WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential pv market

  1. Accelerating residential PV expansion: supply analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Adam; Williams, Robert H.; Duke, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is now sufficiently advanced that market support mechanisms such as net metering plus a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) could induce rapid PV market growth in grid-connected applications. With such support mechanisms, markets would be sufficiently large that manufacturers could profitably build and operate 100 MW p /yr PV module factories, and electricity costs for residential rooftop PV systems would compare favorably with residential electricity prices in certain areas (e.g., California and the greater New York region in the US). This prospect is illustrated by economic and market analyses for one promising technology (amorphous silicon thin-film PV) from the perspectives of both module manufacturers and buyers of new homes with rooftop PV systems. With public policies that reflect the distributed and environmental benefits offered by PV-and that can sustain domestic PV market demand growth at three times the historical growth rate for a period of the order of two decades - PV could provide 3% of total US electricity supply by 2025. (Author)

  2. Accelerating residential PV expansion: demand analysis for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Richard; Williams, Robert; Payne, Adam

    2005-01-01

    This article quantifies the potential market for grid-connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) electricity integrated into new homes built in the US. It complements an earlier supply-side analysis by the authors that demonstrates the potential to reduce PV module prices below $1.5/W p by scaling up existing thin-film technology in 100 MW p /yr manufacturing facilities. The present article demonstrates that, at that price, PV modules may be cost effective in 125,000 new home installations per year (0.5 GW p /yr). While this market is large enough to support multiple scaled up thin-film PV factories, inefficient energy pricing and demand-side market failures will inhibit prospective PV consumers without strong public policy support. Net metering rules, already implemented in many states to encourage PV market launch, represent a crude but reasonable surrogate for efficient electricity pricing mechanisms that may ultimately emerge to internalize the externality benefits of PV. These public benefits include reduced air pollution damages (estimated costs of damage to human health from fossil fuel power plants are presented in Appendix A), deferral of transmission and distribution capital expenditures, reduced exposure to fossil fuel price risks, and increased electricity system reliability for end users. Thus, net metering for PV ought to be implemented as broadly as possible and sustained until efficient pricing is in place. Complementary PV 'buydowns' (e.g., a renewable portfolio standard with a specific PV requirement) are needed to jumpstart regional PV markets

  3. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  4. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation. (letter)

  5. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  6. How PV system ownership can impact the market value of residential homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jamie L. [Energy Sense Finance, LLC, Punta Gorda, FL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There are multiple ways for a homeowner to obtain the electricity generating and savings benefits offered by a photovoltaic (PV) system. These include purchasing a PV system through various financing mechanisms, or by leasing the PV system from a third party with multiple options that may include purchase, lease renewal or PV system removal. The different ownership options available to homeowners presents a challenge to appraisal and real estate professionals during a home sale or refinance in terms of how to develop a value that is reflective of the PV systems operational characteristics, local market conditions, and lender and underwriter requirements. This paper presents these many PV system ownership options with a discussion of what considerations an appraiser must make when developing the contributory value of a PV system to a residential property.

  7. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.

  8. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies. (letter)

  9. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  10. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.

  11. Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-29

    This report presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries-$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeo wners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions-primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders-if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  12. A Market Assessment of Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.; Coburn, T.

    2000-09-13

    This is the Executive Summary of a report that presents research done in response to a decision by the Colorado Governor's Office of Energy Conservation and Management (OEC) and Colorado utility companies to consider making residential grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) systems available in Colorado. The idea was to locate homeowners willing to pay the costs of grid-tied PV (GPV) systems without batteries--$8,000 or $12,000 for a 2- or 3-kilowatt (kW) system, respectively, in 1996. These costs represented two-thirds of the actual installed cost of $6 per watt at that time and assumed the remainder would be subsidized. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and OEC partnered to conduct a market assessment for GPV technology in Colorado. The study encompassed both qualitative and quantitative phases. The market assessment concluded that a market for residential GPV systems exists in Colorado today. That market is substantial enough for companies to successfully market PV systems to Colorado homeowners. These homeowners appear ready to learn more, inform themselves, and actively purchase GPV systems. The present situation is highly advantageous to Colorado's institutions--primarily its state government and its utility companies, and also its homebuilders--if they are ready to move forward on GPV technology.

  13. Marketing residential grid-connected PV systems using a balanced scorecard as a marketing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, N.; Calais, P.; Calais, M.

    2001-01-01

    A strategic analysis of the electricity market in Western Australia yields a market potential for renewable energy in Western Australia. However, from a purely financial viewpoint the installation of grid-connected pv-systems still is not economically viable. In this paper a balanced scorecard (BSC) is developed to capture and visualize other than financial benefits. Therefore, the BSC can be used as a marketing tool to communicate the benefits of a privately owned GCPV system to potential customers. (author)

  14. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, Barbara C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buhrmann, Jan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  15. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  16. U.S. Residential Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices, Q4 2013 Benchmarks: Cash Purchase, Fair Market Value, and Prepaid Lease Transaction Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, C.; James, T. L.; Margolis, R.; Fu, R.; Feldman, D.

    2014-10-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. This report provides a Q4 2013 update for residential PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variation in business models, labor rates, and module choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.29/W for modeled standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon residential PV systems installed in the United States. This is a 46% decline from the 2013-dollar-adjusted price reported in the Q4 2010 benchmark report. In addition, this report frames the cash purchase price in the context of key price metrics relevant to the continually evolving landscape of third-party-owned PV systems by benchmarking the minimum sustainable lease price and the fair market value of residential PV systems.

  17. Comparing Photovoltaic (PV) Costs and Deployment Drivers in the Japanese and U.S. Residential and Commercial Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Japan has re-emerged in 2013 as one of the world's fastest-growing and largest photovoltaic (PV) markets (Renewable Energy World 2013). Year-over-year growth in Japanese installed capacity in the first half of 2013 was about 270%. Japan's PV market was on pace to triple in 2013 compared with 2012, with approximately 2.7 GW installed during the first half of 2013 (compared to about 1.6 GW in the United States). This places Japan's market among the world's largest PV markets, along with China, Germany, and the United States. This report explores details of the rapidly changing Japanese market, and similarities and differences between the Japanese and U.S. markets. We collected data from a diverse group of Japanese PV installers, and we gathered additional Japanese and U.S. data from published sources as well as internal analyses.

  18. The PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1990s. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market however is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy the cost of PV systems utility acceptance of PV and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, and OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer stand-alone and utility markets

  19. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  20. Global PV Market Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    2009-01-01

    The dawn of 2009 saw several events which caused major turbulence in the global photovoltaic industry. In 2008 the Spanish PV market grew beyond all expectations and even outranked Germany as the world's number one market. However, the promotion scheme was modified and a market cap was introduced in 2009, cutting back the maximum capacity to be installed to about the level of 2007. In addition, the industry is facing an oversupply of PV modules and a harsh recession which is significantly affecting the traditionally strong PV markets. International photovoltaic companies are challenged by a changing market situation: all of a sudden, competition has increased significantly, pushing the customer to the fore. As a result, a consolidation process is expected within the PV industry worldwide. However, the story is not all negative. In the U.S., the election of Barack Obama may be seen as the starting signal for a massive expansion in PV, likely to bring the country to first place globally within the next five years. Furthermore, different markets and market segments are being opened up - especially in Europe - thanks to the gradual arrival of generation parity and new PV support mechanisms. EuPD Research has observed and studied international PV markets since its foundation. The information included in the presentation is based on a wide range of quantitative and qualitative studies that EuPD Research has conducted in the key markets since 2002. Florian Schmidt, EuPD Research's Head of Product Management, will give an overview of the global PV market and how it is developing in this crucial year 2009. Aspects such as technology development, production capacities and the demand side will be included, with a special emphasis on the European PV markets. So far Chinese PV companies have often benefited from the booming PV markets in Europe, above all Germany and Spain. Due to the lack of domestic market, the Chinese industry strongly depends on the export and is

  1. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  2. Latin America as new PV market opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    It is important to recognize solar energy as an international and strategic opportunity for the European market to expand. The objective of this paper is to apply the methodology created during the PV Parity project for analyzing PV Competitiveness in the emerging residential PV market in Brazil, using information from the State of Rio de Janeiro. The dynamic competitiveness analysis was performed considering the price with and without taxes in order to assess the year when PV will reach grid parity in Rio de Janeiro and how the taxes impact on the results. Results are divided into 3 scenarios: Optimistic, Conservative, and Conservative Moderate. The LCOE of residential systems will likely become competitive with the residential electricity tariffs between 2020 and 2030, assuming the residential tariffs in Rio de Janeiro. This is an indicator that PV energy business opportunities are increasing in Brazil and, with the adequate policy support, its market competitiveness could be improved. We are also looking in other markets of Latin America. (full text)

  3. The world PV market 2000: shifting from subsidy to 'fully economic'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the world grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) market concentrating on the US, Japan and Germany. The PV markets in the three countries are examined, and PV module shipments, the economics of residential PVs in the markets, and forecasts of the grid-connected market are discussed. Details are given of the German 100,000 roofs PV roof subsidy programme to stimulate the residential and commercial grid-connected market. A summary of the grid-connected PV markets in the three countries, and economic information on German grid-connected PV roofs are tabulated

  4. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) markets are relatively non-transparent: PV price and product information is not readily available, searching for this information is costly (in terms of time and effort), and customers are mostly unfamiliar with the new technology. Quote aggregation, where third-party companies collect PV quotes on behalf of customers, may be one way to increase PV market transparency. In this paper, quote aggregation data are analyzed to study the value of transparency for distributed solar PV markets. The results suggest that easier access to more quotes results in lower prices. We find that installers tend to offer lower prices in more competitive market environments. We supplement the empirical analysis with key findings from interviews of residential PV installers.

  5. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  6. PV market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    The article comments on the massive increase in sales of photovoltaic cells in 2004, largely due to the growth of subsidised grid-connected markets in California, Germany and Japan. Details of the various companies producing photovoltaics, production figures, and world ranking are given together with photovoltaic production in Europe. Even so, the world production of photovoltaics was only the equivalent of two large gas turbines. The various types of photovoltaic cells are discussed and data, according to cell type, are given for world production. Costs, prices and government subsidies are discussed. A forecast of the world photovoltaics market, according to potential application, is given to the year 2010

  7. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  8. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  9. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  10. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  11. An analysis of residential PV system price differences between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, Joachim; Barbose, Galen L.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or “soft” costs between the two countries, which can only in part be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in Germany, especially for customer acquisition, installation labor, and profit/overhead costs, but also for expenses related to permitting, interconnection, and inspection procedures. Additional costs occur in the United States due to state and local sales taxes, smaller average system sizes, and longer project-development times. To reduce the identified additional costs of residential PV systems, the United States could introduce policies that enable a robust and lasting market while minimizing market fragmentation. Regularly declining incentives offering a transparent and certain value proposition—combined with simple interconnection, permitting, and inspection requirements—might help accelerate PV cost reductions in the United States. - Highlights: • Residential PV system prices are twice as high in the USA than in Germany in 2012. • Different cumulative national PV market sizes explain only 35% of price gap. • Installer surveys show that price differences stem from non-module and soft costs. • Largest cost differences stem from customer acquisition and installation labor. • Incentives in the US are less effective in driving and following cost reductions

  12. The PV market - Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper forecasts the photovoltaic (PV) market growth for the 1900's. Ten years of PV history are reviewed and used to establish market trends in terms of average selling price (ASP) and kilowatts shipped by market segment. The market is segmented into indoor consumer, stand-alone, and grid-connected applications. Indoor consumer presently represents a saturated market and is fairly predictable. The stand-alone market (i.e. not connected to the utility grid) is fairly stable and predictable. The utility PV market, however, is highly dependent on a number of market factors such as the cost of conventional energy, the cost of PV systems, utility acceptance of PV, and regulatory controls. Government and institutional regulations, environmental issues, OPEC and Middle East politics will have the greatest impact on the cost of conventional fuels. Private and federal investment in PV technology development could have a significant impact on the cost of PV systems. Forecasts are provided through the year 2000 for indoor consumer, stand-alone, and utility markets. PV has unique attributes which make it a desirable source of energy in specific applications. It is a renewable source of energy, non-polluting, very reliable, predictable, low maintenance, modular, and has a very low operating cost. The energy source (sunlight) is distributed around the globe. Its limitations are high initial cost, no inherent energy storage, and low energy density

  13. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  14. Global PV markets and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfsegger, Cristoph [European Photolvoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), Brussels, Belgium (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the global importance of the PV industry, not only in the environmental sphere but also in the economic sphere. It is firstly given the major information of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA), where there can be found the lists of those full member countries that work as: components manufacturers, consulting, and associate members. Then, it is given a briefly explanation about the Alliance for Rural Electrification (ARE), and the reasons why the -PV systems- are almost the panacea to both the energy and the environmental issue. In addition, it is given the most relevant information about how to implement this system in those regions that have not yet implemented it. Besides, there are explained some of the benefits that this system has. It is shortly explained how this system is working in German and it is also shown a comparison chart about the photovoltaic feed-in tariffs. There are shown some graphics and charts having information related to the global markets and the global installations of PV systems and other issues related to them. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente acerca de la importancia que hoy en dia tiene la industria fotovoltaica alrededor del mundo, esto no solo ocurre en el ambito ambiental sino tambien en el economico. En la primer parte se muestra la informacion mas importante acerca de la Asociacion Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA por sus siglas en ingles), en donde se encuentran las listas de los paises que son miembros permanentes trabajando como: fabricantes de componentes, asesores y miembros asociados. Enseguida, se da, de manera escueta, una explicacion acerca de la ARE, asi como las razones por las que los sistemas fotovoltaicos son casi la panacea tanto para los problemas ambientales como para los energeticos. Ademas, se explica la informacion mas relevante acerca de como implementar este sistema en aquellas partes del mundo que todavia no lo han realizado

  15. Impact of residential PV adoption on Retail Electricity Rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Desmond W.H.; Adlakha, Sachin; Low, Steven H.; De Martini, Paul; Mani Chandy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The price of electricity supplied from home rooftop photo voltaic (PV) solar cells has fallen below the retail price of grid electricity in some areas. A number of residential households have an economic incentive to install rooftop PV systems and reduce their purchases of electricity from the grid. A significant portion of the costs incurred by utility companies are fixed costs which must be recovered even as consumption falls. Electricity rates must increase in order for utility companies to recover fixed costs from shrinking sales bases. Increasing rates will, in turn, result in even more economic incentives for customers to adopt rooftop PV. In this paper, we model this feedback between PV adoption and electricity rates and study its impact on future PV penetration and net-metering costs. We find that the most important parameter that determines whether this feedback has an effect is the fraction of customers who adopt PV in any year based solely on the money saved by doing so in that year, independent of the uncertainties of future years. These uncertainties include possible changes in rate structures such as the introduction of connection charges, the possibility of PV prices dropping significantly in the future, possible changes in tax incentives, and confidence in the reliability and maintainability of PV. -- Highlights: •Households who install PV reduce their electricity consumption from the grid. •Electricity rates must increase for utility companies to recover its fixed costs. •However, higher electricity rates give households more incentives to adopt PV. •We find that this feedback has significant impact on PV uptake only in later years. •Utility companies could lose a significant fraction of high consumption customers

  16. The market for photovoltaic (PV) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Vejtasa, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a study that was intended to provide the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) with a market analysis for photovoltaic (PV) technologies under development by EPRI and others. The analysis was to focus on markets and factors leading to significant incremental growth for PV demand, large enough to support more efficient scale PV manufacturing capacity. EPRI anticipates that PV ultimately could provide grid-connected power, however, the 1995--2010 market dynamics are uncertain. The specific objectives of this study, therefore, were to: determine what major future domestic US markets for PV technologies will emerge and provide enough volume to support significant improvements in manufacturing costs through manufacturing economies of scale; provide insight on what is needed to gain acceptance of PV technologies for electric power generation in those major markets; provide insight on when investments in demonstration and manufacturing facilities should be made and what is needed to be successful in each element of the business that these markets could support (e.g., technology development, manufacturing, sales, installation, and service); and provide key insights on the requirements for commercial success of PV in the utility sector

  17. Building PV markets: customers and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    What makes market deployment strategies for PV successful? A group of specialists (from IEA Task 7) has been looking at the progress made so far. Here, in the first of two articles based on their report, the author presents some of their findings, including benefits and barriers for defined groups of customers; how customers for PV systems are identified, and what they are willing to pay. It also looks at current prices in different countries, and their possible trends. (Author)

  18. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of U.S. residential solar PV installers are small local-scale companies, however the industry is relatively concentrated in a few large national-scale installers. We develop a novel approach using solar PV quote data to study the price behavior of large solar PV installers in the United States. Through a paired differences approach, we find that large installer quotes are about higher, on average, than non-large installer quotes made to the same customer. The difference is statistically significant and robust after controlling for factors such as system size, equipment quality, and time effects. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installer systems. We explore several hypotheses for this finding, including that large installers are able to exercise some market power and/or earn returns from reputations.

  19. The transformation of southern California's residential photovoltaics market through third-party ownership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, Easan; Miller, Mackay; Macal, Charles M.; Graziano, Diane J.; Heimiller, Donna; Ozik, Jonathan; Perry IV, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Third-party photovoltaics (PV) ownership is a rapidly growing market trend, where commercial companies own and operate customer-sited PV systems and lease PV equipment or sell PV electricity to the building occupant. Third-party PV companies can reduce or eliminate up-front adoption costs, reduce technology risk and complexity by monitoring system performance, and can repackage the PV value proposition by showing cost savings in the first month of ownership rather than payback times on the order of a decade. We find that the entrance of third-party business models in southern California residential PV markets has enticed a new demographic to adopt PV systems that is more highly correlated to younger, less affluent, and less educated populations than the demographics correlated to purchasing PV systems. By enticing new demographics to adopt PV, we find that third-party PV products are likely increasing total PV demand rather than gaining market share entirely at the expense of existing customer owned PV demand. We also find that mean population demographics are good predictors of third-party and customer owned PV adoption, and mean voting trends on California carbon policy (Proposition 23) are poor predictors of PV adoption. - Highlights: ► Third-party PV products increased residential PV demand in southern CA. ► Third-party PV products entice new demographic groups to adopt PV. ► Regional demographics are good predictors of PV demand. ► Regional voting trends on carbon policy are poor predictors of PV demand.

  20. Income Trends of Residential PV Adopters: An analysis of household-level income estimates [PowerPoint presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L.; Darghouth, Naim R.; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2018-04-09

    The residential photovoltaic (PV) market has expanded rapidly over the past decade, but questions exist about how equitably that growth has occurred across income groups. Prior studies have investigated this question but are often limited by narrow geographic study regions, now-dated analysis timeframes, or coarse estimates of PV-adopter incomes. At the same time, a spate of new programs and initiatives, as well as innovations in business models and product design, have emerged in recent years with the aim of making solar more accessible and affordable to broader segments of the population. Yet, many of those efforts are proceeding without robust underlying information about the income characteristics of recent residential PV adopters. This work aims to establish basic factual information about income trends among U.S. residential solar adopters, with some emphasis on low- and moderate-income (LMI) households. The analysis is unique in its relatively extensive coverage of the U.S. solar market, relying on Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun dataset, which contains project-level data for the vast majority of all residential PV systems in the country (a subset of which are ultimately included in the analysis sample). This analysis is also unique in its use of household-level income estimates that provide a more-precise characterization of PV-adopter incomes than in most prior studies.

  1. A Survey of State and Local PV Program Response to Financial Innovation and Disparate Federal Tax Treatment in the Residential PV Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt & Associates, Inc., Harpswell, ME (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High up-front costs and a lack of financing options have historically been the primary barriers to the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in the residential sector. State clean energy funds, which emerged in a number of states from the restructuring of the electricity industry in the mid-to-late 1990s, have for many years attempted to overcome these barriers through PV rebate and, in some cases, loan programs. While these programs (rebate programs in particular) have been popular, the residential PV market in the United States only started to achieve significant scale in the last five years – driven in large part by an initial wave of financial innovation that led to the rise of third-party ownership.

  2. Solar Community Organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Daniel; Dawes, Colleen; Rai, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) are formal or informal organizations and citizen groups that help to reduce the barriers to the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by (1) providing access to credible and transparent information about the localized benefits of residential PV and (2) actively campaigning to encourage adoption within their operational boundaries. We study the peer effect, or social interaction, process catalyzed by SCOs to understand the impact of these organizations on the residential PV market. Using a standardized search methodology across spatial scales (state; city; neighborhoods), we identify and characterize the operations of 228 SCOs formed in the U.S. between 1970 and 2012. We also present case studies of four successful SCOs and find that a common thread of why these SCOs are successful involves effectively leveraging trusted community networks combined with putting together a complete information and financial-tools package for use by interested communities. Finally, our findings suggest that empirical studies that attempt statistical identification and estimation of peer effects should pay close attention to the role of SCOs, as the social interactions engendered by SCOs may be correlated both with the level of social learning and the socio-demographic characteristics of the communities of interest. - Highlights: • New dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012. • Shock events catalyze formation of SCOs. • SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption. • Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs. • In addition to information provision, financing options also key for SCOs' success

  3. The potential market for PV building products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This study was carried out by ECOTEC Research and Consulting Limited (ECOTEC) in collaboration with the Newcastle Photovoltaic Application Centre (NPAC) and ECD Energy and Environment (ECD) under the Department of Trade and Industry's (DTI) New and Renewable Energy Programme (contract reference S/P2/00277/00/00). The aim was to assess the future market potential for building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) products in terms of current product availability, product development needs, the nature and size of the potential market, and the opportunities for government and the PV supply industry to work together to develop the market. The study itself comprised a review of existing BIPV products, an analysis of the development of the world market for BIPV, a market research survey of building professionals, and meetings of two 'focus groups' drawn from the PV 'supply side' and from buildings professionals. In principle, BIPV products can be used in virtually any type of building, but the main applications are considered to be housing and offices. (author)

  4. Design and Implementation of an Innovative Residential PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Elie Michel

    This work focuses on the design and implementation of an innovative residential PV system. In chapter one, after an introduction related to the rapid growth of solar systems' installations, the most commonly used state of the art solar power electronics' configurations are discussed, which leads to introducing the proposed DC/DC parallel configuration. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the power electronics' configurations are deliberated. The scope of work in the power electronics is defined in this chapter to be related to the panel side DC/DC converter. System integration and mechanical proposals are also within the scope of work and are discussed in later chapters. Operation principle of a novel low cost PV converter is proposed in chapter 2. The proposal is based on an innovative, simplified analog implementation of a master/slave methodology resulting in an efficient, soft-switched interleaved variable frequency flybacks, operating in the boundary conduction mode (BCM). The scheme concept and circuit configuration, operation principle and theoretical waveforms, design equations, and design considerations are presented. Furthermore, design examples are also given, illustrating the significance of the newly derived frequency equation for flybacks operating in BCM. In chapters 3, 4, and 5, the design implementation and optimization of the novel DC/DC converter illustrated in chapter 2 are discussed. In chapter 3, a detailed variable frequency BCM flyback design model leading to optimizing the component selections and transformer design, detailed in chapter 4, is presented. Furthermore, in chapter 4, the method enabling the use of lower voltage rating switching devices is also discussed. In chapter 5, circuitry related to Start-UP, drive for the main switching devices, zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) as well as turn OFF soft switching and interleaving control are fully detailed. The experimental results of the proposed DC/DC converter are presented in

  5. Evolution of consumer information preferences with market maturity in solar PV adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale Reeves, D.; Rai, Varun; Margolis, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Residential adoption of solar photovoltaics (PV) is spreading rapidly, supported by policy initiatives at the federal, state, and local levels. Potential adopters navigate increasingly complex decision-making landscapes in their path to adoption. Much is known about the individual-level drivers of solar PV diffusion that steer adopters through this process, but relatively little is known about the evolution of these drivers as solar PV markets mature. By understanding the evolution of emerging solar PV markets over time, stakeholders in the diffusion of solar PV can increase policy effectiveness and reduce costs. This analysis uses survey data to compare two adjacent markets across a range of relevant characteristics, then models changes in the importance of local vs cosmopolitan information sources by combining theory relating market maturity to adopter behavior with event-history techniques. In younger markets, earlier, innovative adoptions that are tied to a preference for cosmopolitan information sources are more prevalent than expected, suggesting a frustrated demand for solar PV that segues into adoptions fueled by local information preferences contemporary with similar adoptions in older markets. The analysis concludes with policy recommendations to leverage changing consumer information preferences as markets mature.

  6. Grid-Competitive Residential and Commercial Fully Automated PV Systems Technology: Final technical Report, August 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Katie E.; Cousins, Peter; Culligan, Matt; Jonathan Botkin; DeGraaff, David; Bunea, Gabriella; Rose, Douglas; Bourne, Ben; Koehler, Oliver

    2011-08-26

    Under DOE's Technology Pathway Partnership program, SunPower Corporation developed turn-key, high-efficiency residential and commercial systems that are cost effective. Key program objectives include a reduction in LCOE values to 9-12 cents/kWh and 13-18 cents/kWh respectively for the commercial and residential markets. Target LCOE values for the commercial ground, commercial roof, and residential markets are 10, 11, and 13 cents/kWh. For this effort, SunPower collaborated with a variety of suppliers and partners to complete the tasks below. Subcontractors included: Solaicx, SiGen, Ribbon Technology, Dow Corning, Xantrex, Tigo Energy, and Solar Bridge. SunPower's TPP addressed nearly the complete PV value chain: from ingot growth through system deployment. Throughout the award period of performance, SunPower has made progress toward achieving these reduced costs through the development of 20%+ efficient modules, increased cell efficiency through the understanding of loss mechanisms and improved manufacturing technologies, novel module development, automated design tools and techniques, and reduced system development and installation time. Based on an LCOE assessment using NREL's Solar Advisor Model, SunPower achieved the 2010 target range, as well as progress toward 2015 targets.

  7. A prospective economic assessment of residential PV self-consumption with batteries and its systemic effects, and the implications for public policies: the French case in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jin Julie

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the price of PV modules has fallen largely due to the globalization of the PV sector. If residential PV systems coupled with batteries become economically competitive in the near future, end-users will be willing to switch to the self-consumption of PV electricity instead of using power from the network. If the transition of PV self-consumption in the residential sector occurs massively or suddenly, the national energy system would be faced with a radical change. This article analyses the economic feasibility of French residential PV systems combined with Li-ion batteries in 2030 to anticipate the possible change in future energy systems. It also includes a stakeholder analysis with respect to the PV self-consumption model to analyse the systemic effects of PV integration into the electricity system. Our study provides a theoretical explanation of the impact on the current electricity market and quantifies the expected impact on the most influential stakeholder group. The ultimate objective is to help policy-makers forecast possible scenarios for PV self-consumption so they can prepare for the future transition with strategic actions. By way of conclusion, we discuss the policy implications and elaborate policy recommendations based on the results of this study. (author)

  8. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  9. Property Tax Assessments as a Finance Vehicle for Residential PV Installations: Opportunities and Potential Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark A; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-02-01

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy efficiency improvements, and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms, and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have met with mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including: (1) historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, (2) lack of program awareness, (3) reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and (4) a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy, and not in need of financing. Although some of these barriers have begun to fade--most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates--the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from several U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the City of Berkeley, California, these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using

  10. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-19

    We use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the role of firm size in PV installer pricing. We find that large installers (those that installed more than 1,000 PV systems in any year from 2013 to 2015) quote higher prices for customer-owned systems, on average, than do other installers. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installers.

  11. Is grid parity an indicator for PV market expansion in the Netherlands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, C.L.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Sinke, W.C. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Stichting Monitoring Zonnestroom, Korte Elisabethstraat 6, 3511 JG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Grid parity occurred in the residential sector in the Netherlands in the period 2011-2012, because the levelized cost of electricity (LCoE) for a typical residential PV system (0.6-5 kWp) was well below 0.2 euro/kWh, for interest rates between 3 and 8%, while the retail electricity price was 0.23 euro/kWh, propelling a significant increase in installed PV capacity in the residential sector. It is revealing to discuss the constellation of factors that have led to grid parity in the Netherlands, and whether they will lead to continued market expansion. These factors include those relevant to the industry (i.e. the cost learning curve and the overcapacity) as well as those specific to the Netherlands (various policy incentives, net-metering, as well as large-scale purchasing actions). 'Grid parity' may not reflect the growth perspectives for the industry because it gives no information on the adequacy of the PV system prices to impel market expansion, or on the complexity and controls on grid electricity pricing, which depend only to a small degree on generation costs. Low PV system prices were accompanied by an increase in installations but 'unhealthy' prices will not necessarily mean continued market expansion. The continuation of the cost learning curve to drive down PV prices depends to a certain degree on R and D budgets, which are under severe pressure in the current environment. Grid parity in the residential sector has been accompanied by a surge of installations, however this trend is not being paralleled by the non-residential sectors.

  12. The new NOZ-PV: Market-oriented

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ter Horst, E.

    1995-01-01

    In the proposal for the new National Research Program for Photovoltaics (NOZ-PV) 1995-1999 the focus is on four subjects: solar cell technology, the industrial support, the stimulation of autonomous, favorable applications and markets for PV, and the realization of a training program PV in the Built Areas. The program will be carried out as a market-oriented program. 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. Adaptive Harmonic Compensation in Residential Distribution Grid by Roof-Top PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangeneh Bighash, Esmaeil; Sadeghzadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Esmaeil

    2018-01-01

    grid- connected roof-top PV inverters in residential distribution grid can be an opportunity to engage these systems in the power quality issues as custom power devices. By implementing a proper control for roof-top PV inverters, these systems may in addition to inject the fundamental current......, additionally act like a virtual harmonic resistance and dedicate their additional current capacity to compensate the harmonics of residential distribution grid. In this paper, each roof-top PV system is a grid harmonic supervisor, where it continually measures the PCC voltage harmonics by Sliding Discrete...

  14. What's stopping a huge expansion of the PV market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadi, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the terrestrial PV industry has turned into a billion-dollar global business. The necessary technology is available and substantial market growth is continuing. It has often been said that the cost of PV must come down further before the technology really takes off. However the author argues here that the dominant segments of the market are not price-sensitive and that the future explosive expansion of PV markets will need financing on a global basis, assured quality in the products, and the institution of an extensive public-awareness programme of advertising, promotion and education. (author)

  15. Residential/commercial market for energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M M

    1979-08-01

    The residential/commercial market sector, particularly as it relates to energy technologies, is described. Buildings account for about 25% of the total energy consumed in the US. Market response to energy technologies is influenced by several considerations. Some considerations discussed are: industry characteristics; market sectors; energy-consumption characeristics; industry forecasts; and market influences. Market acceptance may be slow or nonexistent, the technology may have little impact on energy consumption, and redesign or modification may be necessary to overcome belatedly perceived market barriers. 7 figures, 20 tables.

  16. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  17. The impact of rate design and net metering on the bill savings from distributed PV for residential customers in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate. - Highlights: → We examine the value of bill savings under net metering to PV owners in California. → Bill savings per kWh of PV generation varies by a factor of four with net metering. The variation is attributable to rate design, the unique inclining block structure. → The median value of bill savings is reduced by 40-67% with MPR feed-in tariff. → The median value of bill savings is reduced by 6-12% with hourly netting.

  18. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  19. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  20. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation co...

  1. Review of Solar PV Market Development in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    to understanding these effects by reviewing the development of markets for solar PV in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, focusing on how the differences in market development have been explained in the literature. The paper finds that, although Tanzania and Uganda are rapidly catching up, Kenya is still leading......While the diffusion of solar home systems in Kenya has been market-based for some years, the diffusion of PV in most other Sub-Saharan African countries has been driven by government and donor-supported projects aimed at serving specific needs for electricity while at the same time creating...

  2. Commercial breaks: building the market for PV in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, M.

    2001-01-01

    The article focuses on the huge potential market for off-grid photovoltaics in Africa, in the sub-Saharan region in particular. However, so far the potential market remains largely untapped and several multimillion-dollar projects aimed at developing the market have been disappointing. The result has been a reduction in the activities of PV companies in Africa. The article seeks reasons for the lack of success and offers suggestions for improving the situation

  3. Building-integrated PV -- Analysis and US market potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frantzis, L.; Hill, S.; Teagan, P.; Friedman, D.

    1994-01-01

    Arthur D Little, Inc., in conjunction with Solar Design Associates, conducted a study for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Building Technologies (OBT) to determine the market potential for building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). This study defines BIPV as two types of applications: (1) where the PV modules are an integral part of the building, often serving as the exterior weathering skin, and (2) the PV modules are mounted on the existing building exterior. Both of these systems are fully integrated with the energy usage of the building and have potential for significant market penetration in the US

  4. Fresh ideas needed: building the PV market in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, M.

    2006-01-01

    The reasons why sales of photovoltaics in Africa are miniscule compared with those in Europe, America, Japan and China are analysed and suggestions for ways of developing the African market are put forward. Although there have been some PV off-grid installations, on-grid systems are almost non-existent. The PV market in Africa has been constrained by a lack of a sound government policy and a lack of incentives for the private sector. It is suggested that Africa should study the success of PVs in other parts of the world and that governments, utilities and large consumers should initiate new projects to develop both small off-grid and large on-grid systems. The PV potential in Africa is massive, but at present it is not being realised. (author)

  5. Transition issues in an unbundled residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS

  6. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Winfried [RWE SCHOTT Solar GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Str. 4, 63755 Alzenau (Germany)

    2006-11-23

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  7. PV solar electricity industry: Market growth and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) solar electricity market has shown an impressive 33% growth per year since 1997 until today with market support programs as the main driving force. The rationales for this development and the future projections towards a 100 billion | industry in the 2020s, by then only driven by serving cost-competitively customer needs are described. The PV market, likely to have reached about 600MW in the year 2003, is discussed according to its four major segments: consumer applications, remote industrial electrification, developing countries, and grid-connected systems. While in the past, consumer products and remote industrial applications used to be the main cause for turnover in PV, in recent years the driving forces are more pronounced in the grid-connected systems and by installations in developing countries. Examples illustrating the clear advantage of systems using PV over conventional systems based, e.g., on diesel generators in the rural and remote electrification sector are discussed. For the promotion of rural electrification combined with the creation of local business and employment, suitable measures are proposed in the context of the PV product value chain. The competitiveness of grid-connected systems is addressed, where electricity generating costs for PV are projected to start to compete with conventional utility peak power quite early between 2010 and 2020 if time-dependent electricity tariffs different for bulk and peak power are assumed. The most effective current-pulling force for grid-connected systems is found to be the German Renewable Energy (EEG) Feed-in Law where the customers are focusing on yield, performance, and long-life availability. The future growth in the above-defined four market segments are discussed and the importance of industry political actions in order to stimulate the markets either in grid-connected systems by feed-in tariff programs as well as for off-grid rural developing country applications by long

  8. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets | Solar Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes. Context Prospective PV customers are relatively non-transparent; customers are largely unaware of market prices and may not obtain the lowest available price. PV customers that use quote aggregators-third-party companies that collect quotes

  9. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  10. Household photovoltaic market in Xining, Qingha province, China: the role of local PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, S.; Boardman, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the present and future market for household photovoltaic (PV) systems in rural Northwest China, especially from the PV commerce at Xining, Qinghai Province. This unsubsidised free market is now met by the emerging PV industry in China, which includes cell and module manufacturers, and PV system distributors and assemblers. For widespread deployment of such a renewable energy technology, the development of a local free market seems more successful than donor- or 'government subsidy'-driven programmes. Presently, there is a thriving infant PV industry in Northwest China, mostly centred in Xining. Xining-based PV sales companies have extensive networks for selling, marketing and servicing household PV systems for rural farmers and nomads. Small systems are now ordinary items on sale in local shops. Based on interviews and fieldwork observations with seven major PV sales companies in Xining, the household PV market is assessed from the present business operations of these companies. Detail of primary sources is given with the aim of archiving seminal progress in the history of photovoltaic power. The results suggest that although the household PV market will continue to grow, current government and international sponsored PV programmes can create both opportunities and barriers for the infant PV market an industry in China. (author)

  11. PV market stimulation by training and creativity workshops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearsall, N.

    2001-01-01

    Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are expected to be a major route for the utilisation of solar energy in Europe. In order for BIPV to realise its full potential, it is necessary to increase the market size and this requires the development of appropriate market segments as they become financially viable. There may be accompanying market stimulation methods such as financing packages, tax reductions or other incentives. Thus it is important for the PV system designer and/or supplier to be aware of developing market segments and of methods to address these. The realisation of a BIPV project requires the interaction of several key players and consideration of many issues, including technical design, architectural acceptability, planning constraints, interfacing with existing electricity supply systems and financing. The aims of this project were: to promote consideration of the marketing aspect of BIPV when developing projects; to introduce a range of players in the sector to marketing techniques; and to initiate new project ideas to address market needs. These aims were addressed by the organisation of creativity workshops in which marketing issues could be discussed and participants could utilise marketing approaches in the development of project ideas. (author)

  12. PV market stimulation by training and creativity workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, N

    2001-07-01

    Building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) systems are expected to be a major route for the utilisation of solar energy in Europe. In order for BIPV to realise its full potential, it is necessary to increase the market size and this requires the development of appropriate market segments as they become financially viable. There may be accompanying market stimulation methods such as financing packages, tax reductions or other incentives. Thus it is important for the PV system designer and/or supplier to be aware of developing market segments and of methods to address these. The realisation of a BIPV project requires the interaction of several key players and consideration of many issues, including technical design, architectural acceptability, planning constraints, interfacing with existing electricity supply systems and financing. The aims of this project were: to promote consideration of the marketing aspect of BIPV when developing projects; to introduce a range of players in the sector to marketing techniques; and to initiate new project ideas to address market needs. These aims were addressed by the organisation of creativity workshops in which marketing issues could be discussed and participants could utilise marketing approaches in the development of project ideas. (author)

  13. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  14. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, L.; Sawyer, A.; Grove, J.

    2011-02-01

    This handbook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert interest into action, to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The handbook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  15. Sensitivity of Rooftop PV Projections in the SunShot Vision Study to Market Assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-01-01

    The SunShot Vision Study explored the potential growth of solar markets if solar prices decreased by about 75% from 2010 to 2020. The SolarDS model was used to simulate rooftop PV demand for this study, based on several PV market assumptions--future electricity rates, customer access to financing, and others--in addition to the SunShot PV price projections. This paper finds that modeled PV demand is highly sensitive to several non-price market assumptions, particularly PV financing parameters.

