WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential status methods

  1. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  2. Employment status, residential and workplace food environments: associations with women's eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2013-11-01

    There remains a lack of consistent evidence linking food environments with eating behaviours. Studies to date have largely ignored the way different individuals interact with their local food environment and have primarily focussed on exposures within the residential neighbourhood without consideration of exposures around the workplace, for example. In this study we firstly examine whether associations between the residential food environment and eating behaviours differ by employment status and, secondly, whether food environments near employed women's workplaces are more strongly associated with dietary behaviours than food environments near home. Employment status did not modify the associations between residential food environments and eating behaviours, however results showed that having access to healthy foods near the workplace was associated with healthier food consumption. Policies focused on supportive environments should consider commercial areas as well as residential neighbourhoods. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Transition Status of Youth Departing Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics related to a successful reintegration among youth from a residential facility. Specifically, this study describes the transition skills of youth at departure in five areas: (a) education and employment goals, (b) self-determination skills, (c) social support, (d) life skills, and (e) hopefulness. Further,…

  4. An examination of eating behaviors, physical activity, and obesity in african american adolescents: gender, socioeconomic status, and residential status differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Nutrena H; Dillaway, Heather E; Yarandi, Hossein N; Jones, Lenette M; Wilson, Feleta L

    2015-01-01

    African American adolescents experience higher rates of obesity and have an increased risk of obesity-related diseases than do White American adolescents. Despite culturally sensitive obesity preventive interventions, obesity rates are increasing within the African American adolescent population. Current obesity interventions do not usually address the heterogeneity (e.g., socioeconomic status [SES], gender, and residential status differences) within the African American adolescent community that can affect the efficacy of these interventions. To examine the gender, SES, and residential status differences related to obesity and weight behaviors in African American adolescents. A descriptive correlational study was conducted with 15- to 17-year-old African American adolescents (n = 145) from community clinics, youth organizations, churches, and social networks in metropolitan and inner-city Detroit. Data were collected through use of survey methods and analyzed with use of descriptive statistics, independent sample t tests, and multiple regression equations. Female adolescents consumed foods higher in fat and calories (t = -2.36, p = .019) and had more body fat (t = -9.37, p = .000) than did males. Adolescents of lower SES consumed food higher in fat and calories (t = -2.23, p = .027) and had higher body mass (t = -2.57, p = .011) than did adolescents of higher SES. Inner-city African American adolescents had higher levels of physical activity (t = -2.39, p = .018) and higher body mass (t = 2.24, p = .027) than did suburban African American adolescent counterparts. Gender, SES, and residential status were statistically significant predictors of eating behaviors, physical activity, body mass index, and body fat. The initial findings from the study will assist in better understanding the obesity epidemic that affects African American adolescents in disparate proportions. Further examination of the study variables is essential to serve as a basis for

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  6. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  7. New Jersey's residential radon remediation program - methods and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, T.A.; Cosolita, F.J.; Rothfuss, E.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a remedial action program to decontaminate over 200 residential properties, 12 typical properties were selected and a demonstration program was initiated in the spring of 1985. The residences selected represented a range of contamination levels and configurations and differing architectural styles representative of the age of construction. The physical limitations of the sites and the overall nature of a decontamination project in active residential communities imposed a number of severe restrictions on work methods and equipment. Regulations governing transportation and disposal set virtually zero defect standards for the condition of containers. The intrusive nature of the work in residential neighborhoods required continual interaction with local residents, public officials and citizen task forces. Media coverage was very high. Numerous briefings were held to allay fears and promote public understanding. Numerous issues ranging in content from public health and safety to engineering and construction methods arose during the remedial action program. These issues were resolved by a multi-disciplined management team which was knowledgeable in public administration, radiation physics, and engineering design and construction. This paper discusses the nature of the problem, the methods applied to resolve the problem and the experience gained as a result of a remedial action program

  8. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-01-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indic...

  9. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  10. Research methods of the parameters of residential buildings construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor’ev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available The analysis of construction theory and practice shows that rational organizational and technological parameters of the construction of residential buildings should be based on the manifestation in time and space of the most important stages construction with their harmonization. Basing on the experience of normalizing the construction duration, it is advisable to express the complex of residential buildings’ construction processes by their basic stages - preparatory period, underground part, aboveground part, external engineering networks and land improvement. The main indicators of the development and implementation of optimization solutions are: the total duration of the construction, the duration of the preparation period, the duration of the construction of the underground part, the duration of the construction of the aboveground part, the duration of external engineering networks laying, the duration of land improvement. The indicators of the total duration of the construction of residential buildings, the construction the underground and aboveground parts are determined on the basis of the operation of one assembly crane on an object of up to four sections. In case of more sections two (three cranes are considered and the total construction duration is set depending on these conditions. The duration of the construction of multisectional buildings is determined basing on the simultaneous construction of the stages or their combination with a certain time shift. However, this approach requires a significant amount of optimization solutions due to its multivariance. Therefore, in order to reduce the volume of calculations in some cases, for example, when planning the development of districts and neighborhoods, statistical methods can be used for determining the duration of the construction basing on the compilation of optimization solutions. The total duration of the construction and the duration of the main stages are multiple

  11. Status and challenges of residential and industrial non-intrusive load monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, Ali; Mantey, Patrick; Holmegaard, Emil

    2015-01-01

    in recent years due to improvement in algorithms and methodologies. Currently, the important challenges facing residential NILM are inaccessibility of electricity meter high sampling data, and lack of reliable high resolution datasets. For industrial NILM the identification is more challenging due......Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is the process of identification of loads from an aggregate power interface using disaggregation algorithms. This paper identifies the current status, methodologies and challenges of NILM in residential and industrial settings. NILM has advanced substantially...... to increased number of loads and the variability of equipment type, temporal patterns and industrial secrecy. From our examination of data and its use in NILM, we observe that the number of devices that can be recognized and the training period required to achiever recognition is not only a function...

  12. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  13. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DKA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Zahara A Manaf,2 Noor Aini M Yusoff,3 Nur A Muhammad,2 Mei Fang Phan,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Program, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Program, School of Health Care Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3ASIA Metropolitan University, Cheras, Malaysia Purpose: The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical ­performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions.Methods: Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63 years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test, biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels, and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered.Results: The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL, and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L. A significant

  14. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  15. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-07-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007-2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indicate that SES matters for the segregation patterns of whites from minorities. In particular, we find that whites as a whole are less segregated from higher-SES minority group members than lower-SES ones. Among whites, those of higher SES are more segregated from blacks and Hispanics as a whole and less segregated from Asians, indicating the importance of SES differentials across racial/ethnic groups in shaping residential patterns. We also find that during the 2000s, white-black segregation remained stable or declined, while whites became more segregated from Hispanics and Asians by all SES indicators. Fixed-effects models indicate that increasing white-minority SES segregation was fueled in part by increases in a metropolitan area's immigrant and elderly populations, minority poverty rate, and home values, while declining segregation was associated with rising education levels and new housing construction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The residential segregation patterns of whites by socioeconomic status, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gregory; Iceland, John

    2013-01-01

    In light of increasing racial and ethnic diversity, a recent housing crisis, and deep economic recession, arguments pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status (SES) in shaping patterns of racial/ethnic segregation remain salient. Using data from the 2000 decennial census and the 2007–2011 American Community Survey, we provide new evidence on the residential segregation patterns of whites from minorities by SES (income, education, and poverty). Results from our comprehensive analyses indicate that SES matters for the segregation patterns of whites from minorities. In particular, we find that whites as a whole are less segregated from higher-SES minority group members than lower-SES ones. Among whites, those of higher SES are more segregated from blacks and Hispanics as a whole and less segregated from Asians, indicating the importance of SES differentials across racial/ethnic groups in shaping residential patterns. We also find that during the 2000s, white-black segregation remained stable or declined, while whites became more segregated from Hispanics and Asians by all SES indicators. Fixed-effects models indicate that increasing white-minority SES segregation was fueled in part by increases in a metropolitan area’s immigrant and elderly populations, minority poverty rate, and home values, while declining segregation was associated with rising education levels and new housing construction. PMID:23721673

  17. Present status of processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    Present status of processing method for a high-energy nuclear data file was examined. The NJOY94 code is the only one available to the processing. In Japan, present processing used NJOY94 is orienting toward the production of traditional cross section library, because a high-energy transport code using a high-energy cross section library is indistinct. (author)

  18. Quantitative Study on Computer Self-Efficacy and Computer Anxiety Differences in Academic Major and Residential Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Zachary Wayne McClellan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety within 61 students across two academic majors, Aviation and Sports and Exercise Science, while investigating the impact residential status, age, and gender has on those two psychological constructs. The purpose of the study is to find if computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety…

  19. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    In 1919, the enthusiasm surrounding a short-lived gas play in Versailles Borough, Pennsylvania resulted in the drilling of many needless wells. The legacy of this activity exists today in the form of abandoned, unplugged gas wells that are a continuing source of fugitive methane in the midst of a residential and commercial area. Flammable concentrations of methane have been detected near building foundations, which have forced people from their homes and businesses until methane concentrations decreased. Despite mitigation efforts, methane problems persist and have caused some buildings to be permanently abandoned and demolished. This paper describes the use of magnetic and methane sensing methods by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to locate abandoned gas wells in Versailles Borough where site access is limited and existing infrastructure can interfere. Here, wells are located between closely spaced houses and beneath buildings and parking lots. Wells are seldom visible, often because wellheads and internal casing strings have been removed, and external casing has been cut off below ground level. The magnetic survey of Versailles Borough identified 53 strong, monopole magnetic anomalies that are presumed to indicate the locations of steel-cased wells. This hypothesis was tested by excavating the location of one strong, monopole magnetic anomaly that was within an area of anomalous methane concentrations. The excavation uncovered an unplugged gas well that was within 0.2 m of the location of the maximum magnetic signal. Truck-mounted methane surveys of Versailles Borough detected numerous methane anomalies that were useful for narrowing search areas. Methane sources identified during truck-mounted surveys included strong methane sources such as sewers and methane mitigation vents. However, inconsistent wind direction and speed, especially between buildings, made locating weaker methane sources (such as leaking wells) difficult. Walking surveys with

  20. Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Peter; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2014-01-01

    An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure. PMID:24979234

  1. Optimization Models and Methods for Demand-Side Management of Residential Users: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The residential sector is currently one of the major contributors to the global energy balance. However, the energy demand of residential users has been so far largely uncontrollable and inelastic with respect to the power grid conditions. With the massive introduction of renewable energy sources and the large variations in energy flows, also the residential sector is required to provide some flexibility in energy use so as to contribute to the stability and efficiency of the electric system. To address this issue, demand management mechanisms can be used to optimally manage the energy resources of customers and their energy demand profiles. A very promising technique is represented by demand-side management (DSM, which consists in a proactive method aimed at making users energy-efficient in the long term. In this paper, we survey the most relevant studies on optimization methods for DSM of residential consumers. Specifically, we review the related literature according to three axes defining contrasting characteristics of the schemes proposed: DSM for individual users versus DSM for cooperative consumers, deterministic DSM versus stochastic DSM and day-ahead DSM versus real-time DSM. Based on this classification, we provide a big picture of the key features of different approaches and techniques and discuss future research directions.

  2. Socio-economic status, family disruption and residential stability in childhood: relation to onset, recurrence and remission of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, S E; Kawachi, I; Fitzmaurice, G M; Buka, L

    2003-11-01

    Childhood adversity significantly increases the risk of depression, but it is unclear whether this risk is most pronounced for depression occurring early in life. In the present study, we examine whether three aspects of childhood adversity--low socio-economic status (SES), family disruption, and residential instability--are related to increased risk of depression during specific stages of the life course. We also examine whether these aspects of childhood adversity are related to the severity of depression. A sample of 1089 of the 4140 births enrolled in the Providence, Rhode Island cohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project was interviewed between the ages of 18 and 39. Measures of parental SES, childhood family disruption and residential instability were obtained upon mother's enrolment and at age 7. Age at onset of major depressive episode, lifetime number of depressive episodes, and age at last episode were ascertained via structured diagnostic interviews. Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for depression onset and remission and Poisson regression was used to model the recurrence rate of depressive episodes. Low parental SES, family disruption and a high level of residential instability, defined as three or more family moves, were related to elevated lifetime risks of depression; the effects of family disruption and residential instability were most pronounced on depression onset by age 14. Childhood adversity was also related to increased risk of recurrence and reduced likelihood of remission. Childhood social disadvantage significantly influences risk of depression onset both in childhood and in adulthood. Early childhood adversity is also related to poor prognosis.

  3. Load Disaggregation via Pattern Recognition: A Feasibility Study of a Novel Method in Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghoon Kwak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need to improve energy-saving processes in older buildings, especially residential ones, this paper describes the potential of a novel method of disaggregating loads in light of the load patterns of household appliances determined in residential buildings. Experiments were designed to be applicable to general residential buildings and four types of commonly used appliances were selected to verify the method. The method assumes that loads are disaggregated and measured by a single primary meter. Following the metering of household appliances and an analysis of the usage patterns of each type, values of electric current were entered into a Hidden Markov Model (HMM to formulate predictions. Thereafter, the HMM repeatedly performed to output the predicted data close to the measured data, while errors between predicted and the measured data were evaluated to determine whether they met tolerance. When the method was examined for 4 days, matching rates in accordance with the load disaggregation outcomes of the household appliances (i.e., laptop, refrigerator, TV, and microwave were 0.994, 0.992, 0.982, and 0.988, respectively. The proposed method can provide insights into how and where within such buildings energy is consumed. As a result, effective and systematic energy saving measures can be derived even in buildings in which monitoring sensors and measurement equipment are not installed.

  4. Performance Evaluation of Residential Demand Response Based on a Modified Fuzzy VIKOR and Scalable Computing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For better utilizing renewable energy resources and improving the sustainability of power systems, demand response is widely applied in China, especially in recent decades. Considering the massive potential flexible resources in the residential sector, demand response programs are able to achieve significant benefits. This paper proposes an effective performance evaluation framework for such programs aimed at residential customers. In general, the evaluation process will face multiple criteria and some uncertain factors. Therefore, we combine the multi-criteria decision making concept and fuzzy set theory to accomplish the model establishment. By introducing trapezoidal fuzzy numbers into the Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method, the evaluation model can effectively deal with the subjection and fuzziness of experts’ opinions. Furthermore, we ameliorate the criteria weight determination procedure of traditional models via combining the fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Shannon entropy method, which can incorporate objective information and subjective judgments. Finally, the proposed evaluation framework is verified by the empirical analysis of five demand response projects in Chinese residential areas. The results give a valid performance ranking of the five alternatives and indicate that more attention should be paid to the criteria affiliated with technology level and economy benefits. In addition, a series of sensitivity analyses are conducted to examine the validity and effectiveness of the established evaluation framework and results. The study improves traditional multi-criteria decision making method VIKOR by introducing trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and combination weighing technique, which can provide an effective mean for performance evaluation of residential demand response programs in a fuzzy environment.

  5. A Residential Area Extraction Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery by Using Visual Saliency and Perceptual Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yixiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by human visual cognitive mechanism,a method of residential area extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images was proposed based on visual saliency and perceptual organization. Firstly,the data field theory of cognitive physics was introduced to model the visual saliency and the candidate residential areas were produced by adaptive thresholding. Then,the exact residential areas were obtained and refined by perceptual organization based on the high-frequency features of multi-scale wavelet transform. Finally,the validity of the proposed method was verified by experiments conducted on ZY-3 and Quickbird image data sets.

  6. Current status of methods for shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods used in shielding analysis and recent improvements in those methods are discussed. The status of methods development is discussed based on needs cited at the 1977 International Conference on Reactor Shielding. Additional areas where methods development is needed are discussed

  7. Electronic Information Systems Use in Residential Care Facilities: The Differential Effect of Ownership Status and Chain Affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jullet A; Zakoscielna, Karolina; Jacobs, Lindsey

    2016-03-01

    The use of electronic information systems (EISs) including electronic health records continues to increase in all sectors of the health care industry. Research shows that EISs may be useful for improving care delivery and decreasing medical errors. The purpose of this project is twofold: First, we describe the prevalence of EIS use among residential care facilities (RCFs), and second, we explore utilization differences by ownership status and chain affiliation. We anticipate that RCFs that are non-profit and non-chain will use more EIS than other categories of RCFs. Data for this project come from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The sample consists of 2,300 facilities. Overall use of EIS was greatest among RCFs that are non-profit and chain-affiliated. Conversely, the use was lowest among for-profit RCFs that were also non-chain affiliated. This may suggest that these facilities lack the necessary resources or motivation to invest in information systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The Dematel Method in the Analysis of the Residential Real Estate Market in Bialystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołąbeska Elżbieta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is of a dual character. On the one hand, it concerns the analysis of the real estate market in terms of investment attractiveness and the influence of particular attributes of property on attractiveness itself. On the other hand, it proposes the use as a research tool selected using one of the multicriteria methods (DEMATEL, which is an alternative to commonly used statistical methods. The theoretical part of the work is completed by a brief computational example which deals with the analysis of factors affecting the prices of residential real estate on a local scale.

  9. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yulan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Li Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under the Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Yao Runming, E-mail: r.yao@reading.ac.u [School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: {yields}Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. {yields}The group AHP method for weighting indicators. {yields}Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  10. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yulan; Li Baizhan; Yao Runming

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: →Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. →The group AHP method for weighting indicators. →Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  11. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  12. Making the middle classes on shifting ground? Residential status, performativity and middle-class subjectivities in contemporary London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Michaela; Jackson, Emma

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that shifts in access to housing - both in relation to rental and ownership - disrupt middle-class reproduction in ways that fundamentally influence class formation. While property ownership has had a long association with middle-class identities, status and distinction, an increasingly competitive rental market alongside inflated property prices has impacted on expectations and anxieties over housing futures. In this paper, we consider two key questions: (1) What happens to middle-class identities under the conditions of this wider structural change? (2) How do the middle classes variously manoeuvre within this? Drawing on empirical research conducted in London, we demonstrate that becoming an owner-occupier may be fractured along lines of class but also along the axes of age, wealth and timing, particularly as this relates to the housing market. It builds on understandings of residential status and place as central to the formation of class, orienting this around the recognition of both people and place as mutable, emphasizing that changing economic and social processes generate new class positionalities and strategies for class reproduction. We argue that these processes are writ large in practices of belonging and claims to place, with wider repercussions within the urban landscape. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  14. A refinement of the potassium tracer method for residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, C. P.; Li, S.; Buchanan, J. W.; Stevens, R. K.

    Potassium has been used as a tracer for the mass of fine particles emitted to the air from residential wood burning stoves and fireplaces. The technique involves measurement by x-ray fluorescence of the total K collected on fine particle filters. Since wind blown soil particles also contain K, a correction for this contribution is made based upon soil analysis or an assumed K/Fe ratio in local soil. K in excess of this ratio is considered to be from wood smoke. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an alternative method for determining wood smoke K. The underlying assumption is that wood smoke K is water soluble but that K in crustal particles is in a mineralized form and only slightly water soluble. Results from analyses of particle samples indicate the two methods yield essentially the same amount of wood smoke K.

  15. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  16. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stewart, James [Cadmus, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral and social sciences to influence household energy use. These may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5 percent. Utilities will continue to implement residential BB programs as large-scale, randomized control trials (RCTs); however, some are now experimenting with alternative program designs that are smaller scale; involve new communication channels such as the web, social media, and text messaging; or that employ novel strategies for encouraging behavior change (for example, Facebook competitions). These programs will create new evaluation challenges and may require different evaluation methods than those currently employed to verify any savings they generate. Quasi-experimental methods, however, require stronger assumptions to yield valid savings estimates and may not measure savings with the same degree of validity and accuracy as randomized experiments.

  17. Realization of Personalized Services for Intelligent Residential Space based on User Identification Method using Sequential Walking Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Jung

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A new human-friendly assistive home environment, Intelligent Sweet Home (ISH, developed at KAIST, Korea for testing advanced concepts for independent living of the elderly/the physically handicapped. The concept of ISH is to consider the home itself as an intelligent robot. ISH always checks the intention or health status of the resident. Therefore, ISH can do actively the most proper services considering the resident's life-style by the detected intention or emergency information. But, when there are more than two residents, ISH cannot consider the residents' characteristics or tastes if ISH cannot identify who he/she is before. To realize a personalized service system in the intelligent residential space like ISH, we deal with a human-friendly user identification method for ubiquitous computing environment, specially focused on dynamic human footprint recognition. And then, we address some case studies of personalized services that have been experienced by Human-friendly Welfare Robot System research center, KAIST.

  18. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  19. Health status, quality of life, residential stability, substance use, and health care utilization among adults applying to a supportive housing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Stephen W; Gogosis, Evie; Chambers, Catharine; Dunn, James R; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Aubry, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Supportive housing, defined as subsidized housing in conjunction with site-based social services, may help improve the health and residential stability of highly disadvantaged individuals. This study examined changes in health status, quality of life, substance use, health care utilization, and residential stability among 112 homeless and vulnerably housed individuals who applied to a supportive housing program in Toronto, Canada, from December 2005 to June 2007. Follow-up interviews were conducted every 6 months for 18 months. Comparisons were made between individuals who were accepted into the program (intervention) and those who were wait-listed (usual care) using repeated-measures analyses. Individuals who were accepted into the housing program experienced significantly greater improvements in satisfaction with living situation compared with individuals in the usual care group (time, F(3,3,261) = 47.68, p life measures, health status, health care utilization, or substance use between the two groups over time. Significant improvement in residential stability occurred over time, independent of assigned housing group (time, F(3,3,261) = 9.96, p housing on homeless individuals was limited by the small number of participants who were literally homeless at baseline and by the large number of participants who gained stable housing during the study period regardless of their assigned housing status. Nonetheless, this study shows that highly disadvantaged individuals with a high prevalence of poor physical and mental health and substance use can achieve stable housing.

  20. A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissari, Jarkko; Hytönen, Kati; Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg -1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg -1) and fine particle mass (PM 1) (2.7 g kg -1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9-9 g kg -1 TVOC, 28-68 g kg -1 CO and 0.6-1.6 g kg -1 PM 1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH 12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg -1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH 12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg -1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

  1. Control of Solar Power Plants Connected Grid with Simple Calculation Method on Residential Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananda, Kiki; Nazir, Refdinal

    2017-12-01

    One of the most compatible renewable energy in all regions to apply is solar energy. Solar power plants can be built connected to existing or stand-alone power grids. In assisting the residential electricity in which there is a power grid, then a small scale solar energy power plants is very appropriate. However, the general constraint of solar energy power plants is still low in terms of efficiency. Therefore, this study will explain how to control the power of solar power plants more optimally, which is expected to reactive power to zero to raise efficiency. This is a continuation of previous research using Newton Rapshon control method. In this study we introduce a simple method by using ordinary mathematical calculations of solar-related equations. In this model, 10 PV modules type of ND T060M1 with a 60 Wp capacity are used. The calculations performed using MATLAB Simulink provide excellent value. For PCC voltage values obtained a stable quantity of approximately 220 V. At a maximum irradiation condition of 1000 W / m2, the reactive power value of Q solar generating system maximum 20.48 Var and maximum active power of 417.5 W. In the condition of lower irradiation, value of reactive power Q almost close to zero 0.77Var. This simple mathematical method can provide excellent quality control power values.

  2. Residential Segregation, Housing Status, and Prostate Cancer in African American and White Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    estimated that pan frying and chicken are the cooking method and meat that comprise the primary source of dietary PhIP exposure in American men (15,28), but...of cooking temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat products and pan residues. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:861–7. [PubMed: 7728968...6) and stomach cancer (7), intake of fried meat increased lung cancer risk (8), and higher estimated HCA intake increased breast cancer risk (9). A

  3. Residential building energy estimation method based on the application of artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, S.; Kajl, S.

    1999-07-01

    The energy requirements of a residential building five to twenty-five stories high can be measured using a newly proposed analytical method based on artificial intelligence. The method is fast and provides a wide range of results such as total energy consumption values, power surges, and heating or cooling consumption values. A series of database were created to take into account the particularities which influence the energy consumption of a building. In this study, DOE-2 software was created for use in 8 apartment models. A total of 27 neural networks were used, 3 for the estimation of energy consumption in the corridor, and 24 for inside the apartments. Three user interfaces were created to facilitate the estimation of energy consumption. These were named the Energy Estimation Assistance System (EEAS) interfaces and are only accessible using MATLAB software. The input parameters for EEAS are: climatic region, exterior wall resistance, roofing resistance, type of windows, infiltration, number of storeys, and corridor ventilation system operating schedule. By changing the parameters, the EEAS can determine annual heating, cooling and basic energy consumption levels for apartments and corridors. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. A systematic review of inequalities in psychosocial outcomes for women with breast cancer according to residential location and Indigenous status in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youl, P H; Dasgupta, P; Youlden, D; Aitken, J F; Garvey, G; Zorbas, H; Chynoweth, J; Wallington, I; Baade, P D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine variations in psychosocial outcomes by residential location and Indigenous status in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) in Australia. Systematic searches were undertaken using multiple databases covering articles between 1 January 1990 and 1 March 2015 focusing on adult women with BC in an Australian setting and measuring quality of life (QOL), psychological distress or psychosocial support. Thirteen quantitative and three qualitative articles were included. Two quantitative and one qualitative article were rated high quality, seven moderate and the remaining were low quality. No studies examining inequalities by Indigenous status were identified. Non-metropolitan women were more likely to record lower QOL relating to breast cancer-specific concerns and reported a lack of information and resources specific to their needs. Continuity of support, ongoing care and access to specialist and allied health professionals were major concerns for non-metropolitan women. Non-metropolitan women identified unmet needs in relation to travel, fear of cancer recurrence and lack of psychosocial support. Overall, there was a lack of evidence relating to variations in psychosocial outcomes for women with BC according to residential status or Indigenous status. While the review identified some specific concerns for non-metropolitan women with BC, it was limited by the lack of good quality studies using standardised measures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  6. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  7. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  8. The All Particle Method: 1991 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Ballinger, C.T.; Perkins, S.T.

    1991-07-01

    At the present time a Monte Carlo transport computer code is being designed and implemented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to include the transport of: neutrons, photons, electrons and light charged particles as well as the coupling between all species of particles, e.g. photon induced electron emission. Since this code is being designed to handle all particles, this approach is called the ''All Particle Method.'' This paper describes the current design philosophy and status of the Monte Carlo transport code and its supporting data bases. The treatment of neutrons and photons used by the All Particle Method code is conventional and as such this topic will not be discussed in this paper. Here emphasis is on discussion of our recent work to extend our ability to perform electron transport, as well as photon transport, as it is effected by coupling to electron transport, and atomic relaxation. First we discuss our new extended photon and electron interaction and atomic relaxation data bases. Next we illustrate the extended capabilities that these new data bases provide by presenting the results of several Monte Carlo transport calculations

  9. Improving the Energy Performance in Existing Non-residential Buildings in Denmark Using the Total Concept Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krawczyk, Pawel; Afshari, Alireza; Simonsen, Graves K.

    2016-01-01

    This project is a part of a joint European research project, “Total Concept”, which is a method for improving the energy performance in existing non-Residential buildings. The method focuses on achieving maximum energy savings in a Building within the profitability frames set by a building owner...... was to form a package of measures for an energy performance improvement in the building based on the Total Concept method. This paper presents results from recently analyzed data on two renovated Danish buildings according to the rules of “Total Concept” method. According to the estimation done based...

  10. Emissions from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part I, methods and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, Ekbordin; Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a framework to attribute national-level atmospheric emissions in the year 2010 from the residential sector, one of the largest energy-related sources of aerosol emissions. We place special emphasis on end-uses, dividing usage into cooking, heating, lighting, and others. This study covers regions where solid biomass fuel provides more than 50% of total residential energy: Latin America, Africa, and Asia (5.2 billion people in 2010). Using nightlight data and population density, we classify five land types: urban, electrified rural with forest access, electrified rural without forest access, non-electrified rural with forest access, and non-electrified rural without forest access. We then apportion national-level residential fuel consumption among all land-types and end-uses, and assign end-use technologies to each combination. The resulting calculation gives spatially-distributed emissions of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Within this study region, about 13% of the energy is consumed in urban areas, and 45% in non-urban land near forests. About half the energy is consumed in land without access to electricity. Cooking accounts for 54% of the consumption, heating for 9%, and lighting only 2%, with unidentified uses making up the remainder. Because biofuel use is assumed to occur preferentially where wood is accessible and electricity is not, our method shifts emissions to land types without electrification, compared with previous methods. The framework developed here is an important first step in acknowledging the role of household needs and local constraints in choosing energy provision. Although data and relationships described here need further development, this structure offers a more physically-based understanding of residential energy choices and, ultimately, opportunities for emission reduction.

  11. Control Method Based on Demand Response Needs of Isolated Bus Regulation with Series-Resonant Converters for Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Huai Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of isolation and high efficiency, a series-resonant DC-DC converter (L-L-C type, with two inductors and a capacitor has been introduced into a residential photovoltaic (PV generation and storage system in this work, and a voltage gain curve upwarp drifting problem was found. In this paper, the reason of upwarp drifting in the voltage gain curve is given, and a new changing topological control method to solve the voltage regulation problem under light load conditions is proposed. Firstly, the ideal and actual first harmonic approximation (FHA models are given, and this drifting problem is ascribed to the multiple peaks of higher-order resonance between resonant tank and parasitic capacitors. Then the paper presents the pulse-frequency-modulation (PFM driver signals control method to translate the full-bridge LLC into a half-bridge LLC converter, and with this method the voltage gain could easily be reduced by half. Based on this method, the whole voltage and resonant current sharing control methods in on-line and off-line mode are proposed. The parameters design and optimization methods are also discussed in detail. Finally, a residential PV system platform based on the proposed parallel 7-kW full-bridge LLC converter is built to verify the proposed control method and theoretical analysis.

  12. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Given new regulations, increased complexity in the market, and the general shift from CFLs to LEDs, this evaluation protocol was updated in 2017 to shift the focus of the protocols toward LEDs and away from CFLs and to resolve evaluation uncertainties affecting residential lighting incentive programs.

  13. A Method for Quantifying the Acute Health Impacts of Residential Non-Biological Exposure Via Inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Bret C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The inability to monetize the health costs of acute exposures in homes and the benefits of various control options is a barrier to justifying policies and approaches that can reduce exposure and improve health.We synthesized relationships between short-term outdoor concentration changes and health outcomes to estimate the health impacts of short-term in-home exposures. Damage and cost impacts of specific health outcomes were taken from the literature. We assessed the impact of vented and non-vented residential natural gas cooking burners on Southern California occupants for two pollutants (NO2 and CO).

  14. Development of methods for assessing the vulnerability of Australian residential building stock to severe wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Martin; Sandland, Carl; Edwards, Mark; Ginger, John; Holmes, John

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree of damage to residential structures expected from severe wind is used to study the benefits from adaptation strategies developed in response to expected changes in wind severity due to climate change. This study will inform government, the insurance industry and provide emergency services with estimates of expected damage. A series of heuristic wind vulnerability curves for Australian residential structures has been developed. In order to provide rigor to the heuristic curves and to enable quantitative assessment to be made of adaptation strategies, work has commenced to produce a simulation tool to quantitatively assess damage to buildings from severe wind. The simulation tool accounts for variability in wind profile, shielding, structural strength, pressure coefficients, building orientation, component self weights, debris damage and water ingress via a Monte Carlo approach. The software takes a component-based approach to modelling building vulnerability. It is based on the premise that overall building damage is strongly related to the failure of key components (i.e. connections). If these failures can be ascertained, and associated damage from debris and water penetration reliably estimated, scenarios of complete building damage can be assessed. This approach has been developed with varying degrees of rigor by researchers around the world and is best practice for the insurance industry.

  15. Social isolation and loneliness in later life: A parallel convergent mixed-methods case study of older adults and their residential contexts in the Minneapolis metropolitan area, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Jessica M; Kobayashi, Lindsay C

    2018-07-01

    Social isolation and loneliness are increasingly prevalent among older adults in the United States, with implications for morbidity and mortality risk. Little research to date has examined the complex person-place transactions that contribute to social well-being in later life. This study aimed to characterize personal and neighborhood contextual influences on social isolation and loneliness among older adults. Interviews were conducted with independent-dwelling men and women (n = 124; mean age 71 years) in the Minneapolis metropolitan area (USA) from June to October, 2015. A convergent mixed-methods design was applied, whereby quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in parallel to gain simultaneous insights into statistical associations and in-depth individual perspectives. Logistic regression models predicted self-reported social isolation and loneliness, adjusted for age, gender, past occupation, race/ethnicity, living alone, street type, residential location, and residential density. Qualitative thematic analyses of interview transcripts probed individual experiences with social isolation and loneliness. The quantitative results suggested that African American adults, those with a higher socioeconomic status, those who did not live alone, and those who lived closer to the city center were less likely to report feeling socially isolated or lonely. The qualitative results identified and explained variation in outcomes within each of these factors. They provided insight on those who lived alone but did not report feeling lonely, finding that solitude was sought after and enjoyed by a portion of participants. Poor physical and mental health often resulted in reporting social isolation, particularly when coupled with poor weather or low-density neighborhoods. At the same time, poor health sometimes provided opportunities for valued social engagement with caregivers, family, and friends. The combination of group-level risk factors and in-depth personal

  16. Assessing incentive contracts for reducing residential electricity consumption: new experimental methods for new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachet, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Facing economic, political and environmental stakes, electricity providers are nowadays developing incentive tools, in order to reduce consumer's demand, particularly during peak demand periods. For residential customers, these tools can be tariffs (dynamic pricing of time-of-use tariffs), or informative devices or services (feedbacks on historical or real-time consumption, given on various media). They might go along with automation systems that can help cutting of some electric devices when needed. In order to evaluate the capacity of these settings among their customers, electricity utilities are developing quite a few studies, which are mainly field experiment often called pilots. During these pilots, demand response tools are implemented on a population sample. These long and expensive studies lid to quantitative and qualitative analysis. We have compiled about 40 of them and extract from this survey some generalizable teachings. We have shown what these results were and highlighted pilot programs' methodological limits. In order to propose a substitute to these heavy experimentations, we assessed the capacity or experimental economics. This relatively new discipline's objective is to evaluation the efficiency of institutions, like markets, but also to study what animate economic agents' behaviour, e.g. preferences, beliefs, cognitive biases, willingness to pay... We were also able to elaborate an experimental protocol dedicated to the evaluation of some demand response contracts' acceptability. The results collected during 14 experimental sessions gave us some innovative clues and insight on these contracts acceptability. But, beyond these results, we have demonstrated that even if experimental economics can't obviously be a substitute for field experiments, it can represent an interesting exploratory methodology. To sum up the experimental economics can take part of residential customers' behaviour understanding, performing

  17. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages.......Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise...... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  18. Optimal Sizing of Decentralized Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage Units for Malaysia Residential Household Using Iterative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hasimah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s fuel sources are decreasing, and global warming phenomena cause the necessity of urgent search for alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic generating system has a high potential, since it is clean, environmental friendly and secure energy sources. This paper presents an optimal sizing of decentralized photovoltaic system and electrical energy storage for a residential household using iterative method. The cost of energy, payback period, degree of autonomy and degree of own-consumption are defined as optimization parameters. A case study is conducted by employing Kuala Lumpur meteorological data, typical load profile from rural area in Malaysia, decentralized photovoltaic generation unit and electrical storage and it is analyzed in hourly basis. An iterative method is used with photovoltaic array variable from 0.1kW to 4.0kW and storage system variable from 50Ah to 400Ah was performed to determine the optimal design for the proposed system.

