, J; Rose, C Dawson; Sefcik, E; Nokes, K; Phillips, J C; Kirksey, K; Nicholas, P K; Wantland, D; Holzemer, W L; Webel, A R; Brion, J M

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine differences in self-schemas between persons living with HIV/AIDS with and without depressive symptoms, and the degree to which these self-schemas predict depressive symptoms in this population. Self-schemas are beliefs about oneself and include self-esteem, HIV symptom management self-efficacy, and self-compassion. Beck's cognitive theory of depression guided the analysis of data from a sample of 1766 PLHIV from the USA and Puerto Rico. Sixty-five percent of the sample reported depressive symptoms. These symptoms were significantly (p ≤ 0.05), negatively correlated with age (r = -0.154), education (r = -0.106), work status (r = -0.132), income adequacy (r = -0.204, self-esteem (r = -0.617), HIV symptom self-efficacy (r = - 0.408), and self-kindness (r = - 0.284); they were significantly, positively correlated with gender (female/transgender) (r = 0.061), white or Hispanic race/ethnicity (r = 0.047) and self-judgment (r = 0.600). Fifty-one percent of the variance (F = 177.530 (df = 1524); p age, education, work status, income adequacy, self-esteem, HIV symptom self-efficacy, and self-judgment. The strongest predictor of depressive symptoms was self-judgment. Results lend support to Beck's theory that those with negative self-schemas are more vulnerable to depression and suggest that clinicians should evaluate PLHIV for negative self-schemas. Tailored interventions for the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV should be tested and future studies should evaluate whether alterations in negative self-schemas are the mechanism of action of these interventions and establish causality in the treatment of depressive symptoms in PLHIV.

  10. Depressive Symptoms, Anatomical Region, and Clinical Outcomes for Patients Seeking Outpatient Physical Therapy for Musculoskeletal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Beneciuk, Jason M.; Valencia, Carolina; Werneke, Mark W.; Hart, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines advocate the routine identification of depressive symptoms for patients with pain in the lumbar or cervical spine, but not for other anatomical regions. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and impact of depressive symptoms for patients with musculoskeletal pain across different anatomical regions. Design This was a prospective, associational study. Methods Demographic, clinical, depressive symptom (Symptom Checklist 90–Revised), and outcome data were collected by self-report from a convenience sample of 8,304 patients. Frequency of severe depressive symptoms was assessed by chi-square analysis for demographic and clinical variables. An analysis of variance examined the influence of depressive symptoms and anatomical region on intake pain intensity and functional status. Separate hierarchical multiple regression models by anatomical region examined the influence of depressive symptoms on clinical outcomes. Results Prevalence of severe depression was higher in women, in industrial and pain clinics, and in patients who reported chronic pain or prior surgery. Lower prevalence rates were found in patients older than 65 years and those who had upper- or lower-extremity pain. Depressive symptoms had a moderate to large effect on pain ratings (Cohen d=0.55–0.87) and a small to large effect on functional status (Cohen d=0.28–0.95). In multivariate analysis, depressive symptoms contributed additional variance to pain intensity and functional status for all anatomical locations, except for discharge values for the cervical region. Conclusions Rates of depressive symptoms varied slightly based on anatomical region of musculoskeletal pain. Depressive symptoms had a consistent detrimental influence on outcomes, except on discharge scores for the cervical anatomical region. Expanding screening recommendations for depressive symptoms to include more anatomical regions may be indicated in physical therapy

  11. Academic Pathways between Attention Problems and Depressive Symptoms Among Urban African American Children

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Keith C.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the pathways between attention problems and depressive symptoms, particularly the role of academic incompetence, among a community sample of urban African American children. Results supported the hypothesized path models from inattention to depressive symptoms for girls and boys. Academic performance in the spring of first grade mediated the relationship between inattention in fall of first grade and depressive symptoms in spring of 3rd grade. The effects held w...