  16. The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives and Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2015-01-01

    With dramatic declines in the cost of solar PV technology over the last 5 years, the electricity industry is in the midst of discussions about whether to use this low-polluting renewable energy source in grid-scale generation or in distributed generation (DG), mostly with rooftop solar PV. California has led the growth in DG solar in the U.S. I use 2007 to early 2014 residential data from Pacific Gas & Electric – the utility with largest number of residential solar customers in the U.S. – to ...

  17. Residential PV system users' perception of profitability, reliability, and failure risk: An empirical survey in a local Japanese municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Toshihiro; Kawamoto, Shishin; Ueda, Yuzuru; Saijo, Miki; Abe, Naoya

    2011-01-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the reliability of residential PV systems in order to improve the dissemination of the systems among individual users and societies, few have examined users' perception of their own PV systems, which might contain solutions to firmly establish the system into society. First, the present paper examined the extent to which residential PV system users understand specification, reliability, and failure risk of their own systems. Second, causal factors affecting users' satisfaction with PV systems were examined. By analyzing data collected in Kakegawa City, this paper revealed that users did not appropriately understand the basic specifications of their residential PV systems, and in particular, the fact that the systems sometimes failed and therefore needed proper maintenance. Furthermore, a strong causal relationship between users' expectations of financial return from the system and their level of satisfaction was confirmed empirically. These results suggested that excessive focus on profitability and relatively low interest in the systems' reliability and failure risk should be addressed more to avoid problems that could potentially hamper the establishment of this technology into society. - Highlights: → We examined PV users' perception of its specification, reliability, and failure risk. → Data for analysis were collected by questionnaire survey in a Japanese local municipality. → We revealed users did not appropriately understand the basic specifications. → A strong causal relationship between users' expectations of financial return and their level of satisfaction was confirmed empirically.

  18. The Price-Concentration Relationship in Early Residential Solar Third-Party Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, Jacquelyn [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Langheim, Ria [Center for Sustainable Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Machak, Christina [Center for Sustainable Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hellow, Henar [Center for Sustainable Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The market for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States has experienced tremendous growth over the past decade, with installed capacity more than doubling between 2014 and 2016 alone (SEIA, 2016). As the residential market continues to grow, it prompts new questions about the nature of competition between solar installers and how this competition, or lack thereof, affects the prices consumers are paying. It is often assumed that more competition leads to lower prices, but this is not universally true. For example, some studies have shown that factors such as brand loyalty could lead to a negative relationship between concentration and price in imperfectly competitive markets (Borenstein, 1985; Holmes, 1989). As such, the relationship between prices and market concentration is an open empirical question since theory could predict either a positive or negative relationship. Determining a relationship between prices and market concentration is challenging for several reasons. Most significantly, prices and market structure are simultaneously determined by each other -- the amount of competition a seller faces influences the price they can command, and prices determine a seller's market share. Previous studies have examined recent PV pricing trends over time and between markets (Davidson et al., 2015a; Davidson and Margolis 2015b; Nemet et al., 2016; Gillingham et al., 2014; Barbose and Darghouth 2015). While these studies of solar PV pricing are able to determine correlations between prices and market factors, they have not satisfactorily proven causation. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, there is little work to date that focuses on identifying the causal relationship between market structure and the prices paid by consumers. We use a unique dataset on third-party owned contract terms for the residential solar PV market in the San Diego Gas and Electricity service territory to better understand this relationship. Surprisingly, we find

  19. Impact of roof integrated PV orientation on the residential electricity peak demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadineni, Suresh B.; Atallah, Fady; Boehm, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A study to demonstrate peak load reductions at the substation. ► A new residential energy efficient community named Villa Trieste is being developed. ► The peak demand from the homes has decreased by 38% through energy efficiency. ► Orientation of roof integrated PV has less influence on the summer peak demand. ► Increasing thermostat temperature during peak by 1 °C can significantly reduce peaks. -- Abstract: Peak electricity demand has been an issue in the Desert Southwest region of the US, due to extreme summer temperatures. To address this issue, a consortium was formed between the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Pulte Homes, and NV Energy. An energy efficient residential community was developed by the team in Las Vegas with approximately 200 homes to study substation-level peak reduction strategies. A summer peak reduction of more than 65%, between 1:00 PM and 7:00 PM, compared to code standard housing developments is the targeted goal of the project. Approximately 50 homes are already built and some are occupied. The energy performances of the homes have been monitored and are presented in this paper. Several peak electric load reduction strategies such as energy efficiency in buildings, roof integrated photovoltaics (PV) and direct load control have been applied. Though all the homes in the developed community are installed with 1.8 kW p PV systems, the orientation of the PV system depends on the building orientation. Focus of this paper is to find the impact of PV orientation on the peak load from a building. In addition, different time-of-use (TOU) energy pricing options are offered by the local electrical utility company. Hence it is important to find an optimal pricing option for each building. A computer model has been developed for one of the homes in the new development using building energy simulation code, ENERGY-10. Calculations on the PV orientations have shown that a south and 220° (i.e. 40° west of due south

  20. Real-time Modelling, Diagnostics and Optimised MPPT for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso

    responsible for yield-reduction of residential photovoltaic systems. Combining the model calculations with measurements, a method to detect changes in the panels’ series resistance based on the slope of the I − V curve in the vicinity of open-circuit conditions and scaled to Standard Test Conditions (STC......The work documented in the thesis has been focused into two main sections. The first part is centred around Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques for photovoltaic arrays, optimised for fast-changing environmental conditions, and is described in Chapter 2. The second part is dedicated...... to diagnostic functions as an additional tool to maximise the energy yield of photovoltaic arrays (Chapter 4). Furthermore, mathematical models of PV panels and arrays have been developed and built (detailed in Chapter 3) for testing MPPT algorithms, and for diagnostic purposes. In Chapter 2 an overview...

  1. Neural network controller for Active Demand-Side Management with PV energy in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matallanas, E.; Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamaño-Martín, E.; Masa, D.; Jiménez-Leube, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have developed a neural controller for Active Demand-Side Management. ► The controller consists of Multilayer Perceptrons evolved with a genetic algorithm. ► The architecture of the controller is distributed and modular. ► The simulations show that the electrical local behavior improves. ► Active Demand-Side Management helps users to control his energy behaviour. -- Abstract: In this paper, we describe the development of a control system for Demand-Side Management in the residential sector with Distributed Generation. The electrical system under study incorporates local PV energy generation, an electricity storage system, connection to the grid and a home automation system. The distributed control system is composed of two modules: a scheduler and a coordinator, both implemented with neural networks. The control system enhances the local energy performance, scheduling the tasks demanded by the user and maximizing the use of local generation.

  2. A case study of utility PV economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.; Hoff, T.; Osborn, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from a detailed study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications within the service area of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. The intent is to better understand the economics and markets for grid-connected PV systems in a utility setting. Research results include: Benefits calculations for utility-owned PV systems at transmission and distribution voltages; How the QuickScreen software package can help utilities investigate the viability of distributed PV; Energy production and capacity credit estimates for fixed and tracking PV systems; Economics and rate impacts of net metering residential PV systems; Market potential estimates for residential rooftop PV systems; and Viability and timing of grid-connected PV commercialization paths

  3. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This guidebook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert 'interest' into 'action,' to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The guidebook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  4. The Economic Feasibility of Residential Energy Storage Combined with PV Panels: The Role of Subsidies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cucchiella

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A solar photovoltaic system produces electricity by converting energy from the sun. By the end of 2016, the global installed solar photovoltaic capacity reached 305 GW. Its growth is impressive in the last years; in fact, it was only equal to 41 GW in 2010. However, Europe has installed only 6.9 GW in 2016 (−1.7 GW in comparison to previous year and this annual power installed is equal to 9% of global one in according to data released by Solar Power Europe. The profitability of PV systems in mature markets depends on the harmonization between demanded energy and produced one residential energy storage when combined with photovoltaic panels is able to increase the share of self-consumption. This work proposes a mathematical model, in which a Discounted Cash Flow analysis is conducted to evaluate the financial feasibility of photovoltaic-integrated lead acid battery systems in Italy. The indicator used is Net Present Value. Furthermore, a break-even point analysis, in terms of an increase of self-consumption, is conducted. The residential sector is investigated and energy storage system investment is incentivized by fiscal deduction and regional subsidies. The analysis provides several case studies, determined by combinations of the following variables: photovoltaic plant size, battery capacity, the increase of the share of self-consumption, and the useful lifetime of energy storage system. The same case studies are proposed also in four alternative scenarios, where is the modified the structure of subsidies. Results confirm that the profitability can be reached in presence of subsidies.

  5. Marketing time-of-day rates to the residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Metropolitan Edison Company in Pennsylvania began to promote load management and conservation in the early 1970s. In 1976, time-of-day rates were introduced as a strategy to aid in providing adequate supply at a price which could sustain demand. At first, it was offered on a trial basis to a limited number of customers. The on-peak period was 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. weekdays, and if the customer used 60% or more of his electric energy during the off-peak period, costs could be saved on the new rate. Marketing of the new rates was conducted at a modest level and the marketing program emphasized changes in lifestyle such as the deferring of energy consuming tasks to the off-peak period. After the Three Mile Island incident in 1979, the utility lost some of its supply; this and other factors prompted new marketing strategies including more extensive publicity and targeted mailings to users of electric water heaters. Customers were required to take service under the time-of-day rate if they selected specific end-use applications or consumed over 1,000 kWh for 2 consecutive months. Special programs were initiated to aid customers in modifying water heaters to shift consumption to off-peak hours. These and other measures have led to the present situation in which 16.2% of the total residential rate class takes service under the time-of-day rate

  6. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  7. Economic PV - a shift in thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, P.

    1999-01-01

    This article argues that photovoltaic (PV) technology is already economically viable contrary to current opinion. A table of world PV module shipments for 1990 to 1998 by market sector is presented, and use of PV modules in consumer electronics such as calculators, battery trickle chargers, and garden lights; in communications and signals (eg. microwave repeaters, cellular communication); and in the residential sector in fluorescent lights, radios etc. are discussed. The early adopters of PV technology, and the value placed on PV devices by consumers are considered. Details of PV manufacturing costs for 1997, and forecasts for 2000 and 2010 are tabulated

  8. Architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV to a residential block in Greece to reduce its carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panopoulou, Ismini

    Photovoltaic power is a unique energy source, with wide distribution potential, which can be integrated within the fabric of individual buildings, transforming the power generation in a less large-scale and regionally located issue. As a result, photovoltaic power is a free, clean and silent electrical supply that can be introduced into cities and residential areas. Over the past years, grid-connected, distributed photovoltaic power systems have become an explosively growing sector worldwide. This trend is expected to be continued in the future and solar systems may become a common building element of building construction. In Greece, where the main focus of the project is concentrated, the extended sunshine and the incentives of the new Renewable Energy Sources law of 2006, give a different perspective in photovoltaic investments. In the case study of Vera Water Residence complex in Athens, the viability of an architecturally sensitive retrofitting of PV was examined, from both financial and environmental aspects. The project was concentrated in one of the complex's buildings which was modelled in TAS simulator in order for the annual heating and cooling loads to be estimated. A closer to the reality estimation of electricity demand was made through the annual electricity bills of the building. The proposed building integrated photovoltaic system was designed in terms of following and respecting the aesthetics of the existing architecture of the complex while being as efficient as possible. The annual energy output and C02 emissions reductions were then calculated through RETScreen software analysis according to the location of the project and the characteristics of the PV system. Finally, an economic analysis has been included to the study, considering the installation cost, the annual savings and the embodied energy of the system, in order for the payback period of the investment to be determined. Finally, a small sensitivity analysis concerning the effect of

  9. A New Remote Communications Link to Reduce Residential PV Solar Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Randy [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States); Sugiyama, Rod [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Monitoring of PV/DER site production is expensive to install and unreliable. Among third party systems providers, lost communications links are a growing concern. Nearly 20% of links are failing, provisioning is complex, recovery is expensive, production data is lost, and access is fragmented. FleetLink is a new concept in DER system communications, purpose built for lowering the cost of maintaining active contact with residential end user sites and ensuring that production data is reliably available to third party systems providers. Systems providers require accurate, secure system monitoring and reporting of production data and system faults while driving down overall costs to compete effectively. This plug and play, independently operating communications solution lowers the cost of fleet contact from typically .08 dollars-$.12/W down to .02 dollars -.03/W including installation and maintenance expenses. FleetLink establishes a breakthrough in simplicity that facilitates rapid expansion of residential solar by reducing initial capital outlay and lowering installation labor time and skill levels. The solution also facilitates higher DER installation growth rates by driving down maintenance costs and eliminating communications trouble calls. This is accomplished by the FleetLink’s unique network technology that enables dynamic network configuration for fast changes, and active, self-healing DER site contact for uptime assurance. Using an open source network framework with proprietary, application specific enhancements, FleetLink independently manages connectivity, security, recovery, grid control communications, and fleet expansion while presenting a compliant SunSpec interface to the third party operations centers. The net system cost savings of at least .05 dollars/W supports the SunShot cost goals and the flexibility and scalability of the solution accelerates the velocity and ubiquitous adoption of solar.

  10. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  11. PV market in Germany and activities of the metropolitan utility of Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmueller, G.; Lewald, N.

    2001-01-01

    The introduction of the Renewable Energy Law in Germany in combination with the 100,000 roof program lead to an explosion of the market for grid-connected PV systems, with all possible effects such as the formation of new PV companies, job creation and the installation of a huge number of PV systems. But there is also one negative aspect: higher prices for the modules due to production bottle-necks. The Municipal Utility of Karlsruhe (SWK) commits itself to the sector of renewable energy especially PV. Some of these activities are also described in the paper

  12. Design of a Reliable Hybrid (PV/Diesel Power System with Energy Storage in Batteries for Remote Residential Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anayochukwu Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experience acquired with a photovoltaic (PV hybrid system simulated as an alternative to diesel system for a residential home located in Southern Nigeria. The hybrid system was designed to overcome the problem of climate change, to ensure a reliable supply without interruption, and to improve the overall system efficiency (by the integration of the battery bank. The system design philosophy was to maximize simplicity; hence, the system was sized using conventional simulation tool and representative insolation data. The system includes a 15 kW PV array, 21.6 kWh (3600 Ah worth of battery storage, and a 5.4 kW (6.8 kVA generator. The paper features a detailed analysis of the energy flows through the system and quantifies all losses caused by PV charge controller, battery storage round-trip, rectifier, and inverter conversions. In addition, simulation was run to compare PV/diesel/battery with diesel/battery and the results show that the capital cost of a PV/diesel hybrid solution with batteries is nearly three times higher than that of a generator and battery combination, but the net present cost, representing cost over the lifetime of the system, is less than one-half of the generator and battery combination.

  13. PV Solar Electricity: From a Niche Market to One of the Most Important Mainstream Markets for Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, W.; Waldmann, L.

    PV solar electricity is seen as one of the few booming markets, today and in the coming decades. This market has grown globally at a rate of about 40% per year over the past 10 years. Related industries have realized a two-digit, billion-dollar (U.S.) turnover worldwide. PV solar electricity is a high-tech industry with high performance potential in the coming decades, leaving even the electronics industries behind and approaching the automotive industry.

  14. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asali, Karim

    2002-01-01

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  15. Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...... potential of geographic area due to power network limitations even though all rooftops are fully occupied with PV modules. Therefore, it becomes more of an issue to know what exactly limits higher PV penetration level and which solutions should be engaged efficiently such as over sizing distribution...

  16. Residential customer-sited photovoltaics markets 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herig, C.; Thomas, H.; Perez, R.; Wenger, H.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly three years ago, the authors published the paper, Niche Markets for Grid Connected Photovoltaics. The paper identified target market niches for Customer-Sited Photovoltaics (CSPV), on a state-by-state basis for the US. The paper demonstrated cost-effective, grid-connected, domestic markets existed and identified those showing the most near-term promise. Many financial and policy attributes effecting the economics of CSPV have changed since the previous paper was published. Incorporating these policy changes into the analysis expands the CSPV market from a niche status to an era of significance. The number of states with break-even turnkey costs (BTC) above four dollars per watt expanded from five to fifteen. The top five state market values are now above a break-even cost of seven dollars per watt, a value at which the domestic CSPV market moves beyond a break-even status to consumer savings or industry profit, depending on system price. Emissions mitigation values were also included in the paper, but did not significantly effect the break-even market value results. The paper presents the details of the data, analysis, and results

  17. PV and PV/hybrid products for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H. P.; Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L., Pierce, L. K.

    2000-05-15

    Residential, commercial, and industrial buildings combined are the largest consumers of electricity in the United States and represent a significant opportunity for photovoltaic (PV) and PV/hybrid systems. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting a phased research and product development program, Building Opportunities in the United States for Photovoltaics (PV:BONUS), focused on this market sector. The purpose of the program is to develop technologies and foster business arrangements integrating cost-effective PV or hybrid products into buildings. The first phase was completed in 1996 and a second solicitation, PV:BONUS2, was initiated during 1997. These projects are resulting in a variety of building-integrated products. This paper summarizes the recent progress of the seven firms and collaborative teams currently participating in PV:BONUS2 and outlines planned work for the final phase of their work.

  18. Sensitivity of portuguese electricity market prices to solar PV penetration : an analysis of 2016 prices

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro De Sousa, João

    2017-01-01

    The reduction in price of solar PV technology led, in the recent years, multiple investors to apply for installing new solar PV power plants in Portugal which would operate without subsidies or feed-in-tari s. In 2016 it was reported the approval of construction of such power plants and given the low variable cost of this technology it is expected that their penetration would reduce the electricity market prices. Hence, before doing the economic assessment of potential new sola...

  19. Single-point reactive power control method on voltage rise mitigation in residential networks with high PV penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasheminamin, Maryam; Agelidis, Vassilios; Ahmadi, Abdollah

    2018-01-01

    Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise by ...... system with high r/x ratio. Efficacy, effectiveness and cost study of SPRPC is compared to droop control to evaluate its advantages.......Voltage rise (VR) due to reverse power flow is an important obstacle for high integration of Photovoltaic (PV) into residential networks. This paper introduces and elaborates a novel methodology of an index-based single-point-reactive power-control (SPRPC) methodology to mitigate voltage rise...... by absorbing adequate reactive power from one selected point. The proposed index utilizes short circuit analysis to select the best point to apply this Volt/Var control method. SPRPC is supported technically and financially by distribution network operator that makes it cost effective, simple and efficient...

  20. Cost reduction in PV manufacturing. Impact on grid-connected and building-integrated markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maycock, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    In the past three years there have been several key events or changes that can lead to fully economic, massive deployment to the grid-connected and central PV markets. The factors discussed in this report include: (1) significant cost reduction in single crystal and polycrystal silicon so that modules profitably priced at $3.10-$3.30 per peak watt and installed grid-connected systems with installed cost of $5.50 per watt are being offered; (2) several new thin film plants - amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium diselenide are being built for 1996, 1997 production with greatly reduced costs; (3) government subsidized volume orders for PV in grid-connected houses (Japan, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the United States) provide volume (2000+ units per year) that lead to reduced costs; (4) environmental benefits for PV are being applied in Europe and Japan permitting 'early adopters' to enter the market; and (5) government and commercial acceptance of PV building integrated products, especially in Europe, are expanding PV markets. The combination of these forces lead to the prediction that an 'accelerated' market mode could start in the year 2000

  1. PV in the US: where is the market going and how will it get there?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, P.

    2006-01-01

    As the global PV industry continues its rapid growth in Europe and Japan, the reasons for the USA losing its once leading position are considered. An important factor influencing the demand for photovoltaics anywhere is the subsidies. In Germany, their very successful feed-in tariff law is currently the driving-force for their PV industry and has created the biggest market in the world for PV products. Similar schemes in other parts of Europe are expected to stimulate demand. In the USA, demand for photovoltaics has slowed and production has followed, and in Asia manufacturing costs are much less. For a surge in the PV industry in the USA, it will be necessary for state and federal governments to provide motivation. (author)

  2. Residential consumers’ experiences in the adoption and use of solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Jeff; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2017-01-01

    Public policy in many nations is seeking to transition energy generation towards renewable sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV). Reviews of past policy aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources have identified that policy implementation may not align with policy objectives of energy professionals. The research and analysis of consumers and their interaction with solar PV policy is important in assessing policy outcomes and how these can be better delivered or adapted. This paper reports on an in depth qualitative analysis of 22 persons under different feed-in tariff (FiT) policy settings to explore consumer experiences in acquiring solar PV and their energy use behaviour. The responses of participants indicate there were different motivations and energy use behaviour that were based on the policy in which solar PV was acquired and these may provide insight into policy development or follow up studies. - Highlights: • Consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources (RES) are vital to GHG mitigation. • Different policy settings have encouraged consumer uptake of solar PV. • Qualitative study examines two cohorts of consumers under different solar feed-in tariff (FiT) settings. • Level of FiT identified as linked to behaviours that can alter policy outcomes.

  3. Sizing energy storage systems to make PV tradable in the Iberian electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltram, H.; Perez, E.; Aparicio, N.; Vidal, R.; Belenguer, E. [Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Castello de la Plana (Spain). Electrical Engineering Area; Piqueres, T. [Energia Solar Aplicada (ESA), Valencia (Spain). Technical Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The work presented in this paper is intended to provide some reference values for the ratings required by an energy storage system, to be integrated in a large-scale PV power plant placed at any location of the Iberian Peninsula, to operate it according to an energy management strategy (EMS) whic allowed its participation in the Iberian electricity market while minimizing the economic penalties. The proposed EMS produces a constant-by-hours power reference to be tracked by the PV plant with storage and, in that way, mitigate the stochastic nature of the PV production. This operation mode will enable PV power plants to take part reliably in the different electricity markets, profiting the intraday market sessions to continuously refine the power production commitment. Different configurations of the EMS are analysed, introducing on each of them different meteorologically-based adjustments which allow minimizing the energy capacity required by the storage system. The proposals are analysed through one-year long simulations which use real-world data and PV power forecasting models extracted from solar databases. (orig.)

  4. Market dynamics, innovation, and transition in China's solar photovoltaic (PV) industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Hongyang; Du, Huibin; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    development from the perspective of technological innovation. By incorporating a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach, the analysis performed here complements the previous literature, which has not provided agrounded itself in a theoretical framework for associated analyses. In addition......China’s photovoltaic (PV) industry has undergone dramatic development in recent years and is now the global market leader in terms of newly added capacity. However, market diffusion and adoption in China is not ideal. This paper examines the blocking and inducement mechanisms of China’s PV industry......, to determine the current market dynamics, we closely examine the market concentration trends as well as the vertical and horizontal integration of upstream and downstream actors and calculate the market concentration of the upstream and downstream integration (74.8% and 36.3%). The results of applying the TIS...

  5. Progress in markets for grid-connected PV systems in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade of the twentieth century a wide variety of promotion strategies increased the market penetration of small grid-connected PV systems world-wide. The objective of this paper is to assess the impact of these promotion strategies on the market for and on the economic performance of small grid-connected PV systems. The most important conclusions of this analysis are: Pure cost-effectiveness is not crucial for private customers. Affordability is rather what counts. Non-monetary issues play an important role for a substantial increase in market deployment. Comprehensive accompanied information and education activities are also important along with financial incentives. There are still considerable barriers in the market: on the one hand transparent and competitive markets exist in only a few countries; on the other hand non-monetary transaction costs still represent a major barrier. Progress with respect to cost reduction has been achieved, but mainly for non-module components. (author)

  6. Residential Mortgage Market in Economic and Social Development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onysko Stefaniia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies tendencies of development of the residential mortgage market in Ukraine in the post-crisis period 2009 – 2012, identifies main tendencies of development of the Ukrainian mortgage market and conducts analysis of the level of mortgage interest rates. The article analyses the modern state of the mortgage market of Ukraine, dynamics of volumes of mortgage loans, their cost, structure of banks as mortgage creditors and cost of housing in Ukraine in the studied period. The article makes a number of offers on efficiency of mortgage, offers directions of financial support of rehabilitation of the market for solving housing problems of the population and identifies importance of state support of mortgage development.

  7. First steps in developing the niche market for PV in conservatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    This report describes the findings of a project commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) to review and quantitatively assess the prospects and potential for the integration of photovoltaic (PV) modules and components into conservatories. This is considered one way of expanding the market for domestic PV installations in the UK. The report describes the outputs from the project's various work packages. These included: an assessment of the benefits provided by PVs in conservatories in terms of energy use, shading, simulations and aesthetics; the definition of design requirements for integrating PV; development of designs; market surveys of consumers, the conservatory industry and the house building industry; and the development of user guidelines

  8. SiC-based High Efficiency Bidirectional Battery Converter for Smart PV Residential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Biris, Valeriu-Ciprian; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    Smart PV inverters are essential components of future grids. Beside conventional functionalities they can communicate with the grid, supports the grid with reactive power and with active power from internal battery storage. To maximize internal consumption, a high efficiency bidirectional DC-DC c...

  9. Market Making in the Residential Real Estate Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tenney, Curtis

    2001-01-01

    .... The benefits of having market makers range from shortening trading time and reducing transaction costs to transmitting information quicker and cheaper and reducing total selling costs and equilibrium prices...

  10. State distributed PV policies: Can low cost (to government) policies have a market impact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasko, Vitaliy A.; Doris, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of distributed generation photovoltaic (PV) markets. The focus is on low-cost market opening policies instead of various forms of government subsidies aimed at reducing installation costs. The ideas tested in this work are: (1) low-cost market opening policies can be effective in facilitating PV market growth without subsidizing projects, and (2) policies can be made more effective if states and localities stage their enactment in a particular order. The policies selected for evaluation emerge from a policy stacking theory outlined in Doris (2012), NREL/CP-7A30-54801, Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A cross-section econometric analysis that takes into account the quality of interconnection standards, net metering standards, Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), RPS set-asides, and a non-policy determinant (population) explains about 70% of the variation in newly installed PV capacity across states and indicates that all of the selected policies are significant. Nonparametric statistical tests confirm the regression results. Qualitative evidence is also presented indicating that effective policy ordering starts with improving interconnection standards, closely followed by improvements in net metering standards, and eventually strengthened by the enactment of an RPS and set-asides. - Highlights: • Impacts of low cost market opening policies on PV capacity are evaluated. • Impact of a strategic policy enactment sequence is evaluated. • Effective interconnection, net metering, RPS, and set-asides increase PV capacity. • Effective ordering is market preparation, then creation, then expansion policies

  11. Transformation of the rural PV market through the National Rural Water Service Delivery Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The primary objective of the project is to reduce the country's energy-related Co2 emissions by substituting solar Pv to fossil fuels to provide basic water pumping services to the non-electrified rural communities in the Middle-South region. A secondary objective is to institutionalize the use of solar Pv for low-head irrigation and basic domestic (lighting, Tv) and community (health clinics, telecom, schools) uses in rural areas as a substitute for fossil fuel-based energy sources (paraffin, diesel and LPG). The activities proposed in the project are designed to: (I) remove barriers to the wide-scale utilization of solar Pv for solar pumping; (II) meet the basic energy needs of community based organizations; and (III) reinforce public-private partnerships in promoting solar Pv technology. This project will assist with the introduction of solar Pv in the Government rural water program - which is a unique opportunity to tap a sizable Pv market within the country - and will ensure sustain ability through the involvement of the private sector in the provision of water services

  12. Market Transformation Pathways for Grid-Connected Rooftop Solar PV in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, Ross [Fresh Energy, St. Paul, MN (United States); Ross, Brian [CR Planning, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2013-06-03

    This report presents the market and policy findings of the Minnesota Solar Challenge program. The report draws on information collected from state agencies, local government units, solar industry participants, rooftop photovoltaic (PV) adopters (sometimes called customer-generators), state and national experts, the Commerce distributed generation stakeholder process, and the numerous reports and data sets referenced herein.

  13. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated....... Simple but customized performance models for PV modules and a small wind turbine have been developed; furthermore the models have been parameterized based on real-life time-series for irradiance and wind speed, characteristic for a site in Denmark. The stress to which the battery was subjected, while...

  14. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  15. Customer service in the residential property market of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rudansky-KlopperS

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of estate agencies are entering the real estate market in South Africa and many are struggling to survive as competition grows stronger. Customer service has become of overriding importance to establish a differential advantage that will ensure long-term survival. This study investigates customer service by estate agencies in the residential property market of South Africa. The results indicate that estate agencies seem to be aware of the importance of providing good customer service and of being service-oriented, but they do not always seem to realise the need to conduct marketing research and test the actual satisfaction of customers with the services provided, leaving a potential gap between what the customer wants and what the estate agency provides.

  16. Supporting Photovoltaics in Market-Rate Residential NewConstruction: A Summary of Programmatic Experience to Date and LessonsLearned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-02-10

    As a market segment for solar photovoltaic (PV) adoption, new homes have a number of attractive attributes. Homebuyers can easily roll the cost of the PV system into their tax-deductible home mortgage and, with rebates and other financial incentives, potentially achieve an immediate net-positive cash flow from the investment. New homes are amenable to building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), which are less susceptible to aesthetic concerns than traditional, rack-mounted systems. The performance of PV systems can be optimized on new homes by taking roof orientation and shading into account when designing the home. Perhaps most importantly, subdivisions with PV systems installed on a large number of homes offer potential cost savings from volume purchases of modules and inverters and from scale economies in system design and installation. Finally, the ability of builders to install PV as a standard feature on multiple homes in new subdivisions offers an opportunity to circumvent the high transaction costs and information-related market barriers typically confronted when each individual homeowner must make a decision about installing PV. Builders may benefit in several ways from incorporating PV into new homes. Builders may gain greater market differentiation, enhanced media exposure, and less community or political opposition to development projects. Additionally, if homebuyers place a high value on PV, builders may be able to earn additional profits, just as they would on granite countertops or other high-value home features. Although the impact of PV on the original sale price of new homes has not yet been rigorously examined, some limited empirical evidence does suggest that PV and energy efficient features may have a positive effect on resale value. Along with its unique advantages, residential new construction also faces unique barriers to PV adoption. Most fundamentally, perhaps, is the general aversion to technology risk within the building industry

  17. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  18. Solar generation: a blueprint for growing the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, M.; Stierstorfer, J.; Teske, S.; Aubrey, C.

    2001-01-01

    The rapid growth of the solar electricity market is discussed. The European Photovoltaic Industry Association and Greenpeace have recently collaborated on a long-term forecast of the global solar electricity market up to 2020 with predictions up to 2040; the conclusions from their joint study are the subject of this article. The paper is presented under the main sub-headings of (i) background to the collaboration; (ii) the Greenpeace perspective; (iii) the impact of solar electricity in the lives of consumers and job-seekers born today; (iv) solar generation-methods and assumptions (v) market growth rates; (vi) electricity generation; (vii) carbon dioxide emissions; (viii) projection to 2040; (ix) key results of the EPIA/Greenpeace analysis; (x) solar electricity as a vehicle for job creation and (xi) creating the conditions for optimizing the impact of solar electricity on future generations. A chart shows solar electricity job creation potential 2000-2020

  19. Restructuring and the retail residential market for power in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, Andrew N.; Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    In January 2010 electricity retail residential rate caps expired in a large part of Pennsylvania, allowing consumers to shop for electricity in the retail market. In this paper we employ customer-level data from the relevant territory to analyze what residential customer and community characteristics impacted the decision of whether or not to switch to an alternative electricity provider, and when to make the switch. Results show that customers with higher usage levels (especially around the time of the program's introduction), electric heating, and those living in more urban and more educated communities with lower unemployment rates and higher median household incomes were both more likely to switch, and more likely to do so faster. Lower switching rates and a slower switching response was observed from customers with more variable month to month usage (perhaps this made them unsure of future benefits from switching), those on alternative residential electricity rates (time-of-day and thermal storage programs), and those new to the relevant area (perhaps due to lack of information about the residential choice program). Critics of retail electricity competition have suggested that it disadvantages poor and elderly ratepayers. Our results do not support this contention. Customers living in communities with higher poverty rates were actually more likely to switch (and do so faster) than middle-income consumers. Communities with higher shares of senior population were not found to have lower switching rates from younger communities. - Highlights: ► We analyze introduction of retail competition in Pennsylvania's electricity sector. ► We evaluate what characteristics influence consumers to switch electric providers. ► Higher usage and electric heat influence customers to switch and to do so faster. ► More variable usage and being new to service area deter switching. ► High poverty rates induce switching; older communities no less likely to switch.

  20. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  1. Field Experiments of PV-Thermal Collectors for Residential Application in Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT solar systems, the commercial photovoltaic (PV panels used as solar absorbers in PVT collectors, which are amorphous and multi-crystalline silicon. Testing was done with outdoor experiments in the climate of Bangkok corresponding to energy consumption behavior of medium size Thai families. The experimental results show that the thermal recovery of amorphous silicon PVT collector is almost the same as that of multi-crystalline silicon PVT collectors while electricity generation of multi crystalline silicon PVT is 1.2 times as much as that of amorphous silicon PVT. The maximum of heat gain from the PVT systems were obtained in March in summer. It was found that PVT collectors of unit area annually produced 1.1 × 103 kWh/m2 .year of heat and 55–83 kWh/m2.year of electricity, respectively. The results show that annual average solar factor of hot water supply is 0.45 for unit collector area. Economical evaluation based on energy costs in Thailand was conducted, which estimated the payback time would be 7 and 14 years for a-Si PVT and mc-Si PV, respectively.

  2. The European PV market evaluation for potential investors - actual information on the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdziel, M.

    2004-01-01

    The EU has ambitious targets for the introduction of PV. According to the white book of the European Commission, the target for 2010 is to install 3000 MWp. In the following the European PV markets of the 15 EU member state countries and Switzerland are presented and evaluated for potential investors. (author)

  3. Comparative economic analysis of supporting policies for residential solar PV in the United States: Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, John Edward; Kang, Jin-Su

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies and market reports suggest that the solar photovoltaic markets rely heavily, if not entirely, upon governmental support policies at present. Unlike in other countries where these policies are enacted at a national level, the 50 states in the US pursue different policies in an attempt to foster the growth of renewable energy, and specifically solar photovoltaics. This paper provides an economic and financial analysis of the US federal and state level policies in states with solar-targeted policies that have markets. After putting a value on SRECs, this study further compares solar carve-outs with other incentives including the federal tax credit, net metering, and state personal tax credits. Our findings show that SREC markets can certainly be strong, with New Jersey, Delaware, and Massachusetts having the most potential. Despite their strong potential as effective renewable policies, the lack of a guaranteed minimum and the uncertainty attached are major drawbacks of SREC markets. However, the leveraging of this high value offers hope that the policies will indeed stimulate residential solar photovoltaic markets. - Highlights: ► We measure solar support incentives in eight US states with set-asides that include SREC policies. ► Compare each financial incentive using DCF, NPV, IRR, and Present Value/Watt-capacity. ► Most US SREC markets have strong potential to stimulate solar photovoltaics. ► SREC success requires price floors to alleviate uncertainty issues. ► Private financial entities can leverage SRECs to provide necessary price floors.

  4. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  5. Heat pump and PV impact on residential low-voltage distribution grids as a function of building and district properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protopapadaki, Christina; Saelens, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive method includes variability in building and feeder characteristics. • Detailed, 10-min, Modelica-based simulation of buildings, heat pumps and networks. • Overloading and voltage issues appear from 30% heat pumps in rural Belgian feeders. • Analysis of load profiles reveals great impact of heat pump back-up heaters. • High correlation of building neighborhood properties with grid impact indicators. - Abstract: Heating electrification powered by distributed renewable energy generation is considered among potential solutions towards mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. Roadmaps propose a wide deployment of heat pumps and photovoltaics in the residential sector. Since current distribution grids are not designed to accommodate these loads, potential benefits of such policies might be compromised. However, in large-scale analyses, often grid constraints are neglected. On the other hand, grid impact of heat pumps and photovoltaics has been investigated without considering the influence of building characteristics. This paper aims to assess and quantify in a probabilistic way the impact of these technologies on the low-voltage distribution grid, as a function of building and district properties. The Monte Carlo approach is used to simulate an assortment of Belgian residential feeders, with varying size, cable type, heat pump and PV penetration rates, and buildings of different geometry and insulation quality. Modelica-based models simulate the dynamic behavior of both buildings and heating systems, as well as three-phase unbalanced loading of the network. Additionally, stochastic occupant behavior is taken into account. Analysis of neighborhood load profiles puts into perspective the importance of demand diversity in terms of building characteristics and load simultaneity, highlighting the crucial role of back-up electrical loads. It is shown that air-source heat pumps have a greater impact on the studied feeders than PV, in terms

  6. Integrating projects in markets: an entrepreneurial approach to making PV work for rural end-users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, N.; Van der Vleuten-Balkema, F.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive market research proves that there is a large market potential for Solar Home Systems in rural area of developing countries. Hundred thousands of people are willing and able to pay for PV. Donors and support projects can play an effective role in supporting and accelerating market development, if they succeed in carefully translating the insights and experiences in market success stories into smart market support instruments. The smartness of the donor instruments is especially needed so they can find a connection to local entrepreneurs, often small or medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and support these local entrepreneurs without taking away their entrepreneurial creativity and effectiveness, without dictating what the entrepreneurs should do. (authors)

  7. The positioning of sustainability within residential property marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriese, Ulrich; Scholz, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the evolution of sustainability positioning in residential property marketing to shed light on the specific role and responsibility of housebuilders and housing investors in urban development. To this end, an analysis is made of housing advertisements published in Basel, Switzerland, over a period of more than 100 years. The paper demonstrates how to draw successfully on advertisements to discern sustainability patterns in housing, using criteria situated along the dimensions building, location and people. Cluster analysis allows five clusters of sustainability positioning to be described—namely, good location, green building, comfort living, pre-sustainability and sustainability. Investor and builder types are differently located in these clusters. Location emerges as an issue which, to a large extent, is advertised independently from other sustainability issues.