  19. On methods of sustainable architectural design of bio-positive buildings in the low-rise residential development structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhogoleva Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the author’s research is to determine the actual content of sustainable architectural design for suburban residential development. In accordance with the methodology of area sustainable development the traditional architectural design according to the rules and regulations is completed with additional approaches and methods. As a result, methods of bio-positive design of buildings have been studied and defined, including: the principle of planning transformations, the use of environmentally friendly, local building materials and design concepts, energy-efficient architectural design, the use of alternative energy in building operation, the design of the energy intake and accumulationsystems, the architectural and landscape design that ensures stable functioning of autonomous, sustainable biosystems on the site, non-waste functioning of architectural objects, introduction of waste disposal systems in the project.

  20. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  1. Structural reliability methods: Code development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry R.; Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Cruse, T. A.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Structures Analysis Method (PSAM) program integrates state of the art probabilistic algorithms with structural analysis methods in order to quantify the behavior of Space Shuttle Main Engine structures subject to uncertain loadings, boundary conditions, material parameters, and geometric conditions. An advanced, efficient probabilistic structural analysis software program, NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) was developed as a deliverable. NESSUS contains a number of integrated software components to perform probabilistic analysis of complex structures. A nonlinear finite element module NESSUS/FEM is used to model the structure and obtain structural sensitivities. Some of the capabilities of NESSUS/FEM are shown. A Fast Probability Integration module NESSUS/FPI estimates the probability given the structural sensitivities. A driver module, PFEM, couples the FEM and FPI. NESSUS, version 5.0, addresses component reliability, resistance, and risk.

  2. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  3. Current status of the EPR method to detect irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    This review gives a brief outline of the principles of the EPR detection method for irradiated foods by food type. For each food type, the scope, limitations and status of the method are given. The extensive reference list aims to include all which define the method, as well as some rarely cited works of historical importance. (author)

  4. Status and development of uranium prospection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.

    1978-01-01

    In radiometric prospection, gamma measuring equipment is widely used. Simple instruments, so-called scintillometers, can only measure total radiation while spectrometers permit separate measurements of uranium, thorium, or calcium via daughter products of their decay chains. Depending on the target investigated, airborne, carborne, or footborne methods are employed. In radon prospection the gaseous decay product radon is measured as a sign of hidden uranium enrichment in ground air or water from springs. Due to its high solubility, uranium is well suited for geochemical prospection where uranium concentrations in bodies of water, river sediments, soil and rock types are determined. There is a trend in uranium prospection towards the discovery of hidden orifications. Novel techniques, e.g. airborne geochemistry, isotope chemistry, tracer element measurement, etc. are being tested with a view to their suitability for uranium prospection. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  5. U.S. residential consumer product information: Validation of methods for post-stratification weighting of Amazon Mechanical Turk surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Donovan, Sally M. [Consultant, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    We present two post-stratification weighting methods to validate survey data collected using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Two surveys focused on appliance and consumer electronics devices were administered in the spring and summer of 2012 to each of approximately 3,000 U.S. households. Specifically, the surveys asked questions about residential refrigeration products, televisions (TVs) and set-top boxes (STBs). Filtered data were assigned weights using each of two weighting methods, termed “sequential” and “simultaneous,” by examining up to eight demographic variables (income, education, gender, race, Hispanic origin, number of occupants, ages of occupants, and geographic region) in comparison to reference U.S. demographic data from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Five key questions from the surveys (number of refrigerators, number of freezers, number of TVs, number of STBs and primary service provider) were evaluated with a set of statistical tests to determine whether either method improved the agreement of AMT with reference data, and if so, which method was better. The statistical tests used were: differences in proportions, distributions of proportions (using Pearson’s chi-squared test), and differences in average numbers of devices as functions of all demographic variables. The results indicated that both methods generally improved the agreement between AMT and reference data, sometimes greatly, but that the simultaneous method was usually superior to the sequential method. Some differences in sample populations were found between the AMT and reference data. Differences in the proportion of STBs reflected large changes in the STB market since the time our reference data was acquired in 2009. Differences in the proportions of some primary service providers suggested real sample bias, with the possible explanation that AMT user are more likely to subscribe to providers who also provide home internet service. Differences in

  6. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real

  7. Comparison of Single-Point and Continuous Sampling Methods for Estimating Residential Indoor Temperature and Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Magnusson, Brianna M; Eggett, Dennis; Collingwood, Scott C; Bernhardt, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    Residential temperature and humidity are associated with multiple health effects. Studies commonly use single-point measures to estimate indoor temperature and humidity exposures, but there is little evidence to support this sampling strategy. This study evaluated the relationship between single-point and continuous monitoring of air temperature, apparent temperature, relative humidity, and absolute humidity over four exposure intervals (5-min, 30-min, 24-hr, and 12-days) in 9 northern Utah homes, from March-June 2012. Three homes were sampled twice, for a total of 12 observation periods. Continuous data-logged sampling was conducted in homes for 2-3 wks, and simultaneous single-point measures (n = 114) were collected using handheld thermo-hygrometers. Time-centered single-point measures were moderately correlated with short-term (30-min) data logger mean air temperature (r = 0.76, β = 0.74), apparent temperature (r = 0.79, β = 0.79), relative humidity (r = 0.70, β = 0.63), and absolute humidity (r = 0.80, β = 0.80). Data logger 12-day means were also moderately correlated with single-point air temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.43) and apparent temperature (r = 0.64, β = 0.44), but were weakly correlated with single-point relative humidity (r = 0.53, β = 0.35) and absolute humidity (r = 0.52, β = 0.39). Of the single-point RH measures, 59 (51.8%) deviated more than ±5%, 21 (18.4%) deviated more than ±10%, and 6 (5.3%) deviated more than ±15% from data logger 12-day means. Where continuous indoor monitoring is not feasible, single-point sampling strategies should include multiple measures collected at prescribed time points based on local conditions.

  8. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  9. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An ecology of prestige in New York City: Examining the relationships among population density, socio-economic status, group identity, and residential canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Dexter H. Locke; Jarlath P.M. O' Neil-Dunne

    2014-01-01

    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use...

  11. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  12. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to air quality in the microenvironments of residential houses in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A; Morawska, Lidia; Kokot, Serge; Gilbert, Dale

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports the first application of the multicriteria decision making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, to indoor and outdoor air quality data. Fourteen residential houses in a suburb of Brisbane, Australia were investigated for 21 air quality-influencing criteria, which included the characteristics of the houses as well as the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, fungi, bacteria, submicrometer, and supermicrometer particles in their indoor and outdoor air samples. Ranking information necessary to select one house in preference to all others and to assess the parameters influencing the differentiation of the houses was found with the aid of PROMETHEE and GAIA. There was no correlation between the rank order of each house and the health complaints of its occupants. Patterns in GAIA plots show that indoor air quality in these houses is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the houses (construction material, distance of the house from a major road, and the presence of an in-built garage). Marked similarities were observed in the patterns obtained when GAIA and factor analysis were applied to the data. This underscores the potential of PROMETHEE and GAIA to provide information that can assist source apportionment and elucidation of effective remedial measures for indoor air pollution.

  13. Overview of mycotoxin methods, present status and future needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews current requirements for the analysis for mycotoxins in foods and identifies legislative as well as other factors that are driving development and validation of new methods. New regulatory limits for mycotoxins and analytical quality assurance requirements for laboratories to only use validated methods are seen as major factors driving developments. Three major classes of methods are identified which serve different purposes and can be categorized as screening, official and research. In each case the present status and future needs are assessed. In addition to an overview of trends in analytical methods, some other areas of analytical quality assurance such as participation in proficiency testing and reference materials are identified.

  14. A Review of Methods for the Manufacture of Residential Roofing Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Berdahl, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Shingles, tiles, and metal products comprise over 80% (by roof area) of the California roofing market (54-58% fiberglass shingle, 8-10% concrete tile, 8-10% clay tile, 7% metal, 3% wood shake, and 3% slate). In climates with significant demand for cooling energy, increasing roof solar reflectance reduces energy consumption in mechanically cooled buildings, and improves occupant comfort in non-conditioned buildings. This report examines methods for manufacturing fiberglass shingles, concrete tiles, clay tiles, and metal roofing. The report also discusses innovative methods for increasing the solar reflectance of these roofing materials. We have focused on these four roofing products because they are typically colored with pigmented coatings or additives. A better understanding of the current practices for manufacturing colored roofing materials would allow us to develop cool colored materials creatively and more effectively.

  15. Predicting the diversity of internal temperatures from the English residential sector using panel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Scott; Shipworth, Michelle; Shipworth, David; Gentry, Michael; Wright, Andrew; Pollitt, Michael; Crawford-Brown, Doug; Lomas, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new method is proposed incorporating behavioural, environmental and building efficiency variables to explain internal dwelling temperatures. ► It is the first time panel methods have been used to predict internal dwelling temperatures over time. ► The proposed method is able to explain 45% of the variance of internal temperature between heterogeneous dwellings. ► Results support qualitative research on the importance of social, cultural and psychological behaviour in determining internal dwelling temperatures. behaviour. ► This method presents new opportunities to quantify the size of the direct rebound effect between heterogeneous dwellings. -- Abstract: In this paper, panel methods are applied in new and innovative ways to predict daily mean internal temperature demand across a heterogeneous domestic building stock over time. This research not only exploits a rich new dataset but presents new methodological insights and offers important linkages for connecting bottom-up building stock models to human behaviour. It represents the first time a panel model has been used to estimate the dynamics of internal temperature demand from the natural daily fluctuations of external temperature combined with important behavioural, socio-demographic and building efficiency variables. The model is able to predict internal temperatures across a heterogeneous building stock to within ∼0.71 °C at 95% confidence and explain 45% of the variance of internal temperature between dwellings. The model confirms hypothesis from sociology and psychology that habitual behaviours are important drivers of home energy consumption. In addition, the model offers the possibility to quantify take-back (direct rebound effect) owing to increased internal temperatures from the installation of energy efficiency measures. The presence of thermostats or thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) are shown to reduce average internal temperatures, however, the use of an automatic timer

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  17. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  18. A new automated colorimetric method for measuring total oxidant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ozcan

    2005-12-01

    To develop a new, colorimetric and automated method for measuring total oxidation status (TOS). The assay is based on the oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion in the presence of various oxidant species in acidic medium and the measurement of the ferric ion by xylenol orange. The oxidation reaction of the assay was enhanced and precipitation of proteins was prevented. In addition, autoxidation of ferrous ion present in the reagent was prevented during storage. The method was applied to an automated analyzer, which was calibrated with hydrogen peroxide and the analytical performance characteristics of the assay were determined. There were important correlations with hydrogen peroxide, tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide solutions (r=0.99, Ptotal antioxidant capacity (TAC) (r=-0.66 Ptotal oxidant status.

  19. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  20. Acoustical method of whole-body hydration status monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvazyan, A. P.; Tsyuryupa, S. N.; Calhoun, M.; Utter, A.

    2016-07-01

    An acoustical handheld hydration monitor (HM) for assessing the water balance of the human body was developed. Dehydration is a critical public health problem. Many elderly over age of 65 are particularly vulnerable as are infants and young children. Given that dehydration is both preventable and reversible, the need for an easy-to-perform method for the detection of water imbalance is of the utmost clinical importance. The HM is based on an experimental fact that ultrasound velocity in muscle is a linear function of water content and can be referenced to the hydration status of the body. Studies on the validity of HM for the assessment of whole-body hydration status were conducted in the Appalachian State University, USA, on healthy young adults and on elderly subjects residing at an assisted living facility. The HM was able to track changes in total body water during periods of acute dehydration and rehydration in athletes and day-to-day and diurnal variability of hydration in elderly. Results of human studies indicate that HM has a potential to become an efficient tool for detecting abnormal changes in the body hydration status.

  1. Estimation of bias with the single-zone assumption in measurement of residential air exchange using the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, K; Wallace, L; Fugler, D; MacNeill, M; Héroux, M È; Gibson, M D; Guernsey, J R; Kindzierski, W; Wheeler, A J

    2015-12-01

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well-mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single-zone AER (AER(1z)). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in the basement or second floor in approximately 10% of homes for a two-zone AER estimate (AER(2z)). In total, 287 daily pairs of AER(2z) and AER(1z) estimates were made from 35 homes across three cities. In 87% of the cases, AER(2z) was higher than AER(1z). Overall, the AER(1z) estimates underestimated AER(2z) by approximately 16% (IQR: 5-32%). This underestimate occurred in all cities and seasons and varied in magnitude seasonally, between homes, and daily, indicating that when measuring residential air exchange using a single PFT gas, the assumption of a single well-mixed air zone very likely results in an under prediction of the AER. The results of this study suggest that the long-standing assumption that a home represents a single well-mixed air zone may result in a substantial negative bias in air exchange estimates. Indoor air quality professionals should take this finding into consideration when developing study designs or making decisions related to the recommendation and installation of residential ventilation systems. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  2. An ecology of prestige in New York City: examining the relationships among population density, socio-economic status, group identity, and residential canopy cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J Morgan; Locke, Dexter H; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P M

    2014-09-01

    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use diverse data sources including the City's property database, time-series demographic and socio-economic data from the US Census, and land cover data from the University of Vermont's Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL). These data are analyzed using a multi-model inferential, spatial econometrics approach. We also examine the distribution of vegetation within distinct market categories using Claritas' Potential Rating Index for Zipcode Markets (PRIZM™) database. These categories can be disaggregated, corresponding to the four social theories. We compare the econometric and categorical results for validation. Models associated with ecology of prestige theory are more effective for predicting the distribution of vegetation. This suggests that private, residential patterns of vegetation, reflecting the consumption of environmentally relevant goods and services, are associated with different lifestyles and lifestages. Further, our spatial and temporal analyses suggest that there are significant spatial and temporal dependencies that have theoretical and methodological implications for understanding urban ecological systems. These findings may have policy implications. Decision makers may need to consider how to most effectively reach different social groups in terms of messages and messengers in order to advance land management practices and achieve urban sustainability.

  3. An Ecology of Prestige in New York City: Examining the Relationships Among Population Density, Socio-economic Status, Group Identity, and Residential Canopy Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J. Morgan; Locke, Dexter H.; O'Neil-Dunne, Jarlath P. M.

    2014-09-01

    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use diverse data sources including the City's property database, time-series demographic and socio-economic data from the US Census, and land cover data from the University of Vermont's Spatial Analysis Lab (SAL). These data are analyzed using a multi-model inferential, spatial econometrics approach. We also examine the distribution of vegetation within distinct market categories using Claritas' Potential Rating Index for Zipcode Markets (PRIZM™) database. These categories can be disaggregated, corresponding to the four social theories. We compare the econometric and categorical results for validation. Models associated with ecology of prestige theory are more effective for predicting the distribution of vegetation. This suggests that private, residential patterns of vegetation, reflecting the consumption of environmentally relevant goods and services, are associated with different lifestyles and lifestages. Further, our spatial and temporal analyses suggest that there are significant spatial and temporal dependencies that have theoretical and methodological implications for understanding urban ecological systems. These findings may have policy implications. Decision makers may need to consider how to most effectively reach different social groups in terms of messages and messengers in order to advance land management practices and achieve urban sustainability.

  4. Dataset on energy efficiency assessment and measurement method for child-friendly space in cold residential area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data related in this paper are related to “Environmental-behavior studies of sustainable construction of the third place – based on outdoor environment-behavior cross-feed symbiotic analysis and verification of selective activities” (Ren, 2017 [1]. The dataset was from a field sub-time extended investigation to children of Hohhot West Inner Mongolia Electric Power Community Residential Area in Inner Mongolia of China that belongs to cold region of ID area according to Chinese design code for buildings. This filed data provided descriptive statistics about outdoor time, behavior scale specificity, age exclusivity and self-centeredness for children in different ages (babies, preschool children, school age children. This data provided five measurement elements of child-friendly space and their weight ratio. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  5. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  6. Nighttime residential wood burning evidenced from an indirect method for estimating real-time concentration of particulate organic matter (POM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciare, J.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Aymoz, G.; Laj, P.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time analyzers of selected chemical components (sulfate, nitrate, Black Carbon) and integrative aerosol parameters (particulate matter and light scattering coefficient) were implemented for a 2-week campaign (November-December 2005) in a suburban area of Clermont-Ferrand (France) in order to document fast changes in the chemical composition of submicron aerosols. Measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) were not available in the field but were indirectly estimated from time-resolved (3-min) reconstruction of the light scattering coefficient. This methodology offered the opportunity to investigate almost real-time and artifact-free POM concentrations even at low concentrations (typically below 0.1 mu g m(-3)). The overall uncertainties associated with this POM calculation were of the order of 20%, which are comparable to those commonly referred in literature for POM calculation or measurements. A chemical mass balance (CMB) of PM1 was performed using the derived POM concentrations and showed a very good correlation (slope = 0.93; r(2) = 0.91, N = 663) with real-time PM1 measurements obtained from R and P TEOM-FDMS, demonstrating the consistency of our approach. Important diurnal variations were observed in POM concentrations, with a dominant contribution of POM from fossil fuel origin during daytime and a dominant contribution of POM from residential wood burning at night. POM was calculated to contribute as much as 70% of PM1 during our study, pointing out the major role of carbonaceous aerosols at this period of the year at our residential area. (authors)

  7. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  8. The fuel index method as a new planning instrument in the erection and redevelopment of residential estates; Das Brennstoffkennzahl-Verfahren als neues Planungsinstrument fuer Neubau- und Sanierungsvorhaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsenberger, U. [Industrie und Communal Consulting GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Boese, M.; Diefenbach, N.; Petersdorff, C.; Schultze, K. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). 3. Physikalisches Inst. A

    1998-12-31

    The fuel index method aims at the largest possible exploitation of conservation potentials in residential thermal energy supply. The introduction of a thermal quality standard for thermal energy systems lays the foundation in process engineering terms for a competition between environment-friendly thermal energy supply and thermal insulation, with the aim to save energy and cost. Using higher-grade thermal energy at higher cost than current energy costs is approved of if its use involves an ambitious conservation aim. In this way, particularly rational energy techniques are promoted. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Brennstoffkennzahl-Verfahren zielt auf eine effektive Erschliessung weitgehender Einsparziele bei der Waermeversorgung von Wohngebieten. Mit der Einfuehrung der Waermequalitaet als Guetemass eines Waermeversorgungssystems werden die verfahrenstechnischen Grundlagen fuer eine auf kostenguenstige Energieeinsparung ausgerichtete Konkurrenz zwischen umweltfreundlicher Waermeversorgung und Waermeschutz geschaffen. Waerme hoeherer Qualitaet darf bei Vorgabe eines ehrgeizigen Einsparziels teurer sein als heute ueblich. Damit wird der Einsatz besonders rationeller Energietechniken gefoerdert. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation methods on the nutritional status of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Luo, B; Xie, Y; Hu, H-Y; Feng, L; Li, Z-N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of particular tools on the nutritional status of patients with stroke risk factors; to analyze these risk factors; to construct an assessment table; and to enable nurses to conduct fast and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of patients with stroke. Various nutritional assessment tools were employed to assess the nutritional status of stroke patients [(Nutritional Risk Screening 2002, NRS2002); (mini nutritional assessment, MNA), (subjective global assessment SGA), (malnutrition universal screening, MUST); (body composition, BCA)]. The leading disease-related factors of cerebral apoplexy were observed in patients with malnutrition. And a statistical analysis was conducted. The significant risk factors of cerebral apoplexy in malnourished patients older than 70 years were swallowing dysfunctions, disturbance of consciousness and reliance or half-reliance on feeding practices. The significant risk factors of malnutrition in patients with cerebral apoplexy were the decline in upper limb muscle strength, decline in the performance of various activities, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms. Disorders that affect the nutritional status of stroke patients can be used as evaluation tools, as described in the evaluation table. The clinical relevance of this study includes the following: to enable the clinical nursing staff to easily assess the patient's nutritional status in a timely manner; to improve compliance with nutritional evaluation; to provide clinical nutrition support to patients with stroke; and to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of the clinical outcomes of patients with cerebral apoplexy.

  10. Residential mobility in early childhood: Household and neighborhood characteristics of movers and non-movers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lawrence

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing influences on child health and well-being. Objective: This study describes individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. Methods: We examined longitudinal data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B, a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001. Frequencies described the prevalence of characteristics for four waves of data and adjusted Wald tests compared means. Results: Moving was common for these families with young children, as nearly three-quarters of children moved at least once. Movers transitioned to neighborhoods with residents of higher socioeconomic status but experienced no improved household socioeconomic position relative to non-movers. Conclusions: Both the high prevalence and unique implications of early childhood residential mobility suggest the need for further research.

  11. Check and evaluation system on heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of china based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.

  12. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Residential Mobility di Pinggiran Kota Semarang Jawa Tengah (Studi Kasus Kaum Miskin Kota di Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Gamal Rindarjono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed in analyzing and examining the development of slum residential in Semarang, including its center of the city urban, urban-fringe and sub-urban area. Within the development of the slum residential due to mobility of the urban poor, the phenomenon in the term of residential mobility occurred. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research was applying distant-interpretation data in examining slum residential phenomenon and terrestrial data in analyzing both social and cultural issues related to development of slum residential. This research resulting a residential mobility model throughout areas of research, especially sub-urban including the Chinese cemetery area; the new migrant was the urbanist namely the bridge headers group, consists of tramp and hobos whom should be concerned more. Though they just have settled in short-period within the area, their income was categorized financially settled. They owned their own home not as the renter and even, built housing for their subordinates amounted 7-15 families in a complex of residential. Stability of the income was also supported by resident-owning whereas selecting its location based on the land-availability which initially settled the location illegally among the graves. This location was selected since its less-maintained condition by neither their descendant nor cemetery officer which then densely covered by bushes. Availability of the sufficient land leads them to build their residential which also used as the scrap collection space. During the times, their number was increased referred to their raising income. Legalizing their residential was the next step for their existence and sustainability by purchasing or renting the land. Eventually this bridge header was earning a stable income, owning their own home, and locating their residential in the sub-urban area furthermore but unfortunately less-supported by a highly established life style but an

  14. Characteristics and service needs of women and babies admitted to residential parenting units in New South Wales: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Holly; Thornton, Charlene; Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Tooher, Jane; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2018-04-27

    This study aims to examine the characteristics and service needs of women and babies admitted to Residential Parenting Services (RPS) in the first year following birth in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia there is a tiered system to support maternal, child and family health, which includes residential parenting services (RPS). Sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Individual patient data were obtained from a random review of 10% of all medical records (n = 300 of 3011 admissions) of women with an infant of less than 12 months of age who were admitted to RPS in 2013. Following review of the medical records, qualitative data were collected via interviews with eight women who accessed RPS. Chi square analysis and student t-testing were used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using a descriptive interpretive approach. An integrative approach was taken in reporting the findings RESULTS: Women admitted to the RPS were on average 32 years of age, were Australian born (72%), had a university qualification (40%) and most were employed. The majority of women were primiparous (60%), and had a vaginal birth (61%). Women with male infants were much more likely to be admitted to the RPS (58%) compared to the NSW male to female ratio (51.3% versus 48.7%). Over 50% of women reported mental health issues with 27% having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥13 on admission. The primary reason women sought parenting support were for sleep and settling (83%). During their stay, services used by women included social workers (44%), psychologists (52%) and psychiatrists (4.5%). Women who access RPS report psychosocial and mental health issues. Services provided by RPS support women during this challenging early parenting period by providing multidisciplinary, holistic and peer support. A high prevalence of mental health issues identified in this study indicated a need for ongoing training and support for RPS staff. Ensuring

  15. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  16. Detection methods for irradiated foods: current status. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurray, C.H.; Gray, R.; Stewart, E.M.; Pearce, J.; Queen's Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland

    1996-01-01

    This book contains a scientific record of an international meeting on analytical detection methods for irradiation treatment of food. Apart from encouraging the basic development of detection tests, the meeting also aimed to assess the various test methods critically to determine their suitability for general use by public health laboratories and others concerned with trade in irradiated food. Two sets of criteria have been developed to assess test methods, technical criteria for a qualitative or quantitative test and practical criteria if a method is to be widely applied by food labelling authorities. Agreement has already been achieved for the use of electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence, hydrocarbons, 2-Alkylcyclobutanones, microbiological, viscometry and impedance tests. (UK)

  17. Test cases for interface tracking methods: methodology and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebaigue, O.; Jamet, D.; Lemonnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:In the past decade, a large number of new methods have been developed to deal with interfaces in the numerical simulation of two-phase flows. We have collected a set of 36 test cases, which can be seen as a tool to help engineers and researchers selecting the most appropriate method(s) for their specific fields of application. This set can be use: - To perform an initial evaluation of the capabilities of available methods with regard to the specificity of the final application and the most important features to be recovered from the simulation. - To measure the maximum mesh size to be used for a given physical problem in order to obtain an accurate enough solution. - To assess and quantify the performances of a selected method equipped with its set of physical models. The computation of a well-documented test case allows estimating the error due to the numerical technique by comparison with reference solutions. This process is compulsory to gain confidence and credibility on the prediction capabilities of a numerical method and its physical models. - To broaden the capabilities of a given numerical technique. The test cases may be used to identify the need for improvement of the overall numerical scheme or to determine the physical part of the model, which is responsible for the observed limitations. Each test case falls within one of the following categories: - Analytical solutions of well-known sets of equations corresponding to simple geometrical situations. - Reference numerical solutions of moderately complex problems, produced by accurate methods (e.g., boundary Fitted coordinate method) on refined meshes. - Separate effects analytical experiments. The presentation will suggest how to use the test cases for assessing the physical models and the numerical methods. The expected fallout of using test cases is indeed on the one hand to identify the merits of existing methods and on the other hand to orient further research towards

  18. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  19. Current status of fertility control methods in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of the condom increased to 3.1% from 2.4%. ... Current efforts in India to develop a male contraceptive are mainly directed towards ... the existing range of contraceptive methods available in the National Family Planning Programme. ... long acting, relatively easily removed and fertility returns rapidly after their removal.

  20. [Research advances in indices and methods for nutritional status evaluation in patients with liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zhang, L

    2017-03-20

    In recent years, malnutrition in patients with liver cirrhosis has been taken more and more seriously in clinical physicians, and patients' nutritional status is closely associated with prognosis. At present, there are many methods for the evaluation of nutritional status in patients with liver cirrhosis, but there are still no unified standards. This article reviews the common evaluation indices and methods used in clinical practice in China and foreign countries, in order to provide a basis for accurately evaluating nutritional status and guiding nutritional therapy in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  1. Microbiological methods for surveillance of carrier status of multiresistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; Bou, Germán; Chaves, Fernando; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The presence of colonised patients is one of the main routes for the spread of multiresistant bacteria, and its containment is a clinical and public health priority. Surveillance studies are essential for early detection of colonisation by these bacteria. This article discusses the different microbiological methods, both based on culturing and molecular methods, for detection of carriers of multiresistant bacteria. Those species with a high clinical/epidemiological impact or generating therapeutic difficulties are included: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp. resistant to glycopeptides, enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum β-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC, carbapenemases producing enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The information in this document should be considered as a structure matrix to be tailored to the specific needs of each centre. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Status of shielding analysis methods for transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Broadhead, B.L.; Brady, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding analysis methods for transport packages are becoming more important to the cask designer because optimized cask designs with higher payloads can yield doses near the limits set by regulatory authorities. Uncertainty arising from generation of radiation sources, selection of cross-section data, and the radiation transport methodology must be considered. Recent comparison studies using popular US codes illustrate calculational discrepancies arising from each of these areas

  3. An intervention strategy for improving residential environment and positive mental health among public housing tenants: rationale, design and methods of Flash on my neighborhood!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Houle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. Methods The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1 Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice, a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2 Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3 Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a contextual factors (tenants’ previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.; b activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital. Discussion The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.

  4. The all-too-flexible abductive method: ATOM's normative status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeijn, Jan-Willem

    2008-09-01

    The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use of analogical reasoning and the application of exploratory factor analysis leave us with too many candidate theories to choose from, and explanatory coherence cannot be expected to save the day. The author ends with some suggestions to remedy the permissiveness and lack of normative force in ATOM, deriving from the experimental practice within which psychological data are produced.

  5. The Subjective Well-Being Method of Valuation: An Application to General Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2015-12-01

    To introduce the subjective well-being (SWB) method of valuation and provide an example by valuing health status. The SWB method allows monetary valuations to be performed in the absence of market relationships. Data are from the 1975-2010 General Social Survey. The value of health status is determined via the estimation of an implicit derivative based on a happiness equation. Two-stage least-squares was used to estimate happiness as a function of poor-to-fair health status, annual household income adjusted for household size, age, sex, race, marital status, education, year, and season. Poor-to-fair health status and annual household income are instrumented using a proxy for intelligence, a temporal version of the classic distance instrument, and the average health status of individuals who are demographically similar but geographically separated. Instrument validity is evaluated. Moving from good/excellent health to poor/fair health (1 year of lower health status) is equivalent to the loss of $41,654 of equivalized household income (2010 constant dollars) per annum, which is larger than median equivalized household income. The SWB method may be useful in making monetary valuations where fundamental market relationships are not present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Status of SFR Codes and Methods QA Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, Acacia J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Briggs, Laural L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fanning, Thomas H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report details development of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 SQA Program and describes the initial stages of Program implementation planning. The provisional Program structure, which is largely focused on the establishment of compliant SQA documentation, is outlined in detail, and Program compliance with the appropriate SQA requirements is highlighted. Additional program activities, such as improvements to testing methods and Program surveillance, are also described in this report. Given that the programmatic resources currently granted to development of the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 SQA Program framework are not sufficient to adequately address all SQA requirements (e.g. NQA-1, NUREG/BR-0167, etc.), this report also provides an overview of the gaps that remain the SQA program, and highlights recommendations on a path forward to resolution of these issues. One key finding of this effort is the identification of the need for an SQA program sustainable over multiple years within DOE annual R&D funding constraints.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of the lung cancer deaths attributable to residential radon: A simple method and results for all the 21 Italian Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Antignani, S.; Venoso, G.; Forastiere, F.

    2013-01-01

    Pooled analyses of epidemiological case-control studies on lung cancer and residential radon have shown that radon exposure in dwellings increases lung cancer risk, and that the increase is statistically significant also for prolonged exposures to low-medium level of radon concentration, i.e. levels commonly found in many dwellings. In this paper, a simple method to evaluate the health burden due to the presence of radon in homes (i.e. the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon exposure in dwellings) was presented. This method is based on the following parameters: i) the excess relative risk per unit of exposure evaluated in case-control studies; ii) the average radon concentration that can be considered representative of population exposure in dwellings; iii) the total number of lung cancer deaths occurring each year. Moreover, the interaction between radon and cigarette smoking is needed to be taken into account: in fact, although most of the persons are non-smokers, most of the lung cancer deaths attributed to radon are actually due to the multiplicative effect of radon and cigarette smoking. To show this effect, the number of radon related lung cancer deaths estimated to occur among current, former and never smokers was calculated separately for males and females, taking into account the relative risk of lung cancer for the different smoking categories and the prevalence of smoking habits. The methodology described in this work was applied to all the 21 Italian Regions in order to illustrate it. The overall fraction of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon in Italy is about 10%, with values in individual Regions ranging from 4% to 16%. The greater part of the lung cancers attributable to radon is estimated to occur among current smokers for both males and females (72% and 60%, respectively, at national level). This is due to the synergistic effects of radon and cigarette smoking, which should therefore be taken into account in policies aimed to

  8. Method of Fusion Diagnosis for Dam Service Status Based on Joint Distribution Function of Multiple Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods of diagnosing dam service status are always suitable for single measuring point. These methods also reflect the local status of dams without merging multisource data effectively, which is not suitable for diagnosing overall service. This study proposes a new method involving multiple points to diagnose dam service status based on joint distribution function. The function, including monitoring data of multiple points, can be established with t-copula function. Therefore, the possibility, which is an important fusing value in different measuring combinations, can be calculated, and the corresponding diagnosing criterion is established with typical small probability theory. Engineering case study indicates that the fusion diagnosis method can be conducted in real time and the abnormal point can be detected, thereby providing a new early warning method for engineering safety.

  9. Status and progress in sludge washing: A pivotal pretreatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, W.B.; MacLean, G.T.; Meng, C.D.; Winkler, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Separation of the bulk soluble chemical salts from the insoluble metal hydroxides and radionuclides is central to the strategy of disposing Hanford tank waste. Sludge washing and caustic leaching have been selected as the primary methods for processing the 230 million L (61,000,000 gal) of Hanford tank waste. These processes are very similar to those selected for processing waste at the West Valley Site in New York and the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. The purpose of sludge washing is to dissolve and remove the soluble salts in the waste. Leaching of the insoluble solids with caustic will be used to dissolve aluminum hydroxide and chromium hydroxide, and convert insoluble bismuth phosphate to soluble phosphate. The waste will be separated into a high-level solids fraction and a liquid fraction that can be disposed of as low-level waste after cesium removal. The washing and leaching operations involve batchwise mixing, settling, and decanting within the existing underground storage tanks

  10. An intervention strategy for improving residential environment and positive mental health among public housing tenants: rationale, design and methods of Flash on my neighborhood!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Coulombe, Simon; Radziszewski, Stephanie; Leloup, Xavier; Saïas, Thomas; Torres, Juan; Morin, Paul

    2017-09-25

    In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households) across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1) Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice), a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2) Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3) Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a) contextual factors (tenants' previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.); b) activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c) short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital). The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.