  12. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  13. Cognitive-affective depression and somatic symptoms clusters are differentially associated with maternal parenting and coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Jongenelen, Inês; Morais, Ana; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2017-09-01

    Both depressive and somatic symptoms are significant predictors of parenting and coparenting problems. However, despite clear evidence of their co-occurrence, no study to date has examined the association between depressive-somatic symptoms clusters and parenting and coparenting. The current research sought to identify and cross-validate clusters of cognitive-affective depressive symptoms and nonspecific somatic symptoms, as well as to test whether clusters would differ on parenting and coparenting problems across three independent samples of mothers. Participants in Studies 1 and 3 consisted of 409 and 652 community mothers, respectively. Participants in Study 2 consisted of 162 mothers exposed to intimate partner violence. All participants prospectively completed self-report measures of depressive and nonspecific somatic symptoms and parenting (Studies 1 and 2) or coparenting (Study 3). Across studies, three depression-somatic symptoms clusters were identified: no symptoms, high depression and low nonspecific somatic symptoms, and high depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms. The high depression-somatic symptoms cluster was associated with the highest levels of child physical maltreatment risk (Study 1) and overt-conflict coparenting (Study 3). No differences in perceived maternal competence (Study 2) and cooperative and undermining coparenting (Study 3) were found between the high depression and low somatic symptoms cluster and the high depression-somatic symptoms cluster. The results provide novel evidence for the strong associations between clusters of depression and nonspecific somatic symptoms and specific parenting and coparenting problems. Cluster stability across three independent samples suggest that they may be generalizable. The results inform preventive approaches and evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emotionally biased cognitive processes: the weakest link predicts prospective changes in depressive symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Jonas; Duyck, Wouter; Koster, Ernst H W

    2015-01-01

    Emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory are predictive of future depressive symptoms. It remains unknown, however, how these biased cognitive processes interact to predict depressive symptom levels in the long-term. In the present study, we tested the predictive value of two integrative approaches to model relations between multiple biased cognitive processes, namely the additive (i.e., cognitive processes have a cumulative effect) vs. the weakest link (i.e., the dominant pathogenic process is important) model. We also tested whether these integrative models interacted with perceived stress to predict prospective changes in depressive symptom severity. At Time 1, participants completed measures of depressive symptom severity and emotional biases in attention, interpretation, and memory. At Time 2, one year later, participants were reassessed to determine depressive symptom levels and perceived stress. Results revealed that the weakest link model had incremental validity over the additive model in predicting prospective changes in depressive symptoms, though both models explained a significant proportion of variance in the change in depressive symptoms from Time 1 to Time 2. None of the integrative models interacted with perceived stress to predict changes in depressive symptomatology. These findings suggest that the best cognitive marker of the evolution in depressive symptoms is the cognitive process that is dominantly biased toward negative material, which operates independent from experienced stress. This highlights the importance of considering idiographic cognitive profiles with multiple cognitive processes for understanding and modifying effects of cognitive biases in depression.

  15. Eating and Psychological Profiles of Women with Higher Depressive Symptoms Who Are Trying to Lose Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bégin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether women with higher depressive symptoms differed from women with lower depressive symptoms on early weight-loss, eating behaviors and psychological profiles. Among a sample of 45 overweight/obese women who had undertaken a self-initiated weight-loss attempt, two groups were formed based on scores from the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, one with lower depressive symptoms (BDI-II < 10; n=21 and one with higher depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10; n=24. Even if some women in the higher depressive symptom group did not reach the clinical cut-off for depression (BDI = 14, this group tended to lose less weight in the first two months of their weight-loss attempt and to show a more disturbed eating and psychological profile compared to the group with lower depressive symptoms. In addition, among women with higher depressive symptoms, eating and psychological variables were systematically related to one another whereas these variables were not related among the other group. Results highlight the relevance of considering the presence of depressive symptoms as a marker of clinical severity among the overweight/obese population, and suggest that the BDI-II could be an interesting screening instrument to identify this particular subgroup.