  8. How to stimulate the South African rooftop PV market without putting electricity distributors’ financial stability at risk [Conference presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, Sebastian T

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available in three important ways: • Embedded Solar PV can be deployed very quickly • Favourable lifetime costs (at 5.7–6.4 €/kWh) compared to other new build options • Large amounts of capacity can be deployed. This value cannot be unlocked because...Wh Electricity bill 8,000 kWh/yr *0.09 €/kWh – ~ Residential load 12,000 kWh/yr 8,000 kWh/yr 10,000 kWh/yr 12,000 kWh/yr 4 ,0 0 0 Self-consumption Gross PV generation PV inverter PV panels 6 kWp Source: CSIR analysis Grid energy Solar energy Payments...

  9. Approaches to a marketing strategy for the development and penetration of the PV market in German speaking countries. Ansaetze einer Marketingstrategie zur Erschliessung und Durchdringung des PV-Marktes in den deutschsprachigen Laendern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, F. (SOTEC - Ingenieurbuero fuer Sonnenenergie, Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    The photovoltaics market in Central Europe is characterized by the fact that a consolidation has been achieved in niche markets only. The main emphasis in this field of energy supply has been on technological progress; however, it needs to be supported by a serious marketing policy in the future. Based on an analysis of today's situation, both strategie and operative considerations for a marketing concept are demonstrated for a constitution of the PV market in Central Europe. (orig.).

  10. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  12. The doping effect of Italian feed-in tariffs on the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, Marco; Desideri, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    In less than six years, Italy has become one of the leading markets for PV power plants and one of the countries in the world with the largest number of installations and installed peak power. Such a quick and large growth is due to a series of feed-in tariff schemes that have been uncapped until 2012. As a matter of fact, any size or any number of PV power plants could be installed during a period of three years. Since the feed-in tariffs are not paid by national taxes but are charged on the electricity bills, Italian energy users are now due to pay each year a surcharge of 9 billion euros on their energy bills. This paper aims at discussing this development by highlighting the benefits but also some significant drawbacks that the application of uncontrolled feed-in tariffs has produced. - Highlights: • Italy has had a booming PV development due to uncapped FIT schemes for 4 years. • The RES development has disrupted the utilization of all programmable power plants. • The financial burden will exceed 7 billion euros for the next 20 years. • The market prices were driven by the incentives and not viceversa. • The installation was not based on available solar radiation

  13. Solar PV electricity and market characteristics: two Canadian case-studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether solar electricity (that is, electricity generated by photovoltaics) is, on an average, more valuable - in market terms - than the electricity generated in power systems as a whole, this article investigates the extent to which solar resource availability in two Canadian locations is associated with peak electricity market demand and peak electricity market price. More specifically, solar radiation and electricity market data for the period 1 May 2002 to 30 April 2004 are examined for Calgary, Alta. and Guelph, Ont. A variety of visual and statistical investigations reveal that solar radiation values coincide closely with peak electricity market demand and, though to a somewhat lesser extent, peak electricity market prices during the summertime in each location. While more detailed investigation is needed in order to determine the specific impact of different levels of PV penetration upon provincial electricity markets, the article provides ample encouragement for further research. The article also shows how different techniques can be used-in any location-to investigate the relationship among solar electricity potential, system-wide demand and market prices. With electricity industries being restructured around the world, it continues to be important for solar energy proponents to participate in discussions regarding economic costs and benefits. Techniques used in this article can help them advance the solar electricity case more effectively and thus catalyse the deployment of photovoltaics in markets around the world. (author)

  14. A thermo economic analysis of a PV-hydrogen system feeding the energy requests of a residential building in an isolated valley of the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarelli, M.; Macagno, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this paper is an economic analysis of a model of a stand alone energy system based only on a renewable source (solar irradiance) integrated with a system for the production of hydrogen. The purpose of this system is to supply the complete electric and part of the heat requests of a small residential user in a remote area (an isolated building in a valley of the Alps in Italy) during a complete year of operation without integration of a traditional energy system based on fossil fuels. The system analysed is composed of a PV array integrated with an electrolyser, with a tank where the hydrogen is stored as compressed gas and with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. Such a system has no pollutant emissions and is environmentally friendly. A simulation program has been developed to design the system and to analyse the technical and economic performance during a complete year of operation. The economic analysis is developed using thermo economic analysis. This procedure joins some aspects of exergy analysis with some economic information, such as the fuel market costs and the investment and maintenance costs of the components of the energy plant. Using this methodology, it is possible to obtain some information on the economic behaviour of the plant and to analyse in depth the process of cost formation of all system flows, in particular those of the final products. The thermo economic analysis can be performed to evaluate the different economic behaviour of the system in different operating conditions (e.g. during daylight hours or in evening hours). In this paper, the analysis has been effected considering a representative day for each month of operation and two significant hours (1:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.) in order to consider two opposite situations (with and without solar irradiance) with high energy demands by the user. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis has been developed to calculate the variation of the cost of the final energy products (and of the

  15. Market Potential for Residential Biomass Heating Equipment: Stochastic and Econometric Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Adee Athiyaman

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of market potential for biomass-residential-heating equipment in the US: that is, the greatest amount of biomass-residential-heating equipment that can be sold by the industry. The author's analysis is limited to biomass equipment used most to heat the housing unit. Assuming that households equipped with 10+ year old primary heating devices will replace rather than repair the devices he predicts that approximately 1.4 million units of residential home heating equ...

  16. PV Status Report 2009. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2009-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a key technology option to realise the shift to a decarbonised energy supply. The solar resources in Europe and world wide are abundant and cannot be monopolised by one country. Regardless for what reasons and how fast the oil price and energy prices increase in the future, Photovoltaics and other renewable energies are the only ones to offer a reduction of prices rather than an increase in the future. As a response to the economic crisis, most of the G20 countries have designed economic recovery packages which include 'green stimulus' measures. However, compared to the new Chinese Energy Revitalisation Plan under discussion, the pledged investments in green energy are marginal. If no changes are made, China which now strongly supports its renewable energy industry, will emerge even stronger after the current financial crisis. In 2008, the Photovoltaic industry production almost doubled and reached a world-wide production volume of 7.3 GWp of Photovoltaic modules. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were in average more than 40%, which makes Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict the market volume to increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect lower prices for consumers. The trend that thin-film Photovoltaics grew faster than the overall PV market continued in 2008. The Eighth Edition of the 'PV Status Report' tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation.

  17. Learning in PV trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, G.J.; De Moor, H.H.C.

    2004-06-01

    For large scale application of PV cost reduction is essential. It is shown in this study that the price evolution is on track and even accelerating the last 15 years. Using an experience curve approach a learning rate of little over 20% was found consistent with other studies. As data were collected for small rooftop grid connected systems, it could be shown that this learning rate is not only found for modules, but also for BOS (all costs apart from the modules) in Germany as well as in the Netherlands. Projections of the future price of PV systems show that a learning rate of at least 20% is needed to make introduction of PV affordable. It is very effective to invest in learning, thus increasing the learning rate, as well as developing market segments were the value of PV is higher, such as residential PV systems in southern Europe

  18. Terms, Trends, and Insights: PV Project Finance in the United States, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, Paul D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-23

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2017. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). This work represents the second DOE sponsored effort to benchmark financing costs across the residential, commercial, and utility-scale PV markets, as part of its larger effort to benchmark the components of PV system costs.

  19. Exploring the market for third-party-owned residential photovoltaic systems: insights from lease and power-purchase agreement contract structures and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010–2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time. (letter)

  20. Look-Ahead Energy Management of a Grid-Connected Residential PV System with Energy Storage under Time-Based Rate Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeon Hur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents look-ahead energy management system for a grid-connected residential photovoltaic (PV system with battery under critical peak pricing for electricity, enabling effective and proactive participation of consumers in the Smart Grid’s demand response. In the proposed system, the PV is the primary energy source with the battery for storing (or retrieving excessive (or stored energy to pursue the lowest possible electricity bill but it is grid-tied to secure electric power delivery. Premise energy management scheme with an accurate yet practical load forecasting capability based on a Kalman filter is designed to increase the predictability in controlling the power flows among these power system components and the controllable electric appliances in the premise. The case studies with various operating scenarios demonstrate the validity of the proposed system and significant cost savings through operating the energy management scheme.

  1. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  2. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  3. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO_2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO_2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO_2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO_2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO_2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  4. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  5. TEAM-UP PV-friendly pricing projects: Validation of market research and market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigger, J.E.; Hester, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    More than two dozen electric utilities in the US have initiated renewable energy programs funded in total or in part by customers willing to pay a premium to either have their utility develop and use renewable technologies or have part of their own electric service needs supplied by renewable energy sources. These programs are beginning to answer key questions regarding the numbers and characteristics of customers that are willing to pay these premiums for clean, nonpolluting energy. Also, economic viability, level of revenue support, and other questions are critical to successful programs. This paper provides information on a number of utility efforts now underway which use photovoltaic (PV) systems and are part of the government-utility industry TEAM-UP program; it will also provide some early findings and perspectives that are coming from these utility efforts around the US

  6. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  7. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  8. Marketing Online Degree Programs: How Do Traditional-Residential Programs Compete?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan; Eveland, Vicki

    2007-01-01

    A total of 150 university Web sites were segregated into one of three groups: accredited residential, regionally accredited online, and nonaccredited online institutions. The promotional imagery, marketing messages and marketing themes found on the landing pages of each university program Web sites were analyzed for similarities and differences. A…

  9. LMP-based Pricing for Energy Storage in Local Market to Facilitate PV Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xiaohe; Gu, Chenghong; Li, Furong; Wang, Zhaoyu

    2018-01-01

    Increasing Photovoltaic (PV) penetration and low-carbon demand can potentially lead to two different flow peaks, generation and load, within distribution networks. This will not only constrain PV penetration but also pose serious threats to network reliability.

  10. Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E; Gerst, Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics. We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors. Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population. The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

  11. Using Machine Learning and Data Analysis to Improve Customer Acquisition and Marketing in Residential Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    High customer acquisition costs remain a persistent challenge in the U.S. residential solar industry. Effective customer acquisition in the residential solar market is increasingly achieved with the help of data analysis and machine learning, whether that means more targeted advertising, understanding customer motivations, or responding to competitors. New research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Vanderbilt University, University of Pennsylvania, and the California Center for Sustainable Energy and funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion (SEEDS) program demonstrates novel computational methods that can help drive down costs in the residential solar industry.

  12. PV status report 2004. Research, Solar cell production and market implementation of photovoltaic s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager-Waldau, A.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing demand for photovoltaic devices leads to the search for new developments with respect to material use and consumption, device design and production technologies, as well as new concepts to increase the overall efficiency. At present solar cell manufacturing is based on single junction device silicon wafer technology with close to 90% market share. Consistent with the time needed for any major change in the energy infrastructure, another 20 to 30 years of sustained and aggressive growth will be required for photovoltaic to substitute a significant share of the conventional energy sources. This growth will be possible if a continuous introduction of new technologies takes place, made possible by sound fundamental research. In October 2004 the Russian Duma ratified the Kyoto Protocol and it can be expected that the Protocol will now be set into force by the beginning of 2005. This recent development will definitively have an impact on the further implementation of renewable energies and photovoltaic is a prime source to deliver it. The Third Edition of the PV Status Report will widen its view to the enlarged European Union as well as the new player China and tries to give an overview about the current activities regarding Research, Manufacturing and Market Implementation. The opinion given in this report is based on the current information available to the author, and does not reflect the opinion of the European Commission. (author)

  13. PV Status Report 2008. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report is to combine international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact-finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last five years were on average more than 40%, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. Business analysts predict that the market volume will increase to 40 billion euros in 2010 and expect rising profit margins and lower prices for consumers at the same time. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  14. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  15. BEopt-CA (Ex): A Tool for Optimal Integration of EE, DR and PV in Existing California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Velasco, Paulo Tabrares [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Springer, David [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Coates, Peter [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Bell, Christy [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Price, Snuller [Energy & Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sreedharan, Priya [Energy & Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States); Pickrell, Katie [Energy & Environmental Economics, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This project targeted the development of a software tool, BEopt-CA (Ex) (Building Energy Optimization Tool for California Existing Homes), that aims to facilitate balanced integration of energy efficiency (EE), demand response (DR), and photovoltaics (PV) in the residential retrofit1 market. The intent is to provide utility program managers and contractors in the EE/DR/PV marketplace with a means of balancing the integration of EE, DR, and PV

  16. Shorter amortization and more return on investment revive the market segment; Kuerzere Amortisation und mehr Rendite. Innovative PV-Nachfuehrungen beleben das Marktsegment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiss, Eric

    2012-09-15

    There is a growing demand for PV systems with opportunities for own consumption in Germany. Due to the fluctuating price stability many plant operators want to become independent from electrical suppliers. Right here, the advantages of tracked PV modules are becoming interesting: innovations and increasing earnings while compensating the investment costs simultaneously. In the medium term, most product manufacturers see good market opportunities for the use of tracked PV modules in Germany.

  17. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Cost-competitiveness of organic photovoltaics for electricity self-consumption at residential buildings: A comparative study of Denmark and Greece under real market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos; Laurent, Alexis; Christoforidis, Georgios C.

    2017-01-01

    To address sustainability challenges, photovoltaics (PV) are regarded as a promising renewable energy technology. Decreasing PV module costs and increasing residential electricity prices have made self-consumption of PV-generated electricity financially more attractive than exporting to the grid....... Organic photovoltaics (OPV) are an emerging thin-film PV technology that shows promise of greatly improving the environmental and economic performances of PV technologies. Previous studies have estimated the current and future costs of OPV technologies, but the attractiveness of investing in OPV systems...

  19. PV Status Report 2010. Research, Solar Cell Production and Market Implementation of Photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.

    2010-08-01

    Photovoltaics is a solar power technology to generate Electricity using semiconductor devices, known as solar cells. A number of solar cells form a solar 'Module' or 'Panel', which can then be combined to solar systems, ranging from a few Watts of electricity output to multi Megawatt power stations. The unique format of the Photovoltaic Status Report combines international up-to-date information about Research Activities with Manufacturing and Market Implementation data of Photovoltaics. These data are collected on a regular basis from public and commercial studies and cross-checked with personal communications. Regular fact finding missions with company visits, as well as meetings with officials from funding organisations and policy makers, complete the picture. Growth in the solar Photovoltaic sector has been robust. Yearly growth rates over the last decade were on average more than 40 %, thus making Photovoltaics one of the fastest growing industries at present. The PV Status Report provides comprehensive and relevant information on this dynamic sector for the public interested, as well as decision-makers in policy and industry.

  20. Feasibility Study of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel Energy Systems for Coastal Residential Application in Pekan, Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Roziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Techno economic study is feasible to optimize the usage of renewable energy components that targeting low cost of electricity generation system. The selected case study area is coastal area in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The autonomous system designed in this study is hybrid standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system to fulfil a basic power demand of 20.1 kWh/day. Such power system was designed and optimized further to meet the power demand at a minimum cost of energy using energy optimization software, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER. The analysis focused on the operational characteristics and economics. The standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system has total net present cost about $61, 911 with cost of energy $0.66/kWh. Apparently, the generation of electricity from both wind turbine and PV can be inflated with the diesel generator. In comparison, return of investment (ROI value turned out lower for Feed in Tariff (FIT as compared to self-sustained house. Payback period also longer for FIT program that makes the selling back of electricity generated to Tenaga National Berhad (TNB is considered not favourable.

  1. Market Assessment for Residential Refrigerator-Freezer with Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen [CSRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Blackburn, Julia [CSRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Grubbs, Tyler [CSRA International, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Despite a steady record of energy efficiency improvements in residential refrigerators and freezers over recent decades, these products still account for 4% of the site energy consumption for the average U.S. household. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) – along with partners Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the University of Maryland – are pursuing further efficiency improvements in this market sector by using a novel/prototype rotating heat exchanger (RHX) based on a Sandia Cooler technology as an evaporator in a residential refrigerator-freezer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the market potential of refrigerator-freezer products equipped with RHX evaporators in the United States, including projections of maximum annual market share and unit shipments and maximum direct and indirect job creation.

  2. Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

  3. New gas in old pipes: opening the UK residential gas market to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddams Price, C.; Bennett, M.

    1999-01-01

    The United Kingdom is introducing competition to its residential gas and electricity markets, the first such experiment on a national level. This paper analyses the behaviour of suppliers and consumers in the first market to be opened, based on suppliers' posted prices, two questionnaires to consumers and information from the incumbent. The results confirm predictions about the unwinding of cross-subsidies; a surprisingly small proportion of consumers are switching to other suppliers, and they are not evenly distributed across consumer groups, raising important policy questions about the future of regulation in such markets

  4. Valuing Residential Energy Efficiency in Two Alaska Real Estate Markets: A Hedonic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Dominique J.

    Alaska households have high home energy consumption and expenditures. Improving the energy efficiency of the housing stock can reduce home energy consumption, thereby reducing home energy expenditures and CO2 emissions. Improving the energy efficiency of a home may also increase its transaction price if the energy efficiency improvements are capitalized into the value of the home. The relationship between energy efficiency and transaction prices in the Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska residential real estate markets is examined. Using a hedonic pricing framework and difference-in-differences analysis, the impact of the Alaska Home Energy Rebate program on the transaction prices of single-family homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage housing markets from 2008 through 2015 is examined. The results indicate that compared to homes that did not complete the program, homes that completed the program sell for a statistically significant price premium between 15.1% and 15.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 5% and 11% in the Anchorage market. A hedonic pricing framework is used to relate energy efficiency ratings and transaction prices of homes in the Fairbanks and Anchorage residential real estate markets from 2008 through 2015. The results indicate that homes with above-average energy efficiency ratings sell for a statistically significant price premium between 6.9% and 17.5% in the Fairbanks market and between 1.8% and 6.0% in the Anchorage market.

  5. Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.; Jackson, Tim; Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

  6. Addressing firefighter safety around solar PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, B. [Sustainable Energy Technologies, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The article discussed new considerations for installing photovoltaic (PV) systems that address the needs of fire service personnel. The presence of a PV system presents a multitude of dangers for firefighters, including electrical shock, the inhalation of toxic gases from being unable to cut a hole through the roof, falling debris and flying glass, and dead loading on a compromised structure and tripping on conduits. Mapping systems should be modified so that buildings with PV systems are identified for first responders, including firefighters who should learn that solar modules present an electrical hazard during the day but not at night; covering PV modules with foam or salvage covers may not shut the system down to a safe level; it takes a few moments for the power in PV modules to reduce to zero; and PV modules or conduit should never be cut, broke, chopped, or walked upon. The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection recommends creating pathways and allowing easier access to the roof by setting the modules back from roof edges, creating a structurally sound pathway for firefighters to walk on and space to cut ventilation holes. However, the setback rule makes the economics of solar installation less viable for residential applications. The technological innovations aimed at addressing system safety all focus on limiting firefighter contact with live electrical components to within the extra-low-voltage (ELV) band. Some of the inverters on the market that support ELV system architecture were described. 1 fig.

  7. Economic governance in the Chinese PV industry: Structural and individual factors influencing market development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruss, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, the global production of photovoltaic (PV modules has been experiencing a rapid growth. In 2008, China already had 50 times more producers than in 2001 and three Chinese companies ranked amongst the top 10 PV producers worldwide. However, overcapacities and international trade disputes have challenged the success story of the Chinese PV industry. In order to try to tackle the mechanisms which have fostered the overall development of the Chinese PV industry since the 2000s, I have conducted a qualitative case study on Chinese PV modules producers. Following the logic of a qualitative research design, theories on cluster development have been used as an analytical device for structuring the causal narrative. In a circular research process design, structural factors, such as local growth fetishism and rebalancing, as well as individual factors, such as herd behaviour and wishful thinking, have been identified as drivers along the line of the life cycle of clusters. In this respect, this paper contests the still popular idea of the Chinese central government as the omnipotent and rational director of the Chinese economy and takes the consequences of past decentralization policies as well as bounded rationality into consideration. Since the political emphasis of regional development for global competitiveness had similar policy effects in different countries, the findings call for a context sensitive comparison between industries and countries.

  8. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-09

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. The non-residential sector's commanding lead in terms of installed capacity in recent years primarily reflects two important differences between the non-residential and residential markets: (1) the greater federal 'Tax Benefits'--including the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) and accelerated tax depreciation--provided to commercial (relative to residential) PV systems, at least historically (this relative tax advantage has largely disappeared starting in 2009) and (2) larger non-residential project size. These two attributes have attracted to the market a number of institutional investors (referred to in this report as 'Tax Investors') seeking to invest in PV projects primarily to capture their Tax Benefits. The presence of these Tax Investors, in turn, has fostered a variety of innovative approaches to financing non-residential PV systems. This financial innovation--which is the topic of this report--has helped to overcome some of the largest barriers to the adoption of non-residential PV, and is therefore partly responsible (along with the policy changes that have driven this innovation) for the rapid growth in the market seen in recent years

  9. Guidelines for target costing adoption in the development of products for the residential real estate market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymard Savio Sampaio de Melo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focuses on the problems associated with the traditional practice of reducing costs in construction and the need to increase business competitiveness in the residential real estate sector. In this context, target costing is a promising approach to improve the competitiveness of companies by ensuring that the products launched on the market do not jeopardize the company's results and value delivery to customers. However, far too little attention is paid to target costing implementation by companies that develop residential real state products for sale and face strong market competition. Thus, this paper seeks to investigate whether the standard framework of target costing in the literature applies - with or without adjustments - to real estate developers. Case study was the research strategy adopted. Guidelines are proposed for the introduction of target costing in the development process of residential real estate products. The proposed guidelines are related to the three main sections of the target costing process: market-driven costing, product-level target costing and component-level target costing.

  10. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. McHenry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the network characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.

  11. Residential solar photovoltaic market stimulation: Japanese and Australian lessons for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Canada is a leading electricity consumer, yet lags behind other industrial countries (14th out of 20 reporting IEA countries) in the installation of solar photovoltaic systems. The factors (environmental benefits, health benefits, network benefits, need for new production capacity, etc.) promoting solar or other renewable sources of electricity in other countries are also present in Canada, but effective policy mechanisms to stimulate Canada's photovoltaic industry are only starting to appear. Discussions of policy options focused initially on renewable portfolio standards and then on feed-in tariffs. This paper reviews the Japanese and Australian experience with capital incentives to stimulate the residential market for photovoltaics. It demonstrates the ability of a market-sensitive program to stimulate industrial growth, achieve unit cost reductions and shift the market to include a large grid-tied share. Residential respondents to surveys report high costs as their primary barrier to installing photovoltaic systems and state a strong preference for capital incentives to reduce their investment costs. The Canadian government needs a market stimulation policy if it is to join those countries where a decentralized photovoltaic generation system strengthens the electricity supply system. A balanced solar energy market stimulation program is proposed that combines a feed-in tariff with a declining capital incentive. (author)

  12. Unpackaging residential segregation: the importance of scale and informal market processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Ward

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses two principal issues: a the scale at which one examines urban segregation; and b how informality, specifically accessibility to land markets and the process of land appropriation by low-income groups in Latin American cities, influences segregation patterns. Using Mexico City as a case study for Latin America, it shows that macro residential segregation levels are not becoming more polarized as many believe, due to informality of the market place and the weak state intervention through planning and zoning. However, there is a hardening of boundaries between adjacent neighborhoods as people turn to gated communities, largely for security reasons. Case study material from three Mexican cities are presented to examine how the nature of residential land costs and market segmentation contributes to segregation in Latin American cities. In a second case study, data from peri-urban low-income self-build settlements (colonias in Texas cities demonstrate how existing inequality patterns can be reproduced by differential access to land markets. They further argue a case that such isolated (rural settlements serving nearby urban labor market, should also be included in any analysis of urban segregation patterns, even if they do not form part of the contiguous urban area.

  13. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  14. Economic performance and policies for grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic systems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitscher, Martin; Rüther, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the economic competitiveness of grid-connected, distributed solar photovoltaic generation through small-scale rooftop installations in five Brazilian state-capitals. The locations represent a comprehensive set of the two essential parameters for the economic viability of PV—solar irradiation and local electricity tariffs. Levelized electricity costs (LEC) for PV generation and net present values (NPV) for a specific PV system are presented. The analysis comprises three different interest rate scenarios reflecting different conditions for capital acquisition to finance the generators; subsidized, mature market and country-specific risk-adjusted interest. In the NPV analysis, revenue flow is modeled by the sale of PV electricity at current residential tariffs assuming net metering. Using subsidized interest rates, the analysis shows that solar PV electricity is already competitive in Brazil, while in the country-specific risk-adjusted rate, the declining, but still high capital costs of PV make it economically unfeasible. At a mature market interest rate, PV competitiveness is largely dependent on the residential tariff. Economic competitiveness in this scenario is given for locations with high residential tariffs. We demonstrate the high potential of distributed generation with photovoltaic installations in Brazil, and show that under certain conditions, grid-connected PV can be economically competitive in a developing country. - Highlights: ► Debt financed grid-connected PV on Brazilian rooftops can be economically feasible since 2011. ► The cost of capital in Brazil is the decisive parameter in PV competitiveness with conventional generation sources. ► Low-cost, long-term financing is an essential requirement for PV to become an economically justifiable generation alternative. ► The Brazilian market holds huge potential for distributed, residential rooftop PV systems of small size.

  15. Assessing the benefits of residential demand response in a real time distribution energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siano, Pierluigi; Sarno, Debora

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new probabilistic methodology, integrating DR in a distribution energy market is proposed. • The method can alleviate distribution network congestions. • This method based on D-LMPs allows cost savings for end-user customers. • Innovative thermal and shiftable loads Real Time control algorithms are also presented. - Abstract: In the field of electricity distribution networks and with the advent of smart grids and microgrids, the use of Distribution Locational Marginal Price (D-LMPs) in a Real Time (RT) distribution market managed by a Distribution System Operator (DSO) is discussed in presence of empowered residential end-users that are able to bid for energy by a demand aggregator while following Demand Response (DR) initiatives. Each customer is provided by a transactive controller, which reads the locational market signals and answers with a bid taking into account the user preferences about some appliances involved in DR activities and controlled by smart plugs-in. In particular, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) appliances and shiftable loads are controlled so that their consumption profile can be modified according to the price of energy. In order to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of energy and cost saving, an innovative probabilistic methodology for evaluating the impact of residential DR choices considering uncertainties related to load demand, user preferences, environmental conditions, house thermal behavior and wholesale market trends has been proposed. The uncertainties related to the stochastic variations of the variables involved are modeled by using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. The combination of MCS and RT distribution market simulation based on D-LMPs are used to assess the operation and impact of the DR method over one month. Simulations results on an 84-buses distribution network confirmed that the proposed method allows saving costs for residential end-users and making

  16. Evaluation of the potential of PV noise barrier technology for electricity production and market share. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Kleiss, G.; Castello, S.; Hille, G.; Reise, C.; Wiemken, E.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Pearsall, N.; Hynes, K.; Gaidddon, B.; Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.

    1999-06-01

    The analysis of existing and planned noise barriers along rails and roads has been carried out by the national partners together with national authorities, which are experts and responsible for the required data. The methodical approach of this study includes the set-up of a grid along longitude and latitudes with 1 by 1 degrees for Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom and 0.5 by 0.5 degrees for the Netherlands and Switzerland. For each degree the length and orientation of rails and roads, the existing and planned noise barriers are registered and grouped according to their orientations. The solar radiation is based on data of a METEONORM data set. This includes the solar radiation on horizontal orientation as well as various inclination angles for all possible orientations. Moreover, possible shading has been considered. The technical specifications of noise barriers (PVNB) are based on the comprehensive knowledge of TNC GmbH and TNC AG with various plants realised. Technologies have been considered for both state-of-the-art and innovative concepts such as bifacial PVNB. In bifacial PVNB the PV-module is mounted vertically on both sides and is used at the same time as noise reflecting material. Installed PV power and produced electricity have been calculated for: 1. theoretical potential 2. technical potential 3. short-term resp. European extrapolated potential 4. anticipated potential 5. EU-member assessment The result of this study confirms the current activities to implement PV on noise barriers as an important share in the PV market.The report is subdivided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main topics and results, and Volume 2 contains additional information on the solar radiation, typical concepts as an excerpt of the various potentials and all country maps with the required explanations. 95 refs

  17. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  18. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  19. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  20. Commercialization and business development of grid-connected PV at SMUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    SMUD has completed its first 5 year, 6 MW PV commercialization effort based on the sustained, orderly development of the utility PV market. SMUD has begun a 5 year, 10 MW program designed to complete a process that will result in PV being at a market competitive price by 2002 and as a sustainable business opportunity for SMUD. As part of this effort, by the end of 1997, SMUD had installed over 450 PV systems totaling 6 MW. These included over 420 residential rooftop systems as well as commercial buildings, parking lots and substation systems. Under its new Business Plan, SMUD has signed contracts for an additional 10 MW of PV systems for 1998 through 2002 with cost decreasing to less than $3/W. As part of its new competitive business strategy responding to changes the utility industry is undergoing, SMUD has incorporated PV as a key business opportunity. SMUD has established partnerships with its customers through the PV Pioneer green pricing program, with DOE and UPVG through TEAM-UP and Million Solar Roofs to advance PV commercialization and to develop rooftops as PV power plant sites and with other utilities through its PV Partnership program

  1. An emerging market in fuel cells? Residential combined heat and power in four countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Hendry, C.N.; Harborne, P.

    2007-01-01

    Global concerns about fossil fuel stocks and security of supply have stimulated governments and industry to explore the development of alternative sources of energy. This has led to the emergence of liberalised markets for energy and the growth of de-centralised generation and distribution systems. Within this context, the use of a sustainable technology, such as fuel cells, as a generator of heat and electricity for the residential market, is a significant market opportunity. Using a set of framework conditions to explain the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, this paper analyses recent developments in four leading industrial countries, and concludes that Japan and Germany are competing to be the lead country for the introduction of this technology. In the process, we highlight the impact of government and the extent to which the development of a fuel cell industry is being driven by incumbent large firms acting independently or in collaboration with a range of other companies across the value chain. [Author

  2. An emerging market in fuel cells? Residential combined heat and power in four countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James E.; Hendry, Chris N.; Harborne, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Global concerns about fossil fuel stocks and security of supply have stimulated governments and industry to explore the development of alternative sources of energy. This has led to the emergence of liberalised markets for energy and the growth of de-centralised generation and distribution systems. Within this context, the use of a sustainable technology, such as fuel cells, as a generator of heat and electricity for the residential market, is a significant market opportunity. Using a set of framework conditions to explain the diffusion of renewable energy technologies, this paper analyses recent developments in four leading industrial countries, and concludes that Japan and Germany are competing to be the lead country for the introduction of this technology. In the process, we highlight the impact of government and the extent to which the development of a fuel cell industry is being driven by incumbent large firms acting independently or in collaboration with a range of other companies across the value chain

  3. The Dematel Method in the Analysis of the Residential Real Estate Market in Bialystok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołąbeska Elżbieta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is of a dual character. On the one hand, it concerns the analysis of the real estate market in terms of investment attractiveness and the influence of particular attributes of property on attractiveness itself. On the other hand, it proposes the use as a research tool selected using one of the multicriteria methods (DEMATEL, which is an alternative to commonly used statistical methods. The theoretical part of the work is completed by a brief computational example which deals with the analysis of factors affecting the prices of residential real estate on a local scale.

  4. Electric and gas utility marketing of residential energy conservation case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain information about utility conservation marketing techniques from companies actively engaged in performing residential conservation services. Many utilities currently are offering comprehensive services (audits, listing of contractors and lenders, post-installation inspection, advertising, and performing consumer research). Activities are reported for the following utilities: Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; Tampa Electric Company; Memphis Light, Gas, and Water Division; Northern States Power-Wisconsin; Public Service Company of Colorado; Arizona Public Service Company; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Sacramento Municipal Utility District; and Pacific Power and Light Company.

  5. PV ready roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The integration of PV technology into roofs of houses has become very popular in the United States, Japan, Germany and The Netherlands. There could be a considerable market in the UK for these systems, given the large number of houses that are projected to be built in the next 10 years, and taking account of increased awareness of energy issues. A significant proportion of the market share of annual installed PV is for solar PV systems installed into homes (currently 15%), this is expected to rise to 23% (900MW) by 2010. The grid connected roof and building mounted facade systems represent the fastest growing market for PV systems in Europe. In conclusion, therefore, innovative approached for fixing PV technology onto roofs have been identified for both domestic roofs and for the commercial sector. With reference to production methodologies within the roofing industry, both approaches should be capable of being designed with PV-ready connections suitable for fixing PV modules at a later date. This will help overcome the key barriers of cost of installation, skills required and the lack of retrofit potential. Based on the results of this project, Sustainable Energy together with PV Systems are keen to take forward the full research and development of PV-ready systems for both the domestic and commercial sectors.

  6. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to open-quotes play the marketclose quotes. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers

  7. Market segmentation and analysis of Japan's residential post and beam construction market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Ivan L. Eastin; Hisaaki Matsuguma

    2005-01-01

    A mail survey of Japanese post and beam builders was conducted to measure their level of ethnocentrism, market orientation, risk aversion, and price consciousness. The data were analyzed utilizing factor and cluster analysis. The results showed that Japanese post and beam builders can be divided into three distinct market segments: open to import...

  8. Marketing Residential Treatment Programs for Eating Disorders: A Call for Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Evelyn; Blackwood, Kristy L; Guarda, Angela S; Marcus, Marsha D; Rothman, David J

    2016-06-01

    Residential behavioral treatment is a growing sector of the health care industry and is used by a large proportion of adolescent and adult patients with eating disorders. These programs and the organizations that own them have developed extensive marketing strategies that target clinicians and include promotional gifts, meals, travel reimbursement, and continuing education credit. Legislation and policy changes have limited these types of activities when conducted by the pharmaceutical industry, and awareness of conflicts of interest associated with clinician-targeted advertising of drugs and devices has increased. However, similar practices by the behavioral health care industry have evolved without oversight. The authors urge clinicians to consider how marketing strategies by treatment facilities may influence their referral behaviors and call for improved transparency regarding gifts and payments from treatment facilities.

  9. Preventing falls in residential construction: Effectiveness of engaging partners for a national social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Everly; Hannon, Sandra Wills; Baker, Robin; Branche, Christine M; Trahan, Christina

    2015-08-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in construction. The Safety Pays, Falls Cost campaign aims to prevent falls in residential construction. A critical component of our social marketing approach was to involve 70 partners in reaching target audiences. We assessed partner engagement April 2012-August 2013 through: (1) baseline partnership quality interviews (eight partners); (2) pre-/post-partner "market" readiness in-depth interviews (three partners); (3) a pre-/post- (29/31 partners) online partner engagement survey; and (4) standardized metrics to measure partner activity. We found a high level of interest and engagement that increased with the addition of prompting to action through regular communication and new resources from organizers and formation of local partnerships that were able to tailor their activities to their own communities or regions. It is feasible to leverage government-labor-management partnerships that enjoy trust among target audiences to widely disseminate campaign materials and messages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: the impact of energy branding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, P.; Ibanez, V.A. [University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales

    2007-04-15

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed. [Author].

  11. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: the impact of energy branding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, P.; Ibanez, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed. [Author

  12. Managing customer loyalty in liberalized residential energy markets: The impact of energy branding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza Ibanez, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    In numerous recently deregulated energy markets, utilities previously operating in monopolistic environments are now focusing on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this study, a conceptual framework is proposed that analyses the effects of brand associations and perceived switching costs on customer satisfaction and loyalty in residential energy markets. Several brand associations relevant to energy branding are identified: perceived technical service quality and service process quality, perception of value-added services, environmental and social commitment of the company, brand trust, price perceptions and brand associations related to the corporate attributes 'innovative and dynamic'. Subsequently, the proposed model is tested in the scope of a representative survey of Spanish residential energy customers. Results indicate that customer satisfaction, brand trust and perceived switching costs are positively related to customer loyalty and that brand trust exerts a stronger influence on customer loyalty than satisfaction and switching costs. Findings also show significant effects of the perception of service process quality and environmental and social commitment on loyalty via customer satisfaction. Implications for energy brand managers and regulators are discussed

  13. Solar Market Research and Analysis Publications | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market Research and Analysis Publications Solar Market Research and Analysis Publications NREL researchers and analysts publish a variety of documents related to solar market research and analysis achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV cost target of $0.05 /kWh by identifying and quantifying cost

  14. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 4. September 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 6 to September 18, 2010 by the LH2 institute. For the 1504 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  15. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 5. September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 12 to September 23, 2011 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  16. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 3. September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out in September 2009 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  17. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 2. December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from November 10 to November 20, 2008 by the LH2 institute. For the 1502 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  18. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, P

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members.

  19. PV-WEB: internet-based PV information tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives details of a project to create a web-based information system on photovoltaic (PV) systems for the British PV Association (PV-UK) for use by decision makers in government, the utilities, and the housing and construction sectors. The project, which aims to provide an easily accessible tool for UK companies, promote PV technology, increase competitiveness, and identify market opportunities, is described. The design of the web site and its implementation and the evolution are discussed, along with the maintenance of the site by PV-UK and the opportunities offered to PV-UK Members

  20. How to stimulate the South African rooftop PV market without putting electricity distributors' financial stability at risk

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available PV, and the business case for the PV owner is de-risked at the same time. This all at no net costs to the system as compared to alternative new-build options. The concept is currently being discussed with the relevant government departments, the PV...

  1. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  2. Application of the Beta Coefficient in the Market of Direct residential Real Estate Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolski Rafał

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The beta coefficient is one of the most popular indices used in contemporary finances. Despite the fact that there are justified doubts connected with its application, it is currently difficult to imagine a situation in which the cost of capital would be calculated without the use of the CAPM model. Thus, an attempt at answering the question whether and to what degree beta may be used in the real estate market constitutes an interesting problem. This is because on the one hand, the formal structure suggests that beta should not be used for assets which are not included in the benchmark but, on the other hand, such a benchmark should, at least theoretically, contain all market assets. Therefore, a decision was made to have a closer look at this issue, with the analysis of the possibility of using the beta coefficient in the residential real estate market set as the objective. Using the database of prices in the direct real estate investment created by the NBP, a comparison was conducted with regard to features of undertaken investments on the basis of an analysis of systematic risk calculated using selected indices available on the Polish market.