  11. Studying feasibility and effects of a two-stage nursing staff training in residential geriatric care using a 30 month mixed-methods design [ISRCTN24344776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantikainen Virpi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer techniques and lifting weights often cause back pain and disorders for nurses in geriatric care. The Kinaesthetics care conception claims to be an alternative, yielding benefits for nurses as well as for clients. Starting a multi-step research program on the effects of Kinaesthetics, we assess the feasibility of a two-stage nursing staff training and a pre-post research design. Using quantitative and qualitative success criteria, we address mobilisation from the bed to a chair and backwards, walking with aid and positioning in bed on the staff level as well as on the resident level. In addition, effect estimates should help to decide on and to prepare a controlled trial. Methods/Design Standard basic and advanced Kinaesthetics courses (each comprising four subsequent days and an additional counselling day during the following four months are offered to n = 36 out of 60 nurses in a residential geriatric care home, who are in charge of 76 residents. N = 22 residents needing movement support are participating to this study. On the staff level, measurements include focus group discussions, questionnaires, physical strain self-assessment (Borg scale, video recordings and external observation of patient assistance skills using a specialised instrument (SOPMAS. Questionnaires used on the resident level include safety, comfort, pain, and level of own participation during mobilisation. A functional mobility profile is assessed using a specialised test procedure (MOTPA. Measurements will take place at baseline (T0, after basic training (T1, and after the advanced course (T2. Follow-up focus groups will be offered at T1 and 10 months later (T3. Discussion Ten criteria for feasibility success are established before the trial, assigned to resources (missing data, processes (drop-out of nurses and residents and science (minimum effects criteria. This will help to make rational decision on entering the next stage of the research

  12. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  13. SOLCOST. Solar Hot Water Handbook. A Simplified Design Method for Sizing and Costing Residential and Commercial Solar Service Hot Water Systems. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet offers a preview of information services available from Solcost, a research and development project. The first section explains that Solcost calculates system and costs performance for solar heated and cooled new and retrofit constructions, such as residential buildings and single zone commercial buildings. For a typical analysis,…

  14. Older adults’ home- and community-based care service use and residential transitions: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ya-Mei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As Home-and Community-Based Services (HCBS, such as skilled nursing services or personal care services, have become increasingly available, it has become clear that older adults transit through different residential statuses over time. Older adults may transit through different residential statuses as the various services meet their needs. The purpose of this exploratory study was to better understand the interplay between community-dwelling older adults’ use of home- and community-based services and their residential transitions. Methods The study compared HCBS service-use patterns and residential transitions of 3,085 older adults from the Second Longitudinal Study of Aging. Based on older adults’ residential status at the three follow-up interviews, four residential transitions were tracked: (1 Community-Community-Community (CCC: Resided in community during the entire study period; (2 Community-Institution-Community (CIC: Resided in community at T1, had lived in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, then had returned to community by T3; (3 Community-Community-Institution (CCI: Resided in community between at T1, and betweenT1 and T2, including at T2, but had used institutional services between T2 and T3; (4 Community-Institution-Institution (CII: Resided in community at T1 but in an institution at some time between T1 and T2, and at some time between T2 and T3.. Results Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary and discretionary services differed significantly among the four groups, and the patterns of HCBS use among these groups were also different. Older adults’ use of nondiscretionary services, such as skilled nursing care, may help them to return to communities from institutions. Personal care services (PCS and senior center services may be the key to either support elders to stay in communities longer or help elders to return to their communities from institutions. Different combinations of PCS with other

  15. The Application of Determining Students’ Graduation Status of STMIK Palangkaraya Using K-Nearest Neighbors Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusdiana, Lili; Marfuah

    2017-12-01

    K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used for classification which calculate a value to find out the closest in distance. It is used to group a set of data such as students’ graduation status that are got from the amount of course credits taken by them, the grade point average (AVG), and the mini-thesis grade. The study is conducted to know the results of using K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status, so it can be analyzed from the method used, the data, and the application constructed. The aim of this study is to find out the application results by using K-Nearest Neighbors concept to determine students’ graduation status using the data of STMIK Palangkaraya students. The development of the software used Extreme Programming, since it was appropriate and precise for this study which was to quickly finish the project. The application was created using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 for the training data and Matlab 7 to implement the application. The result of K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status was 92.5%. It could determine the predicate graduation of 94 data used from the initial data before the processing as many as 136 data which the maximal training data was 50data. The K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used to group a set of data based on the closest value, so that using K-Nearest Neighbors method agreed with this study. The results of K-Nearest Neighbors method on the application of determining students’ graduation status was 92.5% could determine the predicate graduation which is the maximal training data. The K-Nearest Neighbors method is one of methods used to group a set of data based on the closest value, so that using K-Nearest Neighbors method agreed with this study.

  16. Forced residential mobility and social support: impacts on psychiatric disorders among Somali migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhui Kamaldeep

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somali migrants fleeing the civil war in their country face punishing journeys, the loss of homes, possessions, and bereavement. On arrival in the host country they encounter poverty, hostility, and residential instability which may also undermine their mental health. Methods An in-depth and semi-structured interview was used to gather detailed accommodation histories for a five year period from 142 Somali migrants recruited in community venues and primary care. Post-codes were verified and geo-mapped to calculate characteristics of residential location including deprivation indices, the number of moves and the distances between residential moves. We asked about the reasons for changing accommodation, perceived discrimination, asylum status, traumatic experiences, social support, employment and demographic factors. These factors were assessed alongside characteristics of residential mobility as correlates of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. Results Those who were forced to move homes were more likely to have an ICD-10 psychiatric disorder (OR = 2.64, 1.16-5.98, p = 0.02 compared with those moving through their own choice. A lower risk of psychiatric disorders was found for people with larger friendship networks (0.35, 0.14-0.84, p = 0.02, for those with more confiding emotional support (0.42, 0.18-1.0, p = 0.05, and for those who had not moved during the study period (OR = 0.21, 0.07-0.62, p = 0.01. Conclusions Forced residential mobility is a risk factor for psychiatric disorder; social support may contribute to resilience against psychiatric disorders associated with residential mobility.

  17. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  18. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  19. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  20. The Accuracy Of Fuzzy Sugeno Method With Antropometry On Determination Natural Patient Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, Dinur; Tulus; Sawaluddin

    2017-12-01

    Anthropometry is one of the processes that can be used to assess nutritional status. In general anthropometry is defined as body size in terms of nutrition, then anthropometry is reviewed from various age levels and nutritional levels. Nutritional status is a description of the balance between nutritional intake with the needs of the body individually. Fuzzy logic is a logic that has a vagueness between right and wrong or between 0 and 1. Sugeno method is used because in the process of calculating nutritional status so far is still done by anthropometry. Currently information technology is growing in any aspect, one of them in the aspect of calculation with data taken from anthropometry. In this case the calculation can use the Fuzzy Sugeno Method, in order to know the great accuracy obtained. Then the results obtained using fuzzy sugeno integrated with anthropometry has an accuracy of 81.48%.

  1. Investigation on water status and distribution in broccoli and the effects of drying on water status using NMR and MRI methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Fangfang; Jin, Xin; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-01-01

    Many quality attributes of food products are influenced by the water status and the microstructure. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are applied to non-destructively monitor the water status and structure of food. The aim of this study is to

  2. Methods for estimating residential building energy consumption by application of artificial intelligence; Methode d'estimation energetique des batiments d'habitation basee sur l'application de l'intelligence artificielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajl, S.; Roberge, M-A. [Quebec Univ., Ecole de technologie superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1999-02-01

    A method for estimating energy requirements in buildings five to twenty-five stories in height using artificial intelligence techniques is proposed. In developing this technique, the pre-requisites specified were rapid execution, the ability to generate a wide range of results, including total energy consumption, power demands, heating and cooling consumption, and accuracy comparable to that of a detailed building energy simulation software. The method proposed encompasses (1) the creation of various databases such as classification of the parameters used in the energy simulation, modelling using the Department of Energy (DOE)-2 software and validation of the DOE-2 models; (2) application of the neural networks inclusive of teaching the neural network and validation of the neural network's learning; (3) designing an energy estimate assessment (EEA) system for residential buildings; and (4) validation of the EEA system. The system has been developed in the MATLAB software environment, specifically for the climate in the Ottawa region. For use under different climatic conditions appropriate adjustments need to be made for the heating and cooling consumption. 12 refs., tabs., figs., 2 appendices.

  3. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  4. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  5. Spatially based methods to assess the ecological status of riverine fish assemblages in European ecoregions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmutz, S.; Beier, U.; Bohmer, J.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to develop spatially based (type-specific) methods to assess the ecological status of European rivers according to the EU Water Framework Directive. Some 15 000 samples from about 8000 sites were pre-classified within a five-tiered classification system based on hydromorphological

  6. Present status of transport code development based on Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki

    1985-01-01

    The present status of development in Monte Carlo code is briefly reviewed. The main items are the followings; Application fields, Methods used in Monte Carlo code (geometry spectification, nuclear data, estimator and variance reduction technique) and unfinished works, Typical Monte Carlo codes and Merits of continuous energy Monte Carlo code. (author)

  7. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  8. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  9. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  10. An Adjusted Probability Method for the Identification of Sociometric Status in Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García Bacete

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to test the performance of an adjusted probability method for sociometric classification proposed by García Bacete (GB in comparison with two previous methods. Specific goals were to examine the overall agreement between methods, the behavioral correlates of each sociometric group, the sources for discrepant classifications between methods, the behavioral profiles of discrepant and consistent cases between methods, and age differences.Method: We compared the GB adjusted probability method with the standard score model proposed by Coie and Dodge (CD and the probability score model proposed by Newcomb and Bukowski (NB. The GB method is an adaptation of the NB method, cutoff scores are derived from the distribution of raw liked most and liked least scores in each classroom instead of using fixed and absolute scores as does NB method. The criteria for neglected status are also modified by the GB method. Participants were 569 children (45% girls from 23 elementary school classrooms (13 Grades 1–2, 10 Grades 5–6.Results: We found agreement as well as differences between the three methods. The CD method yielded discrepancies in the classifications because of its dependence on z-scores and composite dimensions. The NB method was less optimal in the validation of the behavioral characteristics of the sociometric groups, because of its fixed cutoffs for identifying preferred, rejected, and controversial children, and not differentiating between positive and negative nominations for neglected children. The GB method addressed some of the limitations of the other two methods. It improved the classified of neglected students, as well as discrepant cases of the preferred, rejected, and controversial groups. Agreement between methods was higher with the oldest children.Conclusion: GB is a valid sociometric method as evidences by the behavior profiles of the sociometric status groups identified with this method.

  11. Comparison of analytical methods for prediction of prefermentation nutritional status of grape juice

    OpenAIRE

    Gump, B. H.; Zoecklein, B. W.; Fugelsang, K. C.; Whiton, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Five methods for evaluating nitrogen status were compared using 70 Cabernet Sauvignon juice samples: nitrogen by o-phthaldialdehyde (NOPA), arginine NOPA, enzymatic ammonia, Formol, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Parallel recovery studies using model solutions of various amino acids and ammonia, presented singly and in combination, were also conducted. The results from two fruit-processing methods were compared using immature and mature berries. NOPA measurements were sign...

  12. Intelligent Evaluation Method of Tank Bottom Corrosion Status Based on Improved BP Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Dai, Guang; Zhang, Ying

    According to the acoustic emission information and the appearance inspection information of tank bottom online testing, the external factors associated with tank bottom corrosion status are confirmed. Applying artificial neural network intelligent evaluation method, three tank bottom corrosion status evaluation models based on appearance inspection information, acoustic emission information, and online testing information are established. Comparing with the result of acoustic emission online testing through the evaluation of test sample, the accuracy of the evaluation model based on online testing information is 94 %. The evaluation model can evaluate tank bottom corrosion accurately and realize acoustic emission online testing intelligent evaluation of tank bottom.

  13. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  14. Consumer Decision Rules and Residential Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Jaffe, Austin J.

    1979-01-01

    As guidelines for residential financing, the authors compare different approaches to understanding and figuring the costs of home ownership: the relation of income to house price and housing costs, interest rate, and mortgage term. Instead of the traditional method, they recommend the time value of money approach. (MF)

  15. Longitudinal comparative evaluation of the equivalence of an integrated peer-support and clinical staffing model for residential mental health rehabilitation: a mixed methods protocol incorporating multiple stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen; Dark, Frances; Newman, Ellie; Korman, Nicole; Meurk, Carla; Siskind, Dan; Harris, Meredith

    2016-06-02

    A novel staffing model integrating peer support workers and clinical staff within a unified team is being trialled at community based residential rehabilitation units in Australia. A mixed-methods protocol for the longitudinal evaluation of the outcomes, expectations and experiences of care by consumers and staff under this staffing model in two units will be compared to one unit operating a traditional clinical staffing. The study is unique with regards to the context, the longitudinal approach and consideration of multiple stakeholder perspectives. The longitudinal mixed methods design integrates a quantitative evaluation of the outcomes of care for consumers at three residential rehabilitation units with an applied qualitative research methodology. The quantitative component utilizes a prospective cohort design to explore whether equivalent outcomes are achieved through engagement at residential rehabilitation units operating integrated and clinical staffing models. Comparative data will be available from the time of admission, discharge and 12-month period post-discharge from the units. Additionally, retrospective data for the 12-month period prior to admission will be utilized to consider changes in functioning pre and post engagement with residential rehabilitation care. The primary outcome will be change in psychosocial functioning, assessed using the total score on the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS). Planned secondary outcomes will include changes in symptomatology, disability, recovery orientation, carer quality of life, emergency department presentations, psychiatric inpatient bed days, and psychological distress and wellbeing. Planned analyses will include: cohort description; hierarchical linear regression modelling of the predictors of change in HoNOS following CCU care; and descriptive comparisons of the costs associated with the two staffing models. The qualitative component utilizes a pragmatic approach to grounded theory, with

  16. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  17. Residential mobility after Hukou reform : Housing strategies of rural-urban migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores rural-urban migrants’ residential mobility in China, particularly their housing strategies and related outcomes. One way for migrants to obtain formal residential registration status (hukou in Chinese) is to purchase an apartment in the city. Moving voluntarily through

  18. Attachment and Aspiration: What Influences Rural Youths' Educational and Residential Plans? White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Caitlin; Hambrick, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Building on recent research, ICF sought to explore how socioeconomic status and attachment to place influence rural youths' educational and residential preferences across a wider geographic region. Our research questions included: What are rural high school students' educational and residential plans? And what factors influence rural youths' plans…

  19. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  20. HEMODYNAMIC STATUS IN AIRWAY MANAGEMENT DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA: COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    K MONTAZERI; KH NAGHIBI; A.A AKHOUNDI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL). The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental,...

  1. Non-enzymatic antioxidant status of women using four different methods of contraception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinloye, O.; Oyabiyi, S.A.; Oguntibeju, O.O.; Arowojolu, A.O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antioxidant status of women on four different methods of contraception. Methodology: Sixty non-pregnant women aged 16-45 years on oral contraceptive pills, injectables, Norplant and intra-uterine contraceptive devices (IUD) attending the Family Planning Clinics of the University College Hospital (UCH) and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, Ibadan were recruited for the study. Fifty-eight apparently healthy women aged 16-45 years who were not on any contraceptive served as a control group. The body mass index (BMI) of all participants (subjects and controls) was determined following standard protocol. Serum levels of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, malondialdehyde, bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, total protein and albumin were determined using standard spectrophotometric methods. Progesterone was estimated by the chemilumiscence method while selenium was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: The BMI was significant in women on oral contraceptive pills (OCP) when compared to the control group (P 0.05) in intra-uterine device (IUD), injectables and Norplant users. The mean serum ascorbic acid (P 0.05) in users of other contraceptive methods. Serum levels of malondialdehyde was significantly elevated in women on OCP (P 0.05) in users of other contraceptive methods. There was no significant association between progesterone and antioxidants in women on OCP, IUD, injectables and Norplant. Conclusion: Oral contraceptive pills showed a significant decreasing effect on the antioxidant status of its users while IUD, injectables and Norplant did not indicate any significant effect. Routine monitoring of the antioxidant status of women on different methods of contraceptive particularly those on OCP is recommended. (author)

  2. Laboratory analytical methods for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Korotkov, L. A.; Smirnova, M. A.; Kovach, R. G.

    2017-10-01

    Laboratory analytical methods suitable for the determination of the hydrocarbon status of soils (a specific soil characteristic involving information on the total content and qualitative features of soluble (bitumoid) carbonaceous substances and individual hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, etc.) in bitumoid, as well as the composition and content of hydrocarbon gases) have been considered. Among different physicochemical methods of study, attention is focused on the methods suitable for the wide use. Luminescence-bituminological analysis, low-temperature spectrofluorimetry (Shpolskii spectroscopy), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, and some other methods have been characterized, as well as sample preparation features. Advantages and limitations of each of these methods are described; their efficiency, instrumental complexity, analysis duration, and accuracy are assessed.

  3. Comparison of multiple fluid status assessment methods in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Giannis; Panagoutsos, Stelios; Roumeliotis, Stefanos; Stibiris, Ilias; Markos, Angelos; Kantartzi, Konstantia; Passadakis, Ploumis

    2017-03-01

    Control of hydration status is an important constituent of adequate and efficient hemodialysis (HD) treatment. Nevertheless, there are no precise clinical indices for early recognition of small changes in fluid status of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis therapy. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the widely used and reliable method of indexed inferior vena cava diameter (IVCDi) with established and more recently available techniques (bioelectrical impedance analysis [BIA], continuous blood volume monitoring [Crit-line], and the B-line score [BLS] with lung ultrasonography) for estimating the hydration status of patients on HD. Fifty-three patients undergoing chronic HD thrice weekly were included in the study. Evaluation of hydration status methods (IVCDi, BLS, BIA, and Crit-line) was performed thrice weekly before and after HD. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the discriminative power of (methods) the BLS, BIA, and Crit-line for predicting over- and underhydration of patients, as determined by the reference method, IVCDi. BLS showed the most promising results in predicting overhydration, as determined by IVCDi, compared with BIA and Crit-line and presented a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 74%. The accuracy of the BLS was higher than that of BIA (0.81 vs. 0.71, p = 0.032) and Crit-line (0.61, p = 0.001). BLS also showed more promising results in predicting underhydration, as determined by IVCDi, than BIA and Crit-line and presented a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 73%. The accuracy of the BLS was higher than that of BIA (0.83 vs. 0.76, p = 0.035) and Crit-line (0.50, p < 0.001). The BLS is a useful and easily performed technique that has recently become available for accurate evaluation of dry weight and fluid status in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing chronic HD. This method might help recognize asymptomatic lung congestion in these patients.

  4. Real-time identification of residential appliance events based on power monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wei, Zhiqiang; Yin, Bo; Wang, Xiuwei

    2018-03-01

    Energy monitoring for specific home appliances has been regarded as the pre-requisite for reducing residential energy consumption. To enhance the accuracy of identifying operation status of household appliances and to keep pace with the development of smart power grid, this paper puts forward the integration of electric current and power data on the basis of existing algorithm. If average power difference of several adjacent cycles varies from the baseline and goes beyond the pre-assigned threshold value, the event will be flagged. Based on MATLAB platform and domestic appliances simulations, the results of tested data and verified algorithm indicate that the power method has accomplished desired results of appliance identification.

  5. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  6. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  7. Biomonitoring of coastal pollution status using protozoan communities with a modified PFU method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuidong; Choi, Joong Ki; Yang, Eun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chul; Lei, Yanli

    2002-09-01

    Structural and functional parameters of protozoan communities were assessed as indicators of water quality in Korean coastal waters in the summer of 2000. A modified polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, named the bottled PFU (BPFU) system, was used in order to carry out the bioassessment. Both parameters suggested that biomonitoring using the BPFU system was more effective than the conventional PFU method in offshore areas. The species number collected by the BPFU system generally decreased as pollution intensity increased at three main stations and was greater than that collected using the PFU method (paired t-test, t = 4.83, p PFU method (paired t-test, t = 5.37, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the functional parameters, i.e. S(eq),G and T90%, correlated with the pollution status and could thus clearly discriminate the different classes of water quality.

  8. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  9. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  10. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  11. Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: a History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation {Population, 3, 1998)

    OpenAIRE

    N. Brouard; J.-M. Robine; E. Cambois

    1999-01-01

    Cambois (Emmanuelle), Robin? (Jean-Marie), Brouard (Nicolas).- Life Expectancies Applied to Specific Statuses: A History of the Indicators and the Methods of Calculation Indicators of life expectancy applied to specific statuses, such as the state of health or professional status, were introduced at the end of the 1930s and are currently the object of renewed interest. Because they relate mortality to different domains (health, professional activity) applied life expectancies reflect simultan...

  12. Residential Mobility Across Early Childhood and Children's Kindergarten Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Root, Elisabeth Dowling

    2018-04-01

    Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing family, school, and neighborhood influences on child well-being. We examined the consequences of residential mobility for socioemotional and cognitive kindergarten readiness using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal survey that followed U.S. children born in 2001 from infancy to kindergarten. We described individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. Our residential mobility indicators examined frequency of moves, nonlinearities in move frequency, quality of moves, comparisons between moving houses and moving neighborhoods, and heterogeneity in the consequences of residential mobility. Nearly three-quarters of children moved by kindergarten start. Mobility did not predict cognitive scores. More moves, particularly at relatively high frequencies, predicted lower kindergarten behavior scores. Moves from socioeconomically advantaged to disadvantaged neighborhoods were especially problematic, whereas moves within a ZIP code were not. The implications of moves were similar across socioeconomic status. The behavior findings largely support an instability perspective that highlights potential disruptions from frequent or problematic moves. Our study contributes to literature emphasizing the importance of contextualizing residential mobility. The high prevalence and distinct implications of early childhood moves support the need for further research.

  13. Optimizing life success through residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities: study protocol of a mixed-methods, prospective, comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; King, Gillian; Rudzik, Alanna; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2016-09-06

    Young people with disabilities often lag behind their typically developing peers in the achievement of adult roles, which has been attributed to a lack of opportunities to develop critical life skills. Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs provide situated learning opportunities to develop life skills alongside peers and away from home in real-world settings. Retrospective research suggests that attending RILS programs is a transformative experience that empowers youth, provides parental hope, and increases service provider expertise. However, prospective, comparative research is needed to determine longer term benefits of these programs on youth life trajectories, in addition to exploring the program features and participant experiences that optimize program success. This protocol describes a 5-year, multi-site prospective study examining the effects of RILS programs for youth with disabilities. The study involves RILS programs at three sites in Ontario, Canada. Cohorts of treatment and control groups will receive the study protocol over 3 successive years. Thirty English-speaking participants aged 14-21 years with a child-onset disability and the cognitive capacity to engage in goal setting will be recruited every year for 3 years in the following groups: youth attending a RILS program (Group A); a deferred RILS control group of youth (Group B); a control group of youth attending a non-residential life skills program (Group C); and a control group matched on age, diagnoses, and cognitive capacity not receiving any life skills intervention (Group D). All participants will complete measures of self-determination and self-efficacy at four time points. Program opportunities and experiences will also be assessed in-the-moment at the RILS programs. Qualitative interviews pre-program and at 3- and 12-months post-program will be undertaken with a sub-sample of youth and parents to explore their expectations and experiences. This study will address key gaps

  14. Modelling Status Food Security Households Disease Sufferers Pulmonary Tuberculosis Uses the Method Regression Logistics Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, S. P.; Salamah, M.; Rositawati, A. F. D.

    2018-04-01

    Food security is the condition where the food fulfilment is managed well for the country till the individual. Indonesia is one of the country which has the commitment to create the food security becomes main priority. However, the food necessity becomes common thing means that it doesn’t care about nutrient standard and the health condition of family member, so in the fulfilment of food necessity also has to consider the disease suffered by the family member, one of them is pulmonary tuberculosa. From that reasons, this research is conducted to know the factors which influence on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya by using binary logistic regression method. The analysis result by using binary logistic regression shows that the variables wife latest education, house density and spacious house ventilation significantly affect on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya, where the wife education level is University/equivalent, the house density is eligible or 8 m2/person and spacious house ventilation 10% of the floor area has the opportunity to become food secure households amounted to 0.911089. While the chance of becoming food insecure households amounted to 0.088911. The model household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya has been conformable, and the overall percentages of those classifications are at 71.8%.

  15. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  16. Present status of NMCC and sample preparation method for bio-samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugawa, S.; Hatakeyama, S.; Saitou, S.; Sera, K.

    1993-01-01

    In NMCC(Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center) we are doing researches on PET of nuclear medicine (Positron Emission Computed Tomography) and PIXE analysis (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) using a small cyclotron of compactly designed. The NMCC facilities have been opened to researchers of other institutions since April 1993. The present status of NMCC is described. Bio-samples (medical samples, plants, animals and environmental samples) have mainly been analyzed by PIXE in NMCC. Small amounts of bio-samples for PIXE are decomposed quickly and easily in a sealed PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) vessel with a microwave oven. This sample preparation method of bio-samples also is described. (author)

  17. Comparing clinical and demographic characteristics of people with mental illness in hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation units in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Tom; Stedman, Terry; Parker, Stephen; Curtis, Bretine; Jones, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine care pathways and characteristics of mental health consumers participating in both hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation programs. Methods An audit of consumers (n=240) in all publicly funded residential rehabilitation units in Queensland was performed on the same day in 2013. Data collection focused on demographic characteristics, clinical information and measures of consumer functioning. Results Significant differences emerged for consumers in community- and hospital-based services with regard to age, length of stay, functioning, Mental Health Act status, guardianship status, family contact and risk of violence. Consumers in hospital-based programs have more severe and complex problems. Conclusions Consumers in residential rehabilitation units have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Nonetheless, it is likely that a sizeable proportion of consumers occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options to move patients on were available. What is known about the topic? A small subgroup of people with severe and complex mental health problems is likely to require time in a residential rehabilitation program. This group is characterised by failure to respond to treatment, severe negative symptoms and some degree of cognitive impairment. What does this paper add? Patients currently occupying residential rehabilitation beds in Queensland have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Patients in hospital-based programs are more severely disabled than those in community-based programs. What are the implications for practitioners? It is likely that a sizeable proportion of patients occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options were available. Future planning initiatives need to focus on developing a greater array of community

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of endocrine status in laboratory primates: methods, guidelines and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the past three decades, non-invasive methods for assessing physiological, in particular endocrine, status have revolutionized almost all areas of primatology, including behavioural ecology, reproductive biology, stress research, conservation and last but not least management of primates in captivity where the technology plays an integral role in assisting the husbandry, breeding and welfare of many species. Non-invasive endocrine methods make use of the fact that hormones circulating in blood are secreted into saliva or deposited in hair and are eliminated from the body via urinary and faecal excretion. The choice of which matrix to use for hormonal assessment depends on a range of factors, including the type of information required, the measurement techniques involved, species differences in hormone metabolism and route of excretion and the practicality of sample collection. However, although sample collection is usually relatively easy, analysing hormones from these non-invasively collected samples is not as easy as many people think, particularly not when dealing with a new species. In this respect, the importance of a careful validation of each technique is essential in order to generate meaningful and accurate results. This paper aims to provide an overview of the available non-invasive endocrine-based methodologies, their relative merits and their potential areas of application for assessing endocrine status in primates, with special reference to captive environments. In addition, general information is given about the most important aspects and caveats researchers have to be aware of when using these methodologies.

  19. Finite element transport methods for criticality calculations - current status and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.R.E. de; Goddard, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we review the current status of the finite element method applied to the solution of the neutron transport equation and we discuss its potential role in the field of criticality safety. We show that the method's ability in handling complex, irregular geometry in two- and three-dimensions coupled with its accurate solutions potentially renders it an attractive alternative to the longer-established Monte Carlo method. Details of the most favoured form of the method - that which combines finite elements in space and spherical harmonics in angle - are presented. This form of the method, which has been extensively investigated over the last decade by research groups at the University of London, has been numerically implemented in the finite element code EVENT. The code has among its main features the capability of solving fixed source eigenvalue and time-dependent complex geometry problems in two- and three-dimensions. Other features of the code include anisotropic up- and down-scatter, direct and/or adjoint solutions and access to standard data libraries. Numerical examples, ranging from simple criticality benchmark studies to the analysis of idealised three-dimensional reactor cores, are presented to demonstrate the potential of the method. (author)

  20. Mapping Norway - a Method to Register and Survey the Status of Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Sven; Bögelsack, Kathrin

    2018-05-01

    The Norwegian mapping authority has developed a standard method for mapping accessibility mostly for people with limited or no walking abilities in urban and recreational areas. We choose an object-orientated approach where points, lines and polygons represents objects in the environment. All data are stored in a geospatial database, so they can be presented as web map and analyzed using GIS software. By the end of 2016 more than 160 municipalities are mapped using that method. The aim of this project is to establish a national standard for mapping and to provide a geodatabase that shows the status of accessibility throughout Norway. The data provide a useful tool for national statistics, local planning authorities and private users. First results show that accessibility is low and Norway still faces many challenges to meet the government's goals for Universal Design.

  1. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flow...

  2. Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    This report examines relatively new, innovative financing methods for residential photovoltaics (PV) and compares them to traditional self-financing. It provides policymakers with an overview of the residential PV financing mechanisms, describes relative advantages and challenges, and analyzes differences between them where data is available. Because these innovative financing mechanisms have only been implemented in a few locations, this report can inform their wider adoption.

  3. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Romano; Nicola Salvati; Andrea Guerrini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured cli...

  4. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  5. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently g...

  6. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  7. Mortality at older ages and moves in residential and sheltered housing: evidence from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examines the relationship between transitions to residential and sheltered housing and mortality. Past research has focused on housing moves over extended time periods and subsequent mortality. In this paper, annual housing transitions allow the identification of the patterning of housing moves, the duration of stay in each sector and the assessment of the relationship of preceding moves to a heightened risk of dying. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations from the British Household Panel Survey (waves 1993–2008). Records were pooled for all cases where the survey member is 65 years or over and living in private housing at baseline and observed at three consecutive time points, including baseline (N=23 727). Binary logistic regression (death as outcome three waves after baseline) explored the relative strength of different housing transitions, controlling for sociodemographic predictors. Results (1) Transition to residential housing within the previous 12 months was associated with the highest mortality risk. (2) Results support existing findings showing an interaction between marital status and mortality, whereby unmarried persons were more likely to die. (3) Higher male mortality was observed across all housing transitions. Conclusions An older person's move to residential housing is associated with a higher risk of mortality within 12 months of the move. Survivors living in residential housing for more than a year, show a similar probability of dying to those living in sheltered housing. Results highlight that it is the type of accommodation that affects an older person's mortality risk, and the length of time they spend there. PMID:24638058

  8. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  9. Different methods for assessment of nutritional status in newborn infants based on physical and anthropometric indexes: a short review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several complications during childhood is associated with nutritional status of infants at birth. Therefore, nutritional status of newborns must be evaluated properly after birth. Assessment of the nutritional status of neonates based on anthropometric and physical indices is simple and inexpensive without the need for advanced medical equipment. However, no previous studies have focused on the assessment methods of the nutritional status of infants via anthropometric and physical indices. This study aimed to review some of the key methods used to determine the nutritional status of neonates using anthropometric and physical indices. To date, most studies have focused on the diagnosis of fetal malnutrition (FM and growth monitoring. In order to diagnose FM, researchers have used growth charts and Ponderal index (PI based on anthropometric indices, as well as Clinical Assessment of Nutritional (CAN Score based on physical features. Moreover, in order to assess the growth status of infants, growth charts were used. According to the findings of this study, standard intrauterine growth curves and the PI are common measurement tools in the diagnosis of FM. Furthermore, CAN score is widely used in the evaluation of the nutritional status of neonates. Given the differences in the physical features of term and preterm infants, this index should be adjusted for preterm neonates. Longitudinal growth charts are one of the most prominent methods used for monitoring of the growth patterns of infants.

  10. HEMODYNAMIC STATUS IN AIRWAY MANAGEMENT DURING GENERAL ANESTHESIA: COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K MONTAZERI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The laryngeal mask airway (LMA was recently introduced in general anesthesia as an alternative to the face mask or tracheal intubation for airway maintenance. Methods. The effects of LMA insertion, face mask or tracheal intubation on homodynamic status were studied in 195 normotensive patients who underwent elective transurethral lithotripsy (TUL. The patients were monitored with blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry. Anesthesia was induced with sodium thiopental, succynilcholine and fentanyl and maintained with halothane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. Findings. The heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure increased after LMA insertion. face mask or tracheal intubation, compared with baseline (P<0.05. The hemodynamic changes were significantly greater after tracheal intubation and face mask than after LMA insertion (P<0.05. Conclusion. We conclude that insertion of LMA is associated with less hemodynamic disturbances than face mask or tracheal intubation in normotensive patients undergoing elective operations.

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  13. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  14. Radio frequency security system, method for a building facility or the like, and apparatus and methods for remotely monitoring the status of fire extinguishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Larry [Richland, WA; Gunter, Wayne M [Richland, WA; Gilbert, Ronald W [Gilroy, CA

    2006-07-25

    A system for remotely monitoring the status of one or more fire extinguishers includes means for sensing at least one parameter of each of the fire extinguishers; means for selectively transmitting the sensed parameters along with information identifying the fire extinguishers from which the parameters were sensed; and means for receiving the sensed parameters and identifying information for the fire extinguisher or extinguishers at a common location. Other systems and methods for remotely monitoring the status of multiple fire extinguishers are also provided.

  15. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farwa; Irfan, Ghazia

    2012-01-01

    High rates of contraceptive discontinuation for reasons other than the desire for pregnancy are a public health concern because of their association with negative reproductive health outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine reasons for discontinuation of contraceptive methods among couples with different family size and educational status. This cross-sectional study was carried out at the Obstetrics/Gynaecology Out-Patient Department of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad from April-September 2012. Patients (241) were selected by consecutive sampling after informed written consent and acquiring approval of Ethical Committee. The survey interview tool was a semi-structured questionnaire. Majority (68%) of women belonged to urban, and the rest were from rural areas. Mean age of these women was 29.43 +/- 5.384 year. Reasons for discontinuation of contraceptives included fear of injectable contraceptives (2.9%), contraceptive failure/pregnancy (7.46%), desire to become pregnant (63.48%), husband away at job (2.49%), health concerns/side effects (16.18%), affordability (0.83%), inconvenient to use (1.24%), acceptability (0.83%) and accessibility/lack of information (4.56%). Association of different reasons of discontinuation (chi square test) with the family size (actual number of children) was significant (p = 0.019) but was not significant with husband's or wife's educational status (p = 0.33 and 0.285 respectively). Keeping in mind the complex socioeconomic conditions in our country, Family planning programmers and stake holders need to identify women who strongly want to avoid a pregnancy and finding ways to help the couples successfully initiate and maintain appropriate contraceptive use.