  16. Examining pain, body image, and depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Irene; Novy, Diane M; Chang, David W; Cox, Matthew G; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2015-11-01

    Depression and reduced quality of life are often reported in patients with upper-extremity lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Little is known about how pain and body image influence depression in patients with lymphedema. The current study examined the association of pain intensity and body integrity beliefs with depressive symptoms and the extent to which body image dissatisfaction mediated these associations. A cross-sectional sample of patients with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment completed self-report questionnaires of pain, body image, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses and tests of mediation were conducted to examine the associations among the variables of interest. Pain intensity and body integrity beliefs were positively associated with depressive symptoms. Further, body image dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms, indicating that higher levels of pain led to higher states of body image dissatisfaction, which, in turn, led to greater depressive symptoms. Body image dissatisfaction also mediated the relationship between body integrity beliefs and depressive symptoms, suggesting that greater body integrity beliefs led to higher dissatisfaction with one's body and subsequently to greater depressive symptoms. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that pain intensity and body image are important factors in understanding depressive symptoms in patients with lymphedema. Clinical implications include screening for pain and body image concerns in this population to identify patients who are in distress. Counseling interventions targeting body image dissatisfaction can also be potentially helpful for patients with lymphedema. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Association between Emotional Neglect and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Won; Bae, Geum Ye; Rim, Hyo-Deog; Lee, Seung Jae; Chang, Sung Man; Kim, Byung-Soo; Won, Seunghee

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that childhood maltreatment experiences could induce biological and psychological vulnerability in depressive disorders. However, it is still unclear that type-specific effects of childhood maltreatment on psychological resilience, depressive symptoms and interactions among childhood maltreatment experiences, resilience, and depressive symptoms. A total of 438 medical students were included in the study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Conner-Davidson Resilience Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory were used for measuring childhood maltreatment experiences, psychological resilience, and depressive symptoms, respectively. We investigated the effects of childhood maltreatment experiences on resilience and depressive symptoms using correlation analysis. In addition, we analyzed the mediating effect of resilience on the association between childhood maltreatment and symptoms of depression. Among childhood maltreatment, emotional neglect was a significant predictor of the scores of low resilience and high depressive symptoms in both gender groups (all psresilience was found to be a mediator connecting emotional neglect experiences with depressive symptoms. Our results suggest that emotional neglect has detrimental effects on mood and resilience, and clinicians need to focus on the recovery of resilience when they deal with depressive symptoms in victims of childhood maltreatment.

  18. Reducing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in depressed older primary care patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Martha L; Ten Have, Thomas R; Reynolds, Charles F; Katz, Ira I; Schulberg, Herbert C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Brown, Gregory K; McAvay, Gail J; Pearson, Jane L; Alexopoulos, George S

    2004-03-03

    Suicide rates are highest in late life; the majority of older adults who die by suicide have seen a primary care physician in preceding months. Depression is the strongest risk factor for late-life suicide and for suicide's precursor, suicidal ideation. To determine the effect of a primary care intervention on suicidal ideation and depression in older patients. Randomized controlled trial known as PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial) with patient recruitment from 20 primary care practices in New York City, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh regions, May 1999 through August 2001. Two-stage, age-stratified (60-74, > or =75 years) depression screening of randomly sampled patients; enrollment included patients who screened positive and a random sample of screened negative patients. This analysis included patients with a depression diagnosis (N = 598). Treatment guidelines tailored for the elderly with care management compared with usual care. Assessment of suicidal ideation and depression severity at baseline, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months. Rates of suicidal ideation declined faster (P =.01) in intervention patients compared with usual care patients; at 4 months, in the intervention group, raw rates of suicidal ideation declined 12.9% points (29.4% to 16.5%) compared with 3.0% points (20.1% to 17.1% in usual care [P =.01]). Among patients reporting suicidal ideation, resolution of ideation was faster among intervention patients (P =.03); differences peaked at 8 months (70.7% vs 43.9% resolution; P =.005). Intervention patients had a more favorable course of depression in both degree and speed of symptom reduction; group difference peaked at 4 months. The effects on depression were not significant among patients with minor depression unless suicidal ideation was present. Evidence of the intervention's effectiveness in community-based primary care with a heterogeneous sample of depressed patients introduces new challenges related to

  19. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

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    Claudia eSchöne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with

  20. Narrative therapy for adults with major depressive disorder: improved symptom and interpersonal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, Lynette P; Schweitzer, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated depressive symptom and interpersonal relatedness outcomes from eight sessions of manualized narrative therapy for 47 adults with major depressive disorder. Post-therapy, depressive symptom improvement (d=1.36) and proportions of clients achieving reliable improvement (74%), movement to the functional population (61%), and clinically significant improvement (53%) were comparable to benchmark research outcomes. Post-therapy interpersonal relatedness improvement (d=.62) was less substantial than for symptoms. Three-month follow-up found maintenance of symptom, but not interpersonal gains. Benchmarking and clinical significance analyses mitigated repeated measure design limitations, providing empirical evidence to support narrative therapy for adults with major depressive disorder.