  3. Potential market-size for renewables in the residential sector of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athar, G.R; Imtiaz, M.

    2005-01-01

    electricity, by the year 2024-25, which can be supplied through renewables, depending upon resource endowment of the area. Theoretically, all the thermal energy-needs of residential sector for cooking, water heating and space heating can be met by renewables. However, natural gas, followed by LPG and kerosene, according to availability of fuels and afford ability by consumers, are preferred fuels for thermal uses. These commercial fuels can meet only 11 MTOE of thermal energy-requirements for cooking, water heating and space heating. The resultant shortfall of about 25 MTOE, by year 2024-25, will be a potential market for renewable-energy sources in addition to the renewable-electricity market of 3 to 5 Twh. (author)

  4. Optimum sizing of PV-attached electricity storage according to power market signals – A case study for Germany and Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, Andreas; Hinchliffe, Timothée

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PV-attached battery unprofitable from German wholesale aggregator point of view. • PV-attached battery profitability below utility costs of capital in Italy. • Profitability can be reached if energy CAPEX reaches 100–150 EUR/kW h. • Optimum sizing depends on usage. • Maximum 5 h of storage and power rating exceeding 40% of PV power required. - Abstract: This paper investigates the business case of power storage attached to PV generation from the perspective of an aggregator trading power on wholesale markets and possibly supplying household customers. The profitability and an optimum storage configuration are determined for two European regions: Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany and Puglia in Italy based on wholesale price data and solar irradiation data for the years 2007–2011. During this period of time and under the assumptions made, adding storage to a portfolio of PV generators would not have constituted a business case for Baden-Wuerttemberg while profitability could have been reached for Puglia. However, the return of PV-attached storage that could have been achieved in Puglia during the years 2007–2011 is below levels typically required by companies operating on wholesale markets (deregulated power generators or traders) as those market participants’ capital costs are usually significantly higher than borrowing costs of the state. Storage proved to be financially more attractive in cases where severe grid constraints lead to significant levels of curtailment provided that the associated losses would not be financially compensated. This could pose a risk to any investor as grid upgrades would eventually erode the revenues. Restricting the storage to PV energy only (i.e. without the possibility to do arbitrage on markets) depresses the business case and is generally unprofitable, except but for situations of severe grid bottlenecks. The picture does not change significantly if a consumption portfolio is added. In order to reach

  5. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national and international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules, which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary aspect, a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situation is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs

  6. Tests for the Presence of Price Convergence on Residential Property Market in Several Districts of Szczecin in 2006–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnat Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neighbouring local property markets are not separate realities. They influence one another and create an interrelated system of supply and demand. Some of these interrelations are convergent, while others result in contradictory trends on the markets. Convergence is a term denoting a process of some phenomena approaching its normative level. Tests for the presence of convergence help to assess if the objects under observation show resemblance in the context of the observed phenomenon, and to find out how long it takes for this resemblance to be complete. In this paper, I propose the application of methods normally used in tests for convergence for the purpose of the analysis of trends of the average residential property prices in some districts in Szczecin over the time range of 2006–2009, that is during the housing bubble on the residential property market. The study will provide information if such a market phase encourages price convergence.

  7. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  8. Building brighter PV business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    The current status and future prospects of the UK market for solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity are briefly discussed. Through the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), the UK Government has supported research and development (R and D) into PV for a number of years. This programme has now been extended to demonstrating PV systems on houses. Phase 2 - the domestic field trial programme - aims to monitor the performance of individual systems and the impact on a cluster of systems on the electricity network. New funding had allowed a trebling of the size of this programme, which involves both private developers and housing associations. The DTI is also working to promote PV on commercial buildings, eg the installation of BP Solar PV systems at BP petrol stations. The PV industry in the UK is technically strong and is working to overcome the barriers in the UK to greater uptake of the technology (including cost, conservatism, legal requirements and metering practices). Improvements are expected in a number of recent initiatives in the electricity industry to boost PV use and the PV industry is lobbying for PV to be included in the Enhanced Capital Allowances (ECA) scheme

  9. Built-in future: integration, technical and market-development issues for PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    2005-01-01

    Although large ground-mounted multi-megawatt photovoltaic plants have become common, it is argued that integration of photovoltaics into the fabric of buildings is their optimum use. In Germany, with its well-established grid network, there is a marked imbalance in the deployment of photovoltaics and only 1% are integrated into the roofs or facades of buildings. A similar pattern is found in most other countries in central Europe and the article seeks to discover the reasons for this. The situation in Japan is different in that the relatively high cost of electricity has encouraged a robust market for domestic photovoltaics. It is argued that the market for building-integrated photovoltaics in Europe has massive potential

  10. Optimal Resources Planning of Residential Complex Energy System in a Day-ahead Market Based on Invasive Weed Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Αhmadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with optimal resources planning in a residential complex energy system, including FC (fuel cell, PV (Photovoltaic panels and the battery. A day-ahead energy management system (EMS based on invasive weed optimization (IWO algorithm is defined for managing different resources to determine an optimal operation schedule for the energy resources at each time interval to minimize the operation cost of a smart residential complex energy system. Moreover, in this paper the impacts of the sell to grid and purchase from grid are also considered. All practical constraints of the each energy resources and utility policies are taken into account. Moreover, sensitivity analysis are conducted on electricity prices and sell to grid factor (SGF, in order to improve understanding the impact of key parameters on residential CHP systems economy. It is shown that proposed system can meet all electrical and thermal demands with economic point of view. Also enhancement of electricity price leads to substantial growth in utilization of proposed CHP system.

  11. Financing PV solar home systems; A market intervention model from a case study in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development, Risoe National Laboratory (Denmark); Usher, E. [Energy and Ozon Action Unit - Division of Technology, Industry and Economics - United Nations Environment Programme, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Renewable Energy is expected to contribute significantly in future to World Energy Supply. It holds tremendous potential for countries like India where approximately seventy percent of the rural households are still without access to electricity. These households continue to rely on less efficient and polluting energy sources, typically biomass for cooking and heating and kerosene for lighting. Even when connected to grid, problems of capacity shortages and inconsistent quality plague the power supply, especially in rural and semi urban areas in most parts of India. Despite high initial costs, Solar Home Systems (SHS) emerge as an attractive option in the context of costly or unreliable alternatives and escalating grid power tariffs. Barrier to the growth of SHS market include a lack of access to financing, awareness, and risk perception associated with the technology, new to the customers of SHS and financing community. Consultations with stakeholders were held and an intervention was designed to address these barriers through creation of a credit facility in partnership with two banks having wide reach to the potential customers. The facility provides loan to the customers and a small subsidy to buy down high cost of the credit, which is designed to reduce over the three-year operation of the facility, with a target to reach market rates of interest at the end of the project. Technical support, awareness raising strategies and training were included as a part of the overall strategy. The credit facility was launched between April and June 2003 by the two banks. Early indications on sales have been very encouraging and the facility is expected to surpass the target of 5000 SHS sales in two years well in advance. Feedback mechanisms such as customer surveys, new initiatives to reach the poor households, and ongoing consultations with stakeholders etc. are also part of the market development strategy. (orig.)

  12. Financial mechanism for PV solar home systems market development. An Indian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painuly, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Rural electrification through grid extension has not made electricity available to the rural households in India, where still approximately seventy percent of them have no access to electricity. These households continue to rely on less efficient and polluting energy sources, typically biomass for cooking and heating and kerosene for lighting. Even though some of them are connected to grid, problems of capacity shortages and inconsistent quality plague the power supply, especially in rural and semi urban areas in most parts of India. Despite high initial costs, Solar Home Systems (SHS) emerge as an attractive option in the context of costly or unreliable alternatives and escalating grid power tariffs. Barrier to the growth of SHS market include a lack of access to financing, awareness, and risk perception associated with the technology, new to the customers of SHS and financing community. To address these barriers, consultations with stakeholders were held, that included manufacturers, financing institutions, and others. An intervention was designed based on the discussions and a credit facility created in partnership with two banks having wide reach to the potential customers in Karnataka State of India. The facility provides loan to the customers and a small subsidy to buy down high cost of the credit, which is designed to reduce over the three-year operation of the facility, with a target to reach market rates of interest at the end of the project. Technical support, awareness raising strategies and training were included as a part of the overall strategy. The credit facility was launched between April and June 2003 by the two partner banks. Early indications on sales have been very encouraging and the facility has already surpassed the target of 5000 SHS sales in two years within a year. Feedback mechanisms such as customer surveys, new initiatives to reach the poor households, and ongoing consultations with stakeholders etc. are also part of the market

  13. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... level. Therefore, we appropriately assess the inherent uncertainty and design options. First, we use linear and quantile regression models to estimate the wind speed and solar insolation. Then, we use different quantiles as an input for the hybrid system design to assess market policies (e.g., net...

  14. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  15. Advisory report on licence requirements for the marketing of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-06

    The proposed Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 which forms part of Bill 35, would make it possible for the Board to make regulations prescribing license requirements and conditions for sellers of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial users. Interested stakeholders were invited to provide their input on the proposed Act. A total of 23 parties responded by submitting their comments to the Ontario Energy Board. This document presents the concerns of several parties regarding various provisions of the proposed regulatory regime affecting energy marketing. Comments on the definition of `low volume customer`, on classes of gas marketers, need and requirements for gas marketer`s licence, the form and posting of security bonds by prospective gas marketers, exemptions from licensing, conditions of licensing, code of conduct for energy marketers, disclosure of customer information, were some of the proposed provisions that elicited comments.

  16. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  17. Advisory report on licence requirements for the marketing of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The proposed Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 which forms part of Bill 35, would make it possible for the Board to make regulations prescribing license requirements and conditions for sellers of natural gas and electricity to residential and small commercial users. Interested stakeholders were invited to provide their input on the proposed Act. A total of 23 parties responded by submitting their comments to the Ontario Energy Board. This document presents the concerns of several parties regarding various provisions of the proposed regulatory regime affecting energy marketing. Comments on the definition of 'low volume customer', on classes of gas marketers, need and requirements for gas marketer's licence, the form and posting of security bonds by prospective gas marketers, exemptions from licensing, conditions of licensing, code of conduct for energy marketers, disclosure of customer information, were some of the proposed provisions that elicited comments

  18. Plug and Play PV Systems for American Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, Christian [Fraunhofer USA, Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-22

    The core objectives of the Plug & Play PV Systems Project were to develop a PV system that can be installed on a residential rooftop for less than $1.50/W in 2020, and in less than 10 hours (from point of purchase to commissioning). The Fraunhofer CSE team’s approach to this challenge involved a holistic approach to system design – hardware and software – that make Plug & Play PV systems: • Quick, easy, and safe to install • Easy to demonstrate as code compliant • Permitted, inspected, and interconnected via an electronic process Throughout the three years of work during this Department of Energy SunShot funded project, the team engaged in a substantive way with inspectional services departments and utilities, manufacturers, installers, and distributors. We received iterative feedback on the system design and on ideas for how such systems can be commercialized. This ultimately led us to conceiving of Plug & Play PV Systems as a framework, with a variety of components compatible with the Plug & Play PV approach, including string or microinverters, conventional modules or emerging lightweight modules. The framework enables a broad group of manufacturers to participate in taking Plug & Play PV Systems to market, and increases the market size for such systems. Key aspects of the development effort centered on the system hardware and associated engineering work, the development of a Plug & Play PV Server to enable the electronic permitting, inspection and interconnection process, understanding the details of code compliance and, on occasion, supporting applications for modifications to the code to allow lightweight modules, for example. We have published a number of papers on our testing and assessment of novel technologies (e.g., adhered lightweight modules) and on the electronic architecture.

  19. Economic analysis of photovoltaic systems for the residential market under China's new regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Sandy; Chen, Xiaoju; Morgado-Dias, F.

    2017-01-01

    China has recently changed its regulation for producing energy from photovoltaic solar panels in order to encourage the use of the solar resource. This new regulation started with offering subsidies at a national level and this was later followed by local subsidies in addition to the national one. Being a large country, China has regions with good solar exposure and others with poor exposure. Each region has a different electricity price and the energy is purchased based on the Grid Coal Power electricity price that also varies throughout the country. In this work we analyze the economic profitability of different regions considering the solar radiation levels, savings in self-consumption, cash flows from injecting power into the grid and local prices for installations to show that the best return is obtained in the places with better solar radiation or where the electricity price is higher. The regional Feed-In tariffs help to compensate for lower radiation levels but do not make these regions very attractive from an investment perspective. - Highlights: • Summarizes national and local feed in tariffs for China for the residential market. • Provides average local prices for 1 kW, 3 kW and 5 kW photovoltaic installations. • Selects city with best IRR, NPV and DPBP based on prices, subsidies and radiation. • Performs sensitivity analysis to check which parameter has more effect on results.

  20. An Economic Analysis of Residential Photovoltaic Systems with and without Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Rodney

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems serve as a source of electricity generation that is separate from the traditional utilities. Investor investment into residential PV systems provides several financial benefits such as federal tax credit incentives for installation, net metering credit from excess generated electricity added back to the grid, and savings in price per kilowatt-hour (kWh) from the PV system generation versus the increasing conventional utility price per kWh. As much benefit as stand-alone PV systems present, the incorporation of energy storage yields even greater benefits. Energy storage (ES) is capable of storing unused PV provided energy from daytime periods of high solar supply but low consumption. This allows the investor to use the stored energy when the cost of conventional utility power is high, while also allowing for excess stored energy to be sold back to the grid. This paper aims to investigate the overall returns for investor's investing in solely PV and ES-based PV systems by using a return of investment (ROI) economic analysis. The analysis is carried out over three scenarios: (1) residence without a PV system or ES, (2) residence with just a PV system, and (3) residence with both a PV system and ES. Due to the variation in solar exposure across the regions of the United States, this paper performs an analysis for eight of the top solar market states separately, accounting for the specific solar generation capabilities of each state. A Microsoft Excel tool is provided for computation of the ROI in scenario 2 and 3. A benefit-cost ration (BCR) is used to depict the annual economic performance of the PV system (scenario 2) and PV + ES system (scenario 3). The tool allows the user to adjust the variables and parameters to satisfy the users' specific investment situation.

  1. PV investment in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueser, Pius [Nova Energy GmbH, (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is mainly about how the PV market in Europe has been growing, and which elements are going to determine if this market succeed or failed not only in Europe but also in the rest of the world. In the first part of this presentation, it is mentioned how in 2005 the development of some PV technologies triggered the PV market growth without any marketing control. Then, there are explained the aspects that changed such situation out of control, therefore, it emerged the beginning of the consolidation of this market. There are briefly explained those factors that are going to determine if this market succeed or failed in the future. Finally, there are given examples of some the PV investments. [Spanish] Esta presentacion habla principalmente de la manera en como ha crecido el Mercado de sistemas fotovoltaicos en Europa, asi tambien se mencionan los elementos fundamentales que determinaran el exito o fracaso de este mercado, no solamente en Europa sino tambien en el resto del mundo, en un futuro. En la primera parte de esta presentacion, se describe como en el 2005, debido al desarrollo de algunas tecnologias fotovoltaicas se desencadeno el crecimiento desenfrenado del mercado fotovoltaico. Despues, se explican los aspectos que hicieron que dicho crecimiento tomara su curso, teniendo como resultado el inicio de un mercado mas consolidado. Se explican brevemente los factores que determinaran si este mercado encuentra el exito o el fracaso en un futuro. Finalmente, se dan ejemplos de algunas adquisiciones fotovoltaicas.

  2. Conservation in the residential sector: two alternatives as strategies for ordering the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This work purposes an economic flow analysis in order to be driven conservation strategies by the electric sector. Two strategies for three conservation measures are considered here in the residential sector. The results obtained increase the reliability of an action plan to be elaborated for the electric energy conservation in the residential sector. (author)

  3. Exploring the Economic Value of EPAct 2005's PV Tax Credits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Ing, Edwin

    2006-03-28

    The market for grid-connected photovoltaics (PV) in the US has grown dramatically in recent years, driven in large part by PV grant or ''buy-down'' programs in California, New Jersey, and many other states. The recent announcement of a new 11-year, $3.2 billion PV program in California suggests that state policy will continue to drive even faster growth over the next decade. Federal policy has also played a role, primarily by providing commercial PV systems access to tax benefits, including accelerated depreciation (5-year MACRS schedule) and a business energy investment tax credit (ITC). With the signing of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) on August 8, the federal government is poised to play a much more significant future role in supporting both commercial and residential PV systems. Specifically, EPAct increased the federal ITC for commercial PV systems from 10% to 30% of system costs, and also created a new 30% ITC (capped at $2000) for residential solar systems. Both changes went into effect on January 1, 2006, and--absent an extension (for which the solar industry has already begun lobbying)--will last for a period of two years: the new residential ITC will expire, and the 30% commercial ITC will revert back to 10%, on January 1, 2008. How much economic value do these new and expanded federal tax credits really provide to PV system purchasers? And what implications might they hold for state/utility PV grant programs? Using a generic (i.e., non-state-specific) cash flow model, this report explores these questions. We begin with a discussion of the taxability of PV grants and their interaction with federal credits, as this issue significantly affects the analysis that follows. We then calculate the incremental value of EPAct's new and expanded credits for PV systems of different sizes, and owned by different types of entities. We conclude with a discussion of potential implications for purchasers of PV systems, as well as for

  4. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  5. Market power and the sale of Ontario residential natural gas: An institutional analysis and a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, Barbara Lynn

    2005-11-01

    The Ontario residential natural gas market underwent a significant institutional change in 1986, after the federal government decontrolled natural gas prices. Currently, consumers may sign up for fixed-cost natural gas from a broker, or they may continue to be served by the regulated distribution company. This thesis examines the economic effects on consumers of the institutional change, and particularly whether or not market power was enhanced by the change. In the thesis, I first present the industrial organization of the residential natural gas sector, and explain the institutional evolution using an institutional economic approach. I then construct a model of the market environment, with sellers acting as middlemen in a well-defined Bertrand oligopoly setting with no production constraints and single-unit consumer demands. In this model, the only Nash equilibrium in the one-period game is the joint profit maximizing price, and its likelihood of obtaining depends on the nature of the cost of signing up new customers. I then take a version of this model into the laboratory with human subject sellers and simulated buyers and run six replications each of a balanced treatment design under a unique information mechanism that parallels individual customer canvassing used by sellers in the naturally-occurring market. Treatment variables are: number of sellers, number of simulated at-cost sellers present, and presence of input cost uncertainty for sellers. I find that adding any seller to the market has about the same impact on market price, irrespective of whether it is a human subject or a simulated at-cost seller. Although increasing the number of sellers does decrease the market price somewhat, it does not bring about the competitive outcome predicted by the benchmark microeconomic model. This research contributes to the literature on policy making and energy market design, as well as to experimental methodology aimed at policy evaluation.

  6. The market of the future. Management of PV own consumption becomes more important; Der Markt der Zukunft. Management des PV-Eigenverbrauchs bekommt hoeheren Stellenwert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Dirk

    2012-05-15

    According to experts, the future decentralized energy supply will play a larger role than previously. Since mid-2010, operators of photovoltaic systems get more money than before, when they consume a lot of solar power by themselves. The Federal Government continued to realise the youngest amending law. Several producers now offer devices for personal use. Other producers still restrain oneself. The market is not big enough yet for them.

  7. Photovoltaics for Buildings Cutting-Edge PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, S. J.; Martin, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology development for building-integrated applications (commonly called PV for Buildings) is one of the fastest growing areas in the PV industry. Buildings represent a huge potential market for photovoltaics because they consume approximately two-thirds of the electricity consumed in the US. The PV and buildings industries are beginning to work together to address issues including building codes and standards, integration, after-market servicing, education, and building energy efficiency. One of the most notable programs to encourage development of new PV-for-buildings products is the PV:BONUS program, supported by the US Department of Energy. Demand for these products from building designers has escalated since the program was initiated in 1993. This paper presents a range of PV-for-buildings issues and products that are currently influencing today's PV and buildings markets

  8. Green signalling effects in the market for energy-efficient residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; Oikarinen, Elias; Harjunen, Oskari

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency (EE) levels are hypothesised to affect house transaction prices. • We estimate a hedonic model using Energy Performance Certificates from Finland. • A price premium is found for the most energy-efficient properties. • The empirical results are suggestive of a green signalling effect. • Demand for EE high performers appears to be segmented from lower tiers. - Abstract: Empirical evidence from recent studies suggests that the price premium on energy-efficient buildings is potentially higher than the pure capitalisation of energy savings but the empirical evidence on the size of the non-savings components is scant. This study aims to fill this research gap by investigating whether the mandatory energy efficiency ratings for residential properties imply benefits that go beyond energy savings. Using a sample of several thousand apartment transactions from Helsinki, Finland, we first test if higher ratings were significantly associated with higher prices. In addition to a large number of property and neighbourhood characteristics, this dataset contains information on building-level energy usage which allows us to distinguish between the cost savings effect of energy consumption and the value of more intangible factors associated with the energy label. The hedonic model yields a statistically significant 3.3% price premium for apartments in the top three energy-efficiency categories and 1.5% when a set of detailed neighbourhood characteristics are included. When maintenance costs containing energy usage costs are added, a robust and significant price premium of 1.3% persists whereas no differentiation is found for the medium and lower rating categories. These findings may be indicative of energy-efficient buildings having signalling value – and therefore an additional incentive to invest in such buildings – for ‘green’ consumers. However, a favourable energy rating did not appear to speed up the sales process in the

  9. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  10. Market-based Demand Response via Residential Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Smart Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Rassaei, Farshad; Soh, Wee-Seng; Chua, Kee-Chaing

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility in power demand, diverse usage patterns and storage capability of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) grow the elasticity of residential electricity demand remarkably. This elasticity can be utilized to form the daily aggregated demand profile and/or alter instantaneous demand of a system wherein a large number of residential PEVs share one electricity retailer or an aggregator. In this paper, we propose a demand response (DR) technique to manage vehicle-to-grid (V2G) enabled PEVs' e...

  11. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in the creation of regional solar PV energy markets : Contrasting developments in Gujarat and West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolly, Suyash

    2017-01-01

    With political initiatives, such as the National Solar Mission by Government of India, rapid development of grid connected solar PV energy in India has occurred in the recent times. However, an interesting puzzle is with respect to significant regional differences in Indian states despite similar

  12. Advances in PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander

    and preferably low complexity leads to new research demands. This is especially true in the field of low cost residential PV inverters where efficiencies are used as major selling arguments. Traditional converter topologies equipped with conventional Silicon based semiconductors to date reach their limitations......, a replacement of only two switching devices per phase leg can greatly reduce the semiconductor losses. The Hybrid-NPC converter can be seen as an attractive and cost competitive alternative to the Silicon Carbide based converter, also allowing to overcome the major drawbacks with the conventional Silicon IGBT...

  13. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five. (author)

  14. Rooftop PV system. Final technical progress report, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Under this four-year PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar are developing and demonstrating two new lightweight flexible building integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) modules specifically designed as exact replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and address the even larger roofing replacement market. The modules are designed to be installed by roofing contractors without special training which minimizes the installation and balance of system costs. The modules will be fabricated from high-efficiency, multiple-junction a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. Under the Phase I Program, which ended in March 1994, we developed two different concept designs for rooftop PV modules: (1) the United Solar overlapping (asphalt shingle replacement) shingle-type modules and (2) the ECD metal roof-type modules. We also developed a plan for fabricating, testing and demonstrating these modules. Candidate demonstration sites for our rooftop PV modules were identified and preliminary engineering designs for these demonstrations were developed; a marketing study plan was also developed. The major objectives of the Phase II Program, which started in June 1994 was (1) to develop, test, and qualify these new rooftop modules; (2) to develop mechanical and electrical engineering specifications for the demonstration projects; and (3) to develop a marketing/commercialization plan.

  15. Canadian PV [photovoltaic] commercial activity report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Canadian Photovoltaic Industries Association (CPIA) conducted a survey among 65 Canadian firms involved in the photovoltaic industry and technology to determine the degree of commercial activity. Overall revenue for these firms in 1989 increased nearly 15% to ca $15 million. Actual reported sales of photovoltaic (PV) modules totalled 400 kW for use in Canada and abroad, of which communications applications accounted for ca 40% of these sales. Export sales were significant, with 59% of reported sales sold as packages being exported. Sales of systems within Canada were fairly evenly distributed between Quebec, Ontario, the Prairies, and British Columbia. The private sector share of reported sales was 42% or greater in terms of both dollar or peak wattage. Residential-use and water-pumping segments of the market reported increased activity. Internationally, annual PV module sales in 1989 were reported to be 42 MW peak, a 20% increase from 1988. The USA has the world market share with 36%, followed by Japan at 30%. Survey respondents made suggestions for more equitable tax treatment for PV products, and saw environmental issues as having a major impact on marketing strategies. 27 refs., 11 tabs

  16. A Case Study in Market Transformation for Residential Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2017-09-01

    This case study describes how the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (MEEA) partnered with gas and electric utilities in Iowa to establish the Iowa residential heating, ventilation, and air conditioning System Adjustment and Verified Efficiency (HVAC SAVE) program, taking it to scale improving the performance and energy efficiency of HVAC systems, growing businesses, and gaining consumer trust.

  17. Energy conservation in the residential sector : The role of policy and market forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, energy conservation has been a hot topic of debate among policy makers and researchers due to the concerns about global climate change and energy dependency. From a policy perspective, residential sector has been an important target for energy conservation policies as it is a major

  18. The VDEW opinion poll 2001 among residential customers - An efficient marketing research tool; VDEW-Haushaltskundenbefragung 2001 - Ein wirksames Marktforschungsinstrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, M. [VDEW Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke e.V. Frankfurt (Germany). Bereich Markt und Daten

    2000-10-02

    Expressed in terms of company earnings, the households are the most important customer group of electric utilities. This is why the long established electricity supply companies and the newcomers in the deregulated market are building up their marketing campaigns specially designed for the residential sector. The article discusses the information drawn by the VDEW company from their latest opinion survey. (orig./CB) [German] Die Haushalte sind gemessen an den Erloesen die wichtigste Kundengruppe fuer die Stromunternehmen. Alte und neue Anbieter werben seit einem Jahr gezielt um diese Kunden. Zielgruppengerechte Werbung sowie Dienstleistungsangebote setzen Kenntnisse ueber Verbrauchsstrukturen, Meinungen und Verhaltensweisen der entsprechenden Kundengruppe voraus. Vielen Unternehmen fehlen solche detaillierte Informationen ueber ihre Haushaltskunden. Die VDEW organisiert deshalb 2001 wieder eine Haushaltskundenbefragung (HKB) - zum sechsten Mal seit 1976. (orig.)

  19. Power of design - the future of building-integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Cinzia

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies to make building integrated photovoltaic (PV) systems more acceptable and to allow PV material to compete with conventional construction material. The history of developments in building integration and difficulties encountered by architects wishing to use PV products are explored, and the Dutch Amersfoot project in Utrecht involving a new suburb of 501 house covered with PV panels is described. Questions raised regarding architectural integration of PV systems, and PV systems and the construction market are discussed. The Italian PV programme, financial and political constraints, and the positioning of PV on existing structures are reported

  20. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  1. Feasibility and potential of thermal demand side management in residential buildings considering different developments in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolisz, Henryk; Punkenburg, Carl; Streblow, Rita; Müller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A scenario analysis for the German energy market in the year 2030 is performed. • Growing demand for flexible electric capacities is identified in all scenarios. • Significant potential for domestic demand side management is identified. • A distinct potential for dynamic operation of domestic supply systems is found. • The necessity for a quick introduction of smart metering and control is found. - Abstract: A transition in the electricity market is required to manage the volatility of increasing renewable energy generation. These fluctuations can be faced with flexible consumption through Demand Side Management (DSM), establishment of further centralized storage capacities and provisioning of dynamic back up generation capacities. At least the latter two options can impose large establishment and operation costs upon the electricity market. Therefore, the feasibility and the resulting potential of coupling the electricity grid with the thermal supply of residential buildings is analysed in this paper. Thereby, inexpensive and widespread thermal storage capacities could be used to improve the integration of dynamic renewable electricity generation. In this paper the technical and economical key impact factors for such thermal DSM approach are elaborated. Based on a literature review, the identified key factors are aggregated to form consistent scenarios of the German “Energiewende” (turnaround in energy policy). The practicability and possible magnitude of the intended DSM is then analysed based on the identified scenarios. All resulting scenarios highlight the growing demand for a flexible electricity market. Especially in scenarios with strong growth of renewable electricity generation, up to 45 GW of flexible electric capacities would be required in Germany by the year 2030. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that independently of the energy market development, it is very likely that electricity coupled supply systems will

  2. Students’ Preferences On The Residential Real Estate Market In Polish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempa Olgierd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of price-setting attributes operating on local real estate market is not only an essential element of property appraisers’ work, it can also greatly assist the professional activities of real estate agents. However, its primary importance is for the market – facilitating the decision-making processes of developers (developers become aware of the buyers’ expectations and preferences, making it possible to more accurately form market offers and pricing strategy.

  3. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  4. Building opportunities in the U.S. for PV (PV:BONUS): A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Five contract teams are developing photovoltaic (PV) products that will have a significant impact on building-integrated PV systems. The product lines that these teams are pursuing include roofing materials, building facade materials, PV integrated into modular homes, ac-PV modules, and utility-dispatchable PV systems. The objective of these efforts is to develop product and market opportunities that can provide for the introduction of PV into the buildings market sector at higher allowable installed systems costs than conventional ground- or roof-mounted systems. Each of the teams has a unique approach, and synergistic opportunities among teams are beginning to emerge. This paper reviews the product and market development efforts of these teams and describes the links between the product efforts and parallel analytical work to develop PV as a demand-side management option

  5. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  6. Demand for natural gas: residential and commercial markets in Ontario and British Columbia. [Econometric-model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, E R [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Watkins, G C

    1977-02-01

    An econometric model is used to project natural gas demand in the residential and commercial market sectors. The model specification is a generalization of one developed by Balestra and Nerlove (Econometrica, 34: 585-612(1966)). Demand that is potentially variable because it is not committed to past investments (flexibe demand) is distinguished from demand that is inflexible because it is tied to existing equipment stocks (captive demand). Attention is focused on the effect of temperature variations on gas demand. The nonlinear equation system is estimated by a maximum-likelihood method, using annual data for British Columbia and Ontario during the period of 1959 to 1974. Results show that only in the long run does price have a significant impact on demand. The model is applicable for medium-term policy simulation, but is limited to natural gas fuel. 15 references.

  7. Optimal design of PV and HP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepper-Rasmussen, Bjarke Christian; Rasmussen, Theis Bo

    2015-01-01

    Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution is descr...... that the thermal storage with a BT is a better investment than a PV system without HP or no investment. Furthermore, it showed that the optimization model developed in this project is capable of finding the optimal combination of component sizes based on our data.......Methods of utilizing residential produced photovoltaic (PV) power by converting to thermal energy through heat pumps (HP) are present in literature, where thermal energy is dispersed as either heat or hot water at the instant moment of PV production. In this paper an alternative solution...... is described, where the thermal energy is stored in a buffer tank (BT) capable of dispersing heat to either the heating system of a house or a hot water tank, for later use. The thermal storage solution including a BT can increase the self-consumption of residentially produced PV power and thereby shift...

  8. Renewable energy production support schemes for residential-scale solar photovoltaic systems in Nordic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Cao, Sunliang; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of production-based support schemes on the economic feasibility of residential-scale PV systems (1–10 kW) in Finland. This was done by calculating the payback time for various sizes of newly installed PV systems for a Finnish detached house with district heating. Three types of economic support schemes (guaranteed selling price, fixed premiums and self-consumption incentives) were tested in an hourly simulation. The load of the building was based on real-life measurements, while PV output was simulated with TRNSYS software. The energy results were post-processed with economic data in MATLAB to find the payback time. Hourly electricity prices from the Nordic energy market were used with PV system prices from Finnish companies. Unsubsidised residential PV systems in Finland had payback times of more than 40 years. The production-based support for PV generation needs to be two to three times the buying price of electricity, to make it possible to pay back the initial investment in 20 years. Low capacity systems with more than 50% self-consumption (under 3 kW) were favoured by self-consumption incentives, while high capacity systems with less than 40% self-consumption (over 5 kW) were favoured by the FIT-type support schemes. - Highlights: • Unsubsidised residential PV is uneconomical in Finland. • Support rate must be 2 times the electricity price for reasonable payback time. • Even using all electricity on-site is not profitable enough without support. • Assumed real interest rate had great influence on payback time. • Hourly electricity prices are much lower than average values from Finnish statistics

  9. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  10. The Application of Japanese Candlestick Charting on the Residential Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gdakowicz Anna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is regarded as a part of the capital market. Just as they invest in securities, investors allocate their funds in real estate, hoping to make a sound profit. There are many tools that support the process of investing on the stock exchange, such as a technical analysis. There are also proven methods that help predict future prices of assets on the basis of their historic quotations.

  11. Greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating market. A microeconomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoener, Caroline; Hecking, Harald

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a microeconomic approach to deduce greenhouse gas abatement cost curves of the residential heating sector. By accounting for household behavior, we find that welfare-based abatement costs are generally higher than pure technical equipment costs. Our results are based on a microsimulation of private households' investment decision for heating systems until 2030. The households' investment behavior in the simulation is derived from a discrete choice estimation which allows investigating the welfare costs of different abatement policies in terms of the compensating variation and the excess burden. We simulate greenhouse gas abatements and welfare costs of carbon taxes and subsidies on heating system investments until 2030 to deduce abatement curves. Given utility maximizing households, our results suggest a carbon tax to be the welfare efficient policy. Assuming behavioral misperceptions instead, a subsidy on investments might have lower marginal greenhouse gas abatement costs than a carbon tax.

  12. Streamline, Organizational, Legislative and Administrative Response to Permitting, PV Market Share, and Solar Energy Costs (Broward Go SOLAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halsey, Jeffery D. [Broward County, Fort Lauderdale, FL (United States)

    2013-08-28

    Broward County and its partners (the Go SOLAR Team), operating under a Department of Energy Rooftop Solar Challenge Agreement, designed, developed and implemented an online permitting system for rooftop solar PV systems. This is a single web based system with a single permit fee that will issue a permit, with a set of design plans preapproved by partner building officials, within one hour. The system is currently available at gosolar.broward.org for use within any of the partner Authorities Having [permitting] Jurisdiction (AHJ). Additionally, the Go SOLAR Team researched, developed and to the extent feasible, implemented three best management practices to make a fertile environment for the new online permit system. These included Net Metering and Interconnection Standards, Solar-Friendly Financing, and Planning and Zoning Ordinances. Finally, the team implemented a substantial outreach effort to advocate for the development of solar in Broward County, with an emphasis on Solar Rights, concluding with a Go SOLAR Fest day and a half conference with over 1,200 attendees and 50 exhibitors. The Go SOLAR project was completed on time, under DOE’s budgeted amount, and all project objectives were met or exceeded.

  13. Local Authority Residential Mortgage Credit: A Source of Non-Market Sub-Prime Homeloans for Low-Income households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermot Coates

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As the volume of mortgage credit has risen in tandem with house price inflation, the sub-prime homeloan sector of this market has begun to expand in order to meet demand from those not serviced by the mainstream financial service providers. This article examines the role of local authorities in providing residential mortgages and assesses whether those who have traditionally borrowed from non-market (or public sector lenders would be considered to be sub-prime borrowers by the private sector. It concludes that, in view of the relatively low average incomes of this cohort of borrowers, they represent a higher probability of homeloan default and as a consequence, would be subject to a higher cost of credit in the private sector. However, this paper highlights the favourable terms offered by local authorities and argues that their failure to price according to the risk profile of borrowers exposes the Exchequer to higher – and often unquantified – costs in pursuit of promoting home-ownership.

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  15. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  16. Marketing and design of residential energy conservation programs for the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, L.; Schweitzer, M.; Freeman, E.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes barriers to energy conservation by the elderly. Because of these barriers, they have a greater need for programs that assist with the installation of energy-efficiency improvements. In response to this need, a number of specialized programs are operated for the elderly. This report contains descriptions of 39 energy conservation programs for the elderly. Telephone interviews were conducted with the managers of these programs to identify marketing techniques and organizational structures. Interagency networking, presentations and referrals are the most common methods of recruiting clients. Other marketing techniques in order of the frequency of use are: direct mail, bill inserts, television, radio, printed materials, and telemarketing. Many managers consider word-of-mouth advertising from satisfied clients the most effective form of marketing. Interagency networking and support (financial, structural and in-kind) can offer real advantages in the operation of conservation programs for the elderly. The use of specific marketing techniques is probably less important to success in recruiting clients than the degree of trust potential clients have in the sponsoring organization(s). 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Real estate market in Romania and the growth of new residential developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu George Marius

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted on Romanian people who bought a new apartment in the past three years. The purpose of this research is to understand the consumer behaviour, their attitudes and opinions regarding the most important criteria they take into consideration in the decision- making process of buying a new property. This article summarizes the results of the research.

  18. STATUS OF LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION ON SECONDARY WOOD INDUSTRIES INCLUDING RESIDENTIAL, CABINET, MILLWORK, AND PANEL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Pirraglia; Daniel Saloni; Herman van Dyk

    2009-01-01

    Lean Manufacturing has helped several industries to achieve operational and manufacturing excellence by increasing productivity and enhancing quality, while reducing waste and costs. However, the wood industry has been historically slow in adopting this philosophy and its many tools. In times when overseas competition has taken big portions of the traditional market share for U.S based wood industries, it has become important that companies start to take actions in order to regain competitive...

  19. Colorado State University: A Midscale Market Solar Customer Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, Alison [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Despite substantial increases in solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment between 2005 and 2015, a large untapped market for solar PV deployment still exists in midscale market investments by universities. Recent estimates show that if all universities in the United States installed enough solar PV to meet 25% of their annual electricity consumption, this would cumulatively result in just over 16 gigawatts (GW) of additional installed PV capacity. Within this context, midscale market projects - loosely defined as solar PV installations ranging from 100 kilowatts (kW) to 2 megawatts (MW), but more broadly representing installations not captured in the residential or utility-scale sectors - could be an attractive option for universities. This case study focuses on one university solar customer, Colorado State University (CSU), to provide a detailed example of the challenges, solutions, and opportunities associated with university solar power procurement. Between 2009 and 2015, a combined 6,754 kW of both ground-mounted and rooftop solar PV was installed across multiple CSU campuses in Fort Collins, Colorado. This case study highlights CSU's decision-making process, campus engagement strategies, and relationships with state, local, and utility partners, which have culminated in significant on-campus PV deployment.