  16. Evaluation of perioperative nutritional status with subjective global assessment method in patients undergoing gastrointestinal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdim, Aylin; Aktan, Ahmet Özdemir

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the perioperative nutritional status of patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer using Subjective Global Assessment and surgeon behavior on nutritional support. We recruited 100 patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer in one university and two state teaching hospitals. Subjective Global Assessment was administered to evaluate preoperative and postoperative nutritional status. Fifty-two patients in the state hospitals (Group 1) and 48 in the university hospital were assessed. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Changes in preoperative Subjective Global Assessment scores and scores at the time of discharge and types of nutritional support were compared. Subjective Global Assessment-B was regarded as moderate and Subjective Global Assessment-C as heavy malnutrition. Ten patients had Subjective Global Assessment-B and 29 had Subjective Global Assessment-C malnutrition in Group 1 and nine had Subjective Global Assessment-B and 31 had Subjective Global Assessment-C malnutrition in Group 2 during preoperative assessment. Respective numbers in postoperative assessment were 12 for Subjective Global Assessment-B and 30 for Subjective Global Assessment-C in Group 1 and 14 for Subjective Global Assessment-B and 26 for Subjective Global Assessment-C in Group 2. There was no difference between two groups. Nutritional methods according to Subjective Global Assessment evaluation in pre- and postoperative periods were not different between the groups. This study demonstrated that the malnutrition rate is high among patients scheduled for gastrointestinal cancer surgery and the number of surgeons were inadequate to provide perioperative nutritional support. Both university and state hospitals had similar shortcomings. Subjective Global Assessment is an easy and reliable test and if utilized will be helpful to detect patients requiring nutritional support.

  17. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  18. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  19. How do voice restoration methods affect the psychological status of patients after total laryngectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltürk, Z; Arslanoğlu, A; Özdemir, E; Yıldırım, G; Aydoğdu, İ; Kumral, T L; Berkiten, G; Atar, Y; Uyar, Y

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the relationship between psychological well-being and different voice rehabilitation methods in total laryngectomy patients. The study enrolled 96 patients who underwent total laryngectomy. The patients were divided into three groups according to the voice rehabilitation method used: esophageal speech (24 patients); a tracheoesophageal fistula and Provox 2 voice prosthesis (57 patients); or an electrolarynx (15 patients). The participants were asked to complete the Turkish version of the Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) to assess voice problems. They were also asked to complete the Turkish version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The test scores of the three groups were compared statistically. Patients who used esophageal speech had a mean VHI-10 score of 10.25 ± 3.22 versus 19.42 ± 5.56 and 17.60 ± 1.92 for the tracheoesophageal fistula and Provox 2 and electrolarynx groups respectively, reflecting better perception of their voice. They also had a PSS score of 11.38 ± 3.92, indicating that they felt less stressed in comparison with the tracheoesophageal fistula and Provox 2 and electrolarynx groups, which scored 18.84 ± 5.50 and 16.20 ± 3.49 respectively. The HADS scores of the groups were not different, indicating that the patients' anxiety and depression status did not vary. Patients who used esophageal speech perceived less stress and were less handicapped by their voice.

  20. The Organizational-Methodical Mechanism for Influencing the Status of Internal Communications of Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher Liudmyla Yu.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the essence of the organizational-economic mechanism, defines the main constituent elements and proposes a structural-logical relations diagram of the mechanism for management of the internal communication processes of enterprises. The basic principles of management are allocated, their hierarchy is provided from a position of grade of influence on the process of internal communications management. A list of management methods within the proposed management mechanism (economic, social-psychological, organizational is described. It has been determined that the application of one group of methods in the process of managing the internal communications of enterprise without the use of others cannot have a lasting positive effect, because the management process requires an integrated and systemic approach. The author provides a sequence of phases of the internal communications management based on the process of diagnosing the status of the internal communication processes of enterprise and the formation of strategic directions of activity along with the managerial decision-making on its basis.

  1. Application of pattern recognition methods for evaluating the immune status in patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitsky, R.B.; Guslistyj, I.V.; Miroshnichenko, I.V.; Karklinskaya, O.N.; Ryabinina, I.D.; Kosova, I.P.; Stolpnikova, V.N.; Malaeva, N.S.; Latypova, I.I.; Lebedev, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effectiveness of mathematical tools for pattern recognition as applied to numerical assessments of the immune status of patients exposed to ecological hazards is evaluated by experimentation. The immune status is estimated according to a two-class scheme (norm/abnormality) based on blood indicators of immunity for the patients examined. The task of categorizing patients by immunological parameters of blood is shown to be resolved with high effectiveness for determining the immune status [ru

  2. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  3. Extraction of Plant Physiological Status from Hyperspectral Signatures Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Doktor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The machine learning method, random forest (RF, is applied in order to derive biophysical and structural vegetation parameters from hyperspectral signatures. Hyperspectral data are, among other things, characterized by their high dimensionality and autocorrelation. Common multivariate regression approaches, which usually include only a limited number of spectral indices as predictors, do not make full use of the available information. In contrast, machine learning methods, such as RF, are supposed to be better suited to extract information on vegetation status. First, vegetation parameters are extracted from hyperspectral signatures simulated with the radiative transfer model, PROSAIL. Second, the transferability of these results with respect to laboratory and field measurements is investigated. In situ observations of plant physiological parameters and corresponding spectra are gathered in the laboratory for summer barley (Hordeum vulgare. Field in situ measurements focus on winter crops over several growing seasons. Chlorophyll content, Leaf Area Index and phenological growth stages are derived from simulated and measured spectra. RF performs very robustly and with a very high accuracy on PROSAIL simulated data. Furthermore, it is almost unaffected by introduced noise and bias in the data. When applied to laboratory data, the prediction accuracy is still good (C\\(_{ab}\\: \\(R^2\\ = 0.94/ LAI: \\(R^2\\ = 0.80/BBCH (Growth stages of mono-and dicotyledonous plants : \\(R^2\\ = 0.91, but not as high as for simulated spectra. Transferability to field measurements is given with prediction levels as high as for laboratory data (C\\(_{ab}\\: \\(R^2\\ = 0.89/LAI: \\(R^2\\ = 0.89/BBCH: \\(R^2\\ = \\(\\sim\\0.8. Wavelengths for deriving plant physiological status based on simulated and measured hyperspectral signatures are mostly selected from appropriate spectral regions (both field and laboratory: 700–800 nm regressing on C\\(_{ab}\\ and 800–1300

  4. Market potential and business opportunities for mayor renovation of non-residential buildings with the use of the Belok Total Concept method in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlstrøm, Åsa; Maripuu, Mari-Liis; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    for the method to be used on a larger scale, there must be commercial interest from the different companies to provide services with the method. The target groups are among others Engineering companies with energy consultants, design engineers and architects, Contractors and technology providers, energy...... controllers and ESCO companies. The article provides a market analysis of possibilities and barriers for energy renovations that have been carried out in Finland, Denmark and Sweden together with experiences from pilot buildings where the Total Concept method has been applied. The estimated annual market...... volume of renovation in the three Nordic countries is estimated to be about 4 million m2 and the total investment volume up to 280 MEUR per year. For the key actors involved in the Total Concept method the annual market volume is estimated to be about 70 MEUR. Furthermore, a new relevant key function...

  5. Deep influence of passive low energy consumption multi-storey residential building in cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhang; Lihua, Zhao; Rong, Jin; Dong, Junyan

    2018-02-01

    The example of passive architecture demonstration building in Jilin Province, China, based on the practical experience of this project, the control index of passive and low energy consumption residential buildings in cold and passive buildings is referenced by reference to the German construction standard and the Chinese residence construction document, “passive ultra-low energy consumption green Building Technology Guide (Trial)”. The requirement of passive low energy residential buildings on the ground heat transfer coefficient limits is determined, and the performance requirements of passive residential buildings are discussed. This paper analyzes the requirement of the passive low energy residential building on the ground heat transfer coefficient limit, and probes into the influence factors of the ground thermal insulation of the passive low energy consumption residential building. The construction method of passive low energy consumption residential building is proposed.

  6. Assessment of Bone Status in Inhaled Corticosteroid User Asthmatic Patients with an Ultrasound Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Sasagawa

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The 6 month manegement of asthma in the actual clinical setting, including regular ICS use, might have a harmful influence on the bone status of female asthmatic patients. It may be necessary to manage and treat female patients for potent corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, although further analyses of bone status in asthma patient ICS users will be required.

  7. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  8. Evaluation of radionuclide releases from underground waste repositories using the method of status vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.

    1983-01-01

    For safety analyses of underground repositories for radioactive wastes various possible release scenarios have to be defind and anticipated consequences to be calculated and compared. Normally only the main exposure pathways (i.e. the critical pathways) of the radionuclides disposed of in the repository are calculated using deterministic methods and varying the parameters. It is proposed to evaluate all the individual pathways including those differing considerably from the critical pathway by forming weighted averages of their consequences. This offers the possibility of including, without any restriction, in the evaluation of the repository the various possible events and processes that influence the function of barriers for the retention of radionuclides. Various states (scenarios) of a repository in a salt formation, which might occur in the course of time have been used as an example. The consequences related to these states and the probabilities of their occurrence or the scenario weights form the components of 'status vectors'. For low- and intermediate-level wastes the overall consequences obtained from these calculations are negligibly small, for high-level wastes they are about 3 x 10 - 5 Sv a - 1 /GW a. These values are reached if at least a part of the barriers is effective. Variations of the weighting factors for the states and their influence on the overall consequences are given. (author)

  9. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warfa Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. Methods There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. Results The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. Conclusion The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  10. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  11. Survey of residential magnetic field sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffanella, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    A nationwide survey of 1000 residences is underway to determine the sources and characteristics of magnetic fields in the home. This report describes the goals, statistical sampling methods, measurement protocols, and experiences in measuring the first 707 residences of the survey. Some preliminary analysis of the data is also included. Investigators designed a sampling method to randomly select the participating utilities as well as the residential customers for the study. As a first step in the project, 18 utility employee residences were chosen to validate a relatively simple measurement protocol against the results of a more complete and intrusive method. Using the less intrusive measurement protocol, researchers worked closely with representatives from EPRI member utilities to enter customer residences and measure the magnetic fields found there. Magnetic field data were collected in different locations inside and around the residences. Twenty-four-hour recorders were left in the homes overnight. Tests showed that the simplified measurement protocol is adequate for achieving the goals of the study. Methods were developed for analyzing the field caused by a residence's ground current, the lateral field profiles of field lines, and the field measured around the periphery of the residences. Methods of residential source detection were developed that allow identification of sources such as ground connections at an electrical subpanel, two-wire multiple-way switches, and underground or overhead net currents exiting the periphery of a residence

  12. Evaluation of the Secretor Status of ABO Blood Group Antigens in Saliva among Southern Rajasthan Population Using Absorption Inhibition Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Rashmi; Khajuria, Nidhi; Mamta; Ramesh, Gayathri

    2016-02-01

    The ABO blood group system was the significant element for forensic serological examination of blood and body fluids in the past before the wide adaptation of DNA typing. A significant proportion of individuals (80%) are secretors, meaning that antigens present in the blood are also found in other body fluids such as saliva. Absorption inhibition is one such method that works by reducing strength of an antiserum based on type and amount of antigen present in the stains. To check the efficacy of identifying the blood group antigens in saliva and to know the secretor status using absorption inhibition method among southern Rajasthan population. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 80 individuals comprising 20 individuals in each blood group. The absorption inhibition method was used to determine the blood group antigens in the saliva and then the results were correlated with the blood group of the collected blood sample. The compiled data was statistically analysed using chi-square test. Blood groups A & O revealed 100% secretor status for both males and females. While blood groups B and AB revealed 95% secretor status. Secretor status evaluation of the ABO blood group antigen in saliva using absorption inhibition method can be a useful tool in forensic examination.

  13. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hopton, Matthew E

    2018-01-15

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited. We tested whether multi-temporal airborne LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery collected at a 5-year interval can be used to investigate urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes in Denver, CO and Milwaukee, WI, covering 400,705 residential parcels in 444 census tracts. Position and stem height of trees lost were extracted from canopy height models calculated as the difference between final (year 5) and initial (year 0) vegetation height derived from LiDAR. Multivariate regression models were used to predict number and height of tree stems lost in residential parcels in each census tract based on urban morphological and socio-economic variables. A total of 28,427 stems were lost from residential parcels in Denver and Milwaukee over 5years. Overall, 7% of residential parcels lost one stem, averaging 90.87 stems per km 2 . Average stem height was 10.16m, though trees lost in Denver were taller compared to Milwaukee. The number of stems lost was higher in neighborhoods with higher canopy cover and developed before the 1970s. However, socio-economic characteristics had little effect on tree loss dynamics. The study provides a simple method for measuring urban tree loss dynamics within and across entire cities, and represents a further step toward high resolution assessments of the three-dimensional change of urban vegetation at large spatial scales. Published by

  14. Migration experiences, employment status and psychological distress among Somali immigrants: a mixed-method international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Nasir; Curtis, Sarah; Watters, Charles; Carswell, Ken; Ingleby, David; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-09-07

    The discourse about mental health problems among migrants and refugees tends to focus on adverse pre-migration experiences; there is less investigation of the environmental conditions in which refugee migrants live, and the contrasts between these situations in different countries. This cross-national study of two samples of Somali refugees living in London (UK) and Minneapolis, Minnesota, (USA) helps to fill a gap in the literature, and is unusual in being able to compare information collected in the same way in two cities in different countries. There were two parts to the study, focus groups to gather in-depth qualitative data and a survey of health status and quantifiable demographic and material factors. Three of the focus groups involved nineteen Somali professionals and five groups included twenty-eight lay Somalis who were living in London and Minneapolis. The quantitative survey was done with 189 Somali respondents, also living in London and Minneapolis. We used the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to assess ICD-10 and DSM-IV mental disorders. The overall qualitative and quantitative results suggested that challenges to masculinity, thwarted aspirations, devalued refugee identity, unemployment, legal uncertainties and longer duration of stay in the host country account for poor psychological well-being and psychiatric disorders among this group. The use of a mixed-methods approach in this international study was essential since the quantitative and qualitative data provide different layers and depth of meaning and complement each other to provide a fuller picture of complex and multi-faceted life situations of refugees and asylum seekers. The comparison between the UK and US suggests that greater flexibility of access to labour markets for this refugee group might help to promote opportunities for better integration and mental well-being.

  15. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... must include the agency name and docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or...

  16. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichocki M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin Cichocki,1 Viktoria Quehenberger,1 Michael Zeiler,1 Tanja Adamcik,1 Matthias Manousek,1 Tanja Stamm,2 Karl Krajic1 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, 2Medical University of Vienna & University of Applied Sciences FH Campus, Wien, Vienna, Austria Purpose: Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs and participants (health status, discipline rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL.Participants and methods: The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female.Results: Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36 improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied.Conclusion: Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. Keywords: physical activity, intervention, residential aged care, effectiveness, aged

  17. New trajectories of post-socialist residential mobility in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the post-socialist period, residential mobility processes were very intense and took place on large areas. Flow intensity led to the emergence of new spatial and functional realities and created new relationships within the affected areas. During all this period, Bucharest’s metropolitan area was shaped by the spatial mobility of the city dwellers, as well as by the change of their social and residential aspirations. The majority of those who were registered as movers in Bucharest were actually residents of Bucharest (they only changed their domicile and the share of people coming to the city from elsewhere has increased constantly over the last decade. Except for the early 1990s, a period when residential legal status was pending clarification, migrations from peri-urban area, especially from Ilfov County, to Bucharest had a low intensity. Situation is quite different in terms of moving out of Bucharest, to the communes and towns of Ilfov County, located in close proximity, which have been continuously increasing values. The correlation between housing stock features (real estate supply and the demand of new dwellings (emphasized by the residential trajectories prove both that current mobility flows taking place at this time in Bucharest are segmented based on economic-spatial criteria and that Markov chains are functional.

  18. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  19. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  20. Classication of Status of the Region on Java Island using C4.5, CHAID, and CART Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaraswati, R. A.; Slamet, I.; Winarno, B.

    2017-06-01

    The indicator of region economic success can be measured by economic growth, presented by value of Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP). Java island has the biggest GDP contribution toward the Indonesian government, but not all of the region gives equality contribution. The C4.5, CHAID, and CART methods can be used for classifying the status of the region with nonparametric approach. The C4.5 and CHAID methods are non-binary decision tree, meanwhile the CART methods is binary decision tree. The purposes of this paper are to know how the classification and to determine the factors that influence on classification of the region. The dependent variable is status of the region which is divided into four categories based on Klassen typology. The result shows factors that have the biggest contribution on classification of status of the region on Java island based on C4.5 method are economic growth rate, electricity, gas, and water sector, and area. The factors that have the biggest contribution based on CHAID method are growth rate, manufacturing sector, and electricity, gas, and water sector, while based on CART method are growth rate, manufacturing sector, and electricity, gas, and water sector.

  1. Vitamin D status assessed by a validated HPLC method: within and between variation in subjects supplemented with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between-subject variat......Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between......-subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... the within-day and between-days variations were 3.8 % and 5.7 %, respectively. There was a concentration-dependent difference between results obtained by a commercial radioimmunoassay and results from the HPLC method of -5 to 20 nmol 25OHD/L in the range 10-100 nmol 25OHD/L. The between-subject variation...

  2. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  3. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  4. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  5. Convergence of residential gateway technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den F.T.H.; Balm, M.; Jong, de C.M.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  6. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  7. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  8. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  9. The Sensitivity of Residential Electricity Demand in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranti Nastiti Kusumaningrum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the residential electricity price for High VA (Volt-Ampere households has changed due to changes in pricing policies. This paper analyzes the responsiveness of residential electricity demand to the change in electricity prices and income among two different household groups (Low VA and High VA in 2011 and 2014. Using an electricity consumption model and the Quantile Regression method, the results show that residential electricity demand is price and income inelastic. Income elasticity is lower than price elasticity. Furthermore, the effects on price elasticity also found in the Low VA group, whose rate remained stable. At the same time, evidence proves the impact of the change in pricing policy on income elasticity remains unclear. This result implies that the government has to be more careful in regulating electricity prices for the low VA group, while maintaining economic stability.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6048

  10. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  11. Could strength of exposure to the residential neighbourhood modify associations between walkability and physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivory, Vivienne C; Blakely, Tony; Pearce, Jamie; Witten, Karen; Bagheri, Nasser; Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2015-12-01

    The importance of neighbourhoods for health and wellbeing may vary according to an individual's reliance on their local resources, but this assertion is rarely tested. We investigate whether greater neighbourhood 'exposure' through reliance on or engagement with the residential setting magnifies neighbourhood-health associations. Three built environment characteristics (destination density, streetscape (attractiveness of built environment) and street connectivity) and two physical activity components (weekday and weekend accelerometer counts) were measured for 2033 residents living in 48 neighbourhoods within four New Zealand cities in 2009-2010, giving six different built environment-physical activity associations. Interactions for each built environment-physical activity association with four individual-level characteristics (acting as proxies for exposure: gender, working status, car access, and income) were assessed with multi-level regression models; a total of 24 'tests'. Of the 12 weekday built environment-physical activity tests, 5 interaction terms were significant (p physical activity among those with restricted car access). For weekend tests, one association was statistically significant. No significant tests were contradictory. Pooled across the 12 weekday physical activity 'tests', a 1 standard deviation increase in the walkability of the built environment was associated with an overall 3.8% (95% CI: 3.6%-4.1%) greater increase in weekday physical activity across all the types of people we hypothesised to spend more time in their residential neighbourhood, and for weekend physical activity it was 4.2% (95% CI 3.9%-4.5%). Using multiple evaluation methods, interactions were in line with our hypothesis, with a stronger association seen for proxy exposure indicators (for example, restricted car access). Added to the wider evidence base, our study strengthens causal evidence of an effect of the built environment on physical activity, and highlights that

  12. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  13. An alternative method for estimating the status of resident reef fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stock status of roman Chrysoblephus laticeps was estimated in the Goukamma, a temperate South African marine protected area (MPA). Standardised catch per unit effort (CPUE) from a controlled angling survey on both sides of the MPA border was employed to extrapolate the CPUE at zero fishing mortality. Converted ...

  14. Qualitative exploration of relationships between peers in residential addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Strang, John

    2018-01-01

    Relationships between peers are often considered central to the therapeutic process, yet there is relatively little empirical research either on the nature of peer-to-peer relationships within residential treatment or on how those relationships generate positive behaviour change or facilitate recovery. In this paper, we explore relationships between peers in residential addiction treatment, drawing upon the concept of social capital to frame our analyses. Our study was undertaken during 2015 and 2016 in two English residential treatment services using the same therapeutic community-informed model of treatment. We conducted 22 in-depth interviews with 13 current and 9 former service residents. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded in MAXQDA, and analysed using Iterative Categorisation. Residents reported difficult relationship histories and limited social networks on entry into treatment. Once in treatment, few residents described bonding with their peers on the basis of shared experiences and lifestyles. Instead, interpersonal differences polarised residents in ways that undermined their social capital further. Some senior peers who had been in residential treatment longer acted as positive role models, but many modelled negative behaviours that undermined others' commitment to treatment. Relationships between peers could generate feelings of comfort and connectedness, and friendships developed when residents found things in common with each other. However, residents more often reported isolation, loneliness, wariness, bullying, manipulation, intimidation, social distancing, tensions and conflict. Overall, relationships between peers within residential treatment seemed to generate some positive but more negative social capital; undermining the notion of the community as a method of positive behaviour change. With the caveat that our data have limitations and further research is needed, we suggest that residential treatment providers should

  15. A method for measuring quality of life through subjective weighting of functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Wechsler, Barbara; Ross, Richard; Maislin, Greg

    2003-04-01

    To apply a new tool to understand the quality of life (QOL) implications of patients' functional status. Results from the Features-Resource Trade-Off Game were used to form utility weights by ranking functional activities by the relative value of achieving independence in each activity compared with all other component activities. The utility weights were combined with patients' actual levels of performance across the same activities to produce QOL-weighted functional status scores and to form "value rulers" to order activities by perceived importance. Persons with severe disabilities living in the community and clinicians practicing in various rehabilitation disciplines. Two panels of 5 consumers with disabilities and 2 panels of 5 rehabilitation clinicians. The 4 panels played the Features Resource Trade-Off Game by using the FIMT(TM) instrument definitions. Utility weights for each of the 18 FIM items, QOL-weighted FIM scores, and value rulers. All 4 panels valued the achievement of independence in cognitive and communication activities more than independence in physical activities. Consequently, the unweighted FIM scores of patients who have severe physical disabilities but relatively intact cognitive skills will underestimate QOL, while inflating QOL in those with low levels of independence in cognition and communication but higher physical function. Independence in some activities is more valued than in others; thus, 2 people with the same numeric functional status score could experience very different QOL. QOL-weighted functional status scores translate objectively measured functional status into its subjective meaning. This new technology for measuring subjective function-related QOL has a variety of applications to clinical, educational, and research practices.

  16. Willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Farsi, Mehdi; Jakob, Martin; Filippini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a choice experiment to evaluate the consumers' willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in Switzerland's residential buildings. These measures include air renewal (ventilation) systems and insulation of windows and facades. Two groups of respondents consisting respectively of 163 apartment tenants and 142 house owners were asked to choose between their housing status quo and each one of the several hypothetical situations with different attributes and prices. The estimation method is based on a fixed-effects logit model. The results suggest that the benefits of the energy-saving attributes are significantly valued by the consumers. These benefits include both individual energy savings and environmental benefits as well as comfort benefits namely, thermal comfort, air quality and noise protection. (author)

  17. Diabetes knowledge translation status in developing countries: A mixed method study among diabetes researchers in case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Valinejadi; Farahnaz Sadoughi; Masoud Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. Methods...

  18. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient to identifying MGMT promoter methylation status early in glioblastoma: importance of analytical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundle-Thiele, Dayle [Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Day, Bryan; Stringer, Brett [Brain Cancer Research Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Fay, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Martin, Jennifer [Discipline of Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales (Australia); Jeffree, Rosalind L [Department of Neurosurgery, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Thomas, Paul [Queensland PET Service, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Bell, Christopher [Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Salvado, Olivier [CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Gal, Yaniv [Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Coulthard, Alan [Discipline of Medical Imaging, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Crozier, Stuart [Centre for Medical Diagnostic Technologies in Queensland, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Rose, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.rose@csiro.au [CSIRO Digital Productivity Flagship, CSIRO, Herston, Queensland (Australia); Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Accurate knowledge of O{sup 6}-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as a surrogate to predict MGMT status has shown mixed results. We investigated whether this was due to variations in the method used to analyse ADC. We undertook a retrospective study of 32 patients with GBM who had MGMT status measured. Matching pre-operative MRI data were used to calculate the ADC within contrast enhancing regions of tumour. The relationship between ADC and MGMT was examined using two published ADC methods. A strong trend between a measure of ‘minimum ADC’ and methylation status was seen. An elevated minimum ADC was more likely in the methylated compared to the unmethylated MGMT group (U = 56, P = 0.0561). In contrast, utilising a two-mixture model histogram approach, a significant reduction in mean measure of the ‘low ADC’ component within the histogram was associated with an MGMT promoter methylation subtype (P < 0.0246). This study shows that within the same patient cohort, the method selected to analyse ADC measures has a significant bearing on the use of that metric as a surrogate marker of MGMT status. Thus for dMRI data to be clinically useful, consistent methods of data analysis need to be established prior to establishing any relationship with genetic or epigenetic profiling.

  19. Using the apparent diffusion coefficient to identifying MGMT promoter methylation status early in glioblastoma: importance of analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundle-Thiele, Dayle; Day, Bryan; Stringer, Brett; Fay, Michael; Martin, Jennifer; Jeffree, Rosalind L; Thomas, Paul; Bell, Christopher; Salvado, Olivier; Gal, Yaniv; Coulthard, Alan; Crozier, Stuart; Rose, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of O 6 -methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoter subtype in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) is important for treatment. However, this test is not always available. Pre-operative diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to probe tumour biology using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); however, its ability to act as a surrogate to predict MGMT status has shown mixed results. We investigated whether this was due to variations in the method used to analyse ADC. We undertook a retrospective study of 32 patients with GBM who had MGMT status measured. Matching pre-operative MRI data were used to calculate the ADC within contrast enhancing regions of tumour. The relationship between ADC and MGMT was examined using two published ADC methods. A strong trend between a measure of ‘minimum ADC’ and methylation status was seen. An elevated minimum ADC was more likely in the methylated compared to the unmethylated MGMT group (U = 56, P = 0.0561). In contrast, utilising a two-mixture model histogram approach, a significant reduction in mean measure of the ‘low ADC’ component within the histogram was associated with an MGMT promoter methylation subtype (P < 0.0246). This study shows that within the same patient cohort, the method selected to analyse ADC measures has a significant bearing on the use of that metric as a surrogate marker of MGMT status. Thus for dMRI data to be clinically useful, consistent methods of data analysis need to be established prior to establishing any relationship with genetic or epigenetic profiling

  20. What are the most effective methods for assessment of nutritional status in outpatients with gastric and colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe Vicente, Mariana; Barão, Katia; Silva, Tiago Donizetti; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate methods for the identification of nutrition risk and nutritional status in outpatients with colorectal (CRC) and gastric cancer (GC), and to compare the results to those obtained for patients already treated for these cancers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 137 patients: group 1 (n = 75) consisting of patients with GC or CRC, and group 2 (n = 62) consisting of patients after treatment of GC or CRC under follow up, who were tumor free for a period longer than 3 months. Nutritional status was assessed in these patients using objective methods [body mass index (BMI), phase angle, serum albumin]; nutritional screening tools [Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI)], and subjective assessment [Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA)]. The sensitivity and specificity of each method was calculated in relation to the PG-SGA used as gold standard. One hundred thirty seven patients participated in the study. Stage IV cancer patients were more common in group 1. There was no difference in BMI between groups (p = 0.67). Analysis of the association between methods of assessing nutritional status and PG-SGA showed that the nutritional screening tools provided more significant results (p nutritional screening tools MUST, NRI and MST were more sensitive than the objective methods. Phase angle measurement was the most sensitive objective method in group 1. The nutritional screening tools showed the best association with PG-SGA and were also more sensitive than the objective methods. The results suggest the combination of MUST and PG-SGA for patients with cancer before and after treatment. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flows through built spaces and forms (streets, park/garden, buildings, and makes use of access graphs and numerical measures to indicate permeability of a given residential settlement. Since the method is still in the initial development, further study will be required for refinement and validation. Nevertheless, the method can be employed to provide information for ventilation design of low-rise residential settlements, particularly at the schematic level. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Informasi untuk perancangan ventilasi alam pada permukiman selama ini sangat bergantung dari hasil-hasil yang diperoleh dari studi terowongan angin ataupun studi simulasi komputer dengan menggunakan CFD. Namun demikian ketersediaan informasi tersebut sangatlah terbatas bagi arsitek. Studi yang dilakukan penulis berusaha untuk mengisi kesenjangan yang ada dengan menyediakan tampilan grafis untuk menunjukkan permiabilitas sebuah permukiman. Perilaku angin di dalam dan permiablitas permukiman dijabarkan dengan menggunakan grafik akses dan pengukuran-pengukuran numerik. Oleh karena pengembangan metoda ini berada pada tahap awal, beberapa studi lanjutan sangatlah diperlukan. Kata kunci: morfologi permukiman, sains arsitektur, ventilasi alam, iklim tropis.

  2. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  3. Effect of Different Tumbling Marination Methods and Time on the Water Status and Protein Properties of Prepared Pork Chops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Gao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of tumbling marination methods (vacuum continuous tumbling marination, CT; vacuum intermittent tumbling marination, IT and effective tumbling time (4, 6, 8, and 10 h on the water status and protein properties of prepared pork chops was investigated. Results showed that regardless of tumbling time, CT method significantly decreased the muscle fiber diameter (MD and significantly increased the total moisture content, product yield, salt soluble proteins (SSP solubility, immobilized water component (p<0.05 compared with IT method. With the effective tumbling time increased from 4 h to 10 h, the fat content and the MD were significantly decreased (p<0.05, whereas the SSP solubility of prepared pork chops increased firstly and then decreased. Besides, an interactive effect between CT method and effective tumbling time was also observed for the chemical composition and proportion of immobilized water (p<0.05. These results demonstrated that CT method of 8 h was the most beneficial for improving the muscle structure and water distribution status, increasing the water-binding capacity and accelerating the marinade efficiency of pork chops; and thus, it should be chosen as the most optimal treatment method for the processing production of prepared pork chops.

  4. A multifaceted intervention model can give a lasting improvement of older peoples' nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefält, B; Wilhelmsson, S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was with a multifaceted intervention model improve the nutritional status of elderly people living in residential homes to increase their energy intake and to maintain improvements over time. Three different municipal residential homes in the south-east of Sweden. The study population consisted of 67 elderly people. A within-subjects design was used which means that the participants were their own controls. A multifaceted intervention model was chosen, which included education on both theoretical and practical issues, training and support for staff, and individualized snacks to the residents. Nutritional status was measured by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the consumption of food was recorded by the staff using a food record method for 3 consecutive days. The length of night-time fasting has been calculated from the food records. Nutritional status improved after 3 months of intervention and was maintained after 9 months. Weight increased during the whole study period. Night-time fasting decreased but not to the recommended level. This study shows that it is possible by a multifaceted intervention model to increase energy intake including expanding snacks and thereby improve and maintain nutritional status over a longer period in the elderly living in residential homes. This result was possible to achieve because staff received education and training in nutritional issues and by provision of support during a period when new routines were introduced.

  5. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  6. The design method and research status of vehicle detection system based on geomagnetic detection principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. H.; Bai, R.; Qian, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicle detection systems are applied to obtain real-time information of vehicles, realize traffic control and reduce traffic pressure. This paper reviews geomagnetic sensors as well as the research status of the vehicle detection system. Presented in the paper are also our work on the vehicle detection system, including detection algorithms and experimental results. It is found that the GMR based vehicle detection system has a detection accuracy up to 98% with a high potential for application in the road traffic control area.

  7. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  8. Application of status uncertainty analysis methods for AP1000 LBLOCA calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shunxiang; Liang Guoxing

    2012-01-01

    Parameter uncertainty analysis is developed by using the reasonable method to establish the response relations between input parameter uncertainties and output uncertainties. The application of the parameter uncertainty analysis makes the simulation of plant state more accuracy and improves the plant economy with reasonable security assurance. The AP1000 LBLOCA was analyzed in this paper and the results indicate that the random sampling statistical analysis method, sensitivity analysis numerical method and traditional error propagation analysis method can provide quite large peak cladding temperature (PCT) safety margin, which is much helpful for choosing suitable uncertainty analysis method to improve the plant economy. Additionally, the random sampling statistical analysis method applying mathematical statistics theory makes the largest safety margin due to the reducing of the conservation. Comparing with the traditional conservative bounding parameter analysis method, the random sampling method can provide the PCT margin of 100 K, while the other two methods can only provide 50-60 K. (authors)

  9. Method of defining heating and cooling period for residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone%夏热冬冷地区采暖空调计算期确定方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅新; 钱晓倩; 钱匡亮; 董凯; 阮方

    2017-01-01

    基于1971年至2003年的大量实测气象数据,通过对夏热冬冷地区20个典型城市的气候条件分析,揭示了各城市在最冷(热)月平均温度及日较差、日均温度≤5 ℃(≥25 ℃)的天数和采暖、空调度日数等方面存在巨大差异.探讨现有标准规定的3套计算期的合理性,基于实测气象数据和离散性分析,提出新的计算期确定方法.采用Design Builder软件对居住建筑的能耗模拟结果表明,不同计算期不仅影响采暖、空调能耗的总量,而且改变了两者之间的比例关系.%Large amounts of actual measured meteorological data of 20 typical cities in hot summer and cold winter zone in China between 1971 and 2003 were analyzed.There exist wide differences in climatic conditions among cities in this climate region, as reflected in many aspects like the average temperature and diurnal range in coldest(hottest) month, the number of days in which the daily average temperature was less than or equal to 5 ℃ (higher than or equal to 25 ℃), the heating and cooling degree day, etc.The reasonability of calculation periods set by three existing relevant standards in China was investigated, and a new defining method of calculation period was proposed based on actual measured meteorological data and discreteness analysis.The results of energy consumption simulation for residential buildings with the Design Builder software indicate that different calculation periods not only affect the total heating and cooling consumption simulation result, but also change the ratio of them.