  1. Concurrent and Short-Term Prospective Relations among Neurocognitive Functioning, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lindsay D; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Samanez-Larkin, Silvia; Garber, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The present short-term longitudinal study examined the concurrent and prospective relations among executive functioning (i.e., working memory and cognitive flexibility), coping (primary and secondary control coping), and depressive symptoms in children. Participants were 192 children between 9 and 15 years old (M age = 12.36 years, SD = 1.77) recruited from the community. Youth were individually administered neuropsychological measures of executive functioning and intelligence and completed self-report measures of executive dysfunction, coping, and depressive symptoms in small groups; the latter two measures were completed again 4 months later (Time 2 [T2]). Linear regression analyses were used to examine direct associations among executive functions, coping, and depressive symptoms, and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test indirect effects of executive functioning on depressive symptoms through coping. Significant prospective relations were found between working memory measured at Time 1 (T1) and both primary and secondary control coping measured at T2, controlling for T1 coping. T1 cognitive flexibility significantly predicted T2 secondary control coping, controlling for T1 coping. Working memory deficits significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms 4 months later, controlling for T1 depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses revealed that primary and secondary control coping each partially mediated the relation between working memory and depressive symptoms; secondary control coping partially mediated the relation between cognitive flexibility and depressive symptoms. Coping may be one pathway through which deficits in executive functioning contribute to children's symptoms of depression.

  2. Parenting intervention effects on parental depressive symptoms: examining the role of parenting and child behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Montaño, Zorash; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger E

    2014-06-01

    Parental depression is a major risk factor in child development. Growing research suggests parenting programs can positively impact parental depressive symptoms, although the specific mechanisms that explain these effects are unknown. The current study examined parenting mediated effects of a parenting program on mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms, as well as the role of child behavior in linking parenting to reductions in depressive symptoms. The study samples included 494 mothers and 288 fathers of Mexican origin adolescents who participated in a randomized trial of the Bridges to High School Program/Proyecto Puentes a la Secundaria, a universal prevention and promotion intervention that included parent training but did not directly target parental depressive symptoms. Parenting mediator models tested program effects on parental depressive symptoms through changes in harsh and supportive parenting. Results showed a significant indirect intervention effect on maternal depressive symptoms through changes in mothers' harsh parenting. Next, child behavior models revealed a partial mediation effect of harsh parenting and a full mediation effect of supportive parenting on maternal depressive symptoms through mothers' reports of child externalizing symptoms. Indirect effects of fathers' harsh and supportive parenting on paternal depressive symptoms were also found through fathers' reports of child behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Does caregiver well-being predict stroke survivor depressive symptoms? A mediation analysis.

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    Grant, Joan S; Clay, Olivio J; Keltner, Norman L; Haley, William E; Wadley, Virginia G; Perkins, Martinique M; Roth, David L

    2013-01-01

    Studies suggest that family caregiver well-being (ie, depressive symptoms and life satisfaction) may affect stroke survivor depressive symptoms. We used mediation analysis to assess whether caregiver well-being might be a factor explaining stroke survivor depressive symptoms, after controlling for demographic factors and stroke survivor impairments and problems. Caregiver/stroke participant dyads (N = 146) completed measures of stroke survivor impairments and problems and depressive symptoms and caregiver depressive symptoms and life satisfaction. Mediation analysis was used to examine whether caregiver well-being mediated the relationship between stroke survivor impairments and problems and stroke survivor depressive symptoms. As expected, more stroke survivor problems and impairments were associated with higher levels of stroke survivor depressive symptoms (P mediated by caregiver life satisfaction (29.29%) and caregiver depressive symptoms (32.95%). Although these measures combined to account for 40.50% of the relationship between survivor problems and impairments and depressive symptoms, the direct effect remained significant. Findings indicate that stroke survivor impairments and problems may affect family caregivers and stroke survivors and a high level of caregiver distress may result in poorer outcomes for stroke survivors. Results highlight the likely importance of intervening with both stroke survivors and family caregivers to optimize recovery after stroke.