  20. Overview of Recent Grid Codes for PV Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    The challenge to bring down the cost of produced photovoltaic (PV) power had a major impact on the PV market and in consequence the grid operators experienced higher and higher PV power penetration. The growing share of this decentralized generation plants started to affect the grid stability...

  1. Deconstructing Solar Photovoltaic Pricing: The Role of Market Structure, Technology, and Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillingham, Kenneth [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Deng, Hao [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nemet, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) system prices in the United States display considerable heterogeneity both across geographic locations and within a given location. Such heterogeneity may arise due to state and federal policies, differences in market structure, and other factors that influence demand and costs. This paper examines the relative importance of such factors on equilibrium solar PV system prices in the United States using a detailed dataset of roughly 100,000 recent residential and small commercial installations. As expected, we find that PV system prices differ based on characteristics of the systems. More interestingly, we find evidence suggesting that search costs and imperfect competition affect solar PV pricing. Installer density substantially lowers prices, while regions with relatively generous financial incentives for solar PV are associated with higher prices.

  2. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  3. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  4. Energize New York -- Residential Energy Efficiency Market Transformation in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregman, Thomas M.

    2013-12-31

    Energize New York (ENY) is focused on addressing known barriers to widespread energy efficiency (EE) adoption by property owners. In simple terms ENY works to; 1) increase homeowner trust by using known and trusted community leaders to communicate their own positive experiences with EE and ENY, 2) reduce friction points by integrating support staff and creative use of technology that ease a homeowner’s way forward through the EE upgrade process, 3) increase homeowner knowledge and trust of specific EE benefits through access to the ENY energy coach, 4) provide information on available financing options that show benefits (e.g. positive cash flow), and 5) provide tools and mechanisms that give homeowners greater comfort in evaluating and selecting the right contractor. These five fundamental program aspects are supported by a hyper-local communications and outreach model and a “lead by example” philosophy that requires community leaders to step forward and model energy efficiency behavior by example. In the communities where the program has successfully engaged local leadership and “trusted community sources” there has been a significant increase in the uptake of energy efficiency work. Quantitatively this growth translated into an increase of 240% in completed Home Performance projects from the two year pre-pilot period (2009-10) to the two year post-pilot period (2012-13). Additionally, the program has seen measureable increases in the output and performance of contractors who are members of the Energize Comfort Corps, a program innovation which included a subset of the NYSERDA approved and Building Performance Institute accredited home performance contractors. This innovation, launched in the later stages of the pilot, is paired with the Energize Contractor Ratings Index (CRI) and helps frame the provider market by giving homeowners a mechanism to provide and receive feedback on their contractor experience. The data incorporated into the CRI along with

  5. Assessing the PACE of California residential solar deployment: Impacts of Property Assessed Clean Energy programs on residential solar photovoltaic deployment in California, 2010-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Jeff; Murphy, Sean

    2018-04-04

    A new study by Berkeley Lab found that residential Property Assessed Clean Energy (R-PACE) programs increased deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in California, raising it by about 7-12% in cities that adopt these programs. R-PACE is a financing mechanism that uses a voluntary property tax assessment, paid off over time, to facilitate energy improvements and, in some jurisdictions, water and resilience measures. While previous studies demonstrated that early, regional R-PACE programs increased solar PV deployment, this new analysis is the first to demonstrate these impacts from the large, statewide R-PACE programs dominating the California market today, which use private capital to fund the upfront costs of the improvements. Berkeley Lab estimated the impacts using econometric techniques on two samples: -Large cities only, allowing annual demographic and economic data as control variables -All California cities, without these annual data Analysis of both samples controls for several factors other than R-PACE that would be expected to drive solar PV deployment. We infer that on average, cities with R-PACE programs were associated with greater solar PV deployment in our study period (2010-2015). In the large cities sample, solar PV deployment in jurisdictions with R-PACE programs was higher by 1.1 watts per owner-occupied household per month, or 12%. Across all cities, solar PV deployment in jurisdictions with R-PACE programs was higher by 0.6 watts per owner-occupied household per month, or 7%. The large cities results are statistically significant at conventional levels; the all-cities results are not. The estimates imply that the majority of solar PV deployment financed by R-PACE programs would likely not have occurred in their absence. Results suggest that R-PACE programs have increased PV deployment in California even in relatively recent years, as R-PACE programs have grown in market share and as alternate approaches for financing solar PV

  6. The potential demand for bioenergy in residential heating applications (bio-heat) in the UK based on a market segment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, S.; Pantaleo, A.; Bauen, A.; Pearson, P.; Panoutsou, C.; Slade, R.

    2008-01-01

    How large is the potential demand for bio-heat in the UK? Whilst most research has focused on the supply of biomass for energy production, an understanding of the potential demand is crucial to the uptake of heat from bioenergy. We have designed a systematic framework utilising market segmentation techniques to assess the potential demand for biomass heat in the UK. First, the heat market is divided into relevant segments, characterised in terms of their final energy consumption, technological and fuel supply options. Second, the key technical, economic and organisational factors that affect the uptake of bioenergy in each heat segment are identified, classified and then analysed to reveal which could be strong barriers, which could be surmounted easily, and for which bioenergy heat represents an improvement compared to alternatives. The defined framework is applied to the UK residential sector. We identify provisionally the most promising market segments for bioenergy heat, and their current levels of energy demand. We find that, depending on the assumptions, the present potential demand for bio-heat in the UK residential sector ranges between 3% (conservative estimate) and 31% (optimistic estimate) of the total energy consumed in the heat market. (author)

  7. Design of Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy has become very important both worldwide and on the European market, mainly due to the decrease in the photovoltaic (PV) system cost (up to 75%) during the last decade. PV installations worldwide have reached 227 GW at the end of 2015 with a predicted extra 50 GW of new...

  8. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  9. Low concentrator PV optics optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Leonard; Chang, Ben

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: Cost reduction is a major focus of the solar industry. Thin film technologies and concentration systems are viable ways to reducing cost, with unique strengths and weakness for both. Most of the concentrating PV work focuses on high concentration systems for reducing energy cost. Meanwhile, many believe that low concentrators provide significant cost reduction potential while addressing the mainstream PV market with a product that acts as a flat panel replacement. This paper analyzes the relative benefit of asymmetric vs. symmetric optics for low-concentrators in light of specific PV applications. Approach: Symmetric and asymmetric concentrating PV module performance is evaluated using computer simulation to determine potential value across various geographic locations and applications. The selected optic design is modeled against standard cSi flat panels and thin film to determine application fit, system level energy density and economic value. Results: While symmetric designs may seem ideal, asymmetric designs have an advantage in energy density. Both designs are assessed for aperture, optimum concentration ratio, and ideal system array configuration. Analysis of performance across climate specific effects (diffuse, direct and circumsolar) and location specific effects (sunpath) are also presented. The energy density and energy production of low concentrators provide a compelling value proposition. More significantly, the choice of optics for a low concentrating design can affect real world performance. With the goal of maximizing energy density and return on investment, this paper presents the advantages of asymmetric optic concentration and illustrates the value of this design within specific PV applications.

  10. Emissions and encapsulation of cadmium in CdTe PV modules during fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Heiser, J.; Fitts, J.; Wang, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States). Environmental Sciences Dept.; Lanzirotti, A. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Consortium for Advanced Radiation Resources

    2005-12-15

    Fires in residential and commercial properties are not uncommon. If such fires involve the roof, photovoltaic arrays mounted on the roof will be exposed to the flames. The amount of cadmium that can be released in fires involving CdTe PV and the magnitude of associated health risks has been debated. The current study aims in delineating this issue. Previous thermogravimetric studies of CdTe, involved pure CdTe and single-glass PV modules. The current study is based on glass-glass CdTe PV modules which are the only ones in the market. Pieces of commercial CdTe photovoltaic (PV) modules, sizes 25x3 cm, were heated to temperatures up to 1100{sup o}C to simulate exposure to residential and commercial building fires. The temperature rate and duration in these experiments were defined according to standard protocols. Four different types of analysis were performed to investigate emissions and redistribution of elements in the matrix of heated CdTe PV modules: (1) measurements of sample weight loss as a function of temperature; (2) analyses of Cd and Te in the gaseous emissions; (3) Cd distribution in the heated glass using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis; and (4) chemical analysis for Cd and Te in the acid-digested glass. These experiments showed that almost all (i.e., 99.5%) of the cadmium content of CdTe PV modules was encapsulated in the molten glass matrix; a small amount of Cd escaped from the perimeter of the samples before the two sheets of glass melted together. Adjusting for this loss in full-size modules, results in 99.96% retention of Cd. Multiplying this with the probability of occurrence for residential fires in wood-frame houses in the US (e.g., 10{sup -4}), results in emissions of 0.06 mg/GWh; the probability of sustained fires and subsequent emissions in adequately designed and maintained utility systems appears to be zero. (Author)

  11. The potential of solar PV in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMonagle, R.

    2005-01-01

    Canada has lagged behind other industrialized nations in the growth of solar energy markets. Currently, over 78 per cent of the global market for solar energy is for grid-connected applications where power is fed into the electrical distribution network. Less than 3.5 per cent of the Canadian solar market is grid-connected. This report investigated the potential size of the photovoltaic (PV) market in Ontario given adequate support from both governments and utilities. The forecast was based on sustainable growth levels that the solar industry as a whole might maintain over an extended period of time. It was suggested that it is technically feasible to install over 3000 MW of PV in single, detached homes in the province, which could generate over 3200 GWh each year. If the right policy conditions were put in place, the technical potential for PV on all buildings in Ontario is over 14,000 MW by 2025, which would generate over 13,000 GWh annually. Support mechanisms such as the Advanced Renewable Tariff (ART) or Standard Offer Contracts (SOC) will enable the PV industry to build capacity. Future markets for PV include new homes, commercial buildings and the existing housing stock. With a properly designed system, it is forecasted that the deployment of PV by 2025 could result in the involvement of 400,000 homes with over 1200 MW of installed capacity and over 290 MW installed annually by 2025. Recommendations to Ontario Power Authority's (OPA) report supply mix report focused on the use of SOCs as the appropriate support mechanism to start building solar capacity in Ontario, as projections using SOCs would see Ontario following the growth patterns of other nations. It was concluded that the OPA report does not acknowledge the current growth rates of PV globally, nor does it fully consider the potential of PV in Ontario. 9 refs., 8 figs

  12. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesser, P.; Hostettler, T.

    2007-01-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  13. Designing alternative strategies for the European industry according to its strength and weaknesses and taking into consideration the opportunities and threats of the PV market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Cameron, M.; Weiss, I.; Baumann, J.; Stierstorfer, J.; Gisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives were to generate a variety of strategies to identify alternative ways that the PV Sector can use its specific strengths to capitalize on opportunities or to avoid threats and to overcome its weaknesses. The so-called SWOT analysis provides a matrix illustrating how businesses can match the external opportunities and threats facing the sector with its internal strengths and weaknesses to yield in possible strategic alternatives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create alternative strategies and actions, which might not otherwise be considered. In two working group meetings with participants from the PV industry, research and other stakeholders the SWOT were performed to result into implications for the PV sector. Through workshops the results will be discussed within an expert group and priorities for the future activities will be defined. The project is co-financed through the 6. Framework Programme of the EC. (authors)

  14. Multifunctional a-Si PV systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peippo, K; Lund, P; Vartiainen, E [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The optimal use of the various forms of solar energy (passive, active, daylighting, photovoltaics) in buildings calls for an optimal integration of the technologies. As energy conservation potential in space heating may soon be exhausted, electricity efficiency and on-site generation will play an increasing role in energy-conscious building design. There, dispersed PV systems integrated into buildings show a significant market potential, due to a number of benefits: no extra land area is required, PV-array may replace conventional cladding materials and become a building element. Moreover, the produced PV-electricity is more valuable for the building owner than for an electric utility

  15. Building Integrated PV and PV/Hybrid Products - The PV:BONUS Experience: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, H.; Pierce, L. K.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Successes and lessons learned from PV:BONUS (Building Opportunities in the United States in PV). This program has funded the development of PV or PV/hybrid products for building applications.

  16. Rooftop PV system. PV:BONUS Phase 3B, final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Under the PV:BONUS Program, ECD and United Solar developed, demonstrated and commercialized two new lightweight, flexible BIPV modules specifically designed as replacements for conventional asphalt shingles and standing seam metal roofing. These modules can be economically and aesthetically integrated into new residential and commercial buildings, and can be used to address the even larger roofing-replacement market. An important design feature of these modules, which minimizes the installation and balance-of-system costs, is their ability to be installed by conventional roofing contractors without special training. The modules are fabricated from high-efficiency, triple-junction spectrum-splitting a-Si alloy solar cells developed by ECD and United Solar. These cells are produced on thin, flexible stainless steel substrates and encapsulated with polymer materials. The Phase 3 program began in August 1995. The principal tasks and goals of this program, which have all been successfully completed by ECD and United Solar, are described in the body and appendices of this report.

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  18. Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    This report examines relatively new, innovative financing methods for residential photovoltaics (PV) and compares them to traditional self-financing. It provides policymakers with an overview of the residential PV financing mechanisms, describes relative advantages and challenges, and analyzes differences between them where data is available. Because these innovative financing mechanisms have only been implemented in a few locations, this report can inform their wider adoption.

  19. The “housing bubble” and financial factors: Insights from a structural model of the French and Spanish residential markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Antipa, P.; Lecat, R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, France and Spain have experienced property price and residential investment increases which were among the strongest and the lengthiest in the euro area. Although the quality of the underlying data limits the precision of the estimates, the present paper aims at analysing the fundamental factors behind these evolutions. The analysis presented here assesses whether the observed price dynamics may be attributed to a pure expectation bubble phenomenon or to the large change...

  20. Is rooftop solar PV at socket parity without subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Shelly; Jaramillo, Paulina; Morgan, M. Granger

    2016-01-01

    Installations of rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) technology in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, in large part because of state and federal subsidies. In the future, such subsidies may be reduced or eliminated. From the homeowner's perspective, solar PV is competitive when it can produce electricity at a cost equivalent to the retail electricity rate, a condition sometimes referred to as “socket parity”. In assessing the economic viability of residential solar PV, most existing literature considers only a few locations and fails to consider the differences in PV system cost and electricity prices that exist across the U.S. We combined insolation data from more than 1000 locations, installation costs by region, and county-level utility rates to provide a more complete economic assessment of rooftop solar PV across the U.S. We calculated the break-even electricity prices and evaluated the reductions in installed costs needed to reach socket parity. Among the scenarios considered, we estimate that only Hawaii has achieved socket parity without the use of subsidies. With subsidies, six states reach socket parity, yet widespread parity is still not achieved. We find that high installation costs and financing rates are two of the largest barriers to socket parity. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic viability of residential rooftop solar PV across the U.S. • Widespread socket parity has not been achieved in the U.S. without subsidies. • Net metering may be critical for the economic viability of rooftop solar PV.

  1. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  2. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed

  3. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherring, Chris (Sherring Energy Associates)

    1999-08-30

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented.

  4. China PV Business and Applications Evaluation; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherring, Chris

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of photovoltaics (PV) business and applications in China. Although more than 70 million people in China are without access to grid electricity, many of the unelectrified regions benefit from considerable renewable resources, including good solar insolation. Current annual PV sales are still modest, however, and are estimated to be between 2.0 and 2.5 megawatts. This and other significant PV data, including information regarding the current status of key aspects of Chinese businesses, markets, and distribution channels, are included in the report. Detailed company profiles of Chinese business organizations and summaries of visits made to these companies (as well as to more remote sites in Inner Mongolia to examine PV usage by the end-use customer) in September-October 1998 are also presented

  5. Storage Application in Smart Grid with High PV and EV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Yang, Guangya; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    grids with residential PVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs). The effect of EV home charging on EESS capacity in high PV penetration is also addressed. The results indicate that increasing the EV penetration in the network can decrease the EESS capacity need. This decrease is highest in situations with low PV...

  6. Effects of Platform Design on the Customer Experience in an Online Solar PV Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leibowicz, Benjamin [The University of Texas at Austin; Punjabi, Kunal [The University of Texas at Austin

    2018-05-09

    We analyze a unique dataset of residential solar PV quotes offered in an online marketplace to understand how platform design changes affect customer outcomes. Three of the four design changes are associated with statistically significant and robust reductions in offer prices, though none of the policies were designed explicitly to reduce prices. The results suggest that even small changes in how prospective solar PV customers interact with installers can affect customer outcomes such as prices. Specifically, the four changes we evaluate are: 1) a customer map that shows potential new EnergySage registrants the locations of nearby customers; 2) a quote cap that precludes more than seven installers from bidding on any one customer; 3) a price guidance feature that informs installers about competitive prices in the customer's market before they submit quotes; and 4) no pre-quote messaging to prohibit installers from contacting customers prior to offering quotes. We calculate descriptive statistics to investigate whether each design change accomplished its specific objectives. Then, we econometrically evaluate the impacts of the design changes on PV quote prices and purchase prices using a regression discontinuity approach.

  7. Do feed-in tariffs drive PV cost or viceversa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, Marco; Desideri, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The distribution of PV installations on the territory is not a function of the solar radiation. • Cost of PV plants were adapted to the FIT framework. • The FIT for PV in Italy was considered an incentive to financial investment. • The FIT for PV in Italy did not stimulate the development of national PV industry. - Abstract: A survey of the PV market in Italy was done studying a number of installations of different sizes whose economic data were known and assessed. The Italian market has experienced a boom in the PV market after the first mechanism of feed-in tariffs was promoted in 2005. The variations of the tariff structure in the following years have caused significant changes in the market structure in terms of average size and technical characteristics of installed plants. However, an Italian PV industry was not stimulated by the incentives and only companies involved in installation and maintenance were created. At the same time, the cost of the PV plants components, design and commissioning have followed quite a particular trend, which is more determined by the tariffs than by the market development and structure. It is quite clear that the costs of PV plants component are not driven by the amount of installations but by the tariffs, with a trend that follows the decreases in the incentives and not the global installed power. It is therefore very important to study the right tariff mechanisms and benefits to avoid financial disturbances on the market and to promote a real competitive market instead of a simple financial operation under a fake façade of green economy

  8. Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy; latest developments in the building integrated and hybrid PV systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental concerns are growing and interest in environmental issues is increasing and the idea of generating electricity with less pollution is becoming more and more attractive. Unlike conventional generation systems, fuel of the solar photovoltaic energy is available at no cost. And solar photovoltaic energy systems generate electricity pollution-free and can easily be installed on the roof of residential as well as on the wall of commercial buildings as grid-connected PV application. In addition to grid-connected rooftop PV systems, solar photovoltaic energy offers a solution for supplying electricity to remote located communities and facilities, those not accessible by electricity companies. The interest in solar photovoltaic energy is growing worldwide. Today, more than 3500MW of photovoltaic systems have been installed all over the world. Since 1970, the PV price has continuously dropped [8]. This price drop has encouraged worldwide application of small-scale residential PV systems. These recent developments have led researchers concerned with the environment to undertake extensive research projects for harnessing renewable energy sources including solar energy. The usage of solar photovoltaic as a source of energy is considered more seriously making future of this technology looks promising. The objective of this contribution is to present the latest developments in the area of solar photovoltaic energy systems. A further objective of this contribution is to discuss the long-term prospect of the solar photovoltaic energy as a sustainable energy supply. [Author

  9. Importance of policy for energy system transformation: Diffusion of PV technology in Japan and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Sanjeeda; Sumita, Ushio; Islam, Ashraful; Bedja, Idriss

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) has the highest cost reduction potential among all renewable energy sources (RES). To overcome institutional barriers, developing the technology, and creating an initial market, policies are needed. Comparative case studies of Japan and German PV sector from 1990 to 2011 were developed. Japan dominated the PV industry during 1994–2004, PV market increased to 290 MW in 2005. After 2005 Japan's PV market decreased. German PV market increased from 44 MW in 2000 to 7.5 GW in 2011. The reason behind Japanese PV market decline was the unaligned energy policy and termination of incentives. This paper discusses about successful policy implementation and the impact of policy for the diffusion of PV technology. The analysis section of this paper shows how much the PV technology has been diffused during the period of 1990–2011 and finally what will make the transformation process successful. - Highlights: • We studied PV diffusion of Japan and German considering public energy policy, environmental policy and cost reduction. • This study determined that policy and incentives are responsible for cost reduction. • Japans concentration on nuclear energy more than renewables, made the PV diffusion slow. • Successful implementation of FIT helped Germany reduce PV electricity price more than grid electricity

  10. Issues and prospects vis a vis Indian PV commercialization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deambi, Suneel

    1994-01-01

    Following a large scale demonstration of photovoltaic systems attending to the important requirements of lighting, water pumping, television and battery charging etc. in the remote surroundings of India, serious efforts are being made to promote the commercial use of these systems. A recently launched World Bank-supported project on PV market development has provided the much needed boost to the Indian PV programme. This paper tries to analyse the issues and prospects with respect to the National PV Commercialization Programme in view of the changing PV scenario in the country. (author)

  11. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  12. PV installations, protection and the code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silecky, L. [Mersen, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This article discussed the need for improved standards in Ontario's solar industry to ensure safety for the systems and also safety for the workers. Photovoltaic cells used in solar arrays can now deliver between 50 vDC to 600 vDC. The workings of such a high voltage photocell must be understood in order to understand its protection needs. Since PVs are semiconductors and susceptible to damage from short circuits and overloads, a fast-acting overcurrent protective device (OCPD) should be used. Combiner boxes are also needed to provide a clean method of safely connecting all the wires that are needed in the system, including surge protection and a means of isolation between the PV array and the inverter. Section 50 of the Canadian Electrical Code outlines the requirements for solar PV systems, but it does not mention the protection of DC circuits, including DC fuse protectors which are manufactured to provide a high degree of protection for the PV array. As the photovoltaic (PV) market continues to grow in Ontario, the PV industry also has a responsibility to ensure it is in compliance with codes and standards related to photovoltaic systems. This author suggested that Article 690 of the National Electric Code (NEC) is a good document to use when determining the requirements for PV systems. 3 figs.

  13. Second life battery energy storage system for residential demand response service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez-de-Ibarra, Andoni; Martinez-Laserna, Egoitz; Koch-Ciobotaru, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    vehicles, during their main first life application, for providing residential demand response service. The paper considers the decayed characteristics of these batteries and optimizes the rating of such a second life battery energy storage system (SLBESS) for maximizing the economic benefits of the user......The integration of renewable energies and the usage of battery energy storage systems (BESS) into the residential buildings opens the possibility for minimizing the electricity bill for the end-user. This paper proposes the use of batteries that have already been aged while powering electric......'s energy consumption during a period of one year. Furthermore, simulations were performed considering real data of PV generation, consumption, prices taken from the Spanish market and costs of battery and photovoltaic systems....

  14. Exploring the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices and identifying hot spots in Berlin’s residential property market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meulen, Philipp an de; Mitze, Timo Friedel

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we use residual values obtained from an estimated hedonic pricing model to assess the role of district-level neighbourhood effects for the spatial variation in quality-adjusted rental prices in Berlin between 2008 and 2013. By doing so, we also aim at identifying hot and cold spots ...... analysis (ESDA) toolbox, we finally pinpoint particular hot spots of the city’s residential property market associated with a significant spatial clustering of similar rental price values around individual observations....... proximity to the city centre compared to similar properties in Berlin’s periphery once we control for the properties’ physical characteristics. The observed temporal evolution of the rental price distribution between 2008 and 2013 thereby hints at an ongoing gentrification process in Germany’s capital...... associated with the current housing market boom. This visual impression is also confirmed by the application of quantile regressions for a correlation analysis between quality-adjusted rental price values and Berlin district-level characteristics obtained from the last census in 2011. Among other factors, we...

  15. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2017-01-01

    that governments’ strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include......This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called ‘technology action plans (TAPs)’, which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries...... from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donorled market for institutional systems). The paper finds...

  16. Measures for diffusion of solar PV in selected African countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Mackenzie, Gordon; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates how African governments are considering supporting and promoting the diffusion of solar PV. This issue is explored by examining so-called 'technology action plans (TAPs)', which were main outputs of the Technology Needs Assessment project implemented in 10 African countries from 2010 to 2013. The paper provides a review of three distinct but characteristic trajectories for PV market development in Kenya (private-led market for solar home systems), Morocco (utility-led fee-for service model) and Rwanda (donor-led market for institutional systems). The paper finds that governments' strategies to promoting solar PV are moving from isolated projects towards frameworks for market development and that there are high expectations to upgrading in the PV value chain through local assembly of panels and local production of other system elements. Commonly identified measures include support to: local production; financing schemes; tax exemptions; establishment and reinforcement of standards; technical training; and research and development.

  17. Optimization of SiC-based H5 and Conergy-NPC transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    effective in terms of energy production than their non-optimized and Si-based counterparts. Reducing the market price of SiC-type power semiconductors enables to design optimized PV inverters with a lower cost of energy than that of PV inverters employing Si technology, thus maximizing the economic...... profitability of the PV system....

  18. A global strategy for the European PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, M.; Despotou, E.; Latour, M.; Hoffmann, W.; Macias, E.; Cameron, M.; Laborde, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to develop a comprehensive strategy that answers to the need of today European PV industry. Namely: - Develop PV markets in Europe - Develop export markets. - Position the European PV industry within the European political environment and support the effort of national actors in their local objectives. This method lends itself to brainstorming to create actions and synergies, on order to achieve strategy objectives. The whole work is based on working groups clearly defined on the purpose, where all EPIA members are invited to participate. The overall first results are presented during the 19. EU PV Conference in Paris and EPIA will do recommendations on actions to be undertaken in the future. This strategy is co-financed by EPIA members and the 6. Framework Programme for research of the European Commission through the PV Catapult project. (authors)

  19. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  20. PV Obelisk - Information system with photovoltaics; PV-Obelisk Orientierungssystem mit Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruoss, D.; Rasmussen, J.

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the development of an information system powered by a photovoltaic (PV) array. As an innovative approach, the 'PV-Obelisk' project is the combination of PV with a multi-functional pillar made of natural stone in an aesthetic way. The PV modules serve both as a power supply and as a design element. Two initial prototypes led the way to a third, optimised consumer configuration that was planned to guarantee maximum user frequency. Test operation in front of the 'Heidiland' motor way restaurant confirmed the market analyses made and delivered the expected results. The product, whose three LCD displays are updated via a mobile telephony-based text-message system, proved its technical reliability and showed a high user frequency. Because of the high overall energy consumption, PV power can only partially contribute to the energy supply needed. Various compromises in the technical and aesthetic areas are discussed that were made for the sake of product acceptance in the market. The range of application areas for such a 'PV Obelisk' are discussed and the need for early co-ordination with urban planners is stressed.

  1. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen; Veda, Santosh; Elgindy, Tarek; Liu, Yilu

    2017-04-11

    Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

  2. Emissions reduction and economic implications of renewable energy market penetration of power generation for residential consumption in the MENA region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fadel, M.; Rachid, G.; El-Samra, R.; Bou Boutros, G.; Hashisho, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of renewable energy (RE) deployment in power generation for residential consumption in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region under various RE penetration targets. A comparative assessment revealed a great heterogeneity among countries with Turkey dominating as the highest emitter. At the sub-regional level, the Middle East sub-region contributes more than double the GHG emissions estimated for the Gulf and North Africa sub-regions with all sub-regions achieving reductions in the range of 6–38% depending on the RE target penetration and promising up to 54% savings on investment excluding positive externalities associated with the offset of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions savings. - Highlights: ► Heterogeneity in GHG emissions in MENA region with Turkey contributing the most. ► Average regional GHG tCO 2 e/capita of 0.42 decreases to 0.17 with RE penetration. ► GHG emissions regional reduction reaches 8–36% depending on RE target penetration. ► Return on investment in RE promises up to 54% savings excluding positive externalities. ► Carbon credits offer economic incentives rendering RE investment more attractive.

  3. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  4. Leakage current measurement in transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso; Mathe, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installations have seen a huge increase during the last couple of years. Transformerless PV inverters are gaining more share of the total inverter market, due to their high conversion efficiency, small weight and size. Nevertheless safety should have an important role in case...... of these tranformerless systems, due to the missing galvanic isolation. Leakage and fault current measurement is a key issue for these inverter topologies to be able to comply with the required safety standards. This article presents the test results of two different current measurement sensors that were suggested...

  5. PV Project Finance in the United States, 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David; Lowder, Travis; Schwabe, Paul

    2016-09-01

    This brief is a compilation of data points and market insights that reflect the state of the project finance market for solar photovoltaic (PV) assets in the United States as of the third quarter of 2016. This information can generally be used as a simplified benchmark of the costs associated with securing financing for solar PV as well as the cost of the financing itself (i.e., the cost of capital). Three sources of capital are considered -- tax equity, sponsor equity, and debt -- across three segments of the PV marketplace.

  6. Training and certification of PV installers in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Tournaki, Stavroula; Gkouskos, Zacharias; Masson, Gaetan; Holden, John; Huidobro, Ana; Stoykova, Evelina; Rata, Camelia; Bacan, Andro; Maxoulis, Christos; Charalambous, Anthi

    2013-01-01

    The European strategy for the coming decades sets specific targets for a sustainable growth, including reaching a 20% share of renewables in final energy consumption till 2020. To achieve this target, a number of initiatives and measures have been in force. Europe, is currently the largest market for PV systems with more than 75% of the annual worldwide installations in 2011. The favourable European policies as well as the Member States’ supporting legislations have resulted in high market growth for photovoltaics. Applying PV technologies however, requires high qualified technicians to install, repair and maintain them. Until today, national markets have been growing faster than the skilled PV installers force can satisfy. The PVTRIN, an Intelligent Energy Europe action, addresses these issues by developing a training and certification scheme for technicians active in the installation and maintenance of small scale PV systems. During the implementation of the action, a market research was conducted in the six participating countries in order to record the stakeholders’ attitudes, perceptions and considerations and to adapt the training methods, tools and materials to the national PV industry requirements and markets’ needs. Indicative results of this analysis as well as the current situation regarding relevant training and certification schemes are presented in this paper. - Highlights: ► Market research in six EU countries on PV professional Training and Certification needs. ► PVTRIN scheme integrates the national legislations and the market's needs. ► The different aspects (technical, institutional, financial) are presented

  7. Grid integrated distributed PV (GridPV).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2013-08-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functions are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in the OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function in the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  8. PV Life Cycle Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten Wambach

    2017-01-01

    This presentation was part of the Workshop: Recycling, reuse and resource efficiency: New solutions for a PV circular economy - Results from the projects CABRISS and ECOSOLAR. The workshop was organized within Freiberg Silicon Days 2017.

  9. PV experience curves for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwig, R.

    2005-01-01

    Experience curves are one of several tools used by policy makers to take a look at market development. Numerous curves have been constructed for PV but none specific to the Netherlands. The objective of this report is to take a look at the price development of grid-connected PV systems in the Netherlands using the experience curve theory. After a literature and internet search and attempts to acquire information from PV companies information on 51% of the totally installed capacity was found. Curves for the period 1991-2001 were constructed based on system price, BOS (balance-of-system) price and inverter price. The progress ratio of the locally learning BOS was similar to the globally learning module market. This indicates that the pace of development of the Dutch PV market is similar to the globally followed pace. Improvement of the detail of the data might help to get a better idea of which BOS components have declined most. The similar progress ratio also shows the importance of investing both in module and system research as is the case in the Netherlands

  10. Geography of opportunity and residential mortgage foreclosure: A spatial analysis of a U.S. housing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei LI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Florida has been among the top foreclosure markets in the United States, but little research has explored whether this market presents different dynamics compared to other metropolitan areas. This research chooses Broward County to explore whether socioeconomic characteristics and certain public policy instruments relate to subprime lending and mortgage foreclosure patterns. Results indicate areas bounded by linear highways and railroads have a concentration of low-income black population and subprime loans. The spatial distribution of subprime loans is mostly explained by a higher percentage of minority and/or Hispanic population in a neighborhood. Yet, racial minorities, instead of Hispanic origin, contributes mostly to the concentration of subprime loans. The spatial pattern of foreclosures is more complex, determined not only by subprime loans but also possibly other factors associated with the mortgage crisis. This suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods are disproportionally lacking favorable opportunities due to institutional and sub- cultural forces shaping the geography of subprime and foreclosure.

  11. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Li, Xueping [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  12. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  13. Opinion leadership and willingness to pay for residential photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    According to diffusion theory, opinion leaders play an important role in the diffusion of new technologies through interpersonal communication with potential adopters. This study investigates the role and utility of opinion leadership in photovoltaic (PV) system diffusion. Specifically, the study proposes, examines, and considers the implications of the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between willingness to pay (WTP) for a PV system and opinion leadership on PV-system adoption. The investigation employed an internet-based questionnaire to assess the use of interpersonal communication in decision-making on adoption, to identify opinion leaders on adoption, and to characterize their WTP. The response pool consisted of 488 individuals who lived in a detached house, owned a residential PV system, and were responsible for making the decision to adopt the system. The results support the hypothesis. Considering that subsidization preferentially incentivizes households with greater WTP to adopt PV systems, this suggests that subsidization is more effective than purchases of PV power under feed-in tariffs in promoting the diffusion of residential PV systems through interpersonal communication. -- Highlights: •Interpersonal communication about the adoption of PV systems is analyzed. •A questionnaire survey is conducted. •Opinion leaders on PV-system adoption are identified. •A relationship is confirmed between willingness to pay and opinion leadership. •Subsidization is more essential than feed-in tariffs from this point of view

  14. Analysis of the Photovoltaic Market 2001. Cost of PV Components and Systems; Analisis del Mercado Fotovoltaico 2001. Coste de Componentes y Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balenzategui Manzanares, J. L.

    2002-07-01

    This document tries to study the development and evolution of the photovoltaic market at a national land international scale, and to analyse its current status at the end of 2001. The paper broaches the study from different points of view. At the first step, the actual great expansion of the global market is analysed by means of the data for international sales and shipments of photovoltaic modules which are completed with figures of the main countries and manufacturing companies involved in the market, the end-use applications, the installed power per country, the technologies used and the evolution of the cost of the modules. By using the same kind of parameters, the particular conditions of the Spanish market is then analysed, and the current national norms and plans for promotion and their short-term perspectives are reviewed and discussed. As a complementary/aspect , a simple cost analysis of the main components of a photovoltaic system in the Spanish market is carried out, together with the costs of complete installations. The average values for components and systems are obtained and are compared with those from preceding years. These data allow evaluating in practice how the global situations is reflected in the final cost of the photovoltaic devices for consumers. (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Terawatt Challenge for Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, K.

    2005-08-01

    The evolution of PV into one of the world's largest industries is not going to happen without major unforeseen problems. However, this study attempts to address the obvious ones, so that we can put aside the mythology of PV (for example, that it is only ''boutique power'' or that one must pave the world with it to be useful) and get on with changing the world's energy infrastructure. With the years of rapid market growth now under way in PV, the author is sure this will not be the last effort to understand the real potential and pitfalls of meeting the Challenge.

  16. PV Systems Reliability Final Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flicker, Jack David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schindelholz, Eric John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yang, Benjamin Bing-Yeh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The continued exponential growth of photovoltaic technologies paves a path to a solar-powered world, but requires continued progress toward low-cost, high-reliability, high-performance photovoltaic (PV) systems. High reliability is an essential element in achieving low-cost solar electricity by reducing operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and extending system lifetime and availability, but these attributes are difficult to verify at the time of installation. Utilities, financiers, homeowners, and planners are demanding this information in order to evaluate their financial risk as a prerequisite to large investments. Reliability research and development (R&D) is needed to build market confidence by improving product reliability and by improving predictions of system availability, O&M cost, and lifetime. This project is focused on understanding, predicting, and improving the reliability of PV systems. The two areas being pursued include PV arc-fault and ground fault issues, and inverter reliability.

  17. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  18. Prospects for PV: a learning curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabi, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art of photovoltaic electricity technology, and addresses its potential for cost reductions over the first few decades of the 21st century. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, both in terms of capacity installation and electricity generation, of single crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, amorphous silicon and other thin film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected according to the learning-curve methodology. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. Our conclusions are that, (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating learning curves observed in the past, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly over the coming years, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and their internalisation would improve the competitiveness of PV, although probably not enough to close the current cost gap. (author)

  19. Economic analysis of upgrading aging residential buildings in China based on dynamic energy consumption and energy price in a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Jinlong; Lu Meijun; Li Bing; Wang Chunyuan; Hokao, Kazunori

    2011-01-01

    This article employed a standard LCC to conduct economic analysis of upgrading the aging residential buildings in China. According to the current situation, an interest rate of 6%, an inflation rate of 3%, an increase rate of annual energy savings of 2% and an increase rate of electricity price of 2% were assumed in the method. The results indicated that only relying on gradually increasing electricity price and governments' subsidies was not enough. After detailed analysis of the energy saving measures and the distribution of all benefits from building energy retrofit, it was found that actually only 1/3 of original cost was spent only for energy savings, the second 1/3 for both energy savings and good facade appearance and occupants should share the last 1/3 because even if without energy retrofit, they would have to pay the part too. The corresponding results proved that the first 1/3 of investment cost could be drawn back within the residue life cycle, and so the investment could be accepted in a sheer market economy. In the end, a model about distribution of investment cost of and benefits was proposed to adapt the market economy to overcome the financial problems in China. - Highlights: → The paper uses LCC to conduct economic analysis on building energy retrofit of China. → LCC considers dynamic energy use, energy price and economic development of China. → Only relying on increasing electricity price and governments' subsidies is not enough. → Actually only 1/3 of original cost is spent only for energy saving, can be drawn back. → Investors, governments and occupants should respectively pay 1/3 of investment cost.