  10. Residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, Svend; Furbo, S.

    2012-11-15

    Low-energy buildings can make a major contribution to general sustainable development by providing a solution to problems related to the use of fossil fuels. The EPBD (EU Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings) requirements that by 2020 new building shall be constructed to use nearly zero energy, and no fossil fuels, can be accomplished by combining low-energy buildings with renewable energy via low-temperature district heating in cities and suburbs, and via heat pumps for low-density settlements. Based on experience with passive houses, low-energy buildings meeting the energy performance requirements of 2020 are expected to cost only a few percent more than conventional buildings. The very large and rapid changes needed in the energy performance of buildings is a challenge for the building sector, but one that can be overcome by better methods of developing products and designing, constructing and operating buildings. Simulation-based analysis and optimisation, and considerations of durability, will be important here. Building may thus be transformed from an experience-based sector to one based on knowledge and research, with high-quality sustainable products and good business opportunities. (Author)

  11. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  12. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  13. The Relation Between Residential Property and its Surroundings and Day- and Night-Time Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  14. Patterns of Residential Segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Louf

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities.

  15. An adjusted probability method for the identification of sociometric status in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Bacete, F.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test the performance of an adjusted probability method for sociometric classification proposed by García Bacete (GB) in comparison with two previous methods. Specific goals were to examine the overall agreement between methods, the behavioral correlates of

  16. Status of photonuclear method of analysis among other nuclear analytical methods and main fields of its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burmistenko, Yu.N.

    1986-01-01

    Technical, organizational and economical aspects as applied to the field of application of photonuclear methods of analysis of substance composition are considered. As for the technical aspect, the most important factors are nuclear-physical characteristics of the elements under determination and the elements composing the sample matrix. As for the organizational aspect, the governing factor in a number of cases is the availability of an irradiation device in the close vicinity of the analytical laboratory. Studying the technical and organizational aspects while choosing the proper method one can obtain the main source data to perform feasibility studies of a nuclear analytical complex with this or that activation source. Therefore, the economical aspect is governing for the choice of the method

  17. Probabilistic safety analyses. Status and further development of methods and models, applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.; Schott, H.

    1992-12-01

    The report describes the topics of the deterministic and probabilistic approach. The PSA is used in order to investigate event sequences beyond design limits; in particular the expected frequency of core melting is important. The basis of PSA is described including its limits. Moreover, the current state of the art of science and technology in the field of PSA including the so-called 'living PSA' are explained. Some measures which result in order to improve the safety of a nuclear power plant from the German Risk-Study are shown. An overview is given on the status of PSA in periodic safety reviews in German nuclear power plants. Moreover, the main topics of running investigations are presented. (orig.) [de

  18. Determining potential pregnancy status differences based on a new method of yearling heifer prebreeding examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monday, Jessica D; Larson, Robert L; Laflin, Shelie; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E

    2018-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the Ready-Intermediate-Problem (RIP) replacement heifer evaluation matrix's ability to classify heifers into groups with differing reproductive outcomes. Beef heifers (n = 341) from six Kansas herds were classified according to RIP matrix guidelines and then exposed to AI breeding, bull breeding, or a combination of both as per the management plans for each participating herd. Following the breeding season the heifers were evaluated to determine pregnancy status, AI pregnancy status, days bred, and the number of 21 day cycles needed during the breeding season to become pregnant. After the breeding season, 298 (87%) of the heifers were pregnant, 204 (68%) of which became pregnant in the first 21 days of the breeding season. There was a significant interaction (P = 0.01) in RIP classification and pregnancy by 21 day cycle. Ready classified heifers had a significantly greater risk of becoming pregnant after a single AI exposure (P = 0.03) and in the first 21-day cycle (P = 0.02) compared to Problem classified heifers, and significantly less risk of being non-pregnant at the end of the breeding season (P < 0.01) compared to Problem classified heifers. The RIP matrix can be useful for classifying heifers prior to the onset of the breeding season. Further research is needed to evaluate the matrix in other settings and populations of U.S. beef heifers as well as at different intervals between evaluation and the start of breeding season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Soil Service Index: a method for quantifying the value, vulnerability, and status of soil resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, J. W.; Loisel, J.; Hugelius, G.; Sulman, B. N.; Bond-Lamberty, B. P.; Abramoff, R. Z.; Malhotra, A.; Gill, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soils support ecological and human systems by providing a physical and biogeochemical basis for plant growth, ecological functions, water quality, and water storage, and by providing services and functions needed for economic development, human well-being, and conservation of natural resources. Quantitative evaluation of soil services, however, is inconsistent and poorly communicated, in part because we lack a scientific, unified basis for evaluating soils and their potential for serving our needs. We introduce an index of soil service (SSI) in which multiple services are numerically or quantitatively assessed, normalized to a unit-less scale for purposes of intercomparability, and evaluated for a given site or region. Services include organic matter and/or organic carbon storage; plant productivity; CO2 or GHG exchange with the atmosphere; water storage capacity; and nutrient storage and/or availability. The status of SSI can be evaluated by individual services or by a composite index that combines multiple services. The status can be monitored over time; and key services that are more highly valued for a given soil can be weighted accordingly in comparison to other services. As a first step, existing data for each service are captured from a literature and data review in order to establish the full range of values. A site value establishes the ranking relative to the full range. Key services are weighted according to local values. A final index is the sum of the normalized, weighted products. Metrics can be updated and adapted as new data or services are discovered or recognized. Metrics can be used to compare among sites, regions, or time periods.

  20. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  1. Commercialization of residential fuel cell systems at Tokyo Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hisao; Kameyama, Hiromichi; Okamura, Kiyoshi; Nishizaki, Kunihiro

    2007-07-01

    Increased affluence at homes may inevitably bring about increased energy consumption with it and hence increased CO2 emission from the residential sector, which accounts for a substantial share in the overall CO2 emission. Technologies that can reduce CO2 emission without sacrificing comfort of living at home will be critically important to achieve economic prosperity and preservation of the global environment at the same time. The residential fuel cell system is one of those technologies. Tokyo Gas has been engaging in its development cooperating with the manufacturers and has been playing an important role in the design, development and promotion of fuel cell systems with its vast knowledge and experience of end users' energy consumption. The development, demonstration and promotion of fuel cell systems have been strongly supported by the Japanese Government. In 'the Large Scale Demonstration Project', more than 1000 units of polymer electrolyte fuel cells have been installed to existing homes and have demonstrated their energy saving and CO2 emission reduction potential. This paper reports the status of the development of residential fuel cell systems in Japan and the role Tokyo Gas plays in it.

  2. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  3. Performance comparison of machine learning methods for prognosis of hormone receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinli, Adem; Sarikoc, Fatih; Akgun, Hulya; Ozturk, Figen

    2013-06-01

    We examined the classification and prognostic scoring performances of several computer methods on different feature sets to obtain objective and reproducible analysis of estrogen receptor status in breast cancer tissue samples. Radial basis function network, k-nearest neighborhood search, support vector machines, naive bayes, functional trees, and k-means clustering algorithm were applied to the test datasets. Several features were employed and the classification accuracies of each method for these features were examined. The assessment results of the methods on test images were also experimentally compared with those of two experts. According to the results of our experimental work, a combination of functional trees and the naive bayes classifier gave the best prognostic scores indicating very good kappa agreement values (κ=0.899 and κ=0.949, p<0.001) with the experts. This combination also gave the best dichotomization rate (96.3%) for assessment of estrogen receptor status. Wavelet color features provided better classification accuracy than Laws texture energy and co-occurrence matrix features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of hydration status of elite young male soccer players with different methods and new approach method of substitute urine strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Nesli; Ersoy, Gulgun; Kutlu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine and compare the hydration status with different methods and determine fluid intake, dehydration percentages and sweat rate of 26 young male soccer players (15 ± 1.2 years) before an important competition. More specifically, the study aims at validating the urine strip and advising the players to use it as an easy and practical method. Measurements of urine analysis were taken from the urine sample of the participants before breakfast and conducted for 3 consecutive days before the competition. Hydration status was assessed through analysis of urine color, urine specific gravity (USG) (laboratory, strip, refractometry), and osmolality. The players' dehydration percentages and sweat ratio were calculated. The average values for all samples were 3 ± 1 for color, and 1.021 ± 4 g/cm(3) for USG (laboratory), and 1.021 ± 3 g/cm(3) for USG (strip), and 1.021 ± 4 for USG (refractometry), and 903 ± 133 mOsm/kg for osmolality. USG (strip) was highly correlated with USG (laboratory), USG (refractometry) (r = 0.8; P soccer players were observed as 0.5 % and 582.3 ± 232.0 mL/h, respectively. We found that youth soccer players are under a slight risk of dehydration under moderate weather conditions. As indicated by the research results, determination of hydration status of athletes must be taken into account more carefully under moderate and hot weather conditions. In addition, hydration methods were compatible with one another as measured in this study.

  5. Status and Prospect of Test Methods of Quality Silicone Water Repellent for Protecting Reinforced Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, H. Y.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Yang, Z.; Shan, G. L. [Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing (China); Shen, M. X. [Hehai University, Nanjing (China)

    2017-06-15

    Impregnating with quality silicone water repellent on the concrete surface is an effective method of protecting concrete. Quality silicone water repellent has been widely used in the engineering profession because of its desirable properties such as hydrophobicity, keeping concrete breathable and preserving the original appearance of the concrete. The companies in China that produce silicone water repellent are listed. Test methods in the specifications or standards about silicone water repellent in China are summed. The test methods relative to durability of concrete impregnated with silicone water repellent (such as resistant to chloride ion penetration, resistant to alkali, resistance to freezing and thawing and weather ability etc.) and the constructive quality (such as water absorption rate, impregnating depth and the dry velocity coefficient etc.) are compared and analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences among test methods relative to different specifications with the same index and therefore, confusion has ensued when selecting test methods. All test methods with the exception of the method of water absorption rate by using a Karsten flask are not non-destructive methods or conducted in a laboratory. Finally, further research on silicone water repellent during application is proposed.

  6. Status and Prospect of Test Methods of Quality Silicone Water Repellent for Protecting Reinforced Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H. Y.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Yang, Z.; Shan, G. L.; Shen, M. X.

    2017-01-01

    Impregnating with quality silicone water repellent on the concrete surface is an effective method of protecting concrete. Quality silicone water repellent has been widely used in the engineering profession because of its desirable properties such as hydrophobicity, keeping concrete breathable and preserving the original appearance of the concrete. The companies in China that produce silicone water repellent are listed. Test methods in the specifications or standards about silicone water repellent in China are summed. The test methods relative to durability of concrete impregnated with silicone water repellent (such as resistant to chloride ion penetration, resistant to alkali, resistance to freezing and thawing and weather ability etc.) and the constructive quality (such as water absorption rate, impregnating depth and the dry velocity coefficient etc.) are compared and analyzed. The results indicate that there are differences among test methods relative to different specifications with the same index and therefore, confusion has ensued when selecting test methods. All test methods with the exception of the method of water absorption rate by using a Karsten flask are not non-destructive methods or conducted in a laboratory. Finally, further research on silicone water repellent during application is proposed.

  7. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimation of Work Limitation Scores from Health Status Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anatchkova, M; Fang, H; Kini, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare two methods for estimation of Work Limitations Questionnaire scores (WLQ, 8 items) from the Role Physical (RP, 4 items) and Role Emotional scales (RE, 3 items) of the SF-36 Health survey. These measures assess limitations in role performance attributed to health (emotional...... future data collection strategies. Methods We used data from two independent cross-sectional panel samples (Sample1, n=1382, 51% female, 72% Caucasian, 49% with preselected chronic conditions, 15% with fair/poor health; Sample2, n=301, 45% female, 90% Caucasian, 47% with preselected chronic conditions......, 21% with fair/poor health). Method 1 used previously developed and validated IRT based calibration tables. Method 2 used regression models to develop aggregate imputation weights as described in the literature. We evaluated the agreement of observed and estimated WLQ scale scores from the two methods...

  8. Optimization scheduling in intelligent Energy Management System for the DC residential distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Jingpeng; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Chendan

    2017-01-01

    Smart DC residential distribution system(RDS) consisted by DC living homes will be a significant integral part in the future green transmission with demand flexibility. Meanwhile, the distributed generations will play an important role in the active demand response (DR). Energy Management System...... (EMS) with aid of the wireless communication and the smart meter is imperative in achieving ADR for DC residential community. This paper presents a framework of centralized management system integration and the key process of ADR in DC residential distribution system. The propose framework and methods...

  9. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  10. Using Machine Learning and Data Analysis to Improve Customer Acquisition and Marketing in Residential Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    High customer acquisition costs remain a persistent challenge in the U.S. residential solar industry. Effective customer acquisition in the residential solar market is increasingly achieved with the help of data analysis and machine learning, whether that means more targeted advertising, understanding customer motivations, or responding to competitors. New research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Vanderbilt University, University of Pennsylvania, and the California Center for Sustainable Energy and funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion (SEEDS) program demonstrates novel computational methods that can help drive down costs in the residential solar industry.

  11. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  12. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  13. Status and evaluation methods of JENDL fusion file and JENDL PKA/KERMA file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Fukahori, T.; Shibata, K.; Yu Baosheng; Kosako, K.

    1997-01-01

    The status of evaluated nuclear data in the JENDL fusion file and PKA/KERMA file is presented. The JENDL fusion file was prepared in order to improve the quality of the JENDL-3.1 data especially on the double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of secondary neutrons and gamma-ray production cross sections, and to provide DDXs of secondary charged particles (p, d, t, 3 He and α-particle) for the calculation of PKA and KERMA factors. The JENDL fusion file contains evaluated data of 26 elements ranging from Li to Bi. The data in JENDL fusion file reproduce the measured data on neutron and charged-particle DDXs and also on gamma-ray production cross sections. Recoil spectra in PKA/KERMA file were calculated from secondary neutron and charged-particle DDXs contained in the fusion file with two-body reaction kinematics. The data in the JENDL fusion file and PKA/KERMA file were compiled in ENDF-6 format with an MF=6 option to store the DDX data. (orig.)

  14. Physical Activity in Public Parks of High and Low Socioeconomic Status in Colombia Using Observational Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Diana Marina; Ramírez, Paula Camila; Quiroga, Vanesa; Ríos, Paola; Férmino, Rogério César; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2018-03-28

    Public parks are an important resource for the promotion of physical activity (PA). This is the first study in Colombia and the fourth in Latin America to describe the characteristics of park users and their levels of PA using objective measures. A systematic observation assessed sex, age, and the level of PA of users of 10 parks in an intermediate-size city in Colombia, classified in low (5 parks) and high (5 parks) socioeconomic status (SES). A total of 10 daily observations were conducted, in 5 days of the week during 3 periods: morning, afternoon, and evening. In total, 16,671 observations were completed, recording 46,047 users. A higher number of users per park, per day, were recorded in high SES (1195) versus low SES (647). More men were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (70.1% vs 54.2%), as well as more children were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (30.1% vs 15.9%). Older adults in high-SES parks were more frequent (9.5% vs 5.2%). Moderate to vigorous PA was higher in low-SES parks (71.7% vs 63.2%). Low-SES parks need more green spaces, walk/bike trails, and areas for PA. All parks need new programs to increase the number of users and their PA level, considering sex, age group, and period of the week.

  15. Status and Prospects for Developing Electromagnetic Methods and Facilities for Engineer Reconnaissance in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potekaev, A. I.; Donchenko, V. A.; Zambalov, S. D.; Parvatov, G. N.; Smirnov, I. M.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.; Yakubov, V. P.; Yakovlev, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    An analysis of the most effective methods, techniques and scientific-research developments of induction mine detectors is performed, their comparative tactical-technical characteristics are reported, and priority avenues for further research are outlined.

  16. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting

  17. [Receptor status (ER and PgR) determined with histochemical and biochemical methods in breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, G; Paradiso, A; Cirillo, R; Mangia, A; Rella, G; Wiesel, S; Petroni, S; De Benedictis, G; De Lena, M

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a method similar to ER.ICA has been proposed for the progesterone receptor (PgR) using two monoclonal antibodies, JZB39 and KD68, specific for human PgR and characterized by a molecular weight of 95 and 120 Kd, respectively. A series of 73 breast cancer patients was studied with regards to ER and PgR using both immunocytochemical (ICA) and biochemical (DCC) assays. Results showed no substantial differences between the two methods when considering common clinical-pathological parameters. Overall agreement between ICA and DCC methods was found: 79% for PgR and 78% for ER. A slight quantitative correlation was also observed between the "score values" of the ICA method and the Fmol content of ER and PgR using the Brave-Pearson test (r = 0.49 for PgR; r = 0.43 for ER). Specificity of PgR.ICA method was 77% for PgR and 72% for ER; sensitivity was 82% and 83%, respectively. The ICA method is a reliable technique to assess PgR presence as well as ER. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the prognostic role of nuclear PgR.

  18. Validation of the Use of Dried Blood Spot (DBS) Method to Assess Vitamin A Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Elham; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A deficiency is an important dietary deficiency in the world. Thus, the ne¬cessity of screening for deficient populations is obvious. This paper introduces a fast, cheap and relatively reliable method called “dried blood spot” (DBS) method in screening the deficient populations. The validity of this method for retinol measurement was investigated. Method: The “precision” and “agreement” criteria of the DBS method were assessed. The preci¬sion was calculated and compared with those of plasma using F-test. The agreement was eva¬luated using Bland-Altman plot. Results: The imprecision of retinol measurements in dried spots was not significantly different from those of the control (plasma). A good correlation coefficient (r2=0.78) was obtained for dried spots’ retinol measurements versus plasma’s retinol analysis (P dried spots was stable for 90 days. Overall, the DBS method provided a precise measurement of retinol, showing results that were comparable with the measurement of retinol in plasma. PMID:24688932

  19. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  20. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    so in closer collaboration with their families and in closer proximity to their home communities; and, (3) with the hope of reducing the high costs often associated with group residential provision. In some jurisdictions, efforts to reduce residential care resources in the absence of sufficient...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  1. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  2. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  3. [Living arrangements of elderly adults in Catalonia (Spain). The impact of health deterioration on residential independence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueras, Pilar; Ajenjo Cosp, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To identify the effect of health deterioration on residential dependency. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the microdata from the Catalan Survey of Health (2006), which features a sample of 3566 individuals aged 65 and over. A set of socio-demographic (sex, age, marital status, educational level and municipality size), as well as health variables (self-rated health, BADL and IADL dependency) associated with residential dependency are analysed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Multivariate analysis shows that age, marital status and health are the variables that most affect living arrangements and cohabitation. Among men, being aged 80 or over (OR>4), being unmarried or widowed (OR=6.4) and having one or more IADL dependencies (OR>2.8) increases the risk of residential dependency. Whereas for women being aged 80 and over (OR>4), being unmarried (OR=6.8) or widowed (OR=11.8) and having three or more IADL dependencies (OR=2.7) is associated with residential dependency. Municipality size and the level of education (in the latter case only for men) are also significant determining factors (P<0.05). Although health deterioration, and especially IADL dependency, affects residential dependency, its impact is lower than that of socio-demographic variables, such as marital status or age. What is more, health has a greater influence on men than women, who live independently until they experience great difficulty in coping with their activities of daily living. On the other hand, men seem to fall more easily into residential dependency once they experience any IADL dependency. Copyright © 2009 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Types of spatial mobility and change in people's ethnic residential contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadi Mägi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most studies of the ethnic composition of destination neighbourhoods after residential moves do not take into account the types of moves people have made. However, from an individual perspective, different types of moves may result in neighbourhood environments which differ in terms of their ethnic composition from those in which the individuals previously lived. Objective: We investigate how the ethnic residential context changes for individuals as a result of different types of mobility (immobility, intra-urban mobility, suburbanisation, and long-distance migration for residents of the segregated post-Soviet city of Tallinn. We compare the extent to which Estonian and Russian speakers integrate in residential terms. Methods: Using unique longitudinal Census data (2000-2011 we tracked changes in the individual ethnic residential context of both groups. Results: We found that the moving destinations of Estonian and Russian speakers diverge. When Estonians move, their new neighbourhood generally possesses a lower percentage of Russian speakers compared with when Russian speakers move, as well as compared with their previous neighbourhoods. For Russian speakers, the percentage of other Russian speakers in their residential surroundings decreases only for those who move to the rural suburbs or who move over longer distances to rural villages. Contribution: By applying a novel approach of tracking the changes in the ethnic residential context of individuals for all mobility types, we were able to demonstrate that the two largest ethnolinguistic groups in Estonia tend to behave as 'parallel populations' and that residential integration remains slow.

  5. Status on the heavy elements research using the DV-DFS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Masaru; Bastug, T.; Sekine, Rika; Onoe, Jun; Nakamatsu, Hirohide; Mukoyama, Takeshi

    1999-03-01

    In this review report, we describe recent progress on the heavy elements research using the discrete-variational Dirac-Fock-Slater (DV-DFS) method which is being improved by Kyoto University, Shizuoka University, RIKEN and JAERI. The DV-DFS is a versatile method for interpreting spectroscopic data and predicting chemical bonding of polyatomic systems including heavy elements. This review is based on the lectures given in 74th spring meeting of chemical Society of Japan (March, 1998) and also at the workshop on the XAFS-relativistic electronic structure calculation for the actinides research which was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI (November, 1998). (author)

  6. Review of the status of reactor physics predictive methods for burnable poisons in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, D.J.; McEllin, M.

    1983-01-01

    An essential component of the design of Commercial Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor fuel necessary to achieve higher discharge irradiations is the incorporation of burnable poisons. The poisons enable the more highly enriched fuel required to reach higher irradiation to be loaded without increasing the peak channel power. The optimum choice of fuel enrichment and poison loading will be made using reactor physics predictive methods developed by Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. These methods and the evidence available to support them from theoretical comparisons, zero energy experiments, WAGR irradiations, and measurements on operating CAGRs are described. (author)

  7. Review of the status of reactor physics predictive methods for burnable poisons in CAGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edens, D.J.; McEllin, M.

    1983-01-01

    An essential component of the design of Commercial Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor fuel necessary to achieve higher discharge irradiations is the incorporation of burnable poisons. The poisons enable the more highly enriched fuel required to reach higher irradiation to be loaded without increasing the peak channel power. The optimum choice of fuel enrichment and poison loading will be made using reactor physics predictive methods developed by Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. The paper describes these methods and the evidence available to support them from theoretical comparisons, zero energy experiments, WAGR irradiations, and measurements on operating CAGR's. (author)

  8. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  9. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2018-06-13

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  10. Status and future prospects of using numerical methods to study complex flows at High Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccormack, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The calculation of flow fields past aircraft configuration at flight Reynolds numbers is considered. Progress in devising accurate and efficient numerical methods, in understanding and modeling the physics of turbulence, and in developing reliable and powerful computer hardware is discussed. Emphasis is placed on efficient solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations.

  11. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  12. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  13. The intersection of abandonment, HIV-positive status and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although anti-retroviral treatments have significantly reduced the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and AIDS, there remains, for the foreseeable future, a group of adolescents who have been perinatally infected. Noting the paucity of information regarding the impact of paediatric AIDS and its intersection with ...

  14. Current status and future perspectives on molecular and serological methods in diagnostic mycology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna; Chen, Sharon; Sleiman, Sue; Sorrell, Tania

    2009-11-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of infectious morbidity. Nonculture-based methods are increasingly used for rapid, accurate diagnosis to improve patient outcomes. New and existing DNA amplification platforms have high sensitivity and specificity for direct detection and identification of fungi in clinical specimens. Since laboratories are increasingly reliant on DNA sequencing for fungal identification, measures to improve sequence interpretation should support validation of reference isolates and quality control in public gene repositories. Novel technologies (e.g., isothermal and PNA FISH methods), platforms enabling high-throughput analyses (e.g., DNA microarrays and Luminex xMAP) and/or commercial PCR assays warrant further evaluation for routine diagnostic use. Notwithstanding the advantages of molecular tests, serological assays remain clinically useful for patient management. The serum Aspergillus galactomannan test has been incorporated into diagnostic algorithms of invasive aspergillosis. Both the galactomannan and the serum beta-D-glucan test have value for diagnosing infection and monitoring therapeutic response.

  15. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Wasim Aktar; Rajlakshmi Poi; Anjan Bhattacharyya

    2008-01-01

    Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia) leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLC plates with spot visualization under...

  16. [The current status and outlook for molecular genetic methods in solving the tasks of medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintsburg, A L; Zigangirova, N A; Romanova, Iu M

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with modern methods, viz. PCR, molecular display and genotherapy, which permit the new approach to the solution of problems connected with the identification of infective agents, the study of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and their treatment. In this article concrete examples, clearly demonstrating how each of the above-mentioned technologies makes it possible to broaden the circle of problems solved in infectious pathology of man, are presented.

  17. Why don't we ask? A complementary method for assessing the status of great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Meijaard

    Full Text Available Species conservation is difficult. Threats to species are typically high and immediate. Effective solutions for counteracting these threats, however, require synthesis of high quality evidence, appropriately targeted activities, typically costly implementation, and rapid re-evaluation and adaptation. Conservation management can be ineffective if there is insufficient understanding of the complex ecological, political, socio-cultural, and economic factors that underlie conservation threats. When information about these factors is incomplete, conservation managers may be unaware of the most urgent threats or unable to envision all consequences of potential management strategies. Conservation research aims to address the gap between what is known and what knowledge is needed for effective conservation. Such research, however, generally addresses a subset of the factors that underlie conservation threats, producing a limited, simplistic, and often biased view of complex, real world situations. A combination of approaches is required to provide the complete picture necessary to engage in effective conservation. Orangutan conservation (Pongo spp. offers an example: standard conservation assessments employ survey methods that focus on ecological variables, but do not usually address the socio-cultural factors that underlie threats. Here, we evaluate a complementary survey method based on interviews of nearly 7,000 people in 687 villages in Kalimantan, Indonesia. We address areas of potential methodological weakness in such surveys, including sampling and questionnaire design, respondent biases, statistical analyses, and sensitivity of resultant inferences. We show that interview-based surveys can provide cost-effective and statistically robust methods to better understand poorly known populations of species that are relatively easily identified by local people. Such surveys provide reasonably reliable estimates of relative presence and relative

  18. Energy expenditure and socioeconomic status in Guatemala as measured by the doubly labelled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, T.P.; Johnston, F.E.; Greiner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The energy expenditure of lower (group 1) and upper socioeconomic group females (group 2) from a marginal community in Guatemala City was determined by using the doubly labelled water method. Energy expenditure values were 1925 +/- 66 (mean, SEM) kcal/d (group 1) and 2253 +/- 145 kcal/d group 2 (p less than 0.03). About half of this difference can be attributed to size

  19. A comparative study of numerical methods for the overlap Dirac operator--a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshof, J. van den; Frommer, A.; Lippert, Th.; Schilling, K.; Vorst, H. van der

    2002-01-01

    Improvements of various methods to compute the sign function of the hermitian Wilson-Dirac matrix within the overlap operator are presented. An optimal partial fraction expansion (PFE) based on a theorem of Zolotarev is given. Benchmarks show that this PFE together with removal of converged systems within a multi-shift CG appears to approximate the sign function times a vector most efficiently. A posteriori error bounds are given

  20. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Wasim Aktar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLC plates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  1. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLCplates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  2. Residential electricity demand in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Goh, T.N.; Liu, X.Q.

    1992-01-01

    Residential electricity consumption in Singapore increased at a rate of 8.8% per year between 1972 and 1990. Estimates of the long-run income and price elasticities are 1.0 and -0.35, respectively. The energy-conservation campaigns that have been launched are found to have marginal effects on consumption. A statistical analysis shows that the consumption is sensitive to small changes in climatic variables, particularly the temperature, which is closely linked to the growing diffusion of electric appliances for environmental controls. There has been a temporal increase in the ownership levels of appliances associated with increasing household incomes. However, other factors were involved since the ownership levels would also increase over time after the elimination of the income effect. A large part of the future growth in electricity demand will arise from the growing need for air-conditioning, which will lead to increasingly large seasonal variations in electricity use. (author)

  3. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  4. Residential Greenness and Birthweight in the State of Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C. Fong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation, or greenness, may benefit maternal health and consequently, fetal growth, by providing opportunities for physical activity and psychological restoration, and decreasing detrimental environmental exposures. We retrieved Massachusetts Birth Registry data from 2001–2013 and investigated the association between residential greenness and birthweight in full-term births (≥37 weeks gestation. We calculated average residential greenness during pregnancy using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from satellites. We estimated associations between greenness and continuous birthweight, term low birthweight (TLBW: <2500 g, and small for gestational age (SGA: <10th percentile of birthweight stratified by sex and gestational age adjusted for individual and neighborhood covariates and considered nonlinearity and effect modification. Higher greenness exposure was associated with higher birthweight with stronger associations in the lower than higher range of greenness. Greenness was associated with lower odds of TLBW (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97, 0.99 per 0.1 increase in NDVI and SGA (OR 0.98; 95% 0.97, 0.99 and associations varied by population density (TLBW and socioeconomic status (TLBW, SGA. Our results suggest that greenness is beneficial to fetal growth exhibited by higher birthweight and lower odds of TLBW and SGA. Unlike prior studies, associations with TLBW and SGA appeared stronger among those with higher socioeconomic status.

  5. Diabetes Knowledge Translation Status in Developing Countries: A Mixed Method Study Among Diabetes Researchers in Case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinejadi, Ali; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable investment in research, the existing research evidence is frequently not implemented and/or leads to useless or detrimental care in healthcare. The knowledge-practice gap proposed as one of the main causes of not achieving the treatment goals in diabetes. Iran also is facing a difference between the production and utilization of the knowledge of diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the status of diabetes knowledge translation (KT) in Iran. This was a survey that executed in 2015 by concurrent mixed methods approach in a descriptive, cross-sectional method. The research population was 65 diabetes researchers from 14 diabetes research centers throughout Iran. The research was carried out via the self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI), a valid and reliable tool. Focus group discussions were used to complete this tool. The data were analyzed using quantitative (descriptive method by Excel software) and qualitative approaches (thematic analysis) based on SATORI-extracted seven themes. The mean of scores "the question of research," "knowledge production," "knowledge transfer," "promoting the use of evidence," and all aspects altogether were 2.48, 2.80, 2.18, 2.06, and 2.39, respectively. The themes "research quality and timeliness" and "promoting and evaluating the use of evidence" received the lowest (1.91) and highest mean scores (2.94), respectively. Except for the theme "interaction with research users" with a relatively mediocre scores (2.63), the other areas had scores below the mean. The overall status of diabetes KT in Iran was lower than the ideal situation. There are many challenges that require great interventions at the organizational or macro level. To reinforce diabetes KT in Iran, it should hold a more leading and centralized function in the strategies of the country's diabetes research system.

  6. Survey of the status of finite element methods for partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temam, Roger

    1986-01-01

    The finite element methods (FEM) have proved to be a powerful technique for the solution of boundary value problems associated with partial differential equations of either elliptic, parabolic, or hyperbolic type. They also have a good potential for utilization on parallel computers particularly in relation to the concept of domain decomposition. This report is intended as an introduction to the FEM for the nonspecialist. It contains a survey which is totally nonexhaustive, and it also contains as an illustration, a report on some new results concerning two specific applications, namely a free boundary fluid-structure interaction problem and the Euler equations for inviscid flows.

  7. Research status and evaluation system of heat source evaluation method for central heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Qi, Junfeng; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The central heating boiler room is a regional heat source heating center. It is also a kind of the urban environment pollution, it is an important section of building energy efficiency. This article through to the evaluation method of central heating boiler room and overviews of the researches during domestic and overseas, summarized the main influence factors affecting energy consumption of industrial boiler under the condition of stable operation. According to the principle of establishing evaluation index system. We can find that is great significance in energy saving and environmental protection for the content of the evaluation index system of the centralized heating system.

  8. Present status of centrifuge method for uranium enrichment and PNC plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikido, Yoshikazu

    1977-01-01

    Recentry, the tendency to adopt atomic energy owing to the oil shock, the delay in the construction of nuclear power stations worldwide, the uncertainty in the utilization of plutonium, and the prospect of supplying natural uranium are the situations affecting uranium enrichment. Anyway, the enrichment capacity in the world must be increased by the early years of 1980 s. The uranium enrichment technology by centrifugal method is being developed in various countries under strict control of informations, therefore the details are not known, but the general state in Great Britain, F.R. of Germany, Netherlands, U.S.A. and Japan is explained. The development of the centrifugal enrichment method in Japan was designated in 1972 as the national project aiming at operating the enriching plant with international competitive power by 1985. The PNC undertook the development work, and the research and development include the development of a centrifuge, cascade test, life span test, the development of the mass production technology, and safety test. The especially notable matter in this period was the rapid progress of a supercritical type centrifuge. It is judged that the technical basis for constructing a pilot plant has been established. The site for the pilot plant is being prepared now in the Ningyo Pass Mine, PNC, and the enrichment plant with 7000 centrifuges will be constructed there. The outline of the plant and the schedule for the construction are described. (Kako, I.)

  9. Determination of Water Quality Status at Sampean Watershed Bondowoso Residence Using Storet Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyarto; Hariono, B.; Destarianto, P.; Nuruddin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sampean watershed has an important social and economic function for the people surroundings. Sampean watershed wich cover Bondowoso and Situbondo residence is an urban watershed that has strategic value for national context needs special traetment. Construction activity at upper and lower course of Sampean watershed is highly intensive and growth of inhabitant also increase. The change of land utilization and increase of settlement area at upper, midlle, and lower course caused polutant infiltration to Sampean river watershed so it has impact on water quality. The source of pollution at Sampean river comes from domestic waste, industrial waste, agricultural waste and animal husbandry waste. The purpose of this research is to determine load of pollution and analize the pollution load carrying capacity at Sampean watershed. The data used in this research are rainfall, river flow rate and water quality at 6 certain points within 3 years during 2014 until 2016. The method to determine overall pollution rate is STORET (Storage and Retrieval of Water Quality Data System) method. The analysis results for the first, second, third and forth grade are -24 (moderate quality), -12 (moderate quality), -2 (good quality), and 0 (good quality) respectively.