  4. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults and Risk of Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaup, Allison R; Byers, Amy L; Falvey, Cherie; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Smagula, Stephen F; Rubin, Susan M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-05-01

    Depression has been identified as a risk factor for dementia. However, most studies have measured depressive symptoms at only one time point, and older adults may show different patterns of depressive symptoms over time. To investigate the association between trajectories of depressive symptoms and risk of dementia in older adults. This was a prospective cohort investigation of black and white community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Participants were enrolled between May 1997 and June 1998 and followed up through 2001-2002. The dates of this analysis were September 2014 to December 2015. The setting was community research centers in Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Trajectories of depressive symptoms were assessed from baseline to year 5. Symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Short Form, and trajectories were calculated using latent class growth curve analysis. Incident dementia through year 11, determined by dementia medication use, hospital records, or significant cognitive decline (≥1.5 SD race-specific decline on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination). We examined the association between depressive symptom trajectories and dementia incidence using Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, health factors that differed between groups, and cognition during the depressive symptom assessment period (baseline to year 5). The analytic cohort included 2488 black and white older adults with repeated depressive symptom assessments from baseline to year 5 who were free of dementia throughout that period. Their mean (SD) age at baseline was 74.0 (2.8) years, and 53.1% (n = 1322) were female. The following 3 depressive symptom trajectories were identified: consistently minimal symptoms (62.0% [n = 1542] of participants), moderate and increasing symptoms (32.2% [n = 801] of participants), and high and increasing symptoms (5

  5. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Steven D; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen

    2014-03-24

    The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N=12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p'sdepressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

  6. Antimuscarinic Agent Treatment Affecting Patient-Reported Outcomes in Overactive Bladder Syndrome With Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Shik; Moon, Hong Sang

    2016-12-01

    We investigated improvements in overactive bladder symptoms and depressive symptoms after solifenacin treatment in overactive bladder patients with or without depressive symptoms. We performed a prospective study of patients who had been diagnosed with overactive bladder from July 2013 to June 2014. Based on the Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire, the test subjects were divided into group 1, without depressive symptoms (0-9 points), and group 2, with depressive symptoms (10 or more points). The patients were administered 5 mg of solifenacin for 3 months. The following outcomes were analyzed at the first visit, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks: the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), patients' perceptions of their bladder condition, and the Beck Depression Inventory. A total of 72 patients participated, and 52 patients completed the study. Most outcome measures showed improvements in both groups at weeks 4 and 12. Especially in group 2, the questionnaires showed significant improvements from baseline to week 12, indicating that solifenacin was effective at treating overactive bladder symptoms (group 1 vs. group 2: OABSS, -2.67±0.80 vs. -3.00±0.77; Poveractive bladder patients with depressive symptoms, solifenacin can help improve quality of life and depressive symptoms at the same time.

  7. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships. We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia to 20.9% (sad mood. Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.

  8. Independent and combined relationship of habitual unhealthy eating behaviors with depressive symptoms: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unhealthy eating has been found to be associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms. However, prospective evidence of the combined effects of unhealthy eating and depressive symptoms has not been reported. This study aimed to elucidate the prospective relationship between habitual unhealthy eating habits and depressive symptoms. Methods: A 2-year prospective cohort study of 376 Japanese adults aged 24–83 years without depressive symptoms at baseline was conducted. Information about participants' eating behaviors was obtained via a self-administered questionnaire, in which skipping breakfast, eating dinner shortly before bedtime, and snacking after dinner were recorded. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Japanese version of the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: The 2-year incidence of depressive symptoms was found to be 23.7% (89/376. Covariate-adjusted multivariate Poisson regression analyses showed that habitual snacking after dinner was significantly associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (relative risk [RR] 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00–3.14, p = 0.049, whereas no relationship was found between skipping breakfast or eating dinner shortly before bedtime and depressive symptoms. On the other hand, there was an interaction effect of snacking after dinner and dinner before bedtime on depressive symptoms (p for the interaction = 0.044. Participants with more than two unhealthy eating behaviors had a higher incidence of depressive symptoms compared to those with fewer than two unhealthy eating behaviors (RR 1.71; 95% CI, 1.06–2.77, p = 0.028. Conclusions: This prospective study is the first to reveal the combined relationship between unhealthy eating and the incidence of depressive symptoms.