  20. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  1. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  2. Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Zondag, H.A.; Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2005-03-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS. It has been found that this system is able to cover 100% of the total heat demand for a typical newly-built Dutch one-family dwelling, while covering nearly all of its own electricity use and keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost of such a system has been compared to the cost of a reference system, where the PVT panels have been replaced with separate PV panels (26 m 2 ) and solar thermal collectors (7 m 2 ), but which is otherwise identical. The electrical and thermal yield of this reference system is equal to that of the PVT system. It has been found that both systems require a nearly identical initial investment. Finally, a view on future PVT markets is given. In general, the residential market is by far the most promising market. The system discussed in this paper is expected to be most successful in newly-built low-energy housing concepts

  3. Performance and costs of a roof-sized PV/thermal array combined with a ground coupled heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, M.; Zondag, H.A.; Elswijk, M.J.; Strootman, K.J.; Jong, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) panel is a combination of photovoltaic cells with a solar thermal collector, generating solar electricity and solar heat simultaneously. Hence, PVT panels are an alternative for a combination of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. A promising system concept, consisting of 25 m 2 of PVT panels and a ground coupled heat pump, has been simulated in TRNSYS. It has been found that this system is able to cover 100% of the total heat demand for a typical newly-built Dutch one-family dwelling, while covering nearly all of its own electricity use and keeping the long-term average ground temperature constant. The cost of such a system has been compared to the cost of a reference system, where the PVT panels have been replaced with separate PV panels (26 m 2 ) and solar thermal collectors (7 m 2 ), but which is otherwise identical. The electrical and thermal yield of this reference system is equal to that of the PVT system. It has been found that both systems require a nearly identical initial investment. Finally, a view on future PVT markets is given. In general, the residential market is by far the most promising market. The system discussed in this paper is expected to be most successful in newly-built low-energy housing concepts. (Author)

  4. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongmei; Dong, Jinzhi; Duan, Yuanfeng; Lu, Xilin; Peng, Jinqing

    2014-01-01

    BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV) modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedd...

  5. Delta Power Control Strategy for Multi-String Grid-Connected PV Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With a still increasing penetration level of grid-connected PV systems, more advanced active power control functionalities have been introduced in certain grid regulations. A delta power constraint, where a portion of the active power from the PV panels is reserved during operation, is required...... for grid support (e.g., during frequency deviation). In this paper, a cost-effective solution to realize delta power control for grid-connected PV systems is presented, where the residential/commercial multi-string PV inverter configuration is adopted. This control strategy is a combination of Maximum...... for the entire PV system is achieved. Simulations and experiments have been performed on a 3-kW single-phase grid-connected PV system. The results have confirmed the effectiveness of the delta power control strategy, where the power reserve according to the delta power constraint is achieved under several...

  6. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-07-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  7. Space and industrial markets for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, C.R.; Hardingham, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a review of applications, technologies and markets for photovoltaic power (PV) supplies. A brief history of PV and PV principles is presented, and an overview of the satellite industry is given. Space arrays, space PV, terrestrial PV, and thermo photovoltaics are examined. Targets and constraints in space and terrestrial solar cells are compared, and details of commercial market sizes for given technologies in space and terrestrial PV in 1999, and technical barriers to be overcome towards development of existing products are tabulated. The scope for cross-culture interaction in all aspects of manufacturing, testing and evaluation in the PV devices are considered. (UK)

  8. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goodrich, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-11-30

    The installed capacity of global and U.S. photovoltaic (PV) systems has soared in recent years, driven by declining PV prices and government incentives. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot Initiative aims to make PV cost competitive without incentives by reducing the cost of PV-generated electricity by about 75% between 2010 and 2020. This summary report—based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)—examines progress in PV price reductions to help DOE and other PV stakeholders manage the transition to a market-driven PV industry, and to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices.

  9. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  10. Grid-connected photovoltaic systems for Malaysian residential sector: Effects of component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Muhamad, N.A.; Arief, Y.Z.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Blessed with abundant solar radiation, Malaysia has a huge potential for grid-connected PV (photovoltaic) installations, particularly for its fast-growing residential sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia's PV installation capacity is relatively small compared with the global PV capacity. Significantly, the pricing mechanisms for grid-connected PV projects need to be appropriately assessed to build up the public's confidence to invest in PV projects. In this paper, we analyze the effects of component costs, FiTs (feed-in tariffs), and carbon taxes on grid-connected PV systems in Malaysian residential sector using the HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources) software. Results demonstrate that the implementation of grid-connected PV systems is highly feasible with PV array costs of $ 1120/kW or lower. For higher PV array costs up to $ 2320/kW, introducing an FiT rate three times higher ($ 0.30/kWh) than the grid tariff for a 100 kW grid sale capacity will, NPC-wise, prioritize grid-connected PV systems over the utility grid. By implementing the FiT ($ 0.50/kWh) and the carbon tax ($ 36/metric ton) schemes simultaneously, grid-connected PV systems will remain as the optimal systems even for costly PV arrays (up to $ 4000/kW). The findings are of paramount importance as far as PV pricing variability is concerned. - Highlights: • Grid-connected PV for Malaysian residential sector has been analyzed using HOMER. • Component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes affect optimal system types. • Grid-connected PV projects are feasible for low PV array costs ($ 1120/kW or lower). • For higher PV array and inverter costs, feed-in tariffs should be implemented. • Combining feed-in tariffs with carbon taxes are effective for further lowering NPCs.

  11. Institutional barriers for building integrated PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierlo, B. van

    2000-01-01

    Being an alternative for fossil fuels photovoltaics have to overcome traditional structures, procedures, cultures and values. As a new building material photovoltaics also have to deal with the structure and culture of the building sector. In this paper the institutional bottlenecks for the introduction of PV on a large scale are explored in five areas: financing, administration, structure of energy sector, architecture, communication and marketing. Nevertheless, on the whole the developments are encouraging. (author)

  12. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  13. Firefighter Safety for PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathe, Laszlo; Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu

    2015-01-01

    An important and highly discussed safety issue for photovoltaic (PV) systems is that as long as the PV panels are illuminated, a high voltage is present at the PV string terminals and cables between the string and inverters that is independent of the state of the inverter's dc disconnection switch...

  14. PV potential and potential PV rent in European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Chr.; Thorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a GIS based model for assessing the potentials of photovoltaic electricity in Europe by NUTS 2 regions. The location specific energy potential per PV-­‐panel area is estimated based on observations of solar irradiation, conversion efficiency, levelised costs and the social value...... of PV-­‐electricity. Combined with the potential density of PV-­‐panel area based on land cover and environental restrictions, the PV energy potential and the potential PV ressource rent is calculated. These calculations enbable the model to estimate the regional patterns at NUTS 2 level...

  15. In the balance. The social costs and benefits of PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, C. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-16

    For more than a decade, the growth in PV markets surpassed expectations. Then, in 2012, the European market declined for the first time compared with the previous year. As policymakers' support for PV hesitates over the costs to society of this technology, it is timely to take an overview of the social costs and benefits, also referred to as the 'external costs', of PV electricity. In this article, these costs are put into perspective vis-a-vis those associated with conventional electricity-generating technologies. The external costs of electricity can be broken down into: (1) the environmental and health costs; (2) the costs of subsidies and energy security; and (3) the costs for grid expansion and reliability. Included in these costs are the increased insurance, health, social and environmental costs associated with damages to health, infrastructure and environment, as well as tax payments that subsidize producers of electricity or fuels, their markets and the electricity infrastructure. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of the environmental impact is used in the quantification of the associated environmental and health costs. Because the environmental footprint of PV electricity is highly dependent on the electricity mix used in PV module fabrication, the environmental indicators are calculated for PV electricity manufactured using different electricity mixes, and compared with those for the European electricity mix (UCTE), and electricity generated by burning 100% coal or 100% natural gas. In 2012 USD, coal electricity requires 19-29 eurocent/kWh above the market price, compared with 1-1.6 eurocent/kWh for PV manufactured with 100% coal electricity. The sum of the subsidies, avoided fossil-fuel imports and energy security, and the economic stimulation associated with PV electricity deployment, amounts to net external benefits. Integrating high penetrations of renewables, with the same reliability as we have today, appears to be fully feasible and

  16. Development and implementation of a PV performance monitoring system based on inverter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spataru, Sergiu; Gavriluta, Anamaria Florina; Maaløe, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Performance monitoring and fault detection systems have become necessary for decreasing operation and maintenance cost in large photovoltaic (PV) plants, as well for maximizing plan yield and lifetime. We expect a similar development for residential and commercial PV system applications, where...... the inverter’s own monitoring and communication capabilities. We also aim to lower the implementation cost, by using a simple, but accurate performance monitoring approach, and show the practical issues that can arise when implementing such a system....

  17. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Xinan Zhang; Yifeng Li; Maria Skyllas-Kazacos; Jie Bao

    2016-01-01

    The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS). With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with prop...

  18. Continuing Developments in PV Risk Management: Strategies, Solutions, and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.; Speer, B.; Hill, R.

    2013-02-01

    As the PV industry matures, successful risk management practices will become more imperative to ensure investor confidence, control costs, and facilitate further growth. This report discusses several key aspects of risk management during the commercial- and utility-scale project life cycle, from identification of risks, to the process of mitigating and allocating those risks among project parties, to transferring those risks through insurance. The report also explores novel techniques in PV risk management, options to offload risks onto the capital markets, and innovative insurance policies (namely warranty policies) that address risks unique to the PV sector. One of the major justifications for robust risk management in the PV industry is the cost-reduction opportunities it affords. If the PV industry can demonstrate the capability to successfully manage its risks, thereby inspiring confidence in financiers, it may be able to obtain a lower cost of capital in future transactions. A lower cost of capital translates to a lower cost of energy, which will in turn enhance PV?s competitiveness at a time when it will have to rely less on subsidies to support its market penetration.

  19. The quasi-market for adult residential care in the UK: Do for-profit, not-for-profit or public sector residential care and nursing homes provide better quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, David N; West, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    There has been a radical transformation in the provision of adult residential and nursing home care in England over the past four decades. Up to the 1980s, over 80% of adult residential care was provided by the public sector, but today public sector facilities account for only 8% of the available places, with the rest being provided by a mixture of for-profit firms (74%) and non-profit charities (18%). The public sector's role is often now that of purchaser (paying the fees of people unable to afford them) and regulator. While the idea that private companies may play a bigger role in the future provision of health care is highly contentious in the UK, the transformation of the residential and nursing home care has attracted little comment. Concerns about the quality of care do emerge from time to time, often stimulated by high profile media investigations, scandals or criminal prosecutions, but there is little or no evidence about whether or not the transformation of the sector from largely public to private provision has had a beneficial effect on those who need the service. This study asks whether there are differences in the quality of care provided by public, non-profit or for-profit facilities in England. We use data on care quality for over 15,000 homes that are provided by the industry regulator in England: the Care Quality Commission (CQC). These data are the results of inspections carried out between April 2011 and October 2015. Controlling for a range of facility characteristics such as age and size, proportional odds logistic regression showed that for-profit facilities have lower CQC quality ratings than public and non-profit providers over a range of measures, including safety, effectiveness, respect, meeting needs and leadership. We discuss the implications of these results for the ongoing debates about the role of for-profit providers of health and social care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photovoltaic (PV) contribution to the primary frequency control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafa, Adel Hamad

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is among the most efficient and cost effective renewable energy kinds currently available on the market. The connection of a large number of PVs to the grid may influence the frequency and voltage stability of the power system. This paper proposes load-frequency control technique for system with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV). The proposed controller has been successfully implemented and tested using PSCAD/EMTDC. In this study, the impact of photovoltaic (PV) on frequency stability of the system is studies in detail. This study shows that large penetration of photovoltaic (PV) with load and frequency control has a significant impact on the stability and security level of electrical network.(author)

  1. PV window - Development and demonstrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugaard, P.

    2011-05-15

    Using the results from the EU project RenewTransnet, which focused on the development of a pane with integrated solar cells, the goal of this project is to develop these principles into a window solution. This window solution is targeted to Danish building tradition and architecture. It is expected that an elegant PV-window solution for both new and retrofit buildings is developed during this project, and which appearance can be customized to each building. Based on results from a related projects carried out by Gaia Solar, the window solution will have the potential of being approximately 30% cheaper than similar products on the market. In this project this price reduction is the objective of the development of a window solution. The project team has succeeded in developing a 2-layer PV-window with glass / glass lamination with EVA as foil, which is 35% cheaper than similar products on the market. Since the price for the frame-profile does not differ significantly at market level, the price comparison is made on the basis of the developed PV-pane. The objective of 30 % price reduction in relation to similar products on the market is met. A special production process to the making glass/glass lamination with EVA as foil has been developed, in which a frame is put around the module which intends both to remove the unwanted tension along the edges, and to prevent the significant spillage of EVA from the module under pressure and prevent the invasive bubbles along the edge of module. Since the developed production method for making glass/glass modules with EVA is simple, a further cost reduction will primarily be in a reduction of the price of the cell. The project process has resulted in the development of a product, which due to continuous restrictions in the building regulations, will be very attractive in future buildings. (LN)

  2. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  3. Innovation and technology transfer through global value chains: Evidence from China's PV industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fang; Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2016-01-01

    China's success as a rapid innovation follower in the infant Photovoltaic (PV) industry surprised many observers. This paper explores how China inserted itself into global clean energy innovation systems by examining the case of the solar PV industry. The paper decomposes the global PV industrial value chain, and determines the main factors shaping PV technology transfer and diffusion. Chinese firms first entered PV module manufacturing through technology acquisition, and then gradually built their global competitiveness by utilizing a vertical integration strategy within segments of the industry as well as the broader PV value chain. The main drivers for PV technology transfer from the global innovation system to China are global market formation policy, international mobilization of talent, the flexibility of manufacturing in China, and belated policy incentives from China's government. The development trajectory of the PV industry in China indicates that innovation in cleaner energy technologies can occur through both global and national innovation processes, and knowledge exchange along the global PV value chain. - Highlights: •The value chain analytical approach is synergized with the theories of technology transfer and innovation systems. •A detailed review of how China integrated itself into the global solar PV innovation system is provided. •Four main factors shape PV technology transfer to China across various value chain segments. •Innovation in cleaner energy technologies is a combination of global and national innovation processes.

  4. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  5. PV Thermal systems: PV panels supplying renewable electricity and heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, van W.G.J.; Zolingen, van R.J.C.; Zondag, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    With PV Thermal panels sunlight is converted into electricity and heat simultaneously. Per unit area the total efficiency of a PVT panel is higher than the sum of the efficiencies of separate PV panels and solar thermal collectors. During the last 20 years research into PVT techniques and concepts

  6. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  7. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  8. Raising objectives: how global PV production could reach 5 GWp by 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, A.; Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent international workshop for the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry organised by the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) examined market trends and technological developments. Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, the EPIA predicts that the global PV market would only reach 3.2 GWp by 2010. But workshop participants believe that, given sufficient support measures to encourage investment, the global market could be accelerated to reach 5400 MW per year by 2010, with an achievable annual installed capacity of over 5 GWp and production of 30,000 tonnes of solar-grade silicon per year at a cost of 30-40 euros/kg. Major markets are expected to be Germany, Japan, USA, China and Spain. Examples of the type of policies and strategies necessary for accelerated growth are given and countries with potential for a significant increase in annual PV installation rates are identified. The current main constraint on market growth is the global shortage of suitable silicon, but confidence in the solar market is now sufficient for significant new manufacturing plant to be planned. Investment in other PV technologies is also required, plus a decrease in the price of PV modules. EPIA does not expect a short-term price reduction for PV until after 2007 but the workshop concluded that the PV industry could expect to see an average price reduction of around 5% per year (for cells, modules and complete systems) by 2011

  9. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. Transformerless PV inverters. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, U.

    2009-12-15

    Since the start of the project the market for grid connected PV inverters have developed further. When the project started three - phase inverter were only available in high power systems. The technology developed within this project will enable three phase technology also to be implemented in string inverters for system down to 10 kW. We expect this to be very attractive due to the increased demand for symmetrical feed-in to the grid. The project relevance is therefore high and the sector continues to develop very much driven by technology. Especially the inverter technology is getting a lot of focus. The inverter systems are expected to take a much larger role in supporting the electrical grid in the future. The technology platform developed within the project is prepared to be extended with these utility functionalities. The main results of the project were: 1) A new technology concept for transformer-less inverters has been demonstrated with a number of prototypes. 2) Efficiency above 97,7% has been proven. 3) Efficiency and Maximum power point tracking has been optimized to ensure that almost all energy produced of the panels is transferred to the grid. 4) The platform is developed with a very fast control board, which enables extended functionality as demanding grid supporting functions in the future. Details about cost price and details about the control loop implementation is excluded from the report due to the competitive situation for Danfoss Solar Inverters A/S. (LN)

  11. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 3. September 2009; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 3. Septembre 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out in September 2009 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  12. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 5. September 2011; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 5. Septembre 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 12 to September 23, 2011 by the LH2 institute. For the 1500 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  13. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 4. September 2010; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 4. Septembre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from September 6 to September 18, 2010 by the LH2 institute. For the 1504 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  14. The opening of electricity and natural gas markets to residential clients. Yearly barometer - run 2. December 2008; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 2. Decembre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-15

    The opening of energy markets to competition became effective to individuals ('residential clients') on July 1, 2007 with the possibility to freely choose their energy supplier. This opening of energy markets to residential clients started 3 years after the opening to professionals (July 1, 2004). The Commission of energy regulation (CRE) and the national energy Ombudsman have set in place in 2007 a quantitative yearly survey ('barometer') addressed to residential clients in order to collect statistical data about the behaviour of these clients with regards to the opening of markets to competition. This document deals with the results of the fourth run of this survey carried out from November 10 to November 20, 2008 by the LH2 institute. For the 1502 households investigated, LH2 has questioned the person in charge of the energy bills management. The barometer aimed at answering the following questions: - what is the level of knowledge and information of residential clients about markets opening and the existing regulation? - What perception of this opening do they have? (pros/cons, advantages/drawbacks); - what behaviour do they have in front of the opening of markets to competition? (approach with respect to information needs, knowledge about the offer, intention to change supplier, brakes/motivations in entering the open market). (J.S.)

  15. Valley of Death analysis for polymer PV technology; Valley of Death analyse voor polymere PV technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoots, K. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    This report describes the results of a qualitative study of the barriers that actors involved in the development and commercialization of polymer solar cells, may encounter. The purpose of this socio-economic research is to identify these barriers for the (market) development of thin film polymeric PV technology and to develop strategies for them in order to overcome the constraints. The necessary data are collected from interviews with actors who are active in the development and deployment of conventional solar cells. Based on the results from this study, it is conclude that it is important for the Organic PV industry to carry out many market experiments beyond the built environment. The report provides recommendations with regard to the markets in which these experiments are most likely to succeed and which drivers should be taken into account [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de resultaten van een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de barrieres die actoren, betrokken bij de ontwikkeling en marktintroductie van polymere zonnecellen, kunnen tegenkomen. Het doel van dit sociaal-economische onderzoek is deze barrieres voor de (markt)ontwikkeling van dunne film polymere PV technologie te identificeren en strategieen te ontwikkelen om ze voor te zijn of ze te overbruggen. De benodigde gegevens worden verzameld uit interviews met actoren die actief zijn in de ontwikkeling en uitrol van conventionele zonnecellen. Op basis van de resultaten uit dit onderzoek komen we tot de conclusie dat het voor de Organische PV sector belangrijk is veel marktexperimenten aan te gaan buiten de gebouwde omgeving. Het rapport geeft aanbevelingen in welke soort markten deze experimenten de meeste kans van slagen hebben en met welke drivers van marktpartijen rekening moet worden gehouden.

  16. Technical and economical assessment of the utilization of photovoltaic systems in residential buildings: The case of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Al-Hamamre, Z.; Sharaf, F.; Abdelkader, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of utilizing photovoltaic systems in a standard residential apartment in Amman city in Jordan. Data on solar radiation, sunshine duration and the ambient temperature has been recorded in Amman city. An apartment in Amman was chosen as a case study to conduct energy and economic calculations. The electrical power needs and cost were calculated for the apartment. The component design and cost of PV system required to supply required energy was calculated and the payback period for the suggested stand-alone PV system in this paper was estimated in a constant inflation rate in electricity price similar to that of interest rate. The calculated payback period was high in a stand-alone system, to decrease payback period a grid-connected PV system is suggested. Considering an annual increase of 3% in electricity price, 15% of payback period was decreased in a stand-alone PV system and 21% in a grid-connected PV system. The output results of this study show that installation of PV system in a residential flat in Jordan may not be economically rewarding owing to the high cost of PV system compared to the cost of grid electricity. A feed-in tariff law of solar electricity may help to reduce PV system cost like the case of Germany. Additional conclusions are PV systems may be economically rewarding in Jordan if applied in locations far from electrical grid or in remote large scale PV power installations to overcome economical limitations of PV technology.

  17. Examples of successful architectural integration of PV: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, I.B.

    2004-01-01

    In Germany building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are developing rapidly, and much progress has been achieved in the past five years. BIPV can be used today in different ways on both existing and new buildings. Architects and designers are discovering BIPV. With the help of custom-made products available on the German market they are beginning to explore the technical limits of an aesthetic and structural integration of PV in buildings. As a result some exciting high-profile building projects with PV have been built, for example, the small service pavilion Meereslauschen in Steinhude or the new headquarters building of the Wood Trade Association in Munich. These projects show that the use of PV is very varied and offers opportunities for creative architects. However non-technical problems still need to be solved to allow a meaningful and widespread application of PV in the built environment. To decrease costs it is essential to develop further standard BIPV components. The aim of such developments should be to replace standard PV modules by products in which PV and structural building elements are melded into one design and structural unit. (author)

  18. The role intuitive decision making plays in project selection in the residential property market: a case study of a medium sized

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Diarmuid

    2013-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed This thesis addresses the role of intuition in project selection in residential property development. The paper provides a comprehensive review of existing literature in relation to project selection and decision making. In addition, the examination of the project files of M.A. Ryan & Sons Ltd., a medium sized property development company, has enabled a case study to be carried out on three projects carried out by the organisation. Through the case study, t...

  19. Economic and policy analysis for solar PV systems in Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jinho; Tyner, Wallace E.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the energy market in the US and globally is expanding the production of renewable energy. Solar energy for electricity is also expanding in the US. Indiana is one of the states expanding solar energy with solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Therefore, we conduct benefit cost analysis with several uncertain input variables to determine the economics of adopting solar PV systems in Indiana based on policy instruments that could increase adoption of solar PV systems. The specific objectives are analyses of the cost distribution of solar PV systems compared with grid electricity in homes and estimating the probability that solar can be cheaper than electricity from grids under different policy combinations. We first do the analysis under current policy and then the analysis under potential policy options for a variety of scenarios. Also, the results inform government policy makers on how effective the alternative policies for encouraging solar PV systems are. The results show that current policies are important in reducing the cost of solar PV systems. However, with current policies, there is only 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than electricity from grids. If potential policies are implemented, solar PV systems can be more economical than grid electricity. - Highlights: • We investigate the economics of solar PV systems based on policy instruments. • We do scenario analyses under different combinations of policies. • We examine the probability of solar being cheaper than grid electricity for each scenario. • With current policies, there is 50–50 chance of solar being cheaper than the grid. • With depreciation and carbon tax, solar is much more economical than the grid

  20. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  1. A Consensus-Based Cooperative Control of PEV Battery and PV Active Power Curtailment for Voltage Regulation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeraati, Mehdi; Golshan, Mohamad Esmail Hamedani; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays installed in residential houses leads to serious voltage quality problems in low voltage distribution networks (LVDNs). In this paper, a combined method using the battery energy management of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the active power....... The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is investigated on a typical three-phase four-wire LVDN in presence of PV resources and PEVs....

  2. PV in a sports arena; PV im Hexenkessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, B.

    2008-05-19

    The German soccer club Werder Bremen is reconstructing its stadium. Apart from higher spectator comfort and a better atmosphere, there will also be PV systems on the roof and external walls of the arena. (orig.)

  3. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    . However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact on the overall PV energy cost, due to the increased maintenance for the PV inverters. This paper...... evaluates the lifetime of PV inverters considering the PV array sizing and installation sites, e.g., Denmark and Arizona. The results reveal that the PV array sizing has a considerable impact on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability, especially in Denmark, where the average solar irradiance level...

  4. PSCAD Modules Representing PV Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2013-08-01

    Photovoltaic power plants (PVPs) have been growing in size, and the installation time is very short. With the cost of photovoltaic (PV) panels dropping in recent years, it can be predicted that in the next 10 years the contribution of PVPs to the total number of renewable energy power plants will grow significantly. In this project, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a dynamic modeling of the modules to be used as building blocks to develop simulation models of single PV arrays, expanded to include Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), expanded to include PV inverter, or expanded to cover an entire PVP. The focus of the investigation and complexity of the simulation determines the components that must be included in the simulation. The development of the PV inverter was covered in detail, including the control diagrams. Both the current-regulated voltage source inverter and the current-regulated current source inverter were developed in PSCAD. Various operations of the PV inverters were simulated under normal and abnormal conditions. Symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults were simulated, presented, and discussed. Both the three-phase analysis and the symmetrical component analysis were included to clarify the understanding of unsymmetrical faults. The dynamic model validation was based on the testing data provided by SCE. Testing was conducted at SCE with the focus on the grid interface behavior of the PV inverter under different faults and disturbances. The dynamic model validation covers both the symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.

  5. PV module mounting method and mounting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.S.; Johnson, Kurt M.

    2013-04-23

    A method for mounting PV modules to a deck includes selecting PV module layout pattern so that adjacent PV module edges are spaced apart. PV mounting and support assemblies are secured to the deck according to the layout pattern using fasteners extending into the deck. The PV modules are placed on the PV mounting and support assemblies. Retaining elements are located over and secured against the upper peripheral edge surfaces of the PV modules so to secure them to the deck with the peripheral edges of the PV modules spaced apart from the deck. In some examples a PV module mounting assembly, for use on a shingled deck, comprises flashing, a base mountable on the flashing, a deck-penetrating fastener engageable with the base and securable to the deck so to secure the flashing and the base to the shingled deck, and PV module mounting hardware securable to the base.

  6. Frequency Based Real-time Pricing for Residential Prosumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambridge, Sarah Mabel

    stability in a free, competitive, market. Frequency based pricing is applied to secondary frequency control in this work, providing support at one to five minute time intervals. In Chapter 2, a frequency based pricing curve is designed as a preliminary study and the response of the prosumer is optimized for economic dispatch. In Chapter 3, a day-ahead schedule and real-time adjustment energy management framework is presented for the prosumer, creating a market structure similar to the existing energy market supervised by Independent System Operators (ISOs). Enabling technology, such as the solid state transformer (SST) is described for prosumer energy transactions, controlling power flow from the prosumer's energy cell to the grid or neighboring prosumer as an energy router. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate this capability. Additionally, the SST is capable of measuring the grid frequency. Lastly, a frequency based real-time hybrid electricity rate is presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Chapter 4 specializes in a single direction rate while Chapter 5 presents a bi-directional rate. A Time-of-use (TOU) rate is combined with the real-time frequency based price to lower energy bills for a residential prosumer with ESS, in agreement with the proposed day-ahead and real-time energy management framework. The cost to the ESS is also considered in this section. Linear programming and strategic rule based methods are utilized to find the lowest energy bill. As a result, prosumers can use ESS to balance the grid, reducing their bill as much per kWh as PV or DG under a TOU net-metering price scheme, while providing distributed frequency support to the grid authority. The variability of the frequency based rate is similar to variability in the stock market, which gives a sense of how prosumers will interact with variable prices in a system supported by The Energy Internet.

  7. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    from donor and government-based support to market-driven diffusion of solar PV; and (ii) a transition from small-scale, off-grid systems towards mini-grids and large-scale, grid-connected solar power plants. The paper points out three generic factors that have contributed to encouraging SHS diffusion......Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...... in supportive policies, donor programs and diffusion status in all PV market segments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, as well as identifying the key factors put forward in the literature to explain differences in the diffusion of SHS in these three countries. The paper finds two emerging trends: (i) a movement...

  8. A Decentralized Storage Strategy for Residential Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2014-01-01

    . The power sizing of the ESSs is performed with linear programming (LP) method, based on voltage sensitivity analysis. A Belgian residential LV feeder with private PV systems is used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Quantification of the required energy levels...... domestic energy storage systems (ESS). The traditional way of operating a domestic ESS to increase the local consumption rate does not take into account the need of voltage support in a feeder; the proposed storage concept improves the traditional one, by mitigating voltage rise due to PV in the feeder...

  9. The state of the Hungarian residential market in the time of the global economic crisis Etat du marché résidentiel hongrois en période de crise économique mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Tömöri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Housing in Hungary has undergone significant changes since the years of political and economic transition. During the socialist decades the housing sector was controlled by the state, market forces were marginal or non-existent. Thus, one of the biggest changes in housing was the establishment of a western-type residential market after the regime change. The latest worldwide economic crisis has had a dramatic impact on the Hungarian housing market. The turnover of the Hungarian residential market has declined enormously in the past few years. Those families who financed their housing by foreign currency mortgages are facing the hardest situation. The Hungarian forint has significantly weakened against other currencies having resulted in a dramatic increase in foreign currency mortgage payments. First, the paper briefly reviews the literature on housing theories, then it outlines the most important milestones in the development of the Hungarian residential market. The next part of the paper introduces the most problematic issues and areas concerning housing in Hungary, and finally analyzes the effects and consequences of the present economic crisis.En Hongrie, le logement est confronté à d’importantes mutations depuis les années de transition politique et économique. Durant les décennies du socialisme, ce secteur se trouvait sous le contrôle de l’état et les forces du marché étaient marginales, voire inexistantes. En conséquence, l’un des changements majeurs dans le secteur fut l’établissement d’un marché résidentiel de type occidental à la suite du changement de régime. La dernière crise économique mondiale a eu un impact crucial sur le marché du logement hongrois, dont le chiffre d’affaires a considérablement chuté ces dernières années. Les familles qui finançaient leur logement à l’aide de prêts hypothécaires étrangers se retrouvent dans la situation la plus difficile. La très nette dévaluation du

  10. Characterisation of PV CIS module by artificial neural networks. A comparative study with other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almonacid, F.; Rus, C.; Hontoria, L.; Munoz, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of PV modules made with new technologies and materials is increasing in PV market, in special Thin Film Solar Modules (TFSM). They are ready to make a substantial contribution to the world's electricity generation. Although Si wafer-based cells account for the most of increase, technologies of thin film have been those of the major growth in last three years. During 2007 they grew 133%. On the other hand, manufacturers provide ratings for PV modules for conditions referred to as Standard Test Conditions (STC). However, these conditions rarely occur outdoors, so the usefulness and applicability of the indoors characterisation in standard test conditions of PV modules is a controversial issue. Therefore, to carry out a correct photovoltaic engineering, a suitable characterisation of PV module electrical behaviour is necessary. The IDEA Research Group from Jaen University has developed a method based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to electrical characterisation of PV modules. An ANN was able to generate V-I curves of si-crystalline PV modules for any irradiance and module cell temperature. The results show that the proposed ANN introduces a good accurate prediction for si-crystalline PV modules performance when compared with the measured values. Now, this method is going to be applied for electrical characterisation of PV CIS modules. Finally, a comparative study with other methods, of electrical characterisation, is done. (author)

  11. In-depth analysis on R and D investment and strategy on PV in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Noeon; Lee, Ki Jong; Lee, Kyong Jae; Lee, Yun Jie; Lee, Kyoungmi; Lee, Sang Hyon

    2013-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is an eco-friendly and green technology, as a renewable energy source, with the aim of minimizing carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere. The Korean government has financed various domestic installations as well as research and development (R and D) programs to enter and develop a lead in the worldwide PV market. In this study, R and D investments in the area of PV are analyzed in terms of the respective ministry, performer, research characteristics, PV materials and output levels in detail. The Korean government in the Fiscal year (FY) 2010 provided $178 million dollars from R and D funds for PV development. 74% of the R and D funds in the context of PV has been invested by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (MKE). Expenditures for R and D programs in terms of PV are mainly funded by small-medium companies (40%), and the portion of the R and D investment in crystalline silicon solar cells is the highest in terms of materials. In spite of the high levels of R and D investment in PV, the output for commercialization was relatively lower compared to the R and D input in FY 2009–2010. With these results, we suggested to develop various solutions to improve the R and D investment efficiency for PV technology in Korea

  12. Methodological aspects of market study on residential, commercial and industrial sectors, of the Conversion Project for natural gas of existing network in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinami, R.I.; Perazza, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The methodological aspects of market study, developed at the geographical area served by existing network of naphtha gas, which will be converted to natural gas in a two years conversion program are presented. (author)

  13. Retailing residential electricity : A concept that makes sense?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    2003-07-01

    A heated debate centres around the deregulation of the electricity industry and the retailing of residential electricity. An assessment of the current situation in the industry was provided in this paper to provide a basis for discussion. The experience gained both in Alberta and Texas in residential retail was examined. The main issue of concern is whether residential customers will benefit from deregulation of the electricity sector. The Retail Energy Deregulation (RED) Index provides a benchmark for those jurisdictions considering the residential options. Deregulation has not led to significant benefits to residential customers in most jurisdictions. The electricity industry will always require a central dispatch/market process that will have to designed, governed, regulated, modified regularly. The benefits to residential consumers are not expected for a very long time. Standard market design is an issue that will require attention. refs., 7 figs

  14. Task 9. PV deployment in developing countries. Institutional framework and financial instruments for PV deployment in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 9 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at the institutional framework and financial instruments necessary for PV deployment in developing countries. This guide describes the institutional and financial aspects that need to be addressed to ensure that a long term sustainable (and profitable) PV market is established in developing countries. The guide details main fundamental functions that need to be performed such as the agents needed to perform the functions and their differing roles within the framework, the relationships between these agents and the financial instruments available. It is stated that the majority of the aspects recommended in this guide can be adopted to two main PV deployment models: direct sales and rural electrification and development programmes. It is noted that both approaches will have to be tailored and adapted to local conditions.

  15. Assessing the influence of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on self-consumption and sizing of PV-battery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.; Kondziella, H.; Huard, G.; Bruckner, T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MILP optimization model for operation and investment of PV-battery systems. • Use of high resolution (10 s) electrical household load and PV generation profiles. • Analysis of influence of temporal resolution on self-consumption and optimal sizing. • Electrical load profile characteristics influence required temporal resolution. - Abstract: The interest in self-consumption of electricity generated by rooftop photovoltaic systems has grown in recent years, fueled by decreasing levelized costs of electricity and feed-in tariffs as well as increasing end customer electricity prices in the residential sector. This also fostered research on grid-connected PV-battery storage systems, which are a promising technology to increase self-consumption. In this paper a mixed-integer linear optimization model of a PV-battery system that minimizes the total discounted operating and investment costs is developed. The model is employed to study the effect of the temporal resolution of electrical load and PV generation profiles on the rate of self-consumption and the optimal sizing of PV and PV-battery systems. In contrast to previous studies high resolution (10 s) measured input data for both PV generation and electrical load profiles is used for the analysis. The data was obtained by smart meter measurements in 25 different households in Germany. It is shown that the temporal resolution of load profiles is more critical for the accuracy of the determination of self-consumption rates than the resolution of the PV generation. For PV-systems without additional storage accurate results can be obtained by using 15 min solar irradiation data. The required accuracy for the electrical load profiles depends strongly on the load profile characteristics. While good results can be obtained with 60 s for all electrical load profiles, 15 min data can still be sufficient for load profiles that do not exhibit most of their electricity consumption at power levels above 2 k

  16. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  17. Proceedings of the PV self-consumption forum held at Rennes on February 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramard, Dominique; Laffaille, Didier; Lextrait, Herve; Richard, Pascal; Loyen, Richard; Gautier, Charles Antoine; Concas, Giorgia; Djahel, Thierry; Dehaese, Olivier; Rolland, Nicolas; Brossard, Clement; Labrune, Sylvere; Landais, Sebastien; Laurans, Bernard; Autric, Thierry; Mingant, Sylvie; Lamy, Marie-Laure; Lorant, Jacky; Woodrow, Mariana; Alazard, Raymond; Mathieu, Antoine; Ricaud, Claude; Lacirignola, Martino

    2017-02-01

    During this forum dedicated to photovoltaic (PV) self-consumption in Brittany region (Western France), the following topics were debated: - the direct generation of green electricity to cover ones' own needs and to share surplus with neighbours in economically interesting conditions; - the economical and legal frameworks of self-consumption in the residential, tertiary and industrial sectors and their evolution; - from individual to collective self-consumption: experience feedbacks and evaluation tools in France and in Europe. This document brings together the presentations (slides) given at this forum. A project structuring guide for photovoltaic (PV) self-consumption projects was elaborated after the forum and is presented in introduction

  18. Why did the price of solar PV Si feedstock fluctuate so wildly in 2004–2009?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yang; Song Yuhua; Bao Haibo

    2012-01-01

    Great attention has been paid to the origin of observed wild price fluctuations of solar PV Si feedstock in both contract and spot markets during 2004–2009. This paper sheds light on this issue and tries to resolve it by addressing the following questions: what kind of structural shock is underlying the price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock? How can we quantify the magnitude, timing and relative importance of these shocks? What are their dynamic effects on the real price of PV Si feedstock? By carefully studying development conditions, the structural decomposition of the real price of PV Si feedstock is proposed: exchange rate shocks, production cost shocks, aggregate demand shocks and demand shocks specific to feedstock markets. With a Structural Vector Autoregression model, the paper quantifies and verifies the impact of structural shocks on PV Si feedstock real price changes. Based on national data, an analysis is further taken to confirm the essential role of demand shocks specific to feedstock markets in determining sharper price fluctuations during 2004–2009. The results of this study have important implications for national solar PV development, which can be better promoted and administrated if structural shocks in feedstock markets can be carefully evaluated and understood. - Highlights: ► The determination of solar PV Si feedstock price fluctuation is identified and quantified. ► Systematic structural shocks well explain 2004–2009 price fluctuations of PV Si feedstock. ► Production cost and aggregated demand shocks take longer effects on feedstock price. ► Exchange rate and feedstock specific demand shocks explain sharper price fluctuations. ► Development of national PV power should consider effects of structure shocks.