  10. Status and progress of treatment methods for root caries in the last decade: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J; Palamara, Jea; Manton, D J; Burrow, M F

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this literature review is to explore the treatment methods for root caries in laboratory and clinical research in the last decade. A systematic search of publications in PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. The timespan was limited to the last 10 years and English language. Further retrieval was conducted using the search terms of specific therapies or treatments. Eighty-two articles were included in this systematic review and full texts were retrieved. Types of studies included laboratory studies and clinical trials. Therapeutic approaches for root caries without risk of pulp exposure can be categorized into non-invasive and restorative treatment. Non-invasive treatments which targeted different causative factors of root caries have been developed in the last decade. Accordingly, several artificial caries model systems have been proposed for the study of root caries in the laboratory. Carious tissue excavation techniques and restorative materials and procedures have been modified to improve the prognosis of invasive treatment. It is of importance to determine the most appropriate therapy for root caries and further clinical trials are needed to draw firm conclusions concerning the efficacy and consistency of the various treatment methods proposed. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Current status and trends, organizational methods accounting and analysis of innovative enterprises’ venture financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Rudeychuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the specific features and tendencies of development of venture financing in Ukraine. It shows the role of venture capital in the further development of Ukraine economy, this role is in financing and development of innovation, distribution of new technologies and increase of employment of highly professional staff in the territory of Ukraine. The authors determine the influence of characteristics of such financing on the formation of organization and methods of accounting and economic analysis of operations with venture capital investments. The paper grounds the necessity of accounting development and analytical support of innovative enterprises’ venture financing management; the state is caused by the need to attract additional funding from venture investors to finance the production and release of innovative products and businesses. The authors determine the directions of solving problems in accounting organization and methods and economic analysis of innovative enterprises’ venture financing, respectively, for the needs of all entities doing business venture and taking into account the peculiarities of this type of investment capital.

  12. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  13. Learning Using Dynamic and Static Visualizations: Students' Comprehension, Prior Knowledge and Conceptual Status of a Biotechnological Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, Hagit; Yarden, Anat

    2010-05-01

    The importance of biotechnology education at the high-school level has been recognized in a number of international curriculum frameworks around the world. One of the most problematic issues in learning biotechnology has been found to be the biotechnological methods involved. Here, we examine the unique contribution of an animation of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in promoting conceptual learning of the biotechnological method among 12th-grade biology majors. All of the students learned about the PCR using still images ( n = 83) or the animation ( n = 90). A significant advantage to the animation treatment was identified following learning. Students’ prior content knowledge was found to be an important factor for students who learned PCR using still images, serving as an obstacle to learning the PCR method in the case of low prior knowledge. Through analysing students’ discourse, using the framework of the conceptual status analysis, we found that students who learned about PCR using still images faced difficulties in understanding some mechanistic aspects of the method. On the other hand, using the animation gave the students an advantage in understanding those aspects.

  14. Status quo and future research challenges on organic food quality determination with focus on laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Bodroza-Solarov, Marija; Busscher, Nicolaas; Hajslova, Jana; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kokornaczyk, Maria Olga; van Ruth, Saskia; Schulzova, Vera; Stolz, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Organic food quality determination needs multi-dimensional evaluation tools. The main focus is on the authentication as an analytical verification of the certification process. New fingerprinting approaches such as ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, direct analysis in real time-high-resolution mass spectrometry as well as crystallization with and without the presence of additives seem to be promising methods in terms of time of analysis and detecting organic system-related parameters. For further methodological development, a system approach is recommended, which also takes into account food structure aspects. Furthermore, the authentication of processed organic samples needs more consciousness, hence most of organic food is complex and processed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Comparison of Clustering Techniques for Residential Energy Behavior using Smart Meter Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Ling; Lee, Doris; Sim, Alex; Borgeson, Sam; Wu, Kesheng; Spurlock, C. Anna; Todd, Annika

    2017-03-21

    Current practice in whole time series clustering of residential meter data focuses on aggregated or subsampled load data at the customer level, which ignores day-to-day differences within customers. This information is critical to determine each customer’s suitability to various demand side management strategies that support intelligent power grids and smart energy management. Clustering daily load shapes provides fine-grained information on customer attributes and sources of variation for subsequent models and customer segmentation. In this paper, we apply 11 clustering methods to daily residential meter data. We evaluate their parameter settings and suitability based on 6 generic performance metrics and post-checking of resulting clusters. Finally, we recommend suitable techniques and parameters based on the goal of discovering diverse daily load patterns among residential customers. To the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first robust comparative review of clustering techniques applied to daily residential load shape time series in the power systems’ literature.

  16. Status and prospects of activities on algorithms and methods in WWER-1000 core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, P.; Krainov, Y.; Proselkov, V.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of long-term operational experience and investigations the problems of WWER-1000 reactor control are discussed. Such control is needed for WWER-1000, as well as for its Western analog PWR, for suppressing the axially instable power density field resulted from non-equilibrium redistribution of Xe-135 nuclei in the reactor core. It has been found that an adequate assessment of the reactor state and the prediction of its response to various control actions is essential for the control of power density distribution. For this purpose a computerized operator's adviser with a reactor simulator realizing a physical reactor model based on BIPR-7 code is used. The operation experience of WWER-1000 shows that the available control algorithms allow, with a fair degree of assurance, the prevention of intensive xenon oscillations and the stabilization of the axial offset. But in connection with the renunciation of half-length control rods a new algorithm is under development which makes use of full-length control rods for suppressing the intensive xenon oscillations in the descending phase. A new method based on BIPR-7 and PERMAK codes is also being developed for estimating the value and rate of linear power rating change of the fuel elements in power cycling. 12 figs., 7 refs

  17. Status and prospects of activities on algorithms and methods in WWER-1000 core control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filimonov, P; Krainov, Y; Proselkov, V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    On the basis of long-term operational experience and investigations the problems of WWER-1000 reactor control are discussed. Such control is needed for WWER-1000, as well as for its Western analog PWR, for suppressing the axially instable power density field resulted from non-equilibrium redistribution of Xe-135 nuclei in the reactor core. It has been found that an adequate assessment of the reactor state and the prediction of its response to various control actions is essential for the control of power density distribution. For this purpose a computerized operator`s adviser with a reactor simulator realizing a physical reactor model based on BIPR-7 code is used. The operation experience of WWER-1000 shows that the available control algorithms allow, with a fair degree of assurance, the prevention of intensive xenon oscillations and the stabilization of the axial offset. But in connection with the renunciation of half-length control rods a new algorithm is under development which makes use of full-length control rods for suppressing the intensive xenon oscillations in the descending phase. A new method based on BIPR-7 and PERMAK codes is also being developed for estimating the value and rate of linear power rating change of the fuel elements in power cycling. 12 figs., 7 refs.

  18. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  19. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  20. Project to develop and demonstrate methods to eliminate frozen coal handling problems. Status report I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-15

    For too many years, problems associated with frozen coal have plagued the companies who mine it, the companies who handle it in transit and the utilities and other industrial concerns that finally burn it. But never before has the magnitude of the frozen coal problem been as great as it is today because of two primary factors, i.e. (1) the majority of coal currently transported and used has been ground to a very fine mesh that absorbs water readily, thus providing more surface area for freezing, and (2) the substantially increased importance of coal, indeed, the now critical necessity for more coal to be used in displacing dangerously uncertain foreign oil supplies that currently account for 50 percent of our daily domestic oil consumption. Frozen coal problems can and do have a devastating effect upon the ability to provide energy from coal during harsh winter months when it is not needed. The majority of these problems have been involved with removing frozen coal from rail cars. To allay the problem, numerous techniques have been tried, all with some measure of success. As an example, certain chemicals have been sprayed on the coal; another common treatment has been widespread use of thaw sheds, which, whether electrically or gas-fired, are all energy intensive, time consuming, hard on rail equipment and expensive to operate over long periods of time. From sledge hammers and crow bars to gas-fired jets and electric thaw sheds, available mechanical de-icing methods often damage coal handling equipment, are time consuming and, therefore, very expensive when demurrage losses must be added to significant investment and/or operating costs.

  1. Technology change and energy consumption: A comparison of residential subdivisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    The energy savings in residential buildings likely to result from implementation of the building energy performance standards (BEPS) were assessed. The goals were to: compare energy use in new homes designed to meet or exceed BEPS levels of energy efficiency with that in similar but older homes designed to meet conventional building codes, and to survey the home owners regarding their energy conservation attitudes and behaviors and to ascertain the degree to which conservation attitudes and behaviors are related to residential energy use. The consumer demand theory which provides the framework for the empirical analysis is presented. The sample residences are described and the data collection method discussed. The definition and measurement of major variables are presented.

  2. Pattern analysis and suggestion of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Shilei; Wu Yong; Sun Jinying

    2009-01-01

    In China, Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings (EERFERB) is faced with a fast development status. The Central Government decided to prompt the retrofit of 1.5x10 8 m 2 existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region during the '11th Five-Years Plan'. But, at present, the relative incentive policies and measurements are very insufficient. Especially, on the aspect of the retrofit pattern about the organization, retrofit content, investing and financing mode, the policy and management and other factors, no existing successful one can be spreaded into the whole northern heating region. This research not only analyzed the foreign advanced methods, drew lessons from their retrofit in Germany and Poland, but contrasted and analyzed energy efficiency retrofit demonstrations from Harbin, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baotou in China to get our domestic successful patterns and experience. Finally, some recommended retrofit patterns are presented, which can be applied for the instruction and decision-making for the Chinese local governments.

  3. Optimal Scheduling of Residential Microgrids Considering Virtual Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex residential microgrids (r-microgrid consisting of renewable generation, energy storage systems, and residential buildings require a more intelligent scheduling method. Firstly, aiming at the radiant floor heating/cooling system widely utilized in residential buildings, the mathematical relationship between the operative temperature and heating/cooling demand is established based on the equivalent thermodynamic parameters (ETP model, by which the thermal storage capacity is analyzed. Secondly, the radiant floor heating/cooling system is treated as virtual energy storage system (VESS, and an optimization model based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP for r-microgrid scheduling is established which takes thermal comfort level and economy as the optimization objectives. Finally, the optimal scheduling results of two typical r-microgrids are analyzed. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheduling method can effectively employ the thermal storage capacity of radiant floor heating/cooling system, thus lowering the operating cost of the r-microgrid effectively while ensuring the thermal comfort level of users.

  4. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  5. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  6. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  7. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.

  8. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  9. Detecting space-time cancer clusters using residential histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Meliker, Jaymie R.

    2007-04-01

    Methods for analyzing geographic clusters of disease typically ignore the space-time variability inherent in epidemiologic datasets, do not adequately account for known risk factors (e.g., smoking and education) or covariates (e.g., age, gender, and race), and do not permit investigation of the latency window between exposure and disease. Our research group recently developed Q-statistics for evaluating space-time clustering in cancer case-control studies with residential histories. This technique relies on time-dependent nearest neighbor relationships to examine clustering at any moment in the life-course of the residential histories of cases relative to that of controls. In addition, in place of the widely used null hypothesis of spatial randomness, each individual's probability of being a case is instead based on his/her risk factors and covariates. Case-control clusters will be presented using residential histories of 220 bladder cancer cases and 440 controls in Michigan. In preliminary analyses of this dataset, smoking, age, gender, race and education were sufficient to explain the majority of the clustering of residential histories of the cases. Clusters of unexplained risk, however, were identified surrounding the business address histories of 10 industries that emit known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens. The clustering of 5 of these industries began in the 1970's and persisted through the 1990's. This systematic approach for evaluating space-time clustering has the potential to generate novel hypotheses about environmental risk factors. These methods may be extended to detect differences in space-time patterns of any two groups of people, making them valuable for security intelligence and surveillance operations.

  10. The status of phosphorus in Thai soils and P evaluation using EDTA-NaF extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Matoh

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the available P extracted by Bray II method in tropical soil is low, most of tropical plants can grow well. The objective of this study was to study P status and to evaluate the available P extracted by EDTA-NaF method. Top soil and sub soil of 10 dominant soil series in Thailand were analyzed for some chemical properties and characterization of the forms of phosphorus using EDTA-NaF extraction and successive phosphorus extraction by the modified Sekiya method. The soil total P concentration was 38-1137 mg P2O5 kg-1. The available Bray II-P was very low to high (1-76 mg P2O5 kg-1, and it approximated 0.17-12% of the total P. Iron and aluminum phosphates were the main fraction of inorganic P in acid soil, whereas Ca phosphates were in calcareous soils. Organic P content accounted for 33-67% and most of them were bound with Fe and Al in acid soils and Ca in calcareous soils. P extracted by EDTA-NaF reagent was obviously larger than that of Bray II reagent. The EDTA-NaF extracted P [high molecular weight organic P (HMWP+ inorganic P (EDTA ext Pi] was 7-46% and 1-6% of total P in acid soils and calcareous soils respectively. The EDTA ext Pi tended to be larger than HMWP except in Tk soil. The total amount of extracted P correlated well with Al-Pi and Fe-Pi which were the main fraction of inorganic P. It also correlated with HMWP, but HMWP did not correlate with organic P determine by ignition method and Ca-Po, Fe-Po and Al-Po. The EDTA-NaF method may be suitable for P evaluation in the soils which have high amounts of Fe-Pi, Al -Pi and organic P widely distributed in Thailand.

  11. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  12. Mental and physical performance of dementia patients in long-term residential care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Śliwiński

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dementia syndromes are an increasing medical and social problem in today’s world. Preservation of the best possible quality of life in dementia patients relies on prolonging their independence in daily life for as long as possible. Dementia patients require increasing support as the disease progresses and will ultimately become dependent on the help of others. Aim of the research: To assess the level of mental and physical performance and nutritional status in patients with dementia syndromes in long-term residential care. Material and methods : The study group comprised 62 patients with dementia syndromes resident in a Medical and Nursing Care Facility in Pustków. Selected aspects of quality of life were investigated with the Barthel scale, GDS scale according to Reissberg, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS and Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA scale. Results: In our study men performed better than women on the Barthel scale, 58% of all patients were rated moderately severe on that scale, 36% were severe and 7% were mild. Assessment of the current severity of dementia on the GDS scale showed that 28% of the patients had very severe dementia, 27% had mild deficits, 27% had moderate deficits, 11% had moderately severe dementia and 6% had borderline dementia. In a mental state assessment according to the AMTS scale, men scored higher than women. This difference indicates less memory deficit and better psychological and physical status among men. With regard to nutritional status, our study revealed a risk of malnutrition in 65% of the patient and actual malnutrition in 7%. Conclusions : The Barthel scale, rating the performance of dementia patients with regard to activities of daily life, classified more than half of the patients as „moderately severe”. Women had lower mean scores than men in the Barthel scale, AMTS scale and GDS scale, indicating that dementia is more prevalent among women than among men. The findings of the

  13. A statistical method to base nutrient recommendations on meta-analysis of intake and health-related status biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilko van der Voet

    Full Text Available Nutrient recommendations in use today are often derived from relatively old data of few studies with few individuals. However, for many nutrients, including vitamin B-12, extensive data have now become available from both observational studies and randomized controlled trials, addressing the relation between intake and health-related status biomarkers. The purpose of this article is to provide new methodology for dietary planning based on dose-response data and meta-analysis. The methodology builds on existing work, and is consistent with current methodology and measurement error models for dietary assessment. The detailed purposes of this paper are twofold. Firstly, to define a Population Nutrient Level (PNL for dietary planning in groups. Secondly, to show how data from different sources can be combined in an extended meta-analysis of intake-status datasets for estimating PNL as well as other nutrient intake values, such as the Average Nutrient Requirement (ANR and the Individual Nutrient Level (INL. For this, a computational method is presented for comparing a bivariate lognormal distribution to a health criterion value. Procedures to meta-analyse available data in different ways are described. Example calculations on vitamin B-12 requirements were made for four models, assuming different ways of estimating the dose-response relation, and different values of the health criterion. Resulting estimates of ANRs and less so for INLs were found to be sensitive to model assumptions, whereas estimates of PNLs were much less sensitive to these assumptions as they were closer to the average nutrient intake in the available data.

  14. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  15. Contribution of price/expenditure factors of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns

  16. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  17. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  18. The Relationship between Residential Electricity Consumption and Income: A Piecewise Linear Model with Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption associated with economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—is important to the sustainable development of the electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995–2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions”. Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the validity of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. Government should also emphasize electricity conservation in the industrial sector rather than in residential sector.

  19. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Romano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured climatic and geographical features, precipitation and altitude exerted a strongly significant negative effect on water consumption, while temperature did not influence water demand. Further, data show that small towns in terms of population served were characterized by lower levels of consumption. Water utilities ownership itself did not have a significant effect on water consumption but tariffs were significantly lower and residential water consumption was higher in towns where the water service was managed by publicly owned water utilities. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the connection between ownership of water utilities and water prices and water consumption.

  20. Impact of daylight saving time on the Chilean residential consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo, Humberto; Becker, Cristhian; Echiburu, Diego; Escudero, William; Fucks, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 Chile has had a Daylight Saving Time (DST) policy in order to reduce residential electricity consumption in the country. The time change was set for the first time by executive decree in 1970, and since that date it was applied every year without great changes until 2010. Since then, and to date, decrees have been set in order to increase the duration of the DST, arguing that there are reasons associated with energy savings that justify the extension of the measure that has been adopted by the authority in recent years. In the present study the impact of the application of DST in terms of decreased household electricity consumption is analyzed using two complementary methods, one based on a heuristic approach and the other using an econometric model. The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption, although these results are not homogeneous throughout the country. - Highlights: • The impact of the application of DST is analyzed in Chilean distribution networks. • The results indicate that there is indeed a marginally small reduction in residential electricity consumption. • A total energy reduction is estimated based on the proposed methodology.

  1. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  2. ICT for whole life optimisation of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, T.; Vares, S.; Huovila, P.; Vesikari, E.; Porkka, J. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (FI)); Nilsson, L.-O.; Togeroe, AA. (Lund University (SE)); Jonsson, C.; Suber, K. (Skanska Sverige AB (SE)); Andersson, R.; Larsson, R. (Cementa, Malmoe (SE)); Nuorkivi, I. (Skanska Oyj, Helsinki (FI))

    2007-08-15

    The research project 'ICT for whole life optimisation of residential buildings' (ICTWLORB) developed and tested the whole life design and optimisation methods for residential buildings. The objective of the ICTWLORB project was to develop and implement an ICT based tool box for integrated life cycle design of residential building. ICTWLORB was performed in cooperation with Swedish and Finnish partners. The ICTWLORB project defined as a premise that an industrialised building process is characterised by two main elements: a building concept based approach and efficient information management. Building concept based approach enables (1) the product development of the end product, (2) repetition of the basic elements of the building from one project to others and (3) customisation of the end-product considering the specific needs of the case and the client. Information management enables (1) the consideration of wide spectrum of aspects including building performance, environmental aspects, life cycle costs and service life, and (2) rapid adapting of the design to the specific requirements of the case. (orig.)

  3. An innovative educational program for residential energy efficiency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.

    1996-09-01

    Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.

  4. Optimal load scheduling in commercial and residential microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji Tanha, Mohammad Mahdi

    Residential and commercial electricity customers use more than two third of the total energy consumed in the United States, representing a significant resource of demand response. Price-based demand response, which is in response to changes in electricity prices, represents the adjustments in load through optimal load scheduling (OLS). In this study, an efficient model for OLS is developed for residential and commercial microgrids which include aggregated loads in single-units and communal loads. Single unit loads which include fixed, adjustable and shiftable loads are controllable by the unit occupants. Communal loads which include pool pumps, elevators and central heating/cooling systems are shared among the units. In order to optimally schedule residential and commercial loads, a community-based optimal load scheduling (CBOLS) is proposed in this thesis. The CBOLS schedule considers hourly market prices, occupants' comfort level, and microgrid operation constraints. The CBOLS' objective in residential and commercial microgrids is the constrained minimization of the total cost of supplying the aggregator load, defined as the microgrid load minus the microgrid generation. This problem is represented by a large-scale mixed-integer optimization for supplying single-unit and communal loads. The Lagrangian relaxation methodology is used to relax the linking communal load constraint and decompose the independent single-unit functions into subproblems which can be solved in parallel. The optimal solution is acceptable if the aggregator load limit and the duality gap are within the bounds. If any of the proposed criteria is not satisfied, the Lagrangian multiplier will be updated and a new optimal load schedule will be regenerated until both constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is applied to several case studies and the results are presented for the Galvin Center load on the 16th floor of the IIT Tower in Chicago.

  5. Assessment of selenium and zinc status in Korean middle-aged male patients with coronary heart disease using neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ok Hee; Kim, Bo Ha; Moon, Jong Hwa; Chung, Yong Sam

    2005-01-01

    The presented study aimed to evaluate the selenium and zinc status of Korean middle -aged male patients with CHD. The serum concentration of zinc and selenium was measured by Neutron activation analysis method. The mean serum selenium and zinc concentrations of patients were 94.9 μg/l and 826.4 μg/l, respectively compared to the 97.8μg/l, 891.6 μg/l of control group, showing no any difference in selenium status, but showed significant difference for zinc status of middle -aged men. The deficiency of zinc in control group was 9.8%, but that was 31.3% in patient group. Conclusively, this study indicated that zinc status, which is associated with inflammatory reaction, is low in Korean male patients with CHD

  6. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  7. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  8. Initial transformer sizing for single-phase residential load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.C.; Hoad, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    The purchase of distribution transformers represents a significant capital investment per year for an electric utility. Choosing the correct thermal and economic size transformer can help control this investment. This paper describes a method for determining the correct economic size of distribution transformers using end-use appliance load profiles and the ANSI/IEEE Standard C57.91-1981 thermal model. Although applied only to single family and multifamily residential load in this paper, the method can be extended to other types of load such as commercial or industrial

  9. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Hypnotherapy on Major Depression Referred to Residential and Semi-residential Addiction Recovery Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Haghighi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Psychological consequences of addiction, such as major depression regardless of physical problems, economic, cultural and social is cause problems for both families and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive hypnotherapy on major depression in residential and semi-residential addiction recovery centers in the city of Yasuj. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted using a pre-test, post-test and control group. The population included all patients drug dependent as residential and semi-residential referred to Yasuj addiction recovery centers. 40 patients were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The instrument used in this study included Beck Depression Inventory which depressed patients diagnosed and according to clinical interview they entered the study. Group cognitive Hypnotherapy intervention model was carried out on the experimental group for 8 sessions for one hour once a week, but there was no intervention on control group. After the intervention both experimental and control groups were assessed. Collected   data was analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results revealed that the cognitive hypnotherapy treatment of group, leading to depression reduced significantly in the experimental group compared control group significantly (p <0.001. The mean pre-test score of major depression in the experimental group and in control group was 39/5 ± 10/54 and 61/4 ± 20/52 respectively.  Whereas the mean and standard deviation of major depression and post-test scores in the experimental group 55/2 ± 05/25 and in the control group was 50/3 ± 55/51. Conclusion: Cognitive hypnotherapy can be used as adjunctive therapy in reducing major depression or used in addiction recovery centers.

  10. Nutrition management methods effective in increasing weight, survival time and functional status in ALS patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Jaylin; Bottman, Lindsey; Arra, Erin J; Selkirk, Stephen M; Kozlowski, Frances

    2018-02-01

    Poor prognosis and decreased survival time correlate with the nutritional status of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Various studies were reviewed which assessed weight, body mass index (BMI), survival time and ALS functional rating scale revised (ALSFRS-R) in order to determine the best nutrition management methods for this patient population. A systematic review was conducted using CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed, and various search terms in order to determine the most recent clinical trials and observational studies that have been conducted concerning nutrition and ALS. Four articles met criteria to be included in the review. Data were extracted from these articles and were inputted into the Data Extraction Tool (DET) provided by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Results showed that nutrition supplementation does promote weight stabilisation or weight gain in individuals with ALS. Given the low risk and low cost associated with intervention, early and aggressive nutrition intervention is recommended. This systematic review shows that there is a lack of high quality evidence regarding the efficacy of any dietary interventions for promoting survival in ALS or slowing disease progression; therefore more research is necessary related to effects of nutrition interventions.

  11. Residential green space and birth outcomes in a coastal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Kimberly B; Eliot, Melissa N; Danilack, Valery A; Carlson, Lynn; Phipps, Maureen G; Dadvand, Payam; Savitz, David A; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2018-05-01

    Residential green space may improve birth outcomes, with prior studies reporting higher birthweight among infants of women living in greener areas. However, results from studies evaluating associations between green space and preterm birth have been mixed. Further, the potential influence of residential proximity to water, or 'blue space', on health has not previously been evaluated. To evaluate associations between green and blue space and birth outcomes in a coastal area of the northeastern United States. Using residential surrounding greenness (measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]) and proximity to recreational facilities, coastline, and freshwater as measures of green and blue space, we examined associations with preterm birth (PTB), term birthweight, and term small for gestational age (SGA) among 61,640 births in Rhode Island. We evaluated incremental adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental metrics. In models adjusted for individual - and neighborhood-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES), an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI was associated with a 12% higher (95% CI: 4, 20%) odds of PTB and, conversely, living within 500 m of a recreational facility was associated with a 7% lower (95% CI: 1, 13%) odds of PTB. These associations were eliminated after further adjustment for town of residence. NDVI was associated with higher birthweight (7.4 g, 95% CI: 0.4-14.4 g) and lower odds of SGA (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.98) when adjusted for individual-level markers of SES, but not when further adjusted for neighborhood SES or town. Living within 500 m of a freshwater body was associated with a higher birthweight of 10.1 g (95% CI: 2.0, 18.2) in fully adjusted models. Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that residential green space is associated with reduced risk of preterm birth or higher birthweight after adjustment for individual and contextual socioeconomic factors, but variation in results with

  12. Integration of fuel cells into residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Entchev, E.; Gusdorf, J.; Szadkowski, F.; Swinton, M.; Kalbfleisch, W.; Marchand, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of small combined heat and power systems (CHP) into residential buildings is challenging as the loads are small, the load diversity is limited and there are a number of unresolved issues concerning sizing, control, peak loads, emergency operation, grid connection and export, etc. Natural Resources Canada has undertaken an initiative to investigate and develop techniques for the integration of small CHP systems into residential buildings using a highly instrumented house modified to allow quick installation and thorough monitoring of CHP integration techniques as well determining the performance of the CHP systems themselves when operating in a house. The first CHP system installed was a Stirling engine residential CHP system. It was used to examine the completeness of the CHP modifications to the house, to evaluate various building integration techniques and to measure the performance of the CHP system itself. The testing demonstrated the modified house to be an excellent facility for the development of CHP building integration techniques and the testing of residential CHP systems. The Stirling engine CHP system was found to operate well and produce meaningful input to the house. A second system (residential fuel cell) is presently being installed and building integration techniques and the performance of the fuel cell will be tested over the coming year. (author)

  13. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  14. Methods of assessing the functional status of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction in interventional studies: can brain natriuretic peptide measurement be used as surrogate for the traditional methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To review whether brain natriuretic peptides (BNP) can be used as a surrogate for the traditional methods of assessing functional status in interventional studies of patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). METHODS AND RESULTS: The traditional methods for assessing...... functional status including New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, exercise intolerance and quality of life were reviewed in relation to BNP measurements in patients with LVSD. A meta-analysis of four studies evaluating BNP levels versus exercise peak oxygen uptake or 6-minute walking distance showed...

  15. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  16. Residential neighbourhoods in Kathmandu: Key design guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential neighbourhoods developed using various techniques in Kathmandu by both the public and private sectors have not only provided a poor urban setting and failed to address socio-cultural needs, but are also poor at building a community and creating links to the built environment, with the result that the planned areas lack a sense of place and the inhabitants lack a feeling of home. Although traditional neighbourhoods in the historic core area had many features of a good residential neighbourhood in the past, they are currently undergoing rapid destruction. The residents of these neighbourhoods have little awareness of these issues. The existing legal and institutional frameworks are inadequate and ineffective and cannot address these problems, and so the formulation of design guidelines, their strict implementation, and enhancement of socio-cultural events including social networking are recommended for future residential neighbourhood development.

  17. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  18. Expressions of Prayer in Residential Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sharma, Sonya; Smith, Brenda; Schutt, Kelly; Janzen, Kyla

    2018-01-01

    Although the value of spiritual care in the care of older adults is supported by research, few studies have focused specifically on prayer in residential care settings. This ethnographic study with fifteen chaplains and administrators in eleven residential care homes involved analyses of walking interviews and research diaries. Findings revealed the spaces in which prayer happens and the forms it takes. The identities of chaplains-their own spiritual practices, religious beliefs, and positioning within the facility-shaped their dis/comfort with prayer and how they located prayer within public and private spaces. Where organizational leadership endorsed the legitimacy of chaplaincy services, prayer was more likely to be offered. Even in these circumstances, however, religious diversity and questions about secularism left chaplains ambivalent about the appropriateness of prayer. The results demonstrate the relevance of religion and spirituality to residential care, and illustrate how prayer functions as an opportunity for connection and understanding.

  19. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  1. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  2. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  3. [Evolution of methodical approaches to solve problem of evaluating and predicting the thermal status of cosmonauts in the real flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, E I; Bobrov, A F; Bekreneva, L N; Mikhailova, L I; Utekhin, B A; Pruzhinina, T I; Iakovleva, E V; Chadov, V I

    1996-01-01

    The problem of evaluating and predicting the thermal status of a cosmonaut in the long-term space mission is a pressing one and remains to be solved. The previous studies indicated that the best plan to be followed is to evaluate the thermal status of a cosmonaut during his egress into outer space with the use of the procedure of parotid thermometry of the mean body temperature.

  4. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  5. Association between quantitative measures obtained using fluorescence-based methods and activity status of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Tatiane Fernandes; Reyes, Alessandra; Matos, Ronilza; Antunes-Pontes, Laura Regina; Marques, Renata Pereira de Samuel; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros

    2017-05-01

    Fluorescence-based methods (FBM) can add objectiveness to diagnosis strategy for caries. Few studies, however, have focused on the evaluation of caries activity. To evaluate the association between quantitative measures obtained with FBM, clinical parameters acquired from the patients, caries detection, and assessment of activity status in occlusal surfaces of primary molars. Six hundred and six teeth from 113 children (4-14 years) were evaluated. The presence of a biofilm, caries experience, and the number of active lesions were recorded. The teeth were assessed using FBM: DIAGNOdent pen (Lfpen) and Quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). As reference standard, all teeth were evaluated using the ICDAS (International Caries Detection and Assessment System) associated with clinical activity assessments. Multilevel regressions compared the FBM values and evaluated the association between the FBM measures and clinical variables related to the caries activity. The measures from the FBM were higher in cavitated lesions. Only, ∆F values distinguished active and inactive lesions. The LFpen measures were higher in active lesions, at the cavitated threshold (56.95 ± 29.60). Following regression analyses, only the presence of visible biofilm on occlusal surfaces (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.43) and ∆R values of the teeth (adjusted prevalence ratio = 1.02) were associated with caries activity. Some quantitative measures from FBM parameters are associated with caries activity evaluation, which is similar to the clinical evaluation of the presence of visible biofilm. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  7. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  8. A Decentralized Storage Strategy for Residential Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2014-01-01

    . The power sizing of the ESSs is performed with linear programming (LP) method, based on voltage sensitivity analysis. A Belgian residential LV feeder with private PV systems is used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Quantification of the required energy levels...... domestic energy storage systems (ESS). The traditional way of operating a domestic ESS to increase the local consumption rate does not take into account the need of voltage support in a feeder; the proposed storage concept improves the traditional one, by mitigating voltage rise due to PV in the feeder...

  9. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of breast cancer cases are thought related to environmental factors. Identification of specific geographical areas with high risk (clusters) may give clues to potential environmental risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether clusters of breast...... cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...

  10. A simple, sufficient, and consistent method to score the status of threats and demography of imperiled species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob W. Malcom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managers of large, complex wildlife conservation programs need information on the conservation status of each of many species to help strategically allocate limited resources. Oversimplifying status data, however, runs the risk of missing information essential to strategic allocation. Conservation status consists of two components, the status of threats a species faces and the species’ demographic status. Neither component alone is sufficient to characterize conservation status. Here we present a simple key for scoring threat and demographic changes for species using detailed information provided in free-form textual descriptions of conservation status. This key is easy to use (simple, captures the two components of conservation status without the cost of more detailed measures (sufficient, and can be applied by different personnel to any taxon (consistent. To evaluate the key’s utility, we performed two analyses. First, we scored the threat and demographic status of 37 species recently recommended for reclassification under the Endangered Species Act (ESA and 15 control species, then compared our scores to two metrics used for decision-making and reports to Congress. Second, we scored the threat and demographic status of all non-plant ESA-listed species from Florida (54 spp., and evaluated scoring repeatability for a subset of those. While the metrics reported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS are often consistent with our scores in the first analysis, the results highlight two problems with the oversimplified metrics. First, we show that both metrics can mask underlying demographic declines or threat increases; for example, ∼40% of species not recommended for reclassification had changes in threats or demography. Second, we show that neither metric is consistent with either threats or demography alone, but conflates the two. The second analysis illustrates how the scoring key can be applied to a substantial set of species to

  11. Scenarios of application of energy certification procedure for residential buildings in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantin, R.; Mourtada, A.; Guarracino, G.; Adra, N.; Nasser, M.; Maamari, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a French-Lebanese scientific cooperation, between 2001 and 2005, about 'Rational use of energy in the residential buildings in Lebanon and adaptation of an energy certification procedure'. The aim of this project is to promote the energy efficiency in the existing residential buildings in Lebanon, using an energy certification procedure, and to evaluate the energy certification foresight with prospective methods. The paper first describes an energy investigation in Lebanese residential buildings, and the energy certification procedure. It presents the foresight methodology implemented to identify the key variables and the actors. Finally, the paper exposes the morphological method which allows to elaborate three scenarios of energy performance certification. These scenarios are presented in order to provide a decision making for the actors of the Lebanese energy policy

  12. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  13. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  14. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas, but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present. Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas, the summarization of principles of greening design, and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts, some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengt...

  15. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  16. The Development, Diffusion and Evaluation of a Fall Hazard Safety Training Program for Residential Construction Workers Utilizing Instructor Led and New Media Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of workers in the residential construction industry are on the rise. Falls have continually been the largest contributor to residential construction worker deaths and injuries. These workers are largely self-employed or working for small companies. These individuals are difficult to reach through traditional methods. This research…

  17. The Financial Audit of the Enterprise’s «Balance (Financial Status Report»: Organizational-Methodical Aspects and the Algorithmization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko Inna М.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed to provide scientific substantiation for the organizational-methodical aspects and the algorithmization of the financial audit process of the «Balance (financial status report». It has been proven that financial auditing through transformation has expanded the functional role of auditing. The author emphasizes that the financial audit of the «Balance (financial status report» should be directed to confirming the validity and consistency of showings in this form of financial reporting with the requirements of Ukrainian legislation, the internal regulations of the economic entities, and the expert assessment of the financial state. Financial auditing is also designed to diagnose solvency (financial sustainability, liquidity and business activity; to assess the threats of bankruptcy; to determine the worthiness and value of entrepreneur. An algorithm for financial auditing of the «Balance (financial status report» of enterprise has been developed, with organizational, research, and performance phases as constituent parts.