  9. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  10. Shared Etiology of Psychotic Experiences and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavos, Helena M S; Eley, Thalia C; McGuire, Philip; Plomin, Robert; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-09-01

    Psychotic disorders and major depression, both typically adult-onset conditions, often co-occur. At younger ages psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms are often reported in the community. We used a genetically sensitive longitudinal design to investigate the relationship between psychotic experiences and depressive symptoms in adolescence. A representative community sample of twins from England and Wales was employed. Self-rated depressive symptoms, paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms were collected when the twins were age 16 (N = 9618) and again on a representative subsample 9 months later (N = 2873). Direction and aetiology of associations were assessed using genetically informative cross-lagged models. Depressive symptoms were moderately correlated with paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization. Lower correlations were observed between depression and anhedonia, and depression and parent-rated negative symptoms. Nonsignificant correlations were observed between depression and grandiosity. Largely the same genetic effects influenced depression and paranoia, depression and hallucinations, and depression and cognitive disorganization. Modest overlap in environmental influences also played a role in the associations. Significant bi-directional longitudinal associations were observed between depression and paranoia. Hallucinations and cognitive disorganization during adolescence were found to impact later depression, even after controlling for earlier levels of depression. Our study shows that psychotic experiences and depression, as traits in the community, have a high genetic overlap in mid-adolescence. Future research should test the prediction stemming from our longitudinal results, namely that reducing or ameliorating positive and cognitive psychotic experiences in adolescence would decrease later depressive symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  11. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie C. Morse

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD], depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. Method A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, M age = 20 from a large public university completed an online survey. Results Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  12. Depressive symptoms and associated factors among renal-transplant recipients in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Lin

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Depression is common among RT recipients in China. Employment status, economic burden, inhabitation area, and social support are the main factors affecting depression among RT recipients. Follow-up clinics should prescribe the evaluation of depression as a routine examination for RT patients. Moreover, depressed recipients must be provided with individualized care by collecting information on the depressive symptoms, employment status, economic burden, inhabitation area, and perceived social support of recipients.

  13. Associations between symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Jae-Won; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Eun-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and suicide in Korean female adolescents. It was hypothesized that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation would be mediated by the level of depressive symptoms. Seven hundred and eighty-eight high school girls completed the Conners/Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale: Short Form, Children's Depression Inventory, and Reynolds Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Path analyses were conducted using the statistical program, AMOS version 4.0, to determine the best fitting model. The conduct, cognitive, and hyperactivity problems of the ADHD symptoms in each domain were associated positively with the depressive symptoms, with the depressive symptoms being associated with suicidal ideation. This initially proposed model represented an acceptable fit to the data (root mean square error of approximation, RMSEA=0.077; normed fit index, NFI=0.998; non-NFI, NNFI=0.990; comparative fit index, CFI=0.998). The inclusion of a direct path from the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms to suicidal ideation significantly improved the model fit (RMSEA=0, NFI=1, NNFI=1, CFI=1). The results of our study suggest that depressive symptoms partially mediate the relationship between ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation, and that the conduct problems of ADHD symptoms are associated with suicidal ideation both directly and indirectly via the depressive symptoms in Korean female adolescents. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms among Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunsil

    2016-06-01

    Although many empirical findings support associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms, gaps remain in our understanding of the magnitude and direction of the associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms as well as the associations in a collectivistic culture. The present study examined autoregressive cross-lagged associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms across a 3-year investigation in a sample of Korean mothers transitioning to parenthood. The sample consisted of 2,078 mothers in the Panel Study of Korean Children. The mothers reported marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms annually for 3 years. The results of an autoregressive cross-lagged model revealed bidirectional associations between marital satisfaction and maternal depressive symptoms. The findings provide evidence of an interactional model of depression in a sample of Korean mothers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Language Delays and Child Depressive Symptoms: the Role of Early Stimulation in the Home.