  19. A residential solar roofing program for Brazil: guidelines for public policies envisaging the use of photovoltaic generation connected to the power line; Um programa residencial de telhados solares para o Brasil: diretrizes de politicas publicas para a insercao da geracao fotovoltaica conectada a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamoni, Isabel Tourinho

    2009-07-01

    Although Brazil has great potential for photovoltaics (PV), and is particularly privileged by high solar radiation levels, the role of this renewable energy source (RES) at the Brazilian market is still very small, and the current legislation of the electric sector has no incentives for grid-connected PV systems. The high costs and the paradigm that this RES is feasible for grid-connection only for developed countries are the fundamental arguments placed to justify the lack of consideration of PV energy in Brazil. The main aim of this thesis is to develop a guideline to create a reliable legislation and regulation framework for the Brazilian electrical sector towards the implementation of a widespread grid-connected PV roofs program, and to show a grid parity analysis between conventional generation and PV generation. It also demonstrates the benefits of grid-connected PV systems and it presents the bottlenecks that limit the widespread adoption of PV energy at the Brazilian electrical sector mix. The proposed mechanism to be applied in Brazil is based on the German program (Feed-in Law) and it is analyzed under different scenarios. With this study, it is possible to make an economic viability analysis of grid-connected PV in Brazil, to identify the most suitable PV roof program size for the beginning of the program, and the consequent impacts on tariffs, through the dilution of these costs for the residential energy consumer. The grid-parity analysis shows that from 2015 and 2020 it will be possible to reach grid parity for PV in some regions in Brazil. It is possible that this parity happens even before that time, according to the interest rates applied in Brazil. In this context, it is crucial to create an incentive program to promote PV energy in Brazil, even if current prices are not competitive with conventional generation prices, so that the necessary experience to develop a large scale mechanism could happen with the maximum benefits and in an orderly way

  20. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  1. Impacts of PV Array Sizing on PV Inverter Lifetime and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In order to enable a more wide-scale utilization of PV systems, the cost of PV energy has to be comparable with other energy sources. Oversizing the PV array is one common approach to reduce the cost of PV energy, since it increases the PV energy yield during low solar irradiance conditions. However, oversizing the PV array will increase the loading of PV inverters, which may have undesired influence on the PV inverter lifetime and reliability. In that case, it may result in a negative impact...

  2. Market potential and business opportunities for mayor renovation of non-residential buildings with the use of the Belok Total Concept method in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlstrøm, Åsa; Maripuu, Mari-Liis; Afshari, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    for the method to be used on a larger scale, there must be commercial interest from the different companies to provide services with the method. The target groups are among others Engineering companies with energy consultants, design engineers and architects, Contractors and technology providers, energy...... controllers and ESCO companies. The article provides a market analysis of possibilities and barriers for energy renovations that have been carried out in Finland, Denmark and Sweden together with experiences from pilot buildings where the Total Concept method has been applied. The estimated annual market...... volume of renovation in the three Nordic countries is estimated to be about 4 million m2 and the total investment volume up to 280 MEUR per year. For the key actors involved in the Total Concept method the annual market volume is estimated to be about 70 MEUR. Furthermore, a new relevant key function...

  3. Flexible packaging for PV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2008-08-01

    Economic, flexible packages that provide needed level of protection to organic and some other PV cells over >25-years have not yet been developed. However, flexible packaging is essential in niche large-scale applications. Typical configuration used in flexible photovoltaic (PV) module packaging is transparent frontsheet/encapsulant/PV cells/flexible substrate. Besides flexibility of various components, the solder bonds should also be flexible and resistant to fatigue due to cyclic loading. Flexible front sheets should provide optical transparency, mechanical protection, scratch resistance, dielectric isolation, water resistance, UV stability and adhesion to encapsulant. Examples are Tefzel, Tedlar and Silicone. Dirt can get embedded in soft layers such as silicone and obscure light. Water vapor transmittance rate (WVTR) of polymer films used in the food packaging industry as moisture barriers are ~0.05 g/(m2.day) under ambient conditions. In comparison, light emitting diodes employ packaging components that have WVTR of ~10-6 g/(m2.day). WVTR of polymer sheets can be improved by coating them with dense inorganic/organic multilayers. Ethylene vinyl acetate, an amorphous copolymer used predominantly by the PV industry has very high O2 and H2O diffusivity. Quaternary carbon chains (such as acetate) in a polymer lead to cleavage and loss of adhesional strength at relatively low exposures. Reactivity of PV module components increases in presence of O2 and H2O. Adhesional strength degrades due to the breakdown of structure of polymer by reactive, free radicals formed by high-energy radiation. Free radical formation in polymers is reduced when the aromatic rings are attached at regular intervals. This paper will review flexible packaging for PV modules.

  4. PV sustainable practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukawa, Isao [International Solar Energy Society, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    We are facing in serious changes of global climate. Because of using too much energy by fossil fuel combustion, we are destroying our planet by ourselves. As you have noticed recent abnormal climate, the global warming is coming here we live day by day. For example, an arctic glacier is now melting rapidly which causes flood. At the same time, we hit a snowstorm in US. Regardless this situation, some countries are still struggling and scrambling for oil and gas. On the other hand, many cash-poor countries are distress for lack of energy. It is high time that we change our recognition of energy resources in global aspect. We are here today to get together to discuss very important issue of renewable energy, which definitely lead us to the betterment of society for us and our next generations. There might be a lot of discussions for solutions from various points of views, however once it is set, we have to accelerate our actions and challenges without delay in order to save the earth. However, problems come one after another. Current obstacles are price increase of various raw materials due to oil and gas price hike, which is a negative impact for our goals. As for solar industry, markets are strongly moving with right policies and technologies. So this industry creates new markets as well as new job opportunities. Let's have a strong hope and will that we will achieve our goals globally. (orig.)

  5. 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) 2010 Solar Technologies Market Report details the market conditions and trends for photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies. Produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the report provides a comprehensive overview of the solar electricity market and identifies successes and trends within the market from both global and national perspectives.

  6. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  7. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  8. Using the Spatial Distribution of Installers to Define Solar Photovoltaic Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nemet, Gregory F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Solar PV market research to date has largely relied on arbitrary jurisdictional boundaries, such as counties, to study solar PV market dynamics. This paper seeks to improve solar PV market research by developing a methodology to define solar PV markets. The methodology is based on the spatial distribution of solar PV installers. An algorithm is developed and applied to a rich dataset of solar PV installations to study the outcomes of the installer-based market definitions. The installer-based approach exhibits several desirable properties. Specifically, the higher market granularity of the installer-based approach will allow future PV market research to study the relationship between market dynamics and pricing with more precision.

  9. Recent advances in flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Adnan; Othman, Mohd Yusof; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Mat, Sohif; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman [Solar Energy Research Institute Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    Flat plate photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector produces both thermal energy and electricity simultaneously. This paper presents the state-of-the-art on flat plate PV/T collector classification, design and performance evaluation of water, air and combination of water and/or air based. This review also covers the future development of flat plate PV/T solar collector on building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and building integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPVT) applications. Different designs feature and performance of flat plate PV/T solar collectors have been compared and discussed. Future research and development (R and D) works have been elaborated. The tube and sheet design is the simplest and easiest to be manufactured, even though, the efficiency is 2% lower compared to other types of collectors such as, channel, free flow and two-absorber. It is clear from the review that for both air and water based PV/T solar collectors, the important key factors that influenced the efficiency of the system are the area where the collector covered, the number of passes and the gap between the absorber collector and solar cells. From the literature review, it is obvious that the flat plate PV/T solar collector is an alternative promising system for low-energy applications in residential, industrial and commercial buildings. Other possible areas for the future works of BIPVT are also mentioned. (author)

  10. The Development of Standardized, Low-Cost AC PV Systems; TOPICAL; Final Technical Report; 8 September 1995-30 June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, S.

    1999-01-01

    Solar Design Associates, Inc. (SDA), of Harvard, Massachusetts, and Solarex Corporation, of Frederick, Maryland, teamed with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) of Wilton, New Hampshire, to pursue a multi-level program under a Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) solicitation. This program was targeted at design innovation, standardization, and modularity, with the goal to deliver low-cost AC PV systems to the utility-interactive market. One significant result of this program is that Solarex filed a U.S. patent application on the new module frame and mounting system that was developed with support from PVMaT. Solarex has already started to manufacture this new combination framing and array mounting system, and a number of residential-scale installations are already in place in the field. The major AES accomplishment under this program was the development of a reliable, FCC-compliant AC module inverter fully listed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL). The inverter passed various environmental tests, including those required by UL (the same temperature and humidity cycling tests that PV modules require), and is now in commercial production

  11. Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) Working Group: Best Practices in PV System Installation; Version 1.0, March 2015; Period of Performance, October 2014 - September 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, C. [IBTS and Dividend Solar, Austin, TX (United States). Dividend Solar; Truitt, A. [Acuity Power Group, Denver, CO (United States); Inda, D. [Clean Power Finance, San Francisco, CA (United States); Lawrence, R. [North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners, Clifton Park, NY (United States); Lockhart, R. [Acuity Power Group, Wellesley Hills, MA (United States); Golden, M. [Efficiency.org and IBTS, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The following Photovoltaics Installation Best Practices Guide is one of several work products developed by the Solar Access to Public Capital (SAPC) working group, which works to open capital market investment. SAPC membership includes over 450 leading solar developers, financiers and capital managers, law firms, rating agencies, accounting and engineering firms, and other stakeholders engaged in solar asset deployment. SAPC activities are directed toward foundational elements necessary to pool project cash flows into tradable securities: standardization of power purchase and lease contracts for residential and commercial end customers; development of performance and credit data sets to facilitate investor due diligence activities; comprehension of risk perceived by rating agencies; and the development of best practice guides for PV system installation and operations and maintenance (O&M) in order to encourage high-quality system deployment and operation that may improve lifetime project performance and energy production. This PV Installation Best Practices Guide was developed through the SAPC Installation Best Practices subcommittee, a subgroup of SAPC comprised of a wide array of solar industry leaders in numerous fields of practice. The guide was developed over roughly one year and eight months of direct engagement by the subcommittee and two working group comment periods.

  12. Exploring the impact of permitting and local regulatory processes on residential solar prices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Jesse; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naïm; Dong, C.G.; Huneycutt, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This article statistically isolates the impacts of city-level permitting and other local regulatory processes on residential PV prices in the United States. We combine data from two “scoring” mechanisms that independently capture local regulatory process efficiency with the largest dataset of installed PV prices in the United States. We find that variations in local permitting procedures can lead to differences in average residential PV prices of approximately $0.18/W between the jurisdictions with the least-favorable and most-favorable permitting procedures. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range (i.e., 5th percentile to 95th percentile), the difference is $0.14/W, equivalent to a $700 (2.2%) difference in system costs for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. When considering variations not only in permitting practices, but also in other local regulatory procedures, price differences grow to $0.64–$0.93/W between the least-favorable and most-favorable jurisdictions. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range, the difference is equivalent to a price impact of at least $2500 (8%) for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. These results highlight the magnitude of cost reduction that might be expected from streamlining local regulatory regimes. - Highlights: • We show local regulatory processes meaningfully affect U.S. residential PV prices. • We use regression analysis and two mechanisms for “scoring” regulatory efficiency. • Local permitting procedure variations can produce PV price differences of $0.18/W. • Broader regulatory variations can produce PV price differences of $0.64–$0.93/W. • The results suggest the cost-reduction potential of streamlining local regulations

  13. Determinants of Residential Property Value in Nigeria – A Neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study investigated, by means of artificial intelligent system, the influence of residential ... impact on market values (prices) and to that extent influence the sales ... medical diagnosis, bank risk analysis, stock analysis & control, traffic control.

  14. Progress & Frontiers in PV Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, Chris; DiOrio, Nick; Jordan, Dirk; Toor, Fatima

    2016-09-12

    PowerPoint slides for a presentation given at Solar Power International 2016. Presentation includes System Advisor Model (SAM) introduction and battery modeling, bifacial PV modules and modeling, shade modeling and module level power electronics (MLPE), degradation rates, and PVWatts updates and validation.

  15. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio [Departamento de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen [Ecotecnia, Roc Boronat 78, 08005 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  16. PV-wind hybrid system performance. A new approach and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribas, Luis; Cano, Luis; Cruz, Ignacio; Mata, Montserrat; Llobet, Ermen

    2010-01-01

    Until now, there is no internationally accepted guideline for the measurement, data exchange and analysis of PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. As there is a need for such a tool, so as to overcome the barrier that the lack of confidence due to the absence of reliability means for the development of the market of Hybrid Systems, an effort has been made to suggest one tool for PV-Wind Hybrid Systems. The suggested guidelines presented in this work are based on the existing guidelines for PV Systems, as a PV-Wind Hybrid system can be roughly thought of as a PV System to which wind generation has been added. So, the guidelines for PV Systems are valid for the PV-Wind System, and only the part referred to wind generation should be included. This has been the process followed in this work. The proposed method is applied to a case study, the CICLOPS Project, a 5 kW PV, 7.5 kW Wind Hybrid system installed at the Isolated Wind Systems Test Site that CIEMAT owns in CEDER (Soria, Spain). This system has been fully monitored through a year and the results of the monitoring activity, characterizing the long-term performance of the system are shown in this work. (author)

  17. Solar eclipse. The rise and 'dusk' of the Dutch PV innovation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, S.O.; Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Vasseur, V. [International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development, University Maastricht, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht (Netherlands); Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to Photovoltaic (PV) solar energy technology in the Netherlands. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build-up of innovation systems. We show that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to guidance of the search and market formation. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the implications for policy making.

  18. Practical issues for testing thin film PV modules at standard test conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Marín González, Omar; Raga Arroyo, Manuela Pilar; Alonso Garcia, M. Carmen; Muñoz-García, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic (TF) modules have gained importance in the photovoltaic (PV) market. New PV plants increasingly use TF technologies. In order to have a reliable sample of a PV module population, a huge number of modules must be measured. There is a big variety of materials used in TF technology. Some of these modules are made of amorphous or microcrystalline silicon. Other are made of CIS or CdTe. Not all these materials respond the same under standard test conditions (STC) of power...

  19. City and County Solar PV Training Program, Module 2: Screening and Identifying PV Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-09

    When screening and identifying PV projects, cities and counties should understand the different factors that impact the technical and economic potential of a PV project, the steps of the PV screening process, and how to use REopt Lite to screen a site for PV and storage project potential.

  20. The case for better PV forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alet, Pierre-Jean; Efthymiou, Venizelos; Graditi, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Rising levels of PV penetration mean increasingly sophisticated forecasting technologies are needed to maintain grid stability and maximise the economic value of PV systems. The Grid Integration working group of the European Technology and Innovation Platform – Photovoltaics (ETIP PV) shares the ...

  1. PV-Developer. A Concept Paper. Version 4.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    The market for Photovoltaic Energy systems is developing very rapidly with annual growth rates in the range of 20-40%. The growth creates new business opportunities for project development. The markets are immature and the competitiveness of PV is increasing, whereby it is important to develop the business concept within the next few years if the long-term aim is to become a major player in the field of PV-project development. Like in the field of wind energy, which has grown to a large-scale business area within the last decade, the long-term perspectives of photovoltaic energy will depend upon the market development, interest groups and stake holders. The solar power developers might be catalysts for high growth rates like in the wind energy field. The concern for global warming leads the international energy policies in favour of renewable energy incentives followed by the technological development of PV-equipment, which constantly improves the cost level of PV-produced electricity. The markets for PV-systems are geographically widespread and the way to implement systems goes to a large extent via financing from international governmental as well as non-governmental lateral and bilateral aid organisations. Lead times to develop projects are counted in years, and the time from the first project idea to the final commissioning of the installed plants might take 3-5 years. More specific studies of market segments and business opportunities, development of market penetration and design of strategy must be carried out. Organisation seems to be a major issue as the complexity of the projects and the project location in 3rd world countries as well as in the industrialised countries combined with high proportion of donor funding will require a high level of organisation and coordination. In general a detailed study should be made in order to create a business plan. The business plan must contain budgets, volume estimates, sensitivity analyses, organisational proposals

  2. Photovoltaic marketing in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntasser, M.A.; Bara, M.F.; Quadri, H.A.; El-Tarabelsi, R.; La-azebi, I.F.

    2000-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) insolation-harnessing is acknowledged as the most practical economic solution to meet the requirements of one hundred million people without electricity in the developing countries. Industrialised countries in particular, have been active in utilising such technologies because they can afford the current peak watt prices of US $3-15 for such systems. The market in those countries will soon be close to saturation and attention by suppliers will have to be shifted to the already established larger market in less developed countries (LDCs). PV marketing in these developing countries, i.e. ability to penetrate the potential market, is facing tremendous hurdles. This paper reviews the present status and future directions of the PV market in developing countries as well as discusses the current technical, social, financial or geopolitical barriers and constraints, which are in line with the trends in the world. The paper concludes by making a global policy package proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate proposal, in terms of an appeal on the global community concerned with PV to propagate this proposal more convincingly, perhaps to emanate from an internationally recognised 'forum', like a PV conference and exhibition, with cooperation and participation of PV manufacturers, suppliers, industrialised countries, NGOs, financial institutions and developing countries. (Author)

  3. Grid Integrated Distributed PV (GridPV) Version 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Coogan, Kyle

    2014-12-01

    This manual provides the documentation of the MATLAB toolbox of functions for using OpenDSS to simulate the impact of solar energy on the distribution system. The majority of the functio ns are useful for interfacing OpenDSS and MATLAB, and they are of generic use for commanding OpenDSS from MATLAB and retrieving information from simulations. A set of functions is also included for modeling PV plant output and setting up the PV plant in th e OpenDSS simulation. The toolbox contains functions for modeling the OpenDSS distribution feeder on satellite images with GPS coordinates. Finally, example simulations functions are included to show potential uses of the toolbox functions. Each function i n the toolbox is documented with the function use syntax, full description, function input list, function output list, example use, and example output.

  4. Development of solar energy for efficient PV application systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, Aziz

    2006-01-01

    It is essential to increase research, development, awareness for the application of solar energy as an important source of life. The cost of PV systems has decreased due to the improvement in techniques of manufacturing and performance. In reality, photovoltaic is one technology that allows the production of electricity with only two components: technological, which is the PV module and environmental, which is the sun. The knowledge of the components market represents a critical parameters in establishing sustainable industrial applications on different activity sectors. This paper illustrates the advantages of using photovoltaic in rural area and their economic and environmental impact. In regions where petroleum or other fossil fuels are not available, and where these remote area are not connected to the electrical grid, there is a strong and increasing demand for the technologies related to photovoltaic application systems. Water extracting and pumping, telecommunication and lighting, irrigation systems, electrical driven cars and trucks represent some of these important applications. The paper also develops critical skills for the most useful PV application in Egypt and provide to the industry a development forecast for the new technology. Then an initiation contacts and cooperation on PV application between industries specially in North Africa Middle East in order to improve the reliability and to get cheaper systems.(Author)

  5. Photovoltaics: a market overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, A.; Barlow, R.W.; McNelis, B.; Gregory, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of this ever-growing market, then, in the form of extensive individual profiles, lists almost 200 companies active in PV. Chapters cover: the evolution of the industry; module production; module destinations; applications markets; characteristics of international trade tariffs; classifications of products; prospects for the future and sources of further information. (author)

  6. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  7. LonWorks as Fieldbus for PV-Installations; LonWorks als Feldbus fuer PV-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, Ch. von

    2003-07-01

    The growing market for photovoltaics increasingly requires suitable quality controls covering plant operators, planners and installers, as well as the electric utilities. Additionally, the interest of the general public in the behaviour of photovoltaic (PV) plants is growing. This includes information from everyday practice. Alongside data retrieval, other themes such as the operative management of the unit and energy management become increasingly important for grid-connected PV systems. Todays measuring systems are not compatible with each other. Data communication between different PV plants with computer-aided analysis- and visualisation programmes is very complicated. LonWorks was introduced by Motorola and Toshiba in 1991. Today it leads the world market for field bus systems. With plug and play, components by several manufacturers can easily be incorporated into a LonWorks network. Today more than 3,500 companies use LonWorks technology. The goal of this project is to introduce the very popular LonWorks technology as a new standard for PV applications. The first objective was to develop a LonWorks interface for our Convert inverters and to connect them into a small network. In a second step we installed a LonWorks system at the 260 kW{sub p} PV plant 'Felsenau' in Berne, Switzerland. All 68 inverters are controlled over power line with LonWorks. The on-site PC acts as LonWorks DataServer and making remote information monitoring and data gathering possible. As soon as a functional error occurs, an alarm will be transmitted via modem to the SMSC (Short Message Service Centre). After two years of operation we can say that all expectations were fulfilled by our new system. Knowledge gained from this project has shown that LonWorks has lived up its considerable promise and can be regarded as a high-quality piece of technology. Integration into an overall system is technically very easy. To do this, however, relatively expensive software solutions have

  8. Segmentation of the Indian photovoltaic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical framework studying the actors, networks and institutions and examines the evolution of the Indian Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Market. Different market segments, along the lines of demand and supply of PV equipment, i.e. on the basis of geography, end-use application, subsidy policy and other financing mechanisms, are detailed. The objective of this effort is to identify segments that require special attention from policy makers, donors and the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources. The paper also discusses the evolution of the commercial PV market in certain parts of the country and trends in the maturity of the market. (author)

  9. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  10. The opening of electricity and gas markets to residential customers. Annual barometer - First wave. December 2007; L'ouverture des marches de l'electricite et du gaz naturel pour les clients residentiels. Barometre annuel - vague 1. Decembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Since July 1, 2007, French residential customers can freely chose their energy supplier. A quantitative inquiry has been carried out by LH2 on behalf of the French Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) on a sample of 1501 households representative of the overall French households. The aim of this barometer is to answer the following questions: what is the level of knowledge and information of individuals about the opening of energy markets and the new regulation in force? How do they perceive this opening? What is their behaviour in front of the opening of markets to competition? Four years after the full opening of energy markets, this first inquiry has permitted to draw up a first status of the knowledge, behaviour and opinion of individuals with respect to the opening of these markets. (J.S.)

  11. Identifying city PV roof resource based on Gabor filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhang, Xu; Zhilin, Liu; Yong, Huang; Xiaoyu, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    To identify a city’s PV roof resources, the area and ownership distribution of residential buildings in an urban district should be assessed. To achieve this assessment, remote sensing data analysing is a promising approach. Urban building roof area estimation is a major topic for remote sensing image information extraction. There are normally three ways to solve this problem. The first way is pixel-based analysis, which is based on mathematical morphology or statistical methods; the second way is object-based analysis, which is able to combine semantic information and expert knowledge; the third way is signal-processing view method. This paper presented a Gabor filter based method. This result shows that the method is fast and with proper accuracy.

  12. Strategic Sequencing for State Distributed PV Policies: A Quantitative Analysis of Policy Impacts and Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Krasko, V.A.

    2012-10-01

    State and local policymakers show increasing interest in spurring the development of customer-sited distributed generation (DG), in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) markets. Prompted by that interest, this analysis examines the use of state policy as a tool to support the development of a robust private investment market. This analysis builds on previous studies that focus on government subsidies to reduce installation costs of individual projects and provides an evaluation of the impacts of policies on stimulating private market development.

  13. Applying power electronics to residential HVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulfstede, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines several of the market and application issues bearing on the economics residential variable speed air conditioners and heat pumps. Technical details of capacity modulized systems have been avoided, along with design issues and tradeoffs involving power semiconductors, motor torque and speed control strategies- and silicon integration for these applications. The intention is to provoke new creative technical solutions but perhaps more importantly, to involve new marketing strategies that will develop the mature potential of air conditioning products containing power electronics to enable them to generate the tough HVAC market, competing successfully against conventional systems

  14. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  15. A Hierarchical Transactive Energy Management System for Energy Sharing in Residential Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most Nahida Akter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework to develop a hierarchical energy management system (EMS for energy sharing among neighbouring households in residential microgrids. The houses in residential microgrids are categorized into three different types, traditional, proactive and enthusiastic, based on the inclusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems and battery energy storage systems (BESSs. Each of these three houses has an individual EMS, which is defined as the primary EMS. Two other EMSs (secondary and tertiary are also considered in the proposed hierarchical energy management framework for the purpose of effective energy sharing. The intelligences of each EMS are presented in this paper for the purpose of energy sharing in a residential microgrid along with the priorities. The effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical framework is evaluated on a residential microgrid in Australia. The analytical results clearly reflect that the proposed scheme effectively and efficiently shares the energy among neighbouring houses in a residential microgrid.

  16. Overcoming technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications : reaching the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads-Weaver, H.; Forsyth, T.

    2006-01-01

    Technical and market barriers for distributed wind applications were reviewed. A renewable energy survey has recently suggested that while less than 10 per cent of survey respondents had installed wind turbines, 40 per cent indicated that they plan to use wind energy on-site in the future. It is estimated that global annual sales of wind systems have the potential to reach $110 million by 2010 under ideal conditions. Distributed wind market growth areas include residential grid-connected sites, schools, public facilities and farms, business and industry. Grid-connected wind projects are expected to grow from less than 5 per cent of the total small wind market to over 20 per cent by 2020. However, without a federal investment tax credit, more modest growth is anticipated. Drivers of the distributed wind market were identified as financial incentives and programs; favorable policies and regulations; and increasing retail electricity rates and loads. Challenges and barriers to distributed wind market growth included economics; lack of performance standards and ratings; difficult interconnection processes; prohibitive zoning rules; low manufacturing volumes; and low consumer awareness. While there has been a 5-fold increase in photovoltaics (PV) sales in the United States since 2000, small wind turbines sales have only grown by approximately 70 per cent over the same period. Market increases in distributed wind systems are anticipated with the introduction of hybrid wind/PV systems. Improved designs for small and mid-sized turbines, rotors and towers may help to overcome barriers to wind energy growth. Technology developments in remote-monitored controllers and improved computer tools for analyzing project economics may also help to overcome market barriers. However, significant cost reductions are needed to stimulate widespread market acceptance of distributed wind. It was concluded that distributed wind is well-positioned to play an important role in supplying clean

  17. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  18. Grid Support in Large Scale PV Power Plants using Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciun, Bogdan-Ionut

    to validate the performance of the frequency support functions, a flexible grid model with IEEE 12 bus system characteristics has been developed and implemented in RTDS. A power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) system composed by 20 kW plant (2 x 10 kW inverters and PV linear simulator) and grid simulator (RTDS......Photovoltaic (PV) systems are in the 3rd place in the renewable energy market, after hydro and wind power. The increased penetration of PV within the electrical power system has led to stability issues of the entire grid in terms of its reliability, availability and security of the supply....... As a consequence, Large scale PV Power Plants (LPVPPs) operating in Maximum Power Point (MPP) are not supporting the electrical network, since several grid triggering events or the increased number of downward regulation procedures have forced European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity...

  19. PV monitoring at Jubilee Campus - Nottingham University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riffat, S.B.; Gan, G.

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project monitoring the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) modules integrated in the roofs of atria to meet the energy consumption needs of ventilation fans in the academic buildings at the Jubilee Campus of the University of Nottingham. Details are given of the instrumentation of one atrium to allow the monitoring the effectiveness of the ventilation in cooling the PV arrays integrated in the atrium roof, the economic analysis of the benefit of cooling the PV system, and the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling to predict the performance of the atrium. The design of the PV system, the calculated system efficiency, the high cost of atrium integrated PV power supplies, the periodic failure of the inverters, and the overheating of the PV array and the atrium space in the summer are discussed.

  20. Annual technical report. PV domestic field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report describes progress at the first five sites of the UK photovoltaic (PV) domestic field trial. All five sites are generating electricity, but one has not yet been commissioned and two sites are not yet monitoring performance. The BedZED development has roof-mounted PV modules and PV cells installed in sealed double-glazing. Solar slates/tiles have been installed at the Laing Homes development in Montagu Road, where the designer has sought to minimise the visual impact of the PV system on the roofs. At Hunters Moon, PV modules have been retrofitted and some unforeseen difficulties have arisen. PV is an integral part of the roof design at the state-of-the-art low energy development by Integer Houses at Greenfields. Corn Croft uses a British mounting system to facilitate integration of the modules flush with the roof. Installation issues and the progress of the trial are discussed.

  1. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  2. Good and bad practices in pv plants

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Moreno, Francisco; Helleputte, F.; Tyutyundzhiev, N.; Rabal Echeverria, Daniel; Conlon, Michael; Fartaria, Tomás; Oteiza, David

    2013-01-01

    The PVCROPS project (PhotoVolta ic Cost r€duction, Reliability, Operational performance, Prediction and Simulation), cofinanced by European Commission in the frame of Seventh Framework Programme, has compiled in the “Good and bad practices: Manual to improve the quality and reduce the cost of PV systems” a collection of good and bad practices in actual PV plants . All the situations it collects represent the state-of-the-art of existing PV installations all around Europe. They show how ...

  3. A Scenario-Based Approach for Energy Storage Capacity Determination in LV Grids with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob; Yang, Guangya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new method is proposed to determine the minimum energy storage required to be installed at different locations of a low voltage (LV) grid in order to prevent the overvoltage due to high residential photovoltaic (PV) penetration. The method is based on the voltage sensitivity...... with different occurrence probabilities without involving the time-series studies problems. The proposed method is capable of modeling output power of PV panels with different orientations as well as different electric vehicle (EV) charging patterns....

  4. SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-Cost PV Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Yinong [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarrett; Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This presentation summarizes the findings from the report 'SunShot 2030 for Photovoltaics (PV): Envisioning a Low-cost PV Future.' This presentation was given as a webinar on September 26, 2017.

  5. Building integrated multi PV/T/A solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ami Elazari

    2000-01-01

    Previous development in solar energy for residential applications proved that there is merit in further development and improvement of combined electricity and hot water and hot air collectors. The justification stems from the fact that waste heat is generated when PV cells are producing electricity but it decrease its efficiency dramatically, and any effective way to cool the cells can improve their efficiency and long while the heat that generated from this cooling process could be stored and used as standard solar hot water/air system. The core unit comprises of integrated PV cells mounted on a flat-plate collector for water and air, hot water storage tank hot air inlet pips to the house electric battery bank, inverter, connecting cables and controller. Double-glazing serving as solar trap to triple the amount of sun ray reaching the PV cells and other technical innovation make the system more cost effective and cost benefit for stand alone and grid connected domestic application. Two way interconnection with the electric grid like in all the roof top program may bring it to economic viability by selling excess electricity during the costly peak hours while buying low cost electricity during the night off-peak hours, and free electricity from the sun plus free hot water and hot air for domestic use as by-product. A basic domestic two-collector system may deliver up to 4 kWh of electricity and 12000 kcal of hot water and air daily. Some 22 systems are currently operating at various locations in Israel, some for 8 years with very good results. (Author)

  6. Processes and Materials for Flexible PV Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gierow, Paul

    2002-01-01

    .... A parallel incentive for development of flexible PV arrays are the possibilities of synergistic advantages for certain types of spacecraft, in particular the Solar Thermal Propulsion (STP) Vehicle...

  7. Data monitoring system for PV solar generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoev, M.; Katerski, A.; Williams, A.

    2000-01-01

    The two 1.5 kWp photovoltaic (PV) solar generators are installed and the new PC data monitoring system is developed by applying EC standards for European Solar Test Installation (ESTI). The schematic system diagram of PV generator is presented. The recording parameters for analytical and global monitoring are discussed. The meteorological data from ESTI sensors, temperature sensor and electrical data from inverter and calibrated shunt are stored via analog digital converters (ADC) on a hard disk of data storage PC. Data Logger and Monitor software for automatic data acquisition, treatment and visual distance control of all output PV data from PV solar generator has been created

  8. Economic Comparison of Two Business Models for Implementation of Small Integrated PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matak, N.; Krajacic, G.; Jerkic, E.; Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared two different models for the implementation of small photovoltaic solar systems in the Croatia. The new prosumer model presented in the new Croatian law on the Renewable Energy Sources and Highly Efficient Cogeneration (OG 100/15) and PV ESCO model which is similar to net metering. The PV ESCO model is developed from authors to determine possibility to raise payback period of small integrated PV systems. The comparison was done on a 15-minute basis and there were compared values of Simple Payback Period (SPP) for different locations and systems size considering electricity demand and market prices. Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net Present Value (NPV) were compared for 4 different cases. Conducted comparison showed that PV ESCO model is always more favourable for the owner of PV system in terms of lower SPP and higher IRR and NPV. It has been noticed that for systems higher than 5 kWp use of PV ESCO model is recommended. For smaller systems it is not always clear which model should be used, since some losses are generated in the system on the side of the electricity supply company. For smaller systems from 2 to 5 kWp, PV ESCO model has SPP from 7.5 to 13 years and SPP value for the prosumer model is 8.7 to 15 years. This difference is higher when comparing PV system from 6 to 10 kWp. SPP for PV ESCO model, in that case, is from 10 to 13 years and in the prosumer model is from 17.5 to 28 years.(author).

  9. Feasibility study of one axis three positions tracking solar PV with low concentration ratio reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.J.; Sun, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    A new PV design, called 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module', with low concentration ratio reflector was proposed in the present study. Every PV module is designed with a low concentration ratio reflector and is mounted on an individual sun tracking frame. The one axis tracking mechanism adjusts the PV position only at three fixed angles (three position tracking): morning, noon and afternoon. This 'one axis three position sun tracking PV module' can be designed in a simple structure with low cost. A design analysis was performed in the present study. The analytical results show that the optimal stopping angle β in the morning or afternoon is about 50 o from the solar noon position and the optimal switching angle that controls the best time for changing the attitude of the PV module is half of the stopping angle, i.e. θ H = β/2, and both are independent of the latitude. The power generation increases by approximately 24.5% as compared to a fixed PV module for latitude φ o . The analysis also shows that the effect of installation misalignment away from the true south direction is negligible ( o . An experiment performed in the present study indicates that the PV power generation can increase by about 23% using low concentration (2X) reflectors. Hence, combining with the power output increase of 24.5%, by using one axis three position tracking, the total increase in power generation is about 56%. The economic analysis shows that the price reduction is between 20% and 30% for the various market prices of flat plate PV modules

  10. Crossover marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a deregulated energy market on customers in Ontario was discussed. In particular, the way in which Sunoco will deal with energy convergence and how Sunoco plans to generate interest among residential consumers in a deregulated and competitive energy market was described. Integrated energy solutions that offer customers value-added heating, ventilating and air conditioning products and services, inclusive of equipment sales, installation, repair, rental, leasing, financing, warranty, insurance and maintenance is the ultimate goal of Sunoco. The major retail issues in the energy market such as licensing of marketers, customer mobility, transfer of utility assets to affiliates, Ontario Hydro's market power in electrical generation, distribution of stranded debt charges, and a timetable for deregulation were also addressed. figs

  11. Perceived public health effects of occupational and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at assessing the perceived public health effects of occupational and residential exposures to e-wastes in Alaba International and Computer Village markets, the two largest electronic markets in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross sectional, comparative study was carried out using questionnaire survey of randomly ...

  12. Determinants of Residential Property Value in Nigeria – A Neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact on market values (prices) and to that extent influence the sales and purchase decisions of sellers and buyers in Nigeria. The results of the study should enable Real Estate Professionals to make fair estimates of the market values of residential real estate properties given the features/characteristics of such housing ...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3, 2009] ...

  14. A Techno-Commercial Assessment of Residential and Bulk Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Battery energy storage has shown a lot of potential in the recent past to be effective in various grid services due to its near instantaneous ramp rates and modularity. This thesis aims to determine the commercial viability of customer premises and substation sited battery energy storage systems. Five different types of services have been analyzed considering current market pricing of Lithium-ion batteries and power conditioning equipment. Energy Storage Valuation Tool 3.0 (Beta) has been used to exclusively determine the value of energy storage in the services analyzed. The results indicate that on the residential level, Lithium-ion battery energy storage may not be a cost beneficial option for retail tariff management or demand charge management as only 20-30% of the initial investment is recovered at the end of 15 year plant life. SRP's two retail Time-of-Use price plans E-21 and E-26 were analyzed in respect of their ability to increase returns from storage compared to those with flat pricing. It was observed that without a coupled PV component, E-21 was more suitable for customer premises energy storage, however, its revenue stream reduces with addition to PV. On the grid scale, however, with carefully chosen service hierarchy such as distribution investment deferral, spinning or balancing reserve support, the initial investment can be recovered to an extent of about 50-70%. The study done here is specific to Salt River Project inputs and data. Results for all the services analyzed are highly location specific and are only indicative of the overall viability and returns from them.

  15. The Market Value and Cost of Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Production

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of power from solar photovoltaic (PV) panels has been a major deterrent to the technology’s market penetration. Proponents have argued, however, that typical analyses overlook many of the benefits of solar PV. Some of those benefits are in the realm of environmental and security externalities, but others occur within the electricity markets. In this paper, I attempt to do a more complete market valuation of solar PV. I incorporate the fact that power from solar PV panels is gene...