  18. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  19. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on behalf...

  20. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  1. 38 CFR 36.4357 - Combination residential and business property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reporting § 36.4357 Combination residential and business property. If otherwise eligible, a loan for the purchase or construction of a combination of residential property and business property which the veteran... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combination residential...

  2. Family events and the residential mobility of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves

  3. Environmental injustice along the US-Mexico border: residential proximity to industrial parks in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineski, Sara E.; Collins, Timothy W.; de Lourdes Romo Aguilar, María

    2015-09-01

    Research in the Global North (e.g., US, Europe) has revealed robust patterns of environmental injustice whereby low income and minority residents face exposure to industrial hazards in their neighborhoods. A small body of research suggests that patterns of environmental injustice may diverge between the Global North and South due to differing urban development trajectories. This study uses quantitative environmental justice methods to examine spatial relationships between residential socio-demographics and industrial parks in Tijuana, Baja California Norte, Mexico using 2010 census data for Tijuana’s 401 neighborhoods and municipality-provided locations of industrial parks in the city. Results of spatial lag regression models reveal that formal development is significantly associated with industrial park density, and it accounts for the significant effect of higher socioeconomic status (measured using mean education) on greater industrial density. Higher proportions of female-headed households are also significantly associated with industrial park density, while higher proportions of children and recent migrants are not. The formal development findings align with other studies in Mexico and point to the importance of urban development trajectories in shaping patterns of environmental injustice. The risks for female-headed households are novel in the Mexican context. One potential explanation is that women factory workers live near their places of employment. A second, albeit counterintuitive explanation, is the relative economic advantage experienced by female-headed households in Mexico.

  4. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 1. Final technical report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  5. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 2 -- Appendices. Final report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  6. Local quantification and characterisation represents a basic tool for integrated residential solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Marmolejo R.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A sampling and characterization plan for residential solid waste (SW produced in the city of Cali in Colombia was developed between January and September 2006; this required designing an undisclosed strategy in the country and the results showed the need for an adjustment to the current SW Colombian classification scheme. The available sampling frame made a two-stage sampling plan necessary, block side (BS being the first stage and household BS the second. A 0.39 kg/(person-day solid waste per-capita production (PCP was found, which increased with socioeconomic status. Food waste was produced most, a large part consisting of cooked food. Waste from personal hygiene items was a third category, although this is not currently a category which is included in Colombian Technical Standard –RAS 2000. Although characterization techniques are used worldwide, the results showed the relevance of available sampling frame-based local characterization, using local data for sampling methods and associated sample size selection.

  7. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of expo...... significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies.......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...

  8. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  9. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  10. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  11. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  13. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  14. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  15. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  16. Labeling Residential Community Characteristics from Collective Activity Patterns Using Taxi Trip Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Fang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    There existing a significant social and spatial differentiation in the residential communities in urban city. People live in different places have different socioeconomic background, resulting in various geographically activity patterns. This paper aims to label the characteristics of residential communities in a city using collective activity patterns derived from taxi trip data. Specifically, we first present a method to allocate the O/D (Origin/Destination) points of taxi trips to the land use parcels where the activities taken place in. Then several indices are employed to describe the collective activity patterns, including both activity intensity, travel distance, travel time, and activity space of residents by taking account of the geographical distribution of all O/Ds of the taxi trip related to that residential community. Followed by that, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is introduced to cluster the residential communities with similar activity patterns. In the case study of Wuhan, the residential communities are clearly divided into eight clusters, which could be labelled as ordinary communities, privileged communities, old isolated communities, suburban communities, and so on. In this paper, we provide a new perspective to label the land use under same type from people's mobility patterns with the support of big trajectory data.

  17. Marginal-cost pricing for Hydro-Quebec residential customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquin, C.

    1994-02-01

    An option available to governments and to utilities such as Hydro-Quebec for responding to objectives of energy efficiency is the adoption of marginal cost pricing. Compared to currently used price structures, marginal cost pricing will allow improvement of price signals and assure an optimal utilization of the resource. That type of pricing could be economically beneficial but may not be desirable from the point of view of revenue distribution. Taking account of Hydro-Quebec's cost structure, pure marginal cost pricing would generate an income that would be strongly contested on equity grounds. For example, it would raise prices 60% for residential customers. Faced with this possibility, an analysis is presented of the impact of a peak-offpeak pricing (or pure marginal cost pricing) on Hydro-Quebec's residential customer energy bills. The marginal costs of Hydro-Quebec are calculated by the method of Bernard and Chatel (1985) and analysis of the results is based on Friedman and Weare (1993). A sample of 28,417 residential customers from a 1989 Hydro-Quebec survey is used in the study. Two scenarios are analyzed; the first allowing comparison of the energy bill only on the basis of marginal costs and of average costs, and the second allowing comparison of the impact of marginal cost pricing on the total bill. In the first scenario, the impact translates into a 31% increase in energy bills for the entire customer class considered; in addition, this impact is inversely proportional to the revenue class. In the second scenario, the increase is 24%. 33 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs

  18. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  19. The configuration of residential area in urban structure of the palace in Siak Sri Indrapura - Riau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    This article is part of major research in describing the configuration of waterfront residential area in urban space structure of the palace and related to the Malay Kingdom in the waterside of the Strait of Malacca. This research aimed to identify the configuration of riverfront residential area in Siak Sri Indrapura City based on physical and non-physical aspects. The method used in this research was qualitative rationalistic referring to the components of urban design theory. The results of the research showed that the spatial configuration in Siak Sri Indrapura City is linear and related to the past events and socio-cultural and socio-economic interaction of the society.

  20. Customer baseline load models for residential sector in a smart-grid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharifi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented for the calculation of CBL for customers in residential sector in the context of a smart grid, considering the impact of weather changes. The results clearly show the high impact of changes in weather conditions on the calculation of CBL, and also show the extent of effect of buildings’ improved insulation on this parameter. It is also indicated that implementing DR programs can increase the willingness of customers in residential sector to improve the insulations of their buildings.

  1. Modeling and simulation of a residential micro-CHP system based on HT-PEMFC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2009-01-01

    Combined-heat-and-power (CHP) technology is a well known and proved method to produce simultaneously power and heat at high efficiencies. This can be further improved by the introduction of a novel micro-CHP residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC......). The HT-PEMFC (based on PBI-membrane technology) operates at temperatures near 200oC, and this can be an ideal match for cogeneration residential systems. The proposed system provides electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical household (1-5 kWe, 5-10 kWth). The micro-CHP system...

  2. Automatic Residential/Commercial Classification of Parcels with Solar Panel Detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-03-25

    A computational method to automatically detect solar panels on rooftops to aid policy and financial assessment of solar distributed generation. The code automatically classifies parcels containing solar panels in the U.S. as residential or commercial. The code allows the user to specify an input dataset containing parcels and detected solar panels, and then uses information about the parcels and solar panels to automatically classify the rooftops as residential or commercial using machine learning techniques. The zip file containing the code includes sample input and output datasets for the Boston and DC areas.

  3. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon...... and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses...... exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and nonexistent amongst those living in single detached homes....

  4. Reliability of non-lethal assessment methods of body composition and energetic status exemplified by applications to eel (Anguilla anguilla) and carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefoth, Thomas; Skov, Christian; Aarestrup, Kim

    2013-01-01

    tNon-lethal assessments of proximate body composition of fish can help unravelling the physiologicaland condition-dependent mechanisms of individual responses to ecological challenges. Common non-lethal methods designed to index nutrient composition in fish include the relative condition factor (Kn......),bioelectric impedance-based assessments of body composition (BIA), and microwave-based “fat” meters(FM). Previous studies have revealed mixed findings as to the reliability of each of these. We compared theperformance of Kn, BIA and FM at different temperatures to predict energetic status of the whole bodiesof live eel...... approach isthe most suitable method to non-lethally estimate energetic status in both, carp and eel, whereas BIA is oflimited use for energetic measurements in the same species, in contrast to other reports in the literature...

  5. The effect of self-administered superficial local hot and cold application methods on pain, functional status and quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciksoz, Semra; Akyuz, Aygul; Tunay, Servet

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the self-administered superficial local hot and cold applications on pain, and the functional status and the quality of life in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Superficial local hot and cold application is used as a nonpharmacological method for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. However, various guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis have conflicting recommendation for hot and cold therapy. A randomised clinical trial design. The sample consisted of patients (n = 96) who were diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis. During the application stage, patients were designated to the hot and cold application groups and administered hot and cold application twice a day for 3 weeks together with standard osteoarthritis treatment. The control group only used standard osteoarthritis treatment. The data were collected with a Descriptive Information Form, a Pain Scale, the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) and a Patient Satisfaction Evaluation Form. Outcome measures included pain intensity, functional status and quality of life. We found decreased primary measurement pain scores and improved functional status scores and quality of life scores after the application programme compared to the pre-application stage in both the hot and cold application groups. Once the application was completed, the pain scores, functional status scores and quality-of-life scores on the second measurements were found to be still statistically lower than the pre-application scores but higher than the first measurement ([p  .05). It was found that both hot and cold application resulted in a mild improvement in pain, functional status and quality of life, but this improvement was not sufficient to create a significant difference between the groups. This study contributes to the literature on hot and cold application methods as self-management strategies for patients with knee osteoarthritis. © 2017 John Wiley

  6. Homeowner attitudes and practices towards residential landscape management in Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Thomas W; Clayton, Susan; Robbins, Paul; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of 432 homeowners in Ohio, USA concerning their perceptions and practices regarding management of residential landscapes. The results reveal that outdoor residential environments are extremely important to homeowners, who tend to view their yards as serving multiple functions: a place to observe nature and to socialize as well as a place of beauty and recreation. Use of a lawn care company to apply chemicals is reported by 22 % of respondents, while 40 % either apply chemicals themselves or have someone other than a lawn care company do it. Logistic regressions reveal that factors influencing a homeowner's decision to employ a lawn care company or to apply chemicals themselves include: household income (+), perceived impacts on the environment (-), whether the next door neighbor does it (+), and type of residential environment (rural -, suburban and urban +). A theme that emerges throughout the study is the perceived importance of the role of the lawn in residents' sense of social status or acceptance in the neighborhood. This perception can be viewed as a positive in ensuring that residential environments are well maintained, but also as a negative resulting in environmental degradation or presenting a barrier to creativity in the development of alternative residential environments. Specific policy implications of these findings are that efforts aimed at educating homeowners about the environmental impacts of their lawn care choices are likely to have more success if they are directed at neighborhood groups rather than individuals, show that alternatives are easy to adopt, affordable, and can produce the characteristics of lawns that homeowners seek.

  7. Beyond residential mobility: A broader conceptualization of instability and its impact on victimization risk among children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Melissa T.; Henly, Megan; Turner, Heather A.; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hamby, Sherry; Kacha-Ochana, Akadia; Simon, Thomas R.; Finkelhor, David

    2018-01-01

    Predictability in a child’s environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility’s effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index—including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages–on childhood victimizations. The cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 12,935 cases (mean age = 8.6 years) was pooled from 2008, 2011, and 2014 National Surveys of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV). Logistic regression models controlling for demographics, socio-economic status, and family structure tested the association between excessive residential mobility, alone, and with LDFs, and past year childhood victimizations (sexual victimization, witnessing community or family violence, maltreatment, physical assault, property crime, and polyvictimization). Nearly 40% of the sample reported at least one LDF. Excessive residential mobility was significantly predictive of increased odds of all but two victimizations; almost all associations were no longer significant after other destabilizing factors were included. The LDF index without residential mobility was significantly predictive of increased odds of all victimizations (AOR’s ranged from 1.36 to 1.69), and the adjusted odds ratio indicated a 69% increased odds of polyvictimization for each additional LDF a child experienced. The LDF index thus provides a useful alternative to using residential moves as the sole indicator of instability. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive supports and services to support stability for children and families. PMID:29558715

  8. Beyond residential mobility: A broader conceptualization of instability and its impact on victimization risk among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Melissa T; Henly, Megan; Turner, Heather A; David-Ferdon, Corinne; Hamby, Sherry; Kacha-Ochana, Akadia; Simon, Thomas R; Finkelhor, David

    2018-05-01

    Predictability in a child's environment is a critical quality of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and environments, which promote wellbeing and protect against maltreatment. Research has focused on residential mobility's effect on this predictability. This study augments such research by analyzing the impact of an instability index-including the lifetime destabilization factors (LDFs) of natural disasters, homelessness, child home removal, multiple moves, parental incarceration, unemployment, deployment, and multiple marriages--on childhood victimizations. The cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of 12,935 cases (mean age = 8.6 years) was pooled from 2008, 2011, and 2014 National Surveys of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV). Logistic regression models controlling for demographics, socio-economic status, and family structure tested the association between excessive residential mobility, alone, and with LDFs, and past year childhood victimizations (sexual victimization, witnessing community or family violence, maltreatment, physical assault, property crime, and polyvictimization). Nearly 40% of the sample reported at least one LDF. Excessive residential mobility was significantly predictive of increased odds of all but two victimizations; almost all associations were no longer significant after other destabilizing factors were included. The LDF index without residential mobility was significantly predictive of increased odds of all victimizations (AOR's ranged from 1.36 to 1.69), and the adjusted odds ratio indicated a 69% increased odds of polyvictimization for each additional LDF a child experienced. The LDF index thus provides a useful alternative to using residential moves as the sole indicator of instability. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive supports and services to support stability for children and families. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tackling the complexity of residential gateways in an unbundling value chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Baken, N.H.G.; Keyson, D.V.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.; Snijders, W.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Various crucial multi-disciplinary issues have been investigated concerning residential gateway (RG) technology applicable in an unbundled telecommunications value chain. We find that the Calculating-with-Concepts method can be used to construct an unambiguous frame of reference for digital rights

  10. Residential Treatment for Sexually Abusive Youth: An Assessment of Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher D.; Chancey, Roy; Lowe, Laura A.; Risler, Edwin A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research study assesses the effectiveness of participation in a multimodal/holistic residential treatment program on changing deviant sexual interests and functional impairment among sexually abusive youth. Method: A one-group pretest posttest design was utilized to examine pretest (intake) and posttest (discharge) scores for 58…

  11. Does the Perceived Neighborhood Reputation Contribute to Neighborhood Differences in Social Trust and Residential Wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Agneta; Timpka, Toomas; Svensson, Tommy; Karlsson, Nadine; Lindqvist, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a mixed methods approach to examine if the reputation of a housing area has bearing on residential wellbeing and social trust in three pairs of socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between area reputation and…

  12. Care staff training in detection of depression in residential homes for the elderly - Randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    Background. Many people with depression in residential care homes for the elderly do not receive treatment because their depression remains undetected. Aims. To determine the effects of staff training on the detection, treatment and outcome of depression in residents often homes. Method. We

  13. Care staff training in detection of depression in residential homes for the elderly: randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, A.M.H.; Kluiter, H.; Jongenelis, K.; Pot, A.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Ormel, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Many people with depression in residential care homes for the elderly do not receive treatment because their depression remains undetected. Aims: To determine the effects of staff training on the detection, treatment and outcome of depression in residents of ten homes. Method: We

  14. Comparison of in situ hybridization methods for the assessment of HER-2/neu gene amplification status in breast cancer using a tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicka-Durczak, Anna; Korski, Konstanty; Ibbs, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    This project compared HER-2/neu gene status in breast cancers, as demonstrated by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization) and using a tissue microarray (TMA). The study also aimed to show whether the TMA technique could be used in clinical diagnostics, rather than remain a scientific tool. A TMA was constructed using 121 breast cancer specimens, 6 cores from each specimen. Demonstration and assessment of HER-2/neu gene status was by FISH (Vysis Path) and CISH (DAKO Duo CISH). The 121 breast cancer specimens were divided into 3 groups by HER-2 status, as determined by immunohistochemistry. In the HER-2 negative group no amplification was observed in 36 out of 40 cases. 3 cases showed amplification by both methods and one by CISH alone. The equivocal HER-2 group showed no amplification in 30 out of 41 cases and amplification in 9 cases. One case was FISH negative CISH positive and one was discarded. In the HER-2 positive group, amplification was confirmed in 37 of the 40 cases by both methods. 3 cases were unsuitable for assessment. This study indicated that CISH is a sensitive alternative to FISH in detecting HER2 gene amplification and may replace FISH in HER2 testing. Good agreement was observed between methods (98.5% - 119 out of 121 cases). Furthermore, as only 4 out of 121 cases were unsuitable for assessment (no signal or missing TMA cores) - it may be feasible to use TMA in diagnostics.

  15. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  16. Use of in-patient hospital beds by people living in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, P; Wundke, R; Whitehead, C; Williamson, L; Baggoley, C

    2000-01-01

    There is concern that people living in residential care in Australia make significant and often inappropriate use of acute in-patient hospital services. To date, no factual information has been collected in Australia and its absence may allow myths and negative stereotypes to proliferate. To determine how and why people living in residential care in Australia use in-patient hospital beds. To determine the outcome of hospitalisation and functional status at 3 months following discharge. Prospective study of 184 consecutive admissions to hospital following Emergency Department (ED) attendance involving people aged over 65 years and living in residential care in southern Adelaide, South Australia. Information was obtained from the facilities' transfer letters, and where these were inadequate or absent, telephone interviews were held with residential care staff. 153 people accounted for the 184 admissions. They had a mean age of 84 years and 69% were female. 61% came from hostels and 35% from nursing homes. They had a wide range of clinical problems and twice as many were admitted to medical than to surgical units. Their mean length of hospital stay was 7.9 days, 2.3 days higher than for non-same-day patients and was higher for hostel than for nursing home residents. All but two admissions were considered unavoidable though the provision of specialised care within residential care could have prevented a further 19 (10%) admissions. 96% of admissions resulted in survival to leave hospital and in 74%, people returned directly to their place of origin. At 3 months follow-up, a further 20% of the group had died while 5% were in hospital. In all, 14% of the original group were in a different long-term care facility while 56% were living at their former residence. People living in residential care are often hospitalised because of acute illness. In the vast majority of cases hospitalisation is both appropriate and unavoidable. Most did not require prolonged hospitalisation

  17. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  18. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  19. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  20. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  2. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  3. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  4. Residential environmental evaluation of local cities considering regional characteristic and personal residential preference-a case study of Saga City,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire surveys and subjective evaluations on residential environment were performed in order to grasp the main factors of residential environment of small local cities. The suitable evaluation index system was established, and the regional residential environment characteristics and personal residential preference types were analyzed, so that their influence on residential environment evaluation could be grasped. The results can be applied to the residential environment planning, construction and monitoring of local cities.

  5. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  6. Transition issues in an unbundled residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS

  7. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  8. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  9. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  10. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  11. Airborne concentrations of Polybrominated diethyl etherin residential homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahimzadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE have been widely applied to different home and offices' appliances as flame retardant additives to inhibit ignition and enhance  the fire safety. Their toxicity, health effects, and resistance to environmental degradation are  matters of great interested among scientists. Airborne concentrations of PBDE in residential  homes were determined in this study.   Methods   In a cross sectional study, 33 residential homes were selected and airborne concentrations of PBDEs were investigated using PUF disk passive air samplers. Also in two building the concentraction of PBDEs were monitored in two rooms of a department in each building for 12 months.   Results   Average airborne concentration of ?PBDE (sum of congener #s 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, and 154 for all locations monitored was 52 (4-245 pgm -3 . While in one of the buildings the contaminant level of bedroom was significantly higher than the living room, PBDE   concentrations remained relatively constant for whole monitoring period.   Conclusion   The range of concentrations results to a wide variation between inhalation intakes of dwellers of the lowest and the highest contaminated homes (~50 folds.  

  12. Improving the thermal performance of the US residential window stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Eto, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Windows have typically been the least efficient thermal component in the residential envelope, but technology advances over the past decade have helped to dramatically improve the energy efficiency of window products. While the thermal performance of these advanced technology windows can be easily characterized for a particular building application, few precise estimates exist of their aggregate impact on national or regional energy use. Policy-makers, utilities, researchers and the fenestration industry must better understand these products` ultimate conservation potential in order to determine the value of developing new products and initiating programs to accelerate their market acceptance. This paper presents a method to estimate the conservation potential of advanced window technologies, combining elements of two well-known modeling paradigms: supply curves of conserved energy and residential end-use forecasting. The unique features include: detailed descriptions of the housing stock by region and vintage, state-of-the-art thermal descriptions of window technologies, and incorporation of market effects to calculate achievable conservation potential and timing. We demonstrate the methodology by comparing, for all new houses built between 1990 and 2010, the conservation potential of very efficient, high R-value ``superwindows`` in the North Central federal region and spectrally-selective low-emissivity (moderate Revalue and solar transmittance) windows in California.

  13. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  14. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  15. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  16. Energy efficient residential house wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldawi, Fayez; Date, Abhijit; Alam, Firoz; Khan, Iftekhar; Alghamdi, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission by the residential housing sector are considered to be one of the largest in economically developed countries. The larger energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission not only put additional pressure on finite fossil fuel resources but also cause global warming and climate change. Additionally, the residential housing sector will be consuming more energy as the house demand and average house floor area are progressively increasing. With currently used residential house wall systems, it is hard to reduce energy consumption for ongoing house space heating and cooling. A smart house wall envelope with optimal thermal masses and insulation materials is vital for reducing our increasing energy consumption. The major aim of this study is to investigate thermal performance and energy saving potential of a new house wall system for variable climate conditions. The thermal performance modelling was carried out using commercially developed software AccuRate ® . The findings indicate that a notable energy savings can be accomplished if a smart house wall system is used. -- Highlights: • Smart house wall system. • Thermal performance modelling and star energy rating. • Energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction

  17. Converting Energy Subsidies to Investments: Scaling-Up Deep Energy Retrofit in Residential Sector of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, Artur

    After collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited vast and inefficient infrastructure. Combination of historical lack of transparency, decades without reforms, chronical underinvestment and harmful cross-subsidization resulted in accumulation of energy problems, which possess significant threat to economic prosperity and national security. High energy intensity leads to excessive use of energy and heavy reliance on energy import to meet domestic demand. Energy import, in turn, results in high account balance deficit and heavy burden on the state finances. A residential sector, which accounts for one third of energy consumption and is the highest consumer of natural gas, is particularly challenging to reform. This thesis explores energy consumption of the residential sector of Ukraine. Using energy decomposition method, recent changes in energy use is analyzed. Energy intensity of space heating in the residential sector of Ukraine is compared with selected EU member states with similar climates. Energy efficiency potential is evaluated for whole residential sector in general and for multistory apartment buildings connected to the district heating in particular. Specifically, investments in thermal modernization of multistory residential buildings will result in almost 45TWh, or 3.81 Mtoe, of annual savings. Required investments for deep energy retrofit of multistory buildings is estimated as much as $19 billion in 2015 prices. Experience of energy subsidy reforms as well as lessons from energy retrofit policy from selected countries is analyzed. Policy recommendations to turn energy subsidies into investments in deep energy retrofit of residential sector of Ukraine are suggested. Regional dimension of existing energy subsidies and capital subsidies required for energy retrofit is presented.

  18. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  19. The Role of Residential Early Parenting Services in Increasing Parenting Confidence in Mothers with A History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Lynette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mothers with a history of infertility may experience parenting difficulties and challenges. This study was conducted to investigate the role of residential early parenting services in increasing parenting confidence in mothers with a history of infertility. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective chart review study using the quantitative data from the clients attending the Karitane Residential Units and Parenting Services (known as Karitane RUs during 2013. Parenting confidence (using Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale-KPCS, depression, demographics, reproductive and medical history, as well as child’s information were assessed from a sample of 27 mothers who had a history of infertility and who attended the Karitane RUs for support and assistance. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results More than half of the women (59.3% reported a relatively low level of parenting confidence on the day of admission. The rate of low parenting confidence, however, dropped to 22.2% after receiving 4-5 days support and training in the Karitane RUs. The mean score of the KPCS increased from 36.9 ± 5.6 before the intervention to 41.1 ± 3.4 after the intervention, indicating an improvement in the parenting confidence of the mothers after attending the Karitane RUs (P<0.0001. No statistically significant association was found between maternal low parenting confidence with parental demographics (including age, country of birth, and employment status, a history of help-seeking, symptoms of depression, as well as child’s information [including gender, age, siblings, diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD and use of medication]. Conclusion Having a child after a period of infertility can be a stressful experience for some mothers. This can result in low parenting confidence and affect parent-child attachment. Our findings emphasized on the role of the residential early parenting services in promoting the level of

  20. Assessment of nutritional status of the patient with cancer of the stomach by means of selected methods of anthropometric, biochemical and immunological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pierzak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional status is a medical condition that results from the customary intake of food absorbed and the use of its component nutrients or non-nutrients. Malnutrition is a problem faced by therapeutic teams around the world. This condition affects approximately 20-50% of patients hospitalized au deepens 30-90% of patients during hospital treatment. Aim: Assessment of nutritional status of a patient with gastric cancer using selected methods of anthropometric, biochemical and immunological research. Material and methods: The patient admitted in the surgery ward elective 64 years, diagnosis of gastric cancer according to the TNM classification type T3N1MO for treatment. A patient with a history of three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Taking into account the results of the questionnaire NRS-2002, interview, physical examination, symptoms, anthropometric measurements, biochemical and immunological studies can assess the nutritional status of the patient is not valid. The patient is malnourished. Taking into account the recommendation ESPEN (Europan Society for Paraenteral and enteral nutrition and nutritional status of the patient has become necessary to incorporate nutritional therapy. The patient was included in parenteral nutritional therapy. Conclusions: Malnutrition is a medical condition rarely recognized, in consequence of which comes to many dangerous health complications discouraging and even the life of the patient. There are several types of malnutrition. Often, patients with cancer, particularly cancer of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in prolonged malnutrition, cachexia occurs. Cachexia is a syndrome due to systemic inflammatory response which is a response to the presence of the disease in the body. Recognized malnutrition should be treated. After identifying the patient at risk of malnutrition or who is in the disease state of malnutrition, are introduced nutritional therapy. Evaluation of nutrition

  1. Retailing residential electricity : A concept that makes sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    2003-07-01

    A heated debate centres around the deregulation of the electricity industry and the retailing of residential electricity. An assessment of the current situation in the industry was provided in this paper to provide a basis for discussion. The experience gained both in Alberta and Texas in residential retail was examined. The main issue of concern is whether residential customers will benefit from deregulation of the electricity sector. The Retail Energy Deregulation (RED) Index provides a benchmark for those jurisdictions considering the residential options. Deregulation has not led to significant benefits to residential customers in most jurisdictions. The electricity industry will always require a central dispatch/market process that will have to designed, governed, regulated, modified regularly. The benefits to residential consumers are not expected for a very long time. Standard market design is an issue that will require attention. refs., 7 figs

  2. A Pilot Physical Activity Initiative to Improve Mental Health Status amongst Iranian Institutionalized Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Matlabi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sufficient level of physical activity may promote overall and mental health of old people. This study was carried out to investigate the practicability of a physical activity promotion initiative amongst institutionalized older people in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: Purposive sampling method was used in this semi-experimental study to recruit 31 older people living in a selected residential care in Tabriz. Moderate-intensity aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity was planned for those who had not severe baseline cognitive impairment or were not too frail to undertake the survey. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used to measure mental health status before and after intervention through a face-to-face interview. Descriptive statistics, Wilkcoxon rank-sum, Mann–Whitney U and Chi-Square tests were employed to analyses the data. Results: The applied intervention was significantly improved status of physical health, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression. Conclusion: Incorporation of physical activity promotion programs into routines of older people residential care homes in Iran is feasible but may need training of physical activity specialists to work with older people based on their physical endurance and limitations.

  3. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank. Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational, associational study, we used baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort of participants aged 37–73 years from across the UK. Environmental exposure data were derived from a modelled and linked built environment database. Residential greenness was assessed with a 0·5 m resolution Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured within geocoded dwelling catchments. Other environment metrics included street-level movement density, terrain, and fine particulate exposures. A series of logistic models examined associations between residential greenness and odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting for activity-influencing environments and individual covariates. Findings: Of 122 993 participants with data on major depressive disorder, the study analytical sample comprised 94 879 (77·1% participants recruited across ten UK Biobank assessment centres between April 29, 2009, and Oct 1, 2010. A protective effect of greenness on depression was consistently observed, with 4·0% lower odds of major depressive disorder per interquartile increment in Normalised Difference Vegetation Index greenness (odds ratio 0·960, 95% CI 0·93–0·99; p=0·0044. Interaction analyses indicated that the beneficial effects of greenness were more pronounced among women, participants younger than 60 years, and

  4. A FISH-based method for assessment of HER-2 amplification status in breast cancer circulating tumor cells following CellSearch isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frithiof H

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Frithiof,1 Kristina Aaltonen,1 Lisa Rydén2,3 1Division of Oncology and Pathology, 2Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, 3Department of Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden Introduction: Amplification of the HER-2/neu (HER-2 proto-oncogene occurs in 10%–15% of primary breast cancer, leading to an activated HER-2 receptor, augmenting growth of cancer cells. Tumor classification is determined in primary tumor tissue and metastatic biopsies. However, malignant cells tend to alter their phenotype during disease progression. Circulating tumor cell (CTC analysis may serve as an alternative to repeated biopsies. The Food and Drug Administration-approved CellSearch system allows determination of the HER-2 protein, but not of the HER-2 gene. The aim of this study was to optimize a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-based method to quantitatively determine HER-2 amplification in breast cancer CTCs following CellSearch-based isolation and verify the method in patient samples. Methods: Using healthy donor blood spiked with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBr-3 and BT-474, and a corresponding negative control (the HER-2-negative MCF-7 cell line, an in vitro CTC model system was designed. Following isolation in the CellSearch system, CTC samples were further enriched and fixed on microscope slides. Immunocytochemical staining with cytokeratin and 4',6-diamidino-2'-phenylindole dihydrochloride identified CTCs under a fluorescence microscope. A FISH-based procedure was optimized by applying the HER2 IQFISH pharmDx assay for assessment of HER-2 amplification status in breast cancer CTCs. Results: A method for defining the presence of HER-2 amplification in single breast cancer CTCs after CellSearch isolation was established using cell lines as positive and negative controls. The method was validated in blood from breast cancer patients

  5. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  6. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  7. Status of research methods used in the dissertations of graduates from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Assistantship, MD, Board and MSc for the years 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Doulani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available   The present study seeks to examine the status of research methods employed in dissertations submitted by graduates of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The study also examined the impact factors. Using content analysis, the research methods were divided into four groups: historical, descriptive, empirical and literature review. The distributions for each method were calculated on the basis of gender, graduate level, citations, time frame and fields of study. Samples were chosen randomly from among the dissertations available at faculty libraries at TUMS. 390 dissertations were selected. Findings demonstrated that gender did not influence the choice of research method. With exception of Nursing faculty, graduate level proved to be an prominent factor when choosing research method. All types of citations (books, journals, online and non-printed sources were identified as another significant factor impacting pushing towards any given research method. With exception of Hygiene and Food Faculty, the time factor affected the research method selection process as well. Finally, given their different research characteristics, the field of studies investigated also contributed to both the scope and direction of research methods chosen.

  8. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and chromogenic in situ hybridization: precise methods to detect HER-2 status in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Fernando A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2 gene testing has become an integral part of breast cancer patient diagnosis. The most commonly used assay in the clinical setting for evaluating HER-2 status is immunohistochemistry (IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. These procedures permit correlation between HER-2 expression and morphological features. However, FISH signals are labile and fade over time, making post-revision of the tumor difficult. CISH (chromogenic in situ hybridization is an alternative procedure, with certain advantages, although still limited as a diagnostic tool in breast carcinomas. Methods To elucidate the molecular profile of HER-2 status, mRNA and protein expression in 75 invasive breast carcinomas were analyzed by real time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR and IHC, respectively. Amplifications were evaluated in 43 of these cases by CISH and in 11 by FISH. Results The concordance rate between IHC and qRT-PCR results was 78.9%, and 94.6% for qRT-PCR and CISH. Intratumoral heterogeneity of HER-2 status was identified in three cases by CISH. The results of the three procedures were compared and showed a concordance rate of 83.8%; higher discordances were observed in 0 or 1+ immunostaining cases, which showed high-level amplification (15.4% and HER-2 transcript overexpression (20%. Moreover, 2+ immunostaining cases presented nonamplified status (50% by CISH and HER-2 downexpression (38.5% by qRT-PCR. In general, concordance occurred between qRT-PCR and CISH results. A high concordance was observed between CISH/qRT-PCR and FISH. Comparisons with clinicopathological data revealed a significant association between HER-2 downexpression and the involvement of less than four lymph nodes (P = 0.0350. Conclusion Based on these findings, qRT-PCR was more precise and reproducible than IHC. Furthermore, CISH was revealed as an alternative and useful procedure for investigating amplifications involving the HER-2 gene.

  9. Methods and data of probabilistic safety analysis for nuclear power plants. Status May 2015; Methoden und Daten zur probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalyse fuer Kernkraftwerke. Stand: Mai 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-09-15

    The supplement for the methodology of probabilistic safety analyses includes modifications, extensions and actualizations based on recent experiences. The chapter on personnel actions has been reorganized and adapted to the status of science and technology. Especially the possibility of decision fault identification and evaluation has been included. The chapters on floods and earthquakes are revised with respect to the actual regulatory developments and the new safety requirements. An extension of the spectra of PSA methods and data for the non-power operation has not been revised with respect to the Fukushima experiences. Based on fire experiences during power operation a new section on fire during non-power operation was included.