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    Herman, Keith C; Cohen, Daniel; Owens, Sarah; Latimore, Tracey; Reinke, Wendy M; Burrell, Lori; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Duggan, Anne

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the role of early stimulation in the home and child language delays in the emergence of depressive symptoms. Data were from a longitudinal study of at-risk children in Hawaii (n = 587). Low learning stimulation in the home at age 3 and language delays in first grade both significantly increased risk for child depressive symptoms in third grade. Structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized path models from home learning environment at age 3 to depressive symptoms in third grade controlling for a host of correlated constructs (maternal depression, child temperament, and child internalizing symptoms). Total language skills in the first grade mediated the effect of home learning environment on depressive symptoms. The study and findings fit well with a nurturing environment perspective. Implications for understanding the etiology of child depression and for designing interventions and prevention strategies are discussed.

  16. Getting Back to Work: Cognitive Behavioral Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Job Search Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Benjamin J; Strunk, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about how cognitive behavioral approaches to depression might explain functional impairments associated with the disorder, such as extended periods of unemployment. To address this issue, we examined 5 cognitive behavioral predictors of depressive symptom change and job search outcome. Using a sample of 75 unemployed adults, we examined cognitive style, brooding, dysfunctional attitudes, avoidance, and cognitive behavioral (CB) skills as predictors of change in depressive symptoms, job search self-efficacy, and receipt of a job offer over a 3-month period. CB skills predicted lower depressive symptoms and increased odds of having received a job offer at the follow-up. Brooding predicted change in job search self-efficacy, but not in the expected direction. CB skills appear to predict job search outcomes as well as depressive symptoms. We encourage future work examining how CB skills may affect depressive symptoms, job search behaviors, and other areas of functioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Subsequent Technology-Based Interpersonal Behaviors: A Multi-Wave Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Jacqueline; Miller, Adam B; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of adolescents' depressive symptoms on engagement in technology-based social comparison and feedback seeking (SCFS) behaviors. A total of 816 adolescents (54.7% girls; M age =14.1 at Time 1) participated at three times points, each one year apart. Adolescents reported technology-based SCFS, depressive symptoms, and frequencies of technology use (cell phones, Facebook, and Instagram). Multiple group (by gender) latent growth curve models examined concurrent and lagged effects of depressive symptoms on SCFS, controlling for adolescent's underlying trajectories of SCFS and overall frequencies of technology use. Results indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were concurrently associated with greater SCFS after accounting for adolescents' typical patterns of SCFS. For boys only, higher depressive symptoms were prospectively associated with later increases in SCFS. Results highlight the importance of social media as a unique context in which depressed adolescents may be at risk for maladaptive interpersonal behavior.

  18. Predicting outcome of depression using the depressive symptom profile: the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noorden, Martijn S; van Fenema, Esther M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the predictive value of items for individual depressive symptoms measured with the self-rated Beck Depression Inventory-Revised (BDI-II) self-report scale on outcome in a large naturalistic cohort of depressive outpatients. We used a cohort of 1,489 adult patients aged 18-65 years with major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder established with the MINI-Plus diagnostic interview. All patients had a routine outcome monitoring baseline measurement in 2004-2009, with a maximum of 2 years follow-up. We used multivariable Cox regression models to predict remission (MADRS < 10; where MADRS stands for Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) and response (≥50% improvement), and adjusted for clinical and demographic characteristics (i.e. marital status, level of education, working status, comorbid anxiety, avoidant and borderline personality traits, and suicidality) that were identified as predictors in earlier studies. Of the 21 BDI-II items, the items "pessimism" and "loss of energy" independently predicted for both remission and response. For pessimism, the hazard ratio (HR) for remission was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-0.89, P < .001) and for loss of energy, the HR was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92, P = .001). These findings of robust prediction of poor outcome by baseline items of "pessimism" and "loss of energy" in a naturalistic treatment setting may help clinicians to identify depressive patients in need for additional or alternative therapeutic approaches. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Overeducation and depressive symptoms: diminishing mental health returns to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Piet; Pattyn, Elise; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2013-11-01

    In general, well-educated people enjoy better mental health than those with less education. As a result, some wonder whether there are limits to the mental health benefits of education. Inspired by the literature on the expansion of tertiary education, this article explores marginal mental health returns to education and studies the mental health status of overeducated people. To enhance the validity of the findings we use two indicators of educational attainment - yea