  16. Adiabatic Rearrangement of Hollow PV Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Hendricks

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabatic heating from deep moist convection in the hurricane eyewall produces a towering annular structure of elevated potential vorticity (PV. This structure has been referred to as a hollow PV tower. The sign reversal of the radial gradient of PV satisfies the Charney-Stern necessary condition for combined barotropic-baroclinic instability. For thin enough annular structures, small perturbations grow exponentially, extract energy from the mean flow, and lead to hollow tower breakdown, with significant vortex structural and intensity change. The three-dimensional adiabatic rearrangements of two prototypical hurricane-like hollow PV towers (one thick and one thin are examined in an idealized framework. For both hollow towers, dynamic instability causes air parcels with high PV to be mixed into the eye preferentially at lower levels, where unstable PV wave growth rates are the largest. Little or no mixing is found to occur at upper levels. The mixing at lower and middle levels is most rapid for the breakdown of the thin hollow tower, consistent with previous barotropic results. For both hollow towers, this advective rearrangement of PV affects the tropical cyclone structure and intensity in a number of ways. First, the minimum central pressure and maximum azimuthal mean velocity simultaneously decrease, consistent with previous barotropic results. Secondly, isosurfaces of absolute angular momentum preferentially shift inward at low levels, implying an adiabatic mechanism by which hurricane eyewall tilt can form. Thirdly, a PV bridge, similar to that previously found in full-physics hurricane simulations, develops as a result of mixing at the isentropic levels where unstable PV waves grow most rapidly. Finally, the balanced mass field resulting from the PV rearrangement is warmer in the eye between 900 and 700 hPa. The location of this warming is consistent with observed warm anomalies in the eye, indicating that in certain instances the hurricane

  17. THE RELATION BETWEEN MARKET ORIENTATION AND MARKETING ACTIVITIES OF RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUM BUILDERS IN LONDRINA AND MARINGA LA RELACIÓN ENTRE ORIENTACIÓN PARA EL MERCADO Y LAS ACTIVIDADES DE MARKETING DE CONSTRUCTORAS DE URBANIZACIONES RESIDENCIALES DE LONDRINA Y MARINGÁ A RELAÇÃO ENTRE ORIENTAÇÃO PARA O MERCADO E AS ATIVIDADES DE MARKETING DE CONSTRUTORAS DE CONDOMÍNIOS RESIDENCIAIS DE LONDRINA E MARINGÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre João Munhoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of market orientation (MO scales seeks to measure the use of marketing concepts byenterprises developing their market activities. In this sense, the Markor scale tries to demonstrate the MO of the organization, guided by measuring the flow of market information that is taken by enterprises with aperspective associated to market intelligence. However, besides the flow of information pertaining tomarket intelligence, there are other activities that are part of applying marketing in enterprises, which arenot considered on these scales. In view of this an attempt was made to clarify this question searching for arelationship between the two concepts. In this sense the integrated use of e orts by the incorporation ofmarketing activities with market intelligence, structured on the Markor scale presents an opportunity to beexploited. Therefore, this study aimed to show the relationship between the practices of marketingactivities and the level of market orientation in enterprises. After a preliminary review of pertinentliterature a quantitative field survey was made with a sample of residential condominium builders inLondrina and Maringa, to assess the possible relations between these two constructs, i.e. the practices ofmarketing activities and the e ective questions about MO, according to the  Markor scale. Statisticalanalyses were made by applying the Fisher’s Exact test, which verifies the relationships between thevariables and in a complementary way and Cramer's V, which highlights the significance of thesevariables. As a preliminary result, there was a positive relationship between the application of marketingactivities and the MO. Although the overall results have not confirmed a significant relationship betweenthese two constructs, other issues emerged demonstrating the interface between di erent profiles ofdetermined marketing activities and the constructs of the MO, by means of the Markor scale.En general, el uso de las escalas de

  18. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  19. Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance of System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems Using a Data-Driven Analysis from PV Installer Survey Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Feldman, D.; Ong, S.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents results from the first U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs--often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs--for residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems.

  20. Promotional drivers for grid-connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Polo, A.; Hass, R.; Suna, D.

    2009-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at promotional measures for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The paper discusses the core objective of this study which was to analyse the success of various governmental regulatory programs and governmental and non-governmental marketing programs for grid-connected PV systems. To meet this objective, a review of the most important past and current programs around the world was conducted. The theoretical bases of supply and demand are explained and the types of existing strategies are documented in a second Section. In Chapter 3, various programs around the world are described. Chapter 4 focuses on defining success criteria which will be used for the analysis of the programs. Finally, the major conclusions drawn complete this analysis.

  1. PV Hosting Capacity Analysis and Enhancement Using High Resolution Stochastic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio J. Palacios-Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of CO2 emissions is a main target in the future smart grid. This goal is boosting the installation of renewable energy resources (RES, as well as a major consumer engagement that seeks for a more efficient utilization of these resources toward the figure of ‘prosumers’. Nevertheless, these resources present an intermittent nature, which requires the presence of an energy storage system and an energy management system (EMS to ensure an uninterrupted power supply. Moreover, network-related issues might arise due to the increasing power of renewable resources installed in the grid, the storage systems also being capable of contributing to the network stability. However, to assess these future scenarios and test the control strategies, a simulation system is needed. The aim of this paper is to analyze the interaction between residential consumers with high penetration of PV generation and distributed storage and the grid by means of a high temporal resolution simulation scenario based on a stochastic residential load model and PV production records. Results of the model are presented for different PV power rates and storage capacities, as well as a two-level charging strategy as a mechanism for increasing the hosting capacity (HC of the network.

  2. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  3. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  4. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand model (dGen) is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed dGen to analyze the key factors that will affect future market demand for distributed solar, wind, storage, and other DER technologies in the United States. The new model builds off, extends, and replaces NREL's SolarDS model (Denholm et al. 2009a), which simulates the market penetration of distributed PV only. Unlike the SolarDS model, dGen can model various DER technologies under one platform--it currently can simulate the adoption of distributed solar (the dSolar module) and distributed wind (the dWind module) and link with the ReEDS capacity expansion model (Appendix C). The underlying algorithms and datasets in dGen, which improve the representation of customer decision making as well as the spatial resolution of analyses (Figure ES-1), also are improvements over SolarDS.

  5. PV integration into a CSP plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Javier López; Barea, Jose M.; Barragan, Jose; Ortega, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a preliminary techno-economic analysis of the integration of a PV plant into an optimized Parabolic Trough Plant in order to reduce the online consumptions and thus, increase the net electricity injected into the grid. The idea is to assess the feasibility of such project and see what configuration would be the optimal. An extra effort has been made in terms of modelling as the analysis has to be done to the integrated CSP + PV plant instead of analyzing them independently. Two different technologies have been considered for the PV plant, fix and one-axis tracking. Additionally three different scenarios have been considered for the CSP plant auxiliary consumptions as they are essential for determining the optimal PV plant (the higher the auxiliary consumption the higher the optimal PV plant). As could be expected, the results for all cases with PV show an improvement in terms of electricity generation and also in terms of LCOE with respect to the CSP plant. Such improvement is slightly higher with tracking technology for this specific study. Although this exercise has been done to an already designed CSP plant (so only the PV plant had to be optimized), the methodology could be applied for the optimization of an integrated CSP + PV plant during the design phase.

  6. PV Module Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Cara Fagerholm, David M. Burns, Timothy J. Peshek, Laura S. Bruckman, Roger H. French Backsheet Chen, C. H. Hsueh, W. J. Hsieh Accurately Measuring PV Power Loss Due to Soiling-Michael Gostein and Walters, Stephen Barkaszi Tracking PV Changes: Bridging Between Thin-Film Cells and Modules-Russell

  7. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    to the technical characteristics of individual installations spread across large regions. The proposed methodology is validated using actual power data in Europe and can be applied to represent intermittent generation in network development plans, reliability and market studies, as well as operational guidelines.......The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  8. Dissipation of heat from building integrated PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.M.L.

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of the project were to investigate methods for improving heat transfer and the reflection of heat from PV modules in building integrated situations and to develop the design of a building integrated PV element with improved heat transfer characteristics, with the aim of reducing the operating temperature of the PV cells. The prototypes developed for improving heat transfer have only shown small reductions in the PV cell operating temperature and these results have not been fully quantified due to problems associated with experimental testing. The improvement in the overall electrical performance of PV modules operating at lower temperatures is consequently even smaller. As a result, none of the prototypes can be considered to be economically viable. Based upon the theoretical and experimental results of this work, it is the recommendation of this project that no further work be conducted in improving BIPV performance through improved heat transfer of BIPV. (Author)

  9. The sunstone – an intelligent platform for pv led lighting in the urban environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Harboe, Rene Kirstein

    and maintenance. Such markets are interesting for solar energy powered LED applications since the additional price due to the PV and LEDs are hugely offset by the savings of avoiding digging up and repaving the road when laying a cable to the grid and avoid the investment and man-power cost of replacing light...

  10. Optimization of SiC-based H5 and conergy-NPC transformerless PV inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saridakis, Stefanos; Koutroulis, Eftichios; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    The transformerless dc/ac inverters are critical components in the rapidly growing market of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) applications. They are synthesized by combining available solutions in terms of the power-section topology, power-semiconductors manufacturing technology, and structure...

  11. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-01-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  12. Market assessment of photovoltaic power systems for agricultural applications in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigelmann, W.; Asmon, I.

    1981-07-01

    The first year of cost-competitiveness, the market potential, and the environment in which PV systems would be marketed and employed were examined. Market elements specific to Mexico addressed include: (1) useful applications and estimates of the potential market for PV systems; (2) power requirements and load profiles for applications compatible with PV usage; (3) operating and cost characteristics of power systems that compete against PV; (4) national development goals in rural electrification and rural services, technology programs and government policies that influence the demand for PV in Mexico; (5) financing mechanisms and capital available for PV acquisition; (6) channels for distribution, installation and maintenance of PV systems; and (7) appropriate methods for conducting business in Mexico.

  13. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  14. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PV market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.

  15. Solar Energy Technology Office Portfolio Review: Promotion of PV Soft Cost Reductions in the Southeastern US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-12-20

    From 2016-2021, the installed solar capacity in South Carolina will mushroom from less than 20 megawatts to more than 300 megawatts. Concurrently, the number of customer-sited, load-centered solar generation is expected to grow from less than 500 statewide to as many as 10,000 by 2021. This growth is anticipated to be the direct result of a landmark state policy initiative, Act 236, passed by the South Carolina General Assembly and signed into law by the Governor in June of 2014. Local policy makers in South Carolina are ill-equipped to handle the onslaught of solar permitting and zoning requests expected over the next five years. Similarly, the state’s building inspectors, first responders, and tax assessors know little about photovoltaic (PV) technology and best practices. Finally, South Carolina’s workforce and workforce trainers are underprepared to benefit from the tremendous opportunity created by the passage of Act 236. Each of these deficits in knowledge of and preparedness for solar PV translates into higher “soft costs” of installed solar PV in South Carolina. Currently, we estimate that the installed costs of residential rooftop solar are as much as 25 percent higher than the national average. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), together with almost a dozen electricity stakeholders in the Southeast, proposes to create a replicable model for solar PV soft cost reduction in South Carolina through human capacity-building at the local level and direct efforts to harmonize policy at the inter-county or regional level. The primary goal of this effort is to close the gap between South Carolina installed costs of residential rooftop solar and national averages. The secondary goal is to develop a portable and replicable model that can be applied to other jurisdictions in the Southeastern US.

  16. Designing PV Incentive Programs to Promote System Performance: AReview of Current Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2006-11-12

    Some stakeholders continue to voice concerns about the performance of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems, particularly because these systems typically receive financial support through ratepayer- or publicly-funded programs. Although much remains to be understood about the extent and specific causes of poor PV system performance, several studies of the larger programs and markets have shed some light on the issue. An evaluation of the California Energy Commission (CEC)'s Emerging Renewables Program, for example, found that 7% of systems, in a sample of 95, had lower-than-expected power output due to shading or soiling (KEMA 2005). About 3% of a larger sample of 140 systems were not operating at all or were operating well below expected output, due to failed equipment, faulty installation workmanship, and/or a lack of basic maintenance. In a recent evaluation of the other statewide PV incentive program in California, the Self-Generation Incentive Program, 9 of 52 projects sampled were found to have annual capacity factors less than 14.5%, although reasons for these low capacity factors generally were not identified (Itron 2005). Studies of PV systems in Germany and Japan, the two largest PV markets worldwide, have also revealed some performance problems associated with issues such as shading, equipment and installation defects, inverter failure, and deviations from module manufacturers' specifications (Otani et al. 2004, Jahn & Nasse 2004). Although owners of PV systems have an inherent incentive to ensure that their systems perform well, many homeowners and building operators may lack the necessary information and expertise to carry out this task effectively. Given this barrier, and the responsibility of PV incentive programs to ensure that public funds are prudently spent, these programs should (and often do) play a critical role in promoting PV system performance. Performance-based incentives (PBIs), which are based on actual energy production

  17. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  18. Demand Response in Low Voltage Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    the required flexibility from the electricity market through an aggregator. The optimum demand response enables consumption of maximum renewable energy within the network constraints. Simulation studies are conducted using Matlab and DigSilent Power factory software on a Danish low-voltage distribution system......In this paper, application of demand response to accommodate maximum PV power in a low-voltage distribution network is discussed. A centralized control based on model predictive control method is proposed for the computation of optimal demand response on an hourly basis. The proposed method uses PV...

  19. Integrated photovoltaic (PV) monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinder Singh, Balbir Singh; Husain, NurSyahidah; Mohamed, Norani Muti

    2012-09-01

    The main aim of this research work is to design an accurate and reliable monitoring system to be integrated with solar electricity generating system. The performance monitoring system is required to ensure that the PVEGS is operating at an optimum level. The PV monitoring system is able to measure all the important parameters that determine an optimum performance. The measured values are recorded continuously, as the data acquisition system is connected to a computer, and data is stored at fixed intervals. The data can be locally used and can also be transmitted via internet. The data that appears directly on the local monitoring system is displayed via graphical user interface that was created by using Visual basic and Apache software was used for data transmission The accuracy and reliability of the developed monitoring system was tested against the data that captured simultaneously by using a standard power quality analyzer device. The high correlation which is 97% values indicates the level of accuracy of the monitoring system. The aim of leveraging on a system for continuous monitoring system is achieved, both locally, and can be viewed simultaneously at a remote system.

  20. DNA polymorphism analysis of Xanthomonas campestris pv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) techniques using M13 and 16S rRNA primers, respectively, for genotyping of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris was studied. RAPD provided a simple, rapid, and ...

  1. Interharmonics from Grid-Connected PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sangwongwanich, Ariya; Yang, Yongheng; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    As the penetration level of grid-connected Photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, the power quality is one of the major concerns for system operators and the demands are becoming even stricter. The impact of interharmonics on the grid has been acknowledged in recent research when considering a large......-scale adoption of PV inverters. However, the origins of interharmonics remain unclear. Thus, this paper performs tests on a commercial PV inverter to explore interharmonic generation and more important investigates the mechanism of interharmonic emission. The investigation reveals that the perturbation...... of the solutions. Simulation results indicate that the constant-voltage MPPT method is the most suitable solution to the mitigation of interharmonics introduced by the MPPT operation, as it avoids the perturbation in the PV voltage during operation....

  2. Robust PV Degradation Methodology and Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deline, Christopher A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kimball, Greg [SunPower; Anderson, Mike [SunPower

    2017-11-15

    The degradation rate plays an important role in predicting and assessing the long-term energy generation of PV systems. Many methods have been proposed for extracting the degradation rate from operational data of PV systems, but most of the published approaches are susceptible to bias due to inverter clipping, module soiling, temporary outages, seasonality, and sensor degradation. In this manuscript, we propose a methodology for determining PV degradation leveraging available modeled clear-sky irradiance data rather than site sensor data, and a robust year-over-year (YOY) rate calculation. We show the method to provide reliable degradation rate estimates even in the case of sensor drift, data shifts, and soiling. Compared with alternate methods, we demonstrate that the proposed method delivers the lowest uncertainty in degradation rate estimates for a fleet of 486 PV systems.

  3. Understanding innovation system build up. The rise and fall of the Dutch PV Innovation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, S.O.; Vasseur, V.; Hekkert, M.P.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Renewable energy technologies have a hard time to break through in the existing energy regime. In this paper we focus on analysing the mechanisms behind this problematic technology diffusion. We take the theoretical perspective of innovation system dynamics and apply this to photovoltaic solar energy technology (PV) in the Netherlands. The reason for this is that there is a long history of policy efforts in The Netherlands to stimulate PV but results in terms of diffusion of PV panels is disappointingly low, which clearly constitutes a case of slow diffusion. The history of the development of the PV innovation system is analysed in terms of seven key processes that are essential for the build up of innovation systems. We show that the processes related to knowledge development are very stable but that large fluctuations are present in the processes related to 'guidance of the search' and 'market formation'. Surprisingly, entrepreneurial activities are not too much affected by fluctuating market formation activities. We relate this to market formation in neighbouring countries and discuss the theoretical implications for the technological innovation system framework.

  4. Rating PV Power and Energy: Cell, Module, and System Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Keith

    2016-06-02

    A summary of key points related to research-level measurements of current vs. voltage measurement theory including basic PV operation, equivalent circuit, and concept of spectral error; PV power performance including PV irradiance sensors, simulators and commercial and generic I-V systems; PV measurement artifacts, intercomparisons, and alternative rating methods.

  5. Experimental grid connected PV system power analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaoui, Smail; Abdeladim, Kamel; Arab, Amar Hadj; Boulahchich, Saliha; Amrouche, Said Ould; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2018-05-01

    Almost 80 % of Algerian territory is appropriate for the exploitation of solar energy. The Algerian energetic strategy provides a substantial injection of PV electricity to the national grid. Currently, about 344 MWp of PV arrays which corresponds approximately to 2,34 km2 of module surfaces, are connected on electricity grid over the national territory. The Algerian Northern regions are characterized by strong pollution and high humidity. These phenomena affect the energetic productivity of PV generator. The objective of our study is to analyze experimental grid connected PV system power in coastal locations. Hence, experiments have been conducted on three identical PV systems to determine the electrical performances. Transformer-less inverters are the most attractive for the ground-based photovoltaic (PV) system due to their efficiencies, reduced cost and weight. Besides, the absence of the galvanic isolation generates problems of capacitive leakage current on the AC side and the degradation of the insulation resistance on the DC side of the inverter. In this work, experimental study of the behavior of single-phase inverters without transformers is presented. The main objective of this work is to study the degradation of the insulation resistance at the input of the inverter, and the capacitive leakage current at the output of the inverter. This study was achieved at the CDER on a rainy day of 15/03/2017, on the first PV plant connected to the low voltage network in Algeria. This investigation can help forecasting the PV array energetic production by taking into account natural conditions.

  6. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  7. The economic effect of electricity net-metering with solar PV: Consequences for network cost recovery, cross subsidies and policy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, Cherrelle; Reneses Guillén, Javier; Frías Marín, Pablo; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    Net-metering is commonly known as a practice by which owners of distributed generation (DG) units may offset their electricity consumption from the grid with local generation. The increasing number of prosumers (consumers that both produce and consume electricity) with solar photovoltaic (PV) generation combined with net-metering results in reduced incomes for many network utilities worldwide. Consequently, this pushes utilities to increase charges per kW h in order to recover costs. For non-PV owners, this could result into inequality issues due to the fact that also non-PV owners have to pay higher chargers for their electricity consumed to make up for netted costs of PV-owners. In order to provide insight in those inequality issues caused by net-metering, this study presents the effects on cross-subsidies, cost recovery and policy objectives evolving from different applied netmetering and tariff designs for a residential consumer. Eventually this paper provides recommendations regarding tariffs and metering that will result in more explicit incentives for PV, instead of the current implicit incentives which are present to PV owners due to net-metering. - Highlights: • Network users are frequently charged by energy charging and fixed charging. • Net-metering with energy charging causes potential problems for DSO cost recovery. • Increasing rolling credit timeframes amplify net-metering impacts on cost recovery. • Observed capacity charging can incentivize local storage and self-consumption. • PV owners should receive direct incentives in order to avoid cross subsidization

  8. Environmental impact of PV cell waste scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacka, M; Pikoń, K; Landrat, M

    2017-12-01

    Rapid growth of the volume of waste from PV cells is expected in the following years. The problem of its utilization seems to be the most important issue for future waste management systems. The environmental impacts of the PV recycling scenario are presented in the manuscript. The analysis is based on the LCA approach and the average data available in specialized databases for silicon standard PV cell is used. The functional unit includes parameters like: efficiency, composition, surface area. The discussion on the environmental impact change due to the location of the PV production and waste processing plants is presented in the manuscript. Additionally, the discussion on the environmental effect of substituting different energy resources with PV cells is presented in the manuscript. The analysis of the PV cell life cycle scenario presented in the article was performed using the SIMA PRO software and data from Ecoinvent 3.0 database together with additional data obtained from other sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  10. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  11. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  12. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  13. Technical and economic opportunities for CdTe PV at the turn of the millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, Peter V.; Albright, Scot P.

    2000-01-01

    A variety of issues face the photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to meet a market penetration goal of more than gigawatt per year in worldwide sales before the year 2020. Although the PV market is dominated by silicon-based technology, it is not reasonable to project installed system prices of below $1.50/W in the next 5 or even 20 years without including the impact of polycrystalline thin films. Polycrystalline thin-film technologies, including cadmium telluride (CdTe)-based technologies, are a viable option for enabling lower costs, more rapid market expansion, and gigawatt/yr annual sales. A number of issues must be resolved in order to demonstrate a competitive price of energy to the customer in the range of the $0.11-0.16/kWh. (Author)

  14. Energetic performance analysis of a commercial water-based photovoltaic thermal system (PV/T) under summer conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, I.; Ambrosini, D.; de Rubeis, T.; Paoletti, D.; Muttillo, M.; Sfarra, S.

    2017-11-01

    In the last years, the importance of integrating the production of electricity with the production of sanitary hot water led to the development of new solutions, i.e. PV/T systems. It is well known that hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems, able to produce electricity and thermal energy at the same time with better energetic performance in comparison with two separate systems, present many advantages for application in a residential building. A PV/T is constituted generally by a common PV panel with a metallic pipe, in which fluid flows. Pipe accomplishes two roles: it absorbs the heat from the PV panel, thus increasing, or at least maintaining its efficiency; furthermore, it stores the heat for sanitary uses. In this work, the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a commercial PV/T panel have been evaluated during the summer season in different days, to assess the effect of environmental conditions on the system total efficiency. Moreover, infrared thermographic diagnosis in real time has been effected during the operating mode in two conditions: with cooling and without cooling; cooling was obtained by natural flowing water. This analysis gave information about the impact of a non-uniform temperature distribution on the thermal and electrical performance. Furthermore, measurements have been performed in two different operating modes: 1) production of solely electrical energy and 2) simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. Finally, total efficiency is largely increased by using a simple solar concentrator nearby the panel.

  15. Seismic and Power Generation Performance of U-Shaped Steel Connected PV-Shear Wall under Lateral Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BIPV is now widely used in office and residential buildings, but its seismic performance still remained vague especially when the photovoltaic (PV modules are installed on high-rise building facades. A new form of reinforced concrete shear wall integrated with photovoltaic module is proposed in this paper, aiming to apply PV module to the facades of high-rise buildings. In this new form, the PV module is integrated with the reinforced concrete wall by U-shaped steel connectors through embedded steel plates. The lateral cyclic loading test is executed to investigate the seismic behavior and the electric and thermal performance with different drift angles. The seismic behavior, including failure pattern, lateral force-top displacement relationship, and deformation capacity, was investigated. The power generation and temperature variation on the back of the PV module and both sides of the shear wall were also tested. Two main results are demonstrated through the experiment: (1 the U-shaped steel connectors provide enough deformation capacity for the compatibility of the PV module to the shear wall during the whole cyclic test; (2 the electricity generation capacity is effective and stable during this seismic simulation test.

  16. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John; Sibley, Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs.

  17. Vestas Power Plant Solutions Integrating Wind, Solar PV and Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Hesselbæk, Bo; Martinez, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses a value proposition and feasible system topologies for hybrid power plant solutions integrating wind, solar PV and energy storage and moreover provides insights into Vestas hybrid power plant projects. Seen from the perspective of a wind power plant developer, these hybrid...... solutions provide a number of benefits that could potentially reduce the Levelized Cost of Energy and enable entrance to new markets for wind power and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable energy mix. First, various system topologies are described in order to distinguish the generic concepts...... for the electrical infrastructure of hybrid power plants. Subsequently, the benefits of combining wind and solar PV power as well as the advantages of combining variable renewable energy sources with energy storage are elaborated. Finally, the world’s first utility-scale hybrid power plant combining wind, solar PV...

  18. Economic impacts of the solar PV sector in Ontario 2008-2018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    Over the next 20 years most of the electricity generating facilities in Ontario will need to be replaced or refurbished and the electricity demand will rise by 15%. The province has adopted a long term energy plan (LTEP) to prepare for these changes; its objectives are to reduce demand and to produce electricity from nuclear power and renewable energy sources by 2030. The LTEP foresees the installation of 3,000 MW solar photovoltaic (PV) energy by 2018 in Ontario and the aim of this report is to determine the economic effects of this development on investments, job creation and cost to customers. Over 150 interviews and 100 surveys were carried out with solar PV stakeholders. It was found that the solar PV market in Ontario will drive $13 billion of private investment, create 74,000 jobs at a cost of $5 per month to electricity customers by 2018.

  19. Investigation of Synergy Between Electrochemical Capacitors, Flywheels, and Batteries in Hybrid Energy Storage for PV Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, John; Sibley Lewis, B.; Wohlgemuth, John

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study that investigated the synergy between electrochemical capacitors (ECs) and flywheels, in combination with each other and with batteries, as energy storage subsystems in photovoltaic (PV) systems. EC and flywheel technologies are described and the potential advantages and disadvantages of each in PV energy storage subsystems are discussed. Seven applications for PV energy storage subsystems are described along with the potential market for each of these applications. A spreadsheet model, which used the net present value method, was used to analyze and compare the costs over time of various system configurations based on flywheel models. It appears that a synergistic relationship exists between ECS and flywheels. Further investigation is recommended to quantify the performance and economic tradeoffs of this synergy and its effect on overall system costs

  20. Mapping the value of commercial PV applications in the US -- Accounting for externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.; Kmiecik, M.; Herig, C.; Wenger, H.

    1999-01-01

    In previous publications, the authors reported on the geographical distribution of the economic feasibility of customer-owned commercial PV systems in the US. The results showed that several regions in the country were near or above economic breakeven. However, the authors noted that these results only reflected business as usual assumptions. They did not account for existing or prospective external value elements that could, depending on the application, considerably increase PV's feasibility threshold. In this paper, the authors look at the individual and combined impact of the following value elements: (1) Replacement Value, (2) enhanced load management value, (3) emergency value and (4) environmental value. They show that accounting for these elements could significantly increase the size of cost-effective niche markets for customer-owned commercial PV installation

  1. Influence of Distributed Residential Energy Storage on Voltage in Rural Distribution Network and Capacity Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tong, Yibin; Zhao, Zhigang; Zhang, Xuefen

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale access of distributed residential photovoltaic (PV) in rural areas has solved the voltage problem to a certain extent. However, due to the intermittency of PV and the particularity of rural residents’ power load, the problem of low voltage in the evening peak remains to be resolved. This paper proposes to solve the problem by accessing residential energy storage. Firstly, the influence of access location and capacity of energy storage on voltage distribution in rural distribution network is analyzed. Secondly, the relation between the storage capacity and load capacity is deduced for four typical load and energy storage cases when the voltage deviation meets the demand. Finally, the optimal storage position and capacity are obtained by using PSO and power flow simulation.

  2. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  3. Sacramento Municipal Utility District PV and Smart Grid Pilot at Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawson, Mark; Sanchez, Eddie Paul

    2013-12-30

    Under DE-FOA-0000085 High Penetration Solar Deployment, the U. S. Department of Energy funded agreements with SMUD and Navigant Consulting, SunPower, GridPoint, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the California Energy Commission for this pilot demonstration project. Funding was $5,962,409.00. Cost share of $500,000 was also provided by the California Energy Commission. The project has strategic implications for SMUD, other utilities and the PV and energy-storage industries in business and resource planning, technology deployment and asset management. These implications include: -At this point, no dominant business models have emerged and the industry is open for new ideas. -Demonstrated two business models for using distributed PV and energy storage, and brainstormed several dozen more, each with different pros and cons for SMUD, its customers and the industry. -Energy storage can be used to manage high penetrations of PV and mitigate potential issues such as reverse power flow, voltage control violations, power quality issues, increased wear and tear on utility equipment, and system wide power supply issues. - Smart meters are another tool utilities can use to manage high penetrations of PV. The necessary equipment and protocols exist, and the next step is to determine how to integrate the functionality with utility programs and what level of utility control is required. - Time-of-use rates for the residential customers who hosted energy storage systems did not cause a significant change in energy usage patterns. However, the rates we used were not optimized for PV and energy storage. Opportunities exist for utilities to develop new structures.

  4. Characterization of high performance silicon-based VMJ PV cells for laser power transmission applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Mico; Yang, Mei-huan; Wu, Cheng-liang; Hsu, Chin-wei; Chao, Wei-sheng; Chen, Kun-hsien; Zahuranec, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Continuing improvements in the cost and power of laser diodes have been critical in launching the emerging fields of power over fiber (PoF), and laser power beaming. Laser power is transmitted either over fiber (for PoF), or through free space (power beaming), and is converted to electricity by photovoltaic cells designed to efficiently convert the laser light. MH GoPower's vertical multi-junction (VMJ) PV cell, designed for high intensity photovoltaic applications, is fueling the emergence of this market, by enabling unparalleled photovoltaic receiver flexibility in voltage, cell size, and power output. Our research examined the use of the VMJ PV cell for laser power transmission applications. We fully characterized the performance of the VMJ PV cell under various laser conditions, including multiple near IR wavelengths and light intensities up to tens of watts per cm2. Results indicated VMJ PV cell efficiency over 40% for 9xx nm wavelengths, at laser power densities near 30 W/cm2. We also investigated the impact of the physical dimensions (length, width, and height) of the VMJ PV cell on its performance, showing similarly high performance across a wide range of cell dimensions. We then evaluated the VMJ PV cell performance within the power over fiber application, examining the cell's effectiveness in receiver packages that deliver target voltage, intensity, and power levels. By designing and characterizing multiple receivers, we illustrated techniques for packaging the VMJ PV cell for achieving high performance (> 30%), high power (> 185 W), and target voltages for power over fiber applications.

  5. Quasi-static time-series simulation using OpenDSS in IEEE distribution feeder model with high PV penetration and its impact on solar forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Touseef Ahmed Faisal

    Distribution System Simulator developed by Electric Power Research Institute, to simulate grid voltage profile with a large scale PV system under quasi-static time series considering variations of PV output in seconds, minutes, and the average daily load variations. A 13 bus IEEE distribution feeder model is utilized with distributed residential and commercial scale PV at different buses for simulation studies. Time series simulations are discussed for various modes of operation considering dynamic PV penetration at different time periods in a day. In addition, this thesis demonstrates simulations taking into account the presence of moving cloud for solar forecasting studies.

  6. Solar PV rural electrification and energy-poverty. A review and conceptual framework with reference to Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeng, George Yaw [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasei (Ghana). Technology Consultancy Centre; Evers, Hans-Dieter [Center for Development Research (Bonn University) ZEF, Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Political and Cultural Change

    2009-07-01

    In spite of the intention of governments to increase the use of renewable energy in electricity supply, particularly the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) for energy poverty reduction in rural and peri-urban areas of Africa, there is relatively little information on how solar PV electrification impacts on energy poverty reduction. Therefore, there is a gap in the literature and hence the need for continuous research. Using Ghana as a reference country, the historical trend, donor cooperation and other aspects of solar PV rural electrification are discussed. The paper illustrates the intersectoral linkages of solar PV electrification and indicators on education, health, information acquisition, agriculture and micro-enterprises. It also reviews sustainability related issues including costs and market barriers, subsidies, stakeholders involvement, political and policy implications, which are critical factors for sustainable market development of solar PV and other renewables. Finally, a common framework is developed to provide a basic understanding of how solar PV electrification impacts on energy-poverty. This framework provides a structure of the interrelated concepts and principles relevant to the issues under review. (orig.)

  7. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  8. Analysis of market development for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, J.A.; Bahaj, A.S.; Stainton, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    The acceptance of any product by the market is dependent upon a multitude of formal and informal mechanisms. These include, among others, the technical merit of the product, its presentation, its perceived image and the user feedback to the market-place. Further growth or diffusion of the product into the market-place is possible if the image and perception are positive. If the product is difficult to use, and/or lacks the information necessary for implementation and operation, it is unlikely that it will sell well. The result is a negative image and slow market growth. Today, photovoltaic (PV) systems are technically appropriate for many applications. However, apart from specific niche markets, the overall market penetration for PV is small when compared to other products of similar developmental history. This paper discusses the market development of PV applications, review some of the promoted scenarios and depicts past experiences with PV systems. In particular, it looks at the market development for PV in the telecommunications and health care sectors

  9. RECENT TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheremisina T. P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the residential real estate and the structure of Russian housing market do not match: primary and secondary markets are supplemented by a considerable in size non-market sector of residential real estate - the stock of dilapidated housing and buildings in a state of emergency that is filling up the secondary market with rapidly growing volume of worn out properties. While the developmental model of entrepreneurship is gradually settling in the primary housing market, and in general the “soviet” model of management (management companies are not that different from the soviet property management agencies is remaining in the secondary market, the non-market sector requires a formulation of an adequate management model that would allow the private and public management of residential real estate at the same time. Mega-project of renovation of the 5-storey buildings in Moscow will support the formation of such a model and the legal grounds for its existence.

  10. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  11. Assessing the PV business opportunities in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Skylogiannis, Georgios K.; Papastefanakis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach of qualitative judgments for the PV opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. • It can be supplied in other countries by applying different weights to the criteria. • It can be used by everyone in order to find a suitable PV investment without the need of experts in the field. - Abstract: Greece, as a member of the European Union (EU), has undertaken the obligation to meet the expected goals for the penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the national energy balance in compliance with “20–20–20” goals (20% of the Gross Energy Consumption and 40% of the Gross Electricity Consumption should be covered by RES). Although the development of RES, and particularly of Photovoltaic (PV), in Greece during the last years has presented a satisfactory growth, the country is still far away from the above goals. The main reason for this delay is that – except the financial crisis – many licenses are inactive and waiting funding in order to be utilized. Additionally, the latest law (L.4152/2013) has forbidden the interconnection of new PV power Plants to the grid until the end of 2013. The above fact determines the significance of the existing PV Licenses in achieving the national goals. The aim of this paper is to present an integrated approach of qualitative judgments for the PV business opportunities through the assessing of the licenses’ value in Greece. The approach, which is based on a Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) theory of quantifying multiple qualitative judgments, takes into account the real factors which can affect the expected production and cost of the PV installation and therefore the RoI (Return of Investment)

  12. Optimization of PV-based energy production by dynamic PV-panel/inverter configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper; Nymand, Morten; Haase, Frerk

    This paper investigates the possible increase in annual energy production of a PV system with more than one MPPT (maximum power point tracker) input channels under Nordic illumination conditions, in case a concept of dynamic switching of the PV panels is used at the inputs of the inverters....

  13. 75 FR 66087 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Residential Lead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...-bedroom dwellings, housing for the elderly, housing for the handicapped, or short term leases. The... housing market, namely a gradual reduction in the annual number of real estate sales and residential...

  14. Analysis of distributed-generation photovoltaic deployment, installation time and cost, market barriers, and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fang; Deng, Hao; Margolis, Robert; Su, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, China's photovoltaic (PV) market-development strategy witnessed a series of policy changes aimed at making distributed-generation PV (DG PV) development an equal priority with large-scale PV development. This article reviews the DG PV policy changes since 2013 and examines their effect on China's domestic DG PV market. Based on a 2014 survey of DG PV market and policy participants, we present cost and time breakdowns for installing DG PV projects in China, and we identify the main barriers to DG PV installation. We also use a cash flow model to determine the relative economic attractiveness of DG PV in several eastern provinces in China. The main factors constraining DG PV deployment in China include financial barriers resulting from the structure of the self-consumption feed-in tariff (FIT), ambivalence about DG PV within grid companies, complicated ownership structures for buildings/rooftops/businesses, and the inherent time lag in policy implementation from the central government to provincial and local governments. We conclude with policy implications and suggestions in the context of DG PV policy changes the Chinese government implemented in September 2014. -- Highlights: •We review China's distributed PV market development and policy changes since 2013. •We present cost and time requirements for installing distributed PV in China. •We conduct IRR analysis of distributed PV under different policy frameworks. •We identify barriers to China's distributed PV, especially feed-in tariff barriers

  15. PV/T slates - Laboratory measurements; PV/T-Schiefer. Labormessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kropf, S.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive, illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is one a series of five reports dealing with increasing the overall efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) installations by also using the heat collected by the dark-coloured PV panels. The work reported on addresses open questions on the use of the heat and its optimal use. This report deals with an experimental outdoor set-up and reviews in-situ measurements made on a prototype of a ventilated PV-tile system (PV/T-Slates). The report describes the configuration and construction of the experimental PV-tiled roof and the measurement system used to measure its electrical and thermal performance. The results of the measurements made are presented in detail in graphical form. The influence of various factors such as air-slit width and mounting angle are discussed.

  16. Optimal Sizing of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Systems for Residential Applications Based on Battery Electrochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV systems in residential areas contributes to the generation and usage of renewable energy. Despite its advantages, the PV system also creates problems caused by the intermittency of renewable energy. As suggested by researchers, such problems deteriorate the applicability of the PV system and have to be resolved by employing a battery energy storage system (BESS. With concern for the high investment cost, the choice of a cost-effective BESS with proper sizing is necessary. To this end, this paper proposes the employment of a vanadium redox flow battery (VRB, which possesses a long cycle life and high energy efficiency, for residential users with PV systems. It further proposes methods of computing the capital and maintenance cost of VRB systems and evaluating battery efficiency based on VRB electrochemical characteristics. Furthermore, by considering the cost and efficiency of VRB, the prevalent time-of-use electricity price, the solar feed-in tariff, the solar power profile and the user load pattern, an optimal sizing algorithm for VRB systems is proposed. Simulation studies are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  17. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  18. The impact of city-level permitting processes on residential photovoltaic installation prices and development times: An empirical analysis of solar systems in California cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Changgui; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    With “soft” costs accounting for well over 50% of the installed price of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States, this study evaluates the effect of city-level permitting processes on the installed price of residential PV systems and on the time required to develop those systems. The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. Department of Energy's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program, which includes city-level permitting process “scores,” plus data from the California Solar Initiative and the U.S. Census. Econometric methods are used to quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes on more than 3000 PV installations across 44 California cities in 2011. Results suggest that cities with the most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W (4–12% of median PV prices in California) compared with cities with the most onerous permitting practices, depending on the regression model used. Though the empirical models for development times are less robust, results suggest that the most streamlined permitting practices may shorten development times by around 24 days on average (25% of the median development time). These findings illustrate the potential price and development-time benefits of streamlining local permitting procedures for PV systems. - Highlights: • The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. DOE's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program. • We quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes. • Most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W

  19. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  20. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)