  10. Estado nutricional de mangueiras determinado pelos métodos DRIS e CND Nutritional status of mango determined by DRIS and CND methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas S. Politi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes procedimentos referentes do método do sistema integrado de diagnose e recomendação podem influenciar a acurácia da diagnose foliar da mangueira. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi comparar diagnósticos do estado nutricional da mangueira obtidos através de diferentes métodos de avaliação do estado nutricional, comparando-se relações multivariadas (método CND com relações bivariadas (método DRIS, ou seja, com variações quanto ao uso de normas específicas ou preliminares e à transformação logarítmica dos dados. Foram utilizados resultados de análises de teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes de 63 pomares de mangueira do Vale do Submédio São Francisco. Para a interpretação dos índices nutricionais através do critério do Potencial de Resposta à Adubação. Os métodos CND e DRIS, com e sem transformação logarítmica e se usando normas específicas ou preliminares, as quais apresentaram desempenho semelhante na avaliação do estado nutricional da mangueira no Submédio São Francisco. Nos pomares de manga do semiárido nordestino as deficiências de micronutrientes (Zn, Fe e Cu foram mais frequentes que a deficiência de macronutrientes.Different procedures for the integrated method of diagnosis and recommendation may influence the accuracy of foliar diagnosis of mango. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the diagnosis of nutritional status of mango obtained by different methods of assessing nutritional status, comparing multivariate relations (method CND with bivariate relationships (DRIS i.e., variations in the use of specific or preliminary standards and a logarithmic transformation of the data. The macro and micronutrient leaf analysis results of 63 mango orchards of Lower-middle São Francisco River Valley, Brazil, were used. To interpret nutritional status the Potential Response to Fertilization (PRA criteria was used. The CND and DRIS methods, with and without logarithmic

  11. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, Holger; Beuth, Thomas; Bracke, Guido; Kock, Ingo; Mayer, Kim-Marisa; Moog, Helge C.; Uhlmann, Stephan; Weyand, Torben

    2016-09-01

    The project ''development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases'' covers the following key aspects: global aspects of the methodology for scenario assumption for the operational phase following closure, potential analysis of the derives safety cases for the project Gorleben, determination of the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes using geochemical modeling calculations, search for an adequate approach for the calculation of density and viscosity of saline solutions for the future use in GRS computer codes, international approaches for an integral analysis for the host rocks clay and granite in relation to the safety requirements of BMUB.

  12. Evaluation of landscape coverings to reduce soil lead hazards in urban residential yards: The Safer Yards Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, H.J.; Gray, K.A.; Chen Tianyue; Finster, M.E.; Peneff, Nicholas; Schaefer, Peter; Ovsey, Victor; Fernandes, Joyce; Brown, Mavis; Dunlap, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to evaluate the effectiveness of landscape coverings to reduce the potential for exposure to lead-contaminated soil in an urban neighborhood. Residential properties were randomized in to three groups: application of ground coverings/barriers plus placement of a raised garden bed (RB), application of ground coverings/barriers only (no raised bed, NRB), and control. Outcomes evaluated soil lead concentration (employing a weighting method to assess acute hazard soil lead [areas not fully covered] and potential hazard soil lead [all soil surfaces regardless of covering status]), density of landscape coverings (6=heavy, >90% covered; 1=bare, <10% covered), lead tracked onto carpeted entryway floor mats, and entryway floor dust lead loadings. Over 1 year, the intervention groups had significantly reduced acute hazard soil lead concentration (median change: RB, -478 ppm; NRB, -698 ppm; control, +52 ppm; Kruskal-Wallis, P=0.02), enhanced landscape coverings (mean change in score: RB, +0.6; NRB, +1.5; control, -0.6; ANOVA, P<0.001), and a 50% decrease in lead tracked onto the floor mats. The potential hazard soil lead concentration and the entryway floor dust lead loading did not change significantly. Techniques evaluated by this study are feasible for use by property owners but will require continued maintenance. The long-term sustainability of the method needs further examination

  13. Bullying in Adolescent Residential Care: The Influence of the Physical and Social Residential Care Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekol, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, no study examined possible contributions of environmental factors to bullying and victimization in adolescent residential care facilities. Objective: By testing one part of the Multifactor Model of Bullying in Secure Setting (MMBSS; Ireland in "Int J Adolesc Med Health" 24(1):63-68, 2012), this research examined the…

  14. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  15. Small towns resisting urban decay through residential attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje; Herslund, Lise Byskov

    2015-01-01

    composition, residential migration, social organisation and community engagement form and affect small town (1000–5000 inhabitants) development patterns in Denmark and specific place-based endowments. The study is carried out with mixed methods, comprising a quantitative analysis of development trends......, complemented by qualitative case studies in six small towns. Our findings show how favourable development paths are a combination of a positive development in population, provision of daily commodities and attractive housing, and a high number of local voluntary social organisations. Introducing the concept......Small towns are often considered as losing out in the current trend towards urban development. However, research from around Europe shows a great diversity of small town development, including successful development trajectories despite geographical disadvantages. Investigations...

  16. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  17. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  18. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  19. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  20. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  1. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  2. Registered Indian Children's School Success and Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schooling in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Senécal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.

  3. Present status and future of simple measuring methods; Suishitsu kan`i sokutei gijutsu no genjo to hatten no hoko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urano, K.; Ishii, S. [Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-05-10

    This paper discusses simple measuring methods for water quality. There are various purposes for measuring water quality. It is not necessary to measure the water quality in an official way by taking a lot of labor and cost. Simple measuring methods are often adopted. By applying simple methods, measuring points and frequency of main discharge processes can be increased, resulting in the detailed evaluation and monitoring. Easy safety check for earth filling waste and soil pollutants is realized. Daily inspection and atmospheric measurements at accidents and disasters are easily promoted. The simple methods require easy and rapid operation, sensibility, accuracy and reproducibility suitable for the purpose, small size apparatus, low cost for measurements, and safety against used harmful matters. Coloring reaction is utilized for most of the measuring principles of simple methods, which include tests using test papers, pack tests, colorimetric tests, and tests using photoelectric colorimeter. The bacteria detection includes titration methods using dropping bottles, tablets and syringes, and tests using test papers. A measuring kit for the enzyme immunity method is commercialized. Cooperation of experts, measuring operators at the site and citizens is also indispensable. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  5. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  6. Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusch, Cajsa; Odlare, Monica; Wallin, Fredrik; Wester, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in identifying key indicators for policy update. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by household features. ► Variance in residential electricity use is partly explained by building properties. ► Household behavior has a profound impact on individual electricity use. -- Abstract: Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  7. The effects of utility cost reduction on residential energy consumption in Hungary – a decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla Sebestyén Szép

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residential energy consumption is influenced by a lot of factors. Understanding and calculating these factors is essential to making conscious energy policy decisions and feedbacks. Since 2013 the energy prices for households have been controlled by the government in Hungary and as a result of the utility cost reduction program a sharp decline can be observed in residential electricity, district heating and natural gas prices. This paper applies the LMDI (~Logarithmic Mean Division Index method to decompose the absolute change of the residential energy consumption during the period of 2010-2015. We calculate the price, the intensive structure (it means the change of energy expenditure share on energy sources, the extensive structure (it is in connection with the change of energy expenditure share in total expenditure, expenditure (it is the change of per capita total expenditure and population effect. All of that shows the impact of the specific factor on the residential energy consumption by income deciles. Our results have verified the preliminary expectations: the decreasing energy prices for households have a positive impact on energy use and it has been strengthened by the expenditure effect as well. However, the intensive structure, the extensive structure and the population effect have largely offset it.

  8. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  9. First record of black band disease in the Hawaiian archipelago: response, outbreak status, virulence, and a method of treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available A high number of coral colonies, Montipora spp., with progressive tissue loss were reported from the north shore of Kaua'i by a member of the Eyes of the Reef volunteer reporting network. The disease has a distinct lesion (semi-circular pattern of tissue loss with an adjacent dark band that was first observed in Hanalei Bay, Kaua'i in 2004. The disease, initially termed Montipora banded tissue loss, appeared grossly similar to black band disease (BBD, which affects corals worldwide. Following the initial report, a rapid response was initiated as outlined in Hawai'i's rapid response contingency plan to determine outbreak status and investigate the disease. Our study identified the three dominant bacterial constituents indicative of BBD (filamentous cyanobacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in coral disease lesions from Kaua'i, which provided the first evidence of BBD in the Hawaiian archipelago. A rapid survey at the alleged outbreak site found disease to affect 6-7% of the montiporids, which is higher than a prior prevalence of less than 1% measured on Kaua'i in 2004, indicative of an epizootic. Tagged colonies with BBD had an average rate of tissue loss of 5.7 cm2/day over a two-month period. Treatment of diseased colonies with a double band of marine epoxy, mixed with chlorine powder, effectively reduced colony mortality. Within two months, treated colonies lost an average of 30% less tissue compared to untreated controls.

  10. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  11. Residential normalcy and environmental experiences of very old people: changes in residential reasoning over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granbom, Marianne; Himmelsbach, Ines; Haak, Maria; Löfqvist, Charlotte; Oswald, Frank; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2014-04-01

    The decision to relocate in old age is intricately linked to thoughts and desires to stay put. However, most research focuses either on strategies that allow people to age in place or on their reasons for relocation. There is a need for more knowledge on very old peoples' residential reasoning, including thoughts about aging in place and thoughts about relocation as one intertwined process evolving in everyday life. The aim of this study was to explore what we refer to as the process of residential reasoning and how it changes over time among very old people, and to contribute to the theoretical development regarding aging in place and relocation. Taking a longitudinal perspective, data stem from the ENABLE-AGE In-depth Study, with interviews conducted in 2003 followed up in interviews in 2011. The 16 participants of the present study were 80-89years at the time of the first interview. During analysis the Theoretical Model of Residential Normalcy by Golant and the Life Course Model of Environmental Experience by Rowles & Watkins were used as sensitizing concepts. The findings revealed changes in the process of residential reasoning that related to a wide variety of issues. Such issues included the way very old people use their environmental experience, their striving to build upon or dismiss attachment to place, and their attempts to maintain or regain residential normalcy during years of declining health and loss of independence. In addition, the changes in reasoning were related to end-of-life issues. The findings contribute to the theoretical discussion on aging in place, relocation as a coping strategy, and reattachment after moving in very old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  13. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  14. Data on European non-residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Delia; Cuniberti, Barbara; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    This data article relates to the research paper Energy consumption and efficiency technology measures in European non-residential buildings (D'Agostino et al., 2017) [1]. The reported data have been collected in the framework of the Green Building Programme that ran from 2006 to 2014. The project has encouraged the adoption of efficiency measures to boost energy savings in European non-residential buildings. Data focus on the one-thousand buildings that joined the Programme allowing to save around 985 GWh/year. The main requirement to join the Programme was the reduction of at least 25% primary energy consumption in a new or retrofitted building. Energy consumption before and after the renovation are provided for retrofitted buildings while, in new constructions, a building had to be designed using at least 25% less energy than requested by the country's building codes. The following data are linked within this article: energy consumption, absolute and relative savings related to primary energy, saving percentages, implemented efficiency measures and renewables. Further information is given about each building in relation to geometry, envelope, materials, lighting and systems.

  15. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  16. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  17. Canadian energy standards : residential energy code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K. [SAR Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A survey of residential energy code requirements was discussed. New housing is approximately 13 per cent more efficient than housing built 15 years ago, and more stringent energy efficiency requirements in building codes have contributed to decreased energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a survey of residential energy codes across Canada has determined that explicit demands for energy efficiency are currently only present in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. The survey evaluated more than 4300 single-detached homes built between 2000 and 2005 using data from the EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) database. House area, volume, airtightness and construction characteristics were reviewed to create archetypes for 8 geographic areas. The survey indicated that in Quebec and the Maritimes, 90 per cent of houses comply with ventilation system requirements of the National Building Code, while compliance in the rest of Canada is much lower. Heat recovery ventilation use is predominant in the Atlantic provinces. Direct-vent or condensing furnaces constitute the majority of installed systems in provinces where natural gas is the primary space heating fuel. Details of Insulation levels for walls, double-glazed windows, and building code insulation standards were also reviewed. It was concluded that if R-2000 levels of energy efficiency were applied, total average energy consumption would be reduced by 36 per cent in Canada. 2 tabs.

  18. Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and Environmental Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Crowder, Kyle; Kemp, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This study combines micro-level data on families with children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency and neighborhood-level U.S. census data to examine both the association between family structure and residential proximity to neighborhood pollution and the micro-level, residential mobility processes that contribute to differential pollution proximity across family types. Results indicate the existence of significant family structure differences in household proximity to industrial pollution in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1999, with single-mother and single-father families experiencing neighborhood pollution levels that are on average 46% and 26% greater, respectively, than those experienced by two-parent families. Moreover, the pollution gap between single-mother and two-parent families persists with controls for household and neighborhood socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and race/ethnic characteristics. Examination of underlying migration patterns reveals that single-mother, single-father, and two-parent families are equally likely to move in response to pollution. However, mobile single-parent families move into neighborhoods with significantly higher pollution levels than do mobile two-parent families. Thus, family structure differences in pollution proximity are maintained more by these destination neighborhood differences than by family structure variations in the likelihood of moving out of polluted neighborhoods. PMID:28348440

  19. Residential proximinity, perceived and acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, G.O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the life experiences associated with residential proximity, and the perception and acceptability of the risks associated with generating electricity in nuclear power plants. Perceived risk is operationally defined in terms of estimated likelihood of occurrence, while acceptability of nuclear power is defined in terms of people's favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding nuclear power plants. In the context of a simple social-structural model of perceived and acceptable risk, four potential explanations for enhanced acceptability among those residentially proximate with nuclear facilities are examined: residents, through the experience of living with hazard, are reinforced toward assigning lower probabilities to the potential risks associated with nuclear facilities; the cognitive dissonance created by the acceptance of the risks associated with nuclear power is decreased by reducing perceived risk; nuclear neighbors are predisposed toward, educated about, and/or economically dependent upon nuclear power hence the more favorable attitudes toward it; nearby residents are systematically more altruistic--other oriented--than the general population and thus more willing to bear the risks associated with nuclear power

  20. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  1. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examination of Negative Peer Contagion in a Residential Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…

  3. Family-centred residential care : the new reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Esther M. W.; Boddy, Janet; Noom, Marc J.; Knorth, Erik J.

    This paper considers therapeutic approaches to residential care with specific attention to the question of family involvement. It builds on a body of literature indicating the potential of residential care as a positive intervention for young people, and examines the contention that even when family

  4. Episodic and Semantic Memories of a Residential Environmental Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a phenomenological approach to investigate the recollections of participants of an environmental education (EE) residential program. Ten students who participated in a residential EE program in the fall of 2001 were interviewed in the fall of 2002. Three major themes relating to the participants' long-term memory of the residential…

  5. Residential Preferences: What's Terrorism Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, David; Geisler, Charles; Bills, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Security has long been recognized as an element in residential preference and its relative importance has risen with fear of extremist attacks on U.S. cities. Using polling data from 2004, this research investigates whether the security breaches of 9/11 in New York City influenced residential preferences in New York State. Our results confirm that…

  6. Residential land values and their determinants in high density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified that residential segregation exists in Nigerian cities and the study area. Among urbanization and residential land use problems identified by the study are poor level of social and technical infrastructure, poor land and city management system capacity, paucity of planning laws, funding, poor institutional ...

  7. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  8. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  9. Contestation in the Use of Residential space: House Typologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to accommodate the populace creates competition for space; the outcome of this competition has produced differently zoned areas such as residential areas, shopping centres, parks and office towers. Bulawayo's residential areas are dominated by one-household units or detached one-storey houses in the ...

  10. Exploring the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Residential Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat, Julia Cathcart; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    We examined the differential outcomes in residential treatment for youths with conduct disorder (CD)--with special attention paid to interactions with age and gender--in a sample of children and adolescents in 50 residential treatment centers and group homes across Illinois. Multi-disciplinary teams rated youths ages 6-20 (N = 457) on measures of…

  11. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  12. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…

  13. Radical programmes for developing the EU residential building sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, Mieke; Huovinen, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The economic recession has hit especially hard the residential building sector in the EU region, e.g., the number of the housing completions has decreased -49% and the total residential output has been squeezed down by -24% between 2007 and 2014 (Euroconstruct, 2015). In turn, the aim of our paper

  14. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  15. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.; Hamers, J.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources) that

  16. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... reasonable indication that an industry is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of large... imports of large residential washers from Mexico. Accordingly, effective December 30, 2011, the Commission...

  17. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading 8450.20.00 of the Harmonized... and Mexico are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within the meaning of section...

  18. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... determines that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of... of large residential washers from Korea and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of...

  19. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress and Using a Novel Automated Method For Measurement of Total Antioxidant Status in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Kale

    2006-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that preeclampsia is related with enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased total antioxidant response before delivery and these parameters may be related at least partly to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Decreased lipid peroxidation and increased total antioxidant response after delivery may suggest recov ery of preeclampsia and using a simple, rapid and reliable automated method f acilitates to ev aluate and follow up of the lev els of oxidativ e stress in preeclampsia and this novel method may be used as a routine test in clinical practice while managing preeclampsia

  20. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  1. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  2. Status of Dog owners in Amravati Region of Maharashtra

    OpenAIRE

    A.D.Sawaimul; S.S.Ghule,S.Z.Ali; S.V.Kuralkar; M.G.Sahare; L.V.Patil; M.R.Hadge

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to analyzes the status of dog owners Akola, Buldana and Amaravati cities of Maharashtra with respect to there profession, income group, purpose of keeping and about residential accommodation of dog owners. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000): 108-108

  3. Status of Dog owners in Amravati Region of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D.Sawaimul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to analyzes the status of dog owners Akola, Buldana and Amaravati cities of Maharashtra with respect to there profession, income group, purpose of keeping and about residential accommodation of dog owners. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 108-108

  4. Do social networks affect the use of residential aged care among older Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glonek Gary FV

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people's social networks with family and friends can affect residential aged care use. It remains unclear if there are differences in the effects of specific (with children, other relatives, friends and confidants and total social networks upon use of low-level residential care and nursing homes. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Six waves of data from 1477 people aged ≥ 70 collected over nine years of follow-up were used. Multinomial logistic regressions of the effects of specific and total social networks on residential care use were carried out. Propensity scores were used in the analyses to adjust for differences in participant's health, demographic and lifestyle characteristics with respect to social networks. Results Higher scores for confidant networks were protective against nursing home use (odds ratio [OR] upper versus lower tertile of confidant networks = 0.50; 95%CI 0.33–0.75. Similarly, a significant effect of upper versus lower total network tertile on nursing home use was observed (OR = 0.62; 95%CI 0.43–0.90. Evidence of an effect of children networks on nursing home use was equivocal. Nursing home use was not predicted by other relatives or friends social networks. Use of lower-level residential care was unrelated to social networks of any type. Social networks of any type did not have a significant effect upon low-level residential care use. Discussion Better confidant and total social networks predict nursing home use in a large cohort of older Australians. Policy needs to reflect the importance of these particular relationships in considering where older people want to live in the later years of life.

  5. The Role of Cellars in Reducing Energy Consumption in the Residential Architecture of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Soltanzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to research, between 15 to 20 percent of the total energy consumption of every country is used for residential spaces. This amount is explanatory of the high cost and will follow the destruction of natural resources and environmental demolition. The aim of this research is to recognize earth thermal ability and its usage in public buildings and especially in private buildings in order to reduce energy consumption which can lead to huge savings in natural resources. It is intended to pay attention to the role of cellars as underground spaces in reducing energy consumption in residential spaces in this research. Cellars which are one of the climatic elements were very useful in residential spaces in the past and underground spaces in cities and public spaces are using in the contemporary era. Native Iranian architecture has exclusive features in residential spaces. One of the reducing energy consumption techniques is using ground depth and underground spaces in private and public buildings. Pit gardens, Shovadan, aqueducts, lavers, cellars with natural abilities in coldness, warmness and support are examples of underground space uses (providing cooling, heating and storing food and goods in Iranian cities. The Main questions of this research are: what the role of undergrounds or cellars was in native Iranian architecture and how impressionable it was in reducing energy consumption. The theoretical framework of this study indicates that several factors had positive impacts on reducing energy consumption in cellars. To do this research, descriptive-analytical methods were uses and were analyzed according to case studies in Qazvin houses. The results of this study reveal that cellars had a main role in human thermal comfort and they caused reducing energy consumption in residential and even public spaces. Also, several factors such as the cellar's depth, height and dimensions had impacts on the reduction amount of energy consumption and the

  6. 25-hydroxy-Vitamin D status: limitations in comparison and clinical interpretation of serum-levels across different assay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Fridrich, Leo; Rezanka, Erwin; Stolba, Robert; Ernst, Juliane; Wendler, Iris; Fabian, Daniel; Hauptlorenz, Susanne; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last decade, clinical interest to evaluate human 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) serum levels has increased exponentially. In the present study, four chemiluminescence immunoassays (CLIA), one radioimmunoassy (RIA), and one high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method were compared and also with the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method in view of 25(OH)D serum level determination. Methods: For the method comparison, blood samples from 133 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. All participants gave written informed consent for their blood samples to be used in this study. They came to the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Central Hospital Steyr (Austria) for osteodensidometric measurement as part of their preventive medical check-up. Pearson's correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and paired t-tests were calculated. Assay-specific reference ranges were considered using blood samples from persons with normal parathormone, calcium, and total-protein values (n = 97). Results: The highest correlation was between the HPLC and the LC-MS/MS method (r = 0.96). The lowest correlation was between the cobas Vitamin D3 assay (Roche) and any of the evaluated assays (r = 0.46 - 0.63). Bland-Altman plots revealed a big negative mean bias in three assays (cobas Vitamin D3 assay [Roche]: -22.8; DiaSorin LIAISON [25[OH]D total CLIA [Diasorin]: -18.4; Diasorin 25[OH]D125 I RIA [Diasorin]: -23.8 [nmol/L]) and a much smaller positive mean bias in the other assays (ClinRep complete 25[OH]D2/D3 HPLC kit [Recipe]: 2.7; ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D total assay [Siemens]: 8.2; IDS total vitamin D assay [Immunodiagnostic Systems]: 12.1 [nmol/L]) compared to the LC-MS/MS method. Meanwhile, the manufacturer has withdrawn the cobas Vitamin D3 assay from the market. Conclusions: Poor antibody specificity with cross-reactivity to other vitamin D metabolites, incomplete extraction of the 25(OH)D analyte from the vitamin D

  7. Problems of methodics: Are they a reason for our continuing to consider trends on the basis of the status quo?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochem, E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper looks into the following questions: Differences of energy demand between the developments of reference and the phaseout variant; technologically oriented estimation methods - higher forecasting certainty for the 90s and cause of estimating errors in the next century; inadequate consideration of the structural change of industry - danger of overrating specific energy demand; varying consideration of price reactions in quantiative analyses - scientifically motivated precaution as a factor paving the way for faulty forecasts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Status of knowledge on student-learning environments in nursing homes: A mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Storm, Marianne; Våga, Bodil Bø; Rosenberg, Adriana; Akerjordet, Kristin

    2018-04-01

    To give an overview of empirical studies investigating nursing homes as a learning environment during nursing students' clinical practice. A supportive clinical learning environment is crucial to students' learning and for their development into reflective and capable practitioners. Nursing students' experience with clinical practice can be decisive in future workplace choices. A competent workforce is needed for the future care of older people. Opportunities for maximum learning among nursing students during clinical practice studies in nursing homes should therefore be explored. Mixed-method systematic review using PRISMA guidelines, on learning environments in nursing homes, published in English between 2005-2015. Search of CINAHL with Full Text, Academic Search Premier, MEDLINE and SocINDEX with Full Text, in combination with journal hand searches. Three hundred and thirty-six titles were identified. Twenty studies met the review inclusion criteria. Assessment of methodological quality was based on the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Data were extracted and synthesised using a data analysis method for integrative reviews. Twenty articles were included. The majority of the studies showed moderately high methodological quality. Four main themes emerged from data synthesis: "Student characteristic and earlier experience"; "Nursing home ward environment"; "Quality of mentoring relationship and learning methods"; and "Students' achieved nursing competencies." Nursing home learning environments may be optimised by a well-prepared academic-clinical partnership, supervision by encouraging mentors and high-quality nursing care of older people. Positive learning experiences may increase students' professional development through achievement of basic nursing skills and competencies and motivate them to choose the nursing home as their future workplace. An optimal learning environment can be ensured by thorough preplacement preparations in academia and in nursing home wards

  9. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five. (author)

  10. The use of MP-AES for determination of plant available P in soil by DL method and distribution of soils into P status classes by DL, AL and Mehlich 3 methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomsoo, Avo; Jürgens, Meit; Kõlli, Raimo; Künnapas, Allan; Albre, Imbi; Tõnutare, Tõnu; Rodima, Ako

    2017-04-01

    Only small percentage of soil total phosphorus is easily exchangeable between solid and solution phase. Plants are able to assimilate P from environment only in the form of orthophosphate ions (H2PO4- and HPO42-) from soil solution. Deficit of P in soil solution prevents plant normal growth and decreases yield quantity and quality. The excess of P in soil solution causes the pollution of environment and eutrophication of water bodies. Therefore it is important to give to the plant producers the correct fertilization recommendations. Lot of analytical methods are developed for the determination of plant available P in soils. In the Baltic Sea region seven different soils' P analysis methods in use. Each method has its own gradation and often there is more than one gradation for the same method depending from agroecological conditions. For agricultural soils in Estonia there are soil P status gradations according to Mehlich 3, DL and AL methods. Phosphate content in soil can be determined by molybdate method Vis-spectrometrically. Very often for analysis of soils' P content also ICP-OES, ICP-MS and also MP-AES instrumental methods are used The aim of our work was to investigate the possibility of using MP-AES for determination of plant available P in soil by DL method and also to compare how the analysed soils are distributed to M3, AL and DL fertilizer requirement groups according to the P content.

  11. APPLICATION OF AUGMENTED AND VIRTUAL REALITY IN RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX PRESENTATION, CASE STUDY: ENERGOPROJEKT SUNNYVILLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEJIC Petar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional method of residential complex project presentations involves the use of a printed poster or elaborate on which the building is presented by using of two-dimensional drawings and images. The main traditional approach problem is the presentation of three-dimensional space on two-dimensional paper. The main focus of this paper is the development of contemporary, mobile systems for residential complex presentations which will be presented on a case study of “Energoprojekt Sunnyville” using a method of virtual and augmented reality. This approach enables easier and better understanding of all types of architectural objects and urban complex, allowing the user intuitive spatial overview of architectural work.

  12. A Hybrid dasymetric and machine learning approach to high-resolution residential electricity consumption modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M [ORNL; Nagle, Nicholas N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for detailed information regarding residential energy consumption patterns has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy consumption, the majority of techniques are highly dependent on region-specific data sources and often require building- or dwelling-level details that are not publicly available for many regions in the United States. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more general hybrid approach to high-resolution residential electricity consumption modeling by merging a dasymetric model with a complementary machine learning algorithm. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model both is applicable to a wide range of regions and considers errors in input data sources.

  13. Present status of reactor physics in the United States and Japan-II. 1. Deterministic Transport Methods for Reactor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Marvin L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss deterministic transport methods used today in neutronic analysis of nuclear reactors. This discussion is not exhaustive; our goal is to provide an overview of the methods that are most widely used for analyzing light water reactors (LWRs) and that (in our opinion) hold the most promise for the future. The current practice of LWR analysis involves the following steps: 1. Evaluate cross sections from measurements and models. 2. Obtain weighted-average cross sections over dozens to hundreds of energy intervals; the result is a 'fine-group' cross-section set. 3. [Optional] Modify the fine-group set: Further collapse it using information specific to your class of reactors and/or alter parameters so that computations better agree with experiments. The result is a 'many-group library'. 4. Perform pin cell transport calculations (usually one-dimensional cylindrical); use the results to collapse the many-group library to a medium-group set, and/or spatially average the cross sections over the pin cells. 5. Perform assembly-level transport calculations with the medium-group set. It is becoming common practice to use essentially exact geometry (no pin cell homogenization). It may soon become common to skip step 4 and use the many-group library. The output is a library of few-group cross sections, spatially averaged over the assembly, parameterized to cover the full range of operating conditions. 6. Perform full-core calculations with few-group diffusion theory that contains significant homogenizations and limited transport corrections. We discuss steps 4, 5, and 6 and focus mainly on step 5. One cannot review a large topic in a short summary without simplifying reality, omitting important details, and neglecting some methods that deserve attention; for this we apologize in advance. (author)

  14. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The objective of this study was to locate legacy wells in Versailles Borough so that the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection could mitigate dangerous CH4 concentrations in the community by venting or plugging leaking wells.

  15. Impacts of an Innovative Residential Construction Method on Internal Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Birchmore

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand houses are known for producing sub-optimal internal thermal conditions and unacceptably high internal moisture levels. These contribute to poor levels of health, mould and can coincide with the decay of structural timber frames. A proposed solution is to provide an alternative structure utilising plywood, a vapour check on the internal face of the timber frame and an additional air gap, followed by the internal lining. The internal vapour check is designed to prevent moisture vapour diffusion from inside into the frame and to permit moisture diffusion from outside through the structure to the internal environment. Two full scale houses had temperatures, dew points and humidity levels monitored in passive, unoccupied conditions. The test case house incorporated the innovative construction solution. The control house was of identical design and location, using standard construction practice. The calculated internal moisture content profile appeared to be unrelated to the external moisture content as expected, instead following the profile of the changing internal temperature. Whilst the innovative construction appeared to prevent moisture diffusion into the structure in winter and permit it inside in summer, this resulted in a generally higher internal relative humidity than the control house.

  16. Methods of Improving Water Treatment Systems for Individual Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of hot topics for ecological management is sewage treatment today in places where there is no sewerage. The volume of country construction in territories, which are not connected to the public sewage system increasing nowadays. Therefore, problem of wastewater treatment take place. Currently, there are a lot of different designs of local waste treatment plants is offered to consumers. However, a large number of negative reviews indicate serious shortcomings in most of the local plants offered in the market. The purpose of this paper is the proposal of improvement of the most common local treatment plants in Russia.

  17. Racial residential segregation, socioeconomic disparities, and the White-Black survival gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Erin; Mendelsohn, Joshua; Escarce, José J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association. Design This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35–75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap. We used 2009–2013 CDC mortality data for Black and White men and women to calculate age-, sex- and race adjusted White and Black mortality rates. We measured segregation using the Dissimilarity index, obtained from the Manhattan Institute. We used the 2009–2013 American Community Survey to define indicators of socioeconomic inequality. We estimated the CBSA-level White–Black gap in probability of survival using sequential linear regression models accounting for the CBSA dissimilarity index and race-specific socioeconomic indicators. Results Black men and women had a 14% and 9% lower probability of survival from age 35 to 75 than their white counterparts. Residential segregation was strongly associated with the survival gap, and this relationship was partly, but not fully, explained by socioeconomic inequality. At the lowest observed level of segregation, and with the Black socioeconomic status (SES) assumed to be at the White SES level scenario, the survival gap is essentially eliminated. Conclusion White-Black differences in survival remain wide notwithstanding public health efforts to improve life expectancy and initiatives to reduce health disparities. Eliminating racial residential segregation and bringing Black socioeconomic status (SES) to White SES levels would eliminate the White-Black survival gap. PMID:29474451

  18. Racial residential segregation, socioeconomic disparities, and the White-Black survival gap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Popescu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association between racial residential segregation, a prominent manifestation of systemic racism, and the White-Black survival gap in a contemporary cohort of adults, and to assess the extent to which socioeconomic inequality explains this association.This was a cross sectional study of White and Black men and women aged 35-75 living in 102 large US Core Based Statistical Areas. The main outcome was the White-Black survival gap. We used 2009-2013 CDC mortality data for Black and White men and women to calculate age-, sex- and race adjusted White and Black mortality rates. We measured segregation using the Dissimilarity index, obtained from the Manhattan Institute. We used the 2009-2013 American Community Survey to define indicators of socioeconomic inequality. We estimated the CBSA-level White-Black gap in probability of survival using sequential linear regression models accounting for the CBSA dissimilarity index and race-specific socioeconomic indicators.Black men and women had a 14% and 9% lower probability of survival from age 35 to 75 than their white counterparts. Residential segregation was strongly associated with the survival gap, and this relationship was partly, but not fully, explained by socioeconomic inequality. At the lowest observed level of segregation, and with the Black socioeconomic status (SES assumed to be at the White SES level scenario, the survival gap is essentially eliminated.White-Black differences in survival remain wide notwithstanding public health efforts to improve life expectancy and initiatives to reduce health disparities. Eliminating racial residential segregation and bringing Black socioeconomic status (SES to White SES levels would eliminate the White-Black survival gap.

  19. General Health Status, Music Performance Anxiety, and Coping Methods of Musicians Working in Turkish State Symphony Orchestras: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topoğlu, Onur; Karagülle, Derya; Keskin, Tuba U; Abacigil, Filiz; Okyay, Pinar

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the general health, music performance anxiety (MPA), and coping methods of musicians working in six state orchestras in Turkey. All musicians working in the state symphony orchestras (n=384) were invited to participate in the study. In face-to-face interviews, the authors administered a questionnaire, which consisted of five sections: sociodemographic information, history of musical performance, health status, general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and MPA scale. Mann-Whitney U-test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation test were used to analyze the questionnaire data. The 220 musicians who participated included 121 (55%) males and 99 (45%) females, with a mean age of 42.4±11.3 yrs. For musculoskeletal symptoms, 87.6% reported at least one symptom with the most common being pain. For general health status, the GHQ-12 showed 64% of musicians were at low risk, 18.7% at moderate risk, and 17.3% at high risk in terms of mental health. The prevalence of MPA before or during performance was 81.8%, and 60% of musicians stated that performance anxiety negatively affected their performances. Results indicate that musicians working in Turkish state symphony orchestras encounter numerous health problems (tinnitus, hearing loss, musculoskeletal symptoms, etc.) due to their profession. No specific health support is provided, especially education and health service provision.

  20. Residential roof condition assessment system using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Kerekes, John P.; Xu, Zhuoyi; Wang, Yandong

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of high resolution (HR) and ultra high resolution (UHR) airborne remote sensing imagery is enabling humans to move beyond traditional land cover analysis applications to the detailed characterization of surface objects. A residential roof condition assessment method using techniques from deep learning is presented. The proposed method operates on individual roofs and divides the task into two stages: (1) roof segmentation, followed by (2) condition classification of the segmented roof regions. As the first step in this process, a self-tuning method is proposed to segment the images into small homogeneous areas. The segmentation is initialized with simple linear iterative clustering followed by deep learned feature extraction and region merging, with the optimal result selected by an unsupervised index, Q. After the segmentation, a pretrained residual network is fine-tuned on the augmented roof segments using a proposed k-pixel extension technique for classification. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated on both HR and UHR imagery collected by EagleView over different study sites. The proposed algorithm has yielded promising results and has outperformed traditional machine learning methods using hand-crafted